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Sample records for maxillary segmental distraction

  1. Segmental maxillary distraction with a novel device for closure of a wide alveolar cleft

    PubMed Central

    Bousdras, Vasilios A.; Liyanage, Chandra; Mars, Michael; Ayliffe, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of a wide alveolar cleft with initial application of segmental distraction osteogenesis is reported, in order to minimise cleft size prior to secondary alveolar bone grafting. The lesser maxillary segment was mobilised with osteotomy at Le Fort I level and, a novel distractor, facilitated horizontal movement of the dental/alveolar segment along the curvature of the maxillary dental arch. Following a latency period of 4 days distraction was applied for 7 days at a rate of 0.5 mm twice daily. Radiographic, ultrasonographic and clinical assessment revealed new bone and soft tissue formation 8 weeks after completion of the distraction phase. Overall the maxillary segment did move minimising the width of the cleft, which allowed successful closure with a secondary alveolar bone graft. PMID:24987601

  2. Maxillary advancement with internal distraction device in cleft palate patients.

    PubMed

    Gulsen, Ayse; Ozmen, Selahattin; Tuncer, Serhan; Aslan, Belma Isik; Kale, Selin; Yavuzer, Reha

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the results of maxillary advancement by using internal Le Fort 1 distractors on six patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate who had maxillary hypoplasia. The retrognathic maxilla of five patients were protracted with distractor bilaterally, and asymmetric advancement was performed in one patients. A removable intraoral acrylic appliance was used as an anchorage appliance in two patients, and Ragno fan-type expander appliance was used in the others to prevent maxillary collapse during the distraction period. The maxilla of one patient was not distracted successfully due to the maxillary collapse in result of breaking the removable anchorage appliance away. Lateral cephalograms were evaluated before 3 and 12 months after distraction.A desired level of advancement was attained in five patients. In one patient distraction was not performed due to the maxillary collapse. In one of the five patients with a wide oronasal fistula, the size of the fistula was decreased with asymmetric advancement of right and left maxillary segments. Following the retention period of 12 months, the results were stable. It was concluded that effective and easy distraction is possible with internal Le Fort 1 distractors in cleft lip and palate patients who requires maxillary advancement. PMID:17251860

  3. Breakage of internal maxillary distractor: considerable complication of maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Tomonao; Iida, Seiji; Isomura, Emiko T; Namikawa, Mari; Matsuoka, Yudai; Yamada, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Taku; Takigawa, Yoko

    2008-07-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis using intraoral distractors is now one of the standard treatments of maxillary retrusion. This report shows 2 cases of breakage of this internal maxillary distractor in patients with cleft lip and palate; one was observed during the distraction period and the other was during the retention period. The first case required a rotational movement of the distraction segment, and this movement caused the laterally dislocation of the posterior part of the distractor, where the distractor suffered some mechanical forces by mouth opening. In the latter case, breakage of distractor was observed on the radiographs taken 3 months after distraction and this complication may have been caused by mechanical force by occlusion and mastication. Both breakages were found at the joint of the anchorage plate and the extension rod, which has some flexibility for adjusting the plate to the bone surface. Therefore, surgeons should pay special attention for this mechanical weak area in this distractor not only during the advancement period, but also during the retention period and should avoid unnecessary frequent bending for adopting the bone surface, which directly weakens the joint. PMID:18585604

  4. Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis in the Hypoplastic Cleft Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Rao (Janardhan), Sruthi; Kotrashetti, S. M.; Lingaraj, J. B.; Pinto, P. X.; Keluskar, K. M.; Jain, Siddharth; Sone, Piyush; Rao, Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis play a prime role in the correction of maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Advancement of the anterior maxilla alone without interfering with the velopharyngeal sphincter may be advantageous in cleft patients, who more commonly have speech deficits and dental crowding. We present a case series of anterior maxillary segmental distraction for maxillary hypoplasia in 5 CLP patients with a one-year follow-up. A custom-made tooth-borne distraction device with a hyrax screw positioned anteroposteriorly was used. The evaluation comprised of hard and soft tissue analysis and speech assessment. A stable occlusion with positive overjet and correction of dental-crowding without extraction was achieved at one year post-distraction. Facial profile and lip support improved. There was no deterioration in speech. PMID:23984033

  5. Rapid maxillary canine retraction by dental distraction: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Chitharanjan, Arun; Kailasam, Vignesh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to perform rapid maxillary canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament and investigate the rate and amount of canine retraction, amount of anchor loss, the nature of tooth movement achieved, and radiographic changes in the periodontal ligament region during and after canine distraction. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 10 distractions ranging in age from 14 years to 25 years who needed canine retraction and first premolar extraction in the maxillary arch. Ten canine distractions were carried out with custom-made, tooth-borne intra-oral distraction device. Results: The results indicate that the periodontal ligament can be distracted just like the mid-palatal suture in rapid palatal expansion and the maxillary canines are retracted rapidly into the first premolar extraction space at the rate of about 2.53 mm/week. Conclusion: Though this study indicates that the periodontal ligament can be distracted to elicit rapid tooth movement, the long-term effects of canine distraction are not well known and need close monitoring. PMID:25298710

  6. Treatment of maxillary cleft palate: Distraction osteogenesis vs. orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rachmiel, Adi; Even-Almos, Michal; Aizenbud, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the treatment of hypoplastic, retruded maxillary cleft palate using distraction osteogenesis vs. orthognathic surgery in terms of stability and relapse, growth after distraction and soft tissue profile changes. Materials and Methods: The cleft patients showed anteroposterior maxillary hypoplasia with class III malocclusion and negative overjet resulting in a concave profile according to preoperative cephalometric measurements, dental relationship, and soft tissue analysis. The patients were divided in two groups of treatment : S0 eventeen were treated by orthognathic Le Fort I osteotomy fixed with four mini plates and 2 mm screws, and 19 were treated by maxillary distraction osteogenesis with rigid extraoral devices (RED) connected after a Le Fort I osteotomy. The rate of distraction was 1 mm per day to achieve Class I occlusion with slight overcorrection and to create facial profile convexity. Following a 10 week latency period the distraction devices were removed. Results: In the RED group the maxilla was advanced an average of 15.80 mm. The occlusion changed from class III to class I. The profile of the face changed from concave to convex. At a 1-year follow up the results were stable. The mean orthognathic movement was 8.4 mm. Conclusion: In mild maxillary deficiency a one stage orthognathic surgery is preferable. However, in patients requiring moderate to large advancements with significant structural deficiencies of the maxilla or in growing patients the distraction technique is preferred. PMID:23483803

  7. Perpendicular serial maxillary distraction osteogenesis in cleft lip and palate patients

    PubMed Central

    Ylikontiola, Leena P.; Sándor, George K.; Harila, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip and palate patients often have a retruded maxilla with a severely narrowed deficient maxillary arch. This report aims to describe the management of severe maxillary retrusion and constriction in cleft lip and palate patients using distraction osteogenesis applied in serial sequence in two directions perpendicular to each other. Materials and Methods: Two adult male cleft lip and palate patients were treated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in two stages. In the first stage, surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion with a tooth-borne device was performed to significantly expand the maxillary arch in the transverse dimension. After the teeth were orthodontically aligned, the horizontal distraction of the maxilla was made by two internal maxillary distraction devices. Results: In the first patient, the maxilla was initially widened by 11 mm and then distracted forward by 20 mm. Despite the breakage of the shaft of one of the two distractors at the end of distraction, a satisfactory occlusion was found at the time of distractor device removal. The maxillary position has remained stable through 8 years of follow-up. In the second patient, the palate was widened by 14 mm and the maxilla was distracted forward by 22 mm. The maxillary position has remained stable through 3 years of follow-up. Conclusion: Sequential serial distraction of maxilla in two planes perpendicular to each other is a safe and stable approach for the treatment of cleft lip and palate patients with severe transverse and anteroposterior discrepancies.

  8. Correction of an asymmetric maxillary dental arch by alveolar bone distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Tobita, Takayoshi; Tajima, Nobutaka; Matsuo, Kyoko; Yoshida, Noriaki; Asahina, Izumi

    2013-02-01

    This case report describes a new surgical orthodontic approach involving alveolar bone distraction osteogenesis for correction of an asymmetric maxillary dental arch. The treatment was combined with conventional orthognathic surgery to improve the mandibular lateral deviation. This new treatment strategy produced an ideal dental arch and a symmetric facial appearance efficiently and effectively. PMID:23374934

  9. Removable splint with locking attachments for maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the RED system.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, E Y; Suzuki, B

    2007-12-01

    The external traction hooks of the intraoral splint used to control traction forces applied to the maxilla with the rigid external distraction system represent a major barrier to surgical procedures. The purpose of this article is to introduce a removable intraoral splint with locking attachments that can be placed post-surgically immediately before distraction, facilitating surgery and consequently reducing the operative time. Fifteen cleft lip and palate patients underwent maxillary distraction osteogenesis using a rigid external distraction device in combination with the proposed removable splint that was fixed onto the maxillary teeth to provide anchorage. Initial records showed severe maxillary hypoplasia and negative overjet. The removable splint was fabricated using 1.5-mm diameter stainless-steel rigid orthodontic wires soldered to the locking attachments (Y&B Products LP, Chiang Mai, Thailand), making possible its placement post-surgically. Stable splint fixation was achieved prior to the distraction procedure and the desired treatment goals were reached. No complications inserting or removing the splint post-surgically, including pain or discomfort, were observed. The use of the removable splint with locking attachments has proved to be a highly effective fixation approach to manage the severely hypoplastic maxilla, eliminating lip constraints resulting from scarring, and allowing for easier, more deliberate and careful dissection. PMID:17629458

  10. Use of anterior maxillary distraction osteogenesis in two cleft lip and palate patients.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Dhirendra; Ghassemi, Alireza; Ghassemi, Mehrangiz; Showkatbakhsh, Rahman; Jamilian, Abdolreza

    2015-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has become a mainstream surgical technique for patients with jaw deformities. The aim of this study was to report the effect of DO done by a hyrax screw incorporated in an acrylic plate in the treatment of two maxillary deficient cases with cleft lip and palate. Two patients, a 24-year-old female and a 29-year-old male who suffered from maxillary deficiency and cleft lip and palate, were treated by DO. After making vertical cuts between the premolars on both sides and horizontal cuts similar to Le Fort 1, a hyrax screw was mounted on an acrylic plate for the slow anteroposterior expansion of maxillary arch. The expansion was achieved by turning the hyrax screw 0.8 mm per day after the latency period. Treatment was discontinued after achieving satisfactory over jet and occlusion. This study showed that anterior maxillary distraction is a reliable technique for correction of midfacial deformity arising out of cleft lip and palate. Incidences of complications are negligible compared to total maxillary distraction. PMID:26668459

  11. Use of anterior maxillary distraction osteogenesis in two cleft lip and palate patients

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Dhirendra; Ghassemi, Alireza; Ghassemi, Mehrangiz; Showkatbakhsh, Rahman; Jamilian, Abdolreza

    2015-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has become a mainstream surgical technique for patients with jaw deformities. The aim of this study was to report the effect of DO done by a hyrax screw incorporated in an acrylic plate in the treatment of two maxillary deficient cases with cleft lip and palate. Two patients, a 24-year-old female and a 29-year-old male who suffered from maxillary deficiency and cleft lip and palate, were treated by DO. After making vertical cuts between the premolars on both sides and horizontal cuts similar to Le Fort 1, a hyrax screw was mounted on an acrylic plate for the slow anteroposterior expansion of maxillary arch. The expansion was achieved by turning the hyrax screw 0.8 mm per day after the latency period. Treatment was discontinued after achieving satisfactory over jet and occlusion. This study showed that anterior maxillary distraction is a reliable technique for correction of midfacial deformity arising out of cleft lip and palate. Incidences of complications are negligible compared to total maxillary distraction. PMID:26668459

  12. Three-dimensional evaluation of nasal and pharyngeal airway after Le Fort I maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gokce, S M; Gorgulu, S; Karacayli, U; Gokce, H S; Battal, B

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate volumetric changes in the nasal cavity (NC) and pharyngeal airway space (PAS) after Le Fort I maxillary distraction osteogenesis (MDO) using a three-dimensional (3D) simulation program, and to determine the effects of MDO on respiratory function during sleep with polysomnography (PSG). 3D computed tomography images were obtained and analyzed before surgery (T0) and at a mean 8.2 1.2 months postsurgery (T1) (SimPlant-OMS software) for 11 male patients (mean age 25.3 5.9 years) with severe skeletal class III anomalies related to maxillary retrognathia. The simulation of osteotomies and placement of distractors were performed on stereolithographic 3D models. NC and PAS were segmented separately on these models for comparison of changes between T0 and T1. PSG including the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), sleep efficiency, sleep stages (weakness, stages 1-4, and rapid eye movement (REM)), and mean lowest arterial O2 saturation were obtained at T0 and T1 to investigate changes in respiratory function during sleep. MDO was successful in all cases as planned on the models; the average forward movement at A point was 10.2mm. Increases in NC and PAS volume after MDO were statistically significant. These increases resulted in significant improvement in sleep quality. PSG parameters changed after MDO; AHI and sleep stages weakness, 1, and 2 decreased, whereas REM, stages 3 and 4, sleep efficiency, and mean O2 saturation increased. PMID:25475850

  13. Skeletal stability and complications in transantral maxillary distraction in patients with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Nkenke, Emeka; Vairaktaris, Elefterios; Hanke, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Bettina; Schlittenbauer, Tilo

    2014-01-01

    The current prospective study aimed at assessing skeletal stability and complications arising from transantral maxillary distraction adopted for advancements of less than 12 mm in patients with cleft lip, alveolus, and palate malformations.The recruited patients with cleft lip, alveolus, and palate were followed up for 12 months. Lateral skull radiographs were obtained before surgery (T0), at the end of the activation period of the distractors (T1), and after completion of the follow-up interval (T2). Length and height of the maxilla were assessed at the different points of time. The relapse rate of maxillary advancement was calculated. Complications such as infections, distractor breakage and loosening, nonunions, and the need for reoperation were documented.Seven patients were included in this study (mean [SD] age, 19.5 [2.6] y). The length of the maxilla significantly increased by 6.4 1.1 mm at T1 (P = 0.018) but showed a significant relapse by 7.5% at T2 (P = 0.018). As a complication, a case of infection of the cheek occurred during the consolidation period, which could be treated conservatively. In an additional patient, there was a loosening of a distractor at the end of the distraction period, which required reoperation with conventional fixation of the maxilla in the intended position. At the time of removal of the distractors and the conventional osteosynthesis plates, no cases of nonunion could be identified.It seems that the low horizontal relapse rate of transantral maxillary distraction in patients with cleft lip and palate outweighs the possible complications of this procedure in cases of limited distances of advancement of less than 12 mm. PMID:24621725

  14. Repair of segmental bone defects in the maxilla by transport disc distraction osteogenesis: Clinical experience with a new device

    PubMed Central

    Boonzaier, James; Vicatos, George; Hendricks, Rushdi

    2015-01-01

    The bones of the maxillary complex are vital for normal oro-nasal function and facial cosmetics. Maxillary tumor excision results in large defects that commonly include segments of the alveolar and palatine processes, compromising eating, speech and facial appearance. Unlike the conventional approach to maxillary defect repair by vascularized bone grafting, transport disc distraction osteogenesis (TDDO) stimulates new bone by separating the healing callus, and stimulates growth of surrounding soft tissues as well. Bone formed in this way closely mimics the parent bone in form and internal structure, producing a superior anatomical, functional and cosmetic result. Historically, TDDO has been successfully used to close small horizontal cleft defects in the maxilla, not exceeding 25 mm. Fujioka et al. reported in 2012 that no bone transporter corresponding to the (large) size of the oro-antral fistula is marketed. The authors report the successful treatment of 4 cases involving alveolar defects of between 25 mm and 80 mm in length. PMID:26389041

  15. Orthodontic Considerations for Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis in Growing Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate Using Internal Distractors

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Adriana da; Moura, Pollyana Marques de; Harshbarger, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The orthodontist plays a key role in the selection of the optimal treatment for patients followed by a craniofacial team. For patients with cleft lip and palate, the need for multidisciplinary treatment planning and sequentially staged treatment is essential for successful patient outcomes. The technique of Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla using an internal device is potentially a predictable, stable, and convenient option for the correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia. It is an alternative option for treatment of maxillary hypoplasia in growing patients. In this article, the authors describe the orthodontist's approach to the management of cleft patients with severe maxillary deficiency with the use of an internal distraction device. The information is presented with a focus on the clinical aspects of treatment, using case illustrations and appropriate literature. PMID:25383056

  16. Dimensions of Velopharyngeal Space following Maxillary Advancement with Le Fort I Osteotomy Compared to Zisser Segmental Osteotomy: A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Karabekmez, Furkan Erol; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Jung, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the velopharyngeal dimensions using cephalometric variables of the nasopharynx and oropharynx as well as to compare the Le Fort I osteotomy technique to Zisser's anterior maxillary osteotomy technique based on patients' outcomes within early and late postoperative follow-ups. 15 patients with severe maxillary deficiency treated with Le Fort I osteotomy and maxillary segmental osteotomy were assessed. Preoperative, early postoperative, and late postoperative follow-up lateral cephalograms, patient histories, and operative reports are reviewed with a focus on defined cephalometric landmarks for assessing velopharyngeal space dimension and maxillary movement (measured for three different tracing points). A significant change was found between preoperative and postoperative lateral cephalometric measurements regarding the distance between the posterior nasal spine and the posterior pharyngeal wall in Le Fort I osteotomy cases. However, no significant difference was found between preoperative and postoperative measurements in maxillary segmental osteotomy cases regarding the same measurements. The velopharyngeal area calculated for the Le Fort I osteotomy group showed a significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative measurements. Le Fort I osteotomy for advancement of upper jaw increases velopharyngeal space. On the other hand, Zisser's anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy does not alter the dimension of the velopharyngeal space significantly. PMID:26273615

  17. Surgical accuracy of three-dimensional virtual planning: a pilot study of bimaxillary orthognathic procedures including maxillary segmentation.

    PubMed

    Stokbro, K; Aagaard, E; Torkov, P; Bell, R B; Thygesen, T

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the precision and positional accuracy of different orthognathic procedures following virtual surgical planning in 30 patients. To date, no studies of three-dimensional virtual surgical planning have evaluated the influence of segmentation on positional accuracy and transverse expansion. Furthermore, only a few have evaluated the precision and accuracy of genioplasty in placement of the chin segment. The virtual surgical plan was compared with the postsurgical outcome by using three linear and three rotational measurements. The influence of maxillary segmentation was analyzed in both superior and inferior maxillary repositioning. In addition, transverse surgical expansion was compared with the postsurgical expansion obtained. An overall, high degree of linear accuracy between planned and postsurgical outcomes was found, but with a large standard deviation. Rotational difference showed an increase in pitch, mainly affecting the maxilla. Segmentation had no significant influence on maxillary placement. However, a posterior movement was observed in inferior maxillary repositioning. A lack of transverse expansion was observed in the segmented maxilla independent of the degree of expansion. PMID:26250603

  18. Segmental mandibular reconstruction by microincremental automatic distraction osteogenesis: an animal study.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, A F; Richardson, W; Koppel, D; Thompson, H; Lucas, M; Schwarz, T; Smith, L; Boyd, J

    2001-10-01

    We investigated the reconstruction of a surgically created critical size mandibular defect in sheep using a newly developed automatic distraction device. The device has an implantable component, which is fixed to the mandible to allow the transfer of the transport disc across the created defect, and an external component which is mounted on the activation pump and secured away from the site of bone distraction. Compression of the bellows in the external component causes fluid to be forced through the connecting tube into the distraction component. Distraction at a rate of 1 mm over 24 h was achieved in six sheep. New bone generated at the site of the created defects both anterior (compression side) and posterior (tension side) to the transport disc and had similar radiodensity to the adjacent mandibular bone eight weeks after the completion of distraction. PMID:11601816

  19. Backward distraction osteogenesis in a patient with severe mandibular micrognathia.

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Morishita, Tadashi; Saiga, Atsuomi; Akita, Shinsuke; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2013-09-01

    Maxillary skeletal prognathism can involve severe mandibular micrognathia with marked mandibular retrognathism or hypoplasia. For patients with such a condition, a conventional treatment is mandibular advancement by sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO). This procedure has problems such as insufficient advancement, instability of jaw position, and postoperative relapse. Thus, in recent years, mandibular distraction osteogenesis has been used in some patients. Mandibular distraction has many advantages, but an ideal occlusion is difficult to achieve using this procedure. That is, 3-dimensional control cannot be attained using an internal device that is unidirectional. This report describes a case of severe mandibular micrognathia in a 14-year-old girl treated using backward distraction osteogenesis. This procedure was first reported by Ishii et al (Jpn J Jaw Deform 2004; 14:49) and involves a combination of SSRO and ramus distraction osteogenesis. In the present study, intermaxillary fixation in centric occlusion was performed after osteotomy, and proximal bone segments were distracted in a posterosuperior direction. This procedure is a superior surgical technique that avoids the drawbacks of SSRO and conventional mandibular distraction. However, it applies a large load to the temporomandibular joints and requires thorough management. Thus, careful evaluation needs to be made of the indication for backward distraction osteogenesis. PMID:24036745

  20. Ankylosed maxillary incisor with severe root resorption treated with a single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy, vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis, and mini-implant anchorage.

    PubMed

    Sen???k, Neslihan Ebru; Koer, Glperi; Kaya, Bulem reyen

    2014-09-01

    Dentoalveolar ankylosis interferes with the vertical growth of the alveolar process, which can lead to an open bite, an unesthetic smile, and occlusal disharmony. This case report presents a new treatment protocol for an ankylosed tooth with severe root resorption using a combined surgical orthodontic management protocol involving a single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy and vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis with intraoral elastics and mini-implant anchorage. After distraction and active orthodontic treatment, the patient's anterior open bite was corrected. A Class I dental relationship was achieved, overjet was decreased, and a normal incisor relationship was obtained. PMID:25172260

  1. Treatment of Class II open bite complicated by an ankylosed maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dong-Hyun; Park, Ki-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Kim, Su-Jung

    2011-07-01

    Ankylosed teeth in growing patients cause troublesome dentoalveolar problems and require special therapeutic care for accomplishing long-term esthetic and functional results. The various treatment modalities for ankylosed teeth include reconstruction after extraction, surgical extrusive luxation, individual segmental osteotomy or corticotomy, and alveolar distraction osteogenesis. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old boy with anterior open bite complicated by an ankylosed maxillary central incisor that was managed by corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic treatment. PMID:21341998

  2. Maxillary Expansion and Midline Correction by Asymmetric Transverse Distraction Osteogenesis in a Patient With Unilateral Cleft Lip/Palate: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shintaku, Yuko; Tanikawa, Chihiro; Iida, Seiji; Aikawa, Tomonao; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    This case report presents the management of a female patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate presenting with skeletal Class III malocclusion and a narrow upper dental arch with a midline deviation. The treatment plan involved asymmetric transverse distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla to make the upper dental midline coincident with the facial midline. After the treatment, a good facial profile and a close intercuspation of teeth were achieved. Occlusion remained stable with normal overjet and overbite after 2-year retention. PMID:25531734

  3. Management of post midface distraction occlusal discrepancy using temporary anchorage devices in a cleft patient

    PubMed Central

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Hussain, Syed Altaf; Chitharanjan, Arun B.; Murthy, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Open bite deformity following a successful midface advancement by distraction osteogenesis is a common complication. Temporary anchorage devices can be deployed during the distraction and post-distraction settling phases for restoring the occlusion even in severe cases. The following report describes the management of severe anterior open bite following maxillary distraction. PMID:25991895

  4. Distracted Driving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... combines all three types of distraction. 3 How big is the problem? Deaths In 2013, 3,154 ... European countries. More A CDC study analyzed 2011 data on distracted driving, including talking on a cell ...

  5. Improvement in chronic low back pain in an aviation crash survivor with adjacent segment disease following flexion distraction therapy: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Dean M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case study is to describe the chiropractic management of chronic low back pain in a patient with adjacent segment disease. Clinical Features The patient was a 30-year-old man with a 3-year history of chronic nonspecific low back pain following a lumbar disk herniation. Two years before this incident, he had severe lumbar fractures and cauda equina injury due to an aviation accident that required multilevel lumbar fusion surgery, vertebrectomy, and cage reconstruction. Intervention and Outcome The patient received chiropractic management using Cox Flexion Distraction over a 4-week period. A complete reduction of symptoms to 0/10 on a verbal numerical rating scale was achieved within 4 weeks. At 3 months, the patient was able to work 8 to 9 hours per day in his dental practice with no pain. At 9 months, the patient continued to report a complete reduction of symptoms. Conclusions This report describes the successful management of a patient with chronic low back pain associated with adjacent segment disease using Cox Flexion Distraction protocols. PMID:23843764

  6. Initial Experience With a New Intraoral Midface Distraction Device.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Fernando; Soldanska, Magdalena; Granger, Michael; Berhane, ChiChi; Schoemann, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia that necessitates surgical advancement affects approximately 25% of patients born with cleft lip and palate. Syndromic conditions such as Crouzon may also be accompanied by significant maxillary hypoplasia. Severe maxillary hypoplasia can result in airway obstruction, malocclusion, proptosis, and facial disfigurement. For optimal stability, severe hypoplasia is best addressed with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-two patients (15 boys, 7 girls, ages 6-16 years, mean age 10 years) with severe midface hypoplasia underwent midface distraction with new internal maxillary distraction (IMD) device at our institution. Total distraction distances ranged from 15 to 30 mm. There were no major complications, and all of them had improvement in functional and aesthetic parameters. There were 2 minor complications and 2 patients failed to distract the full distance because of converging vectors. Early maxillary distraction in patients with severe midface hypoplasia is a useful technique to provide interval correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia before skeletal maturity and definitive orthognathic surgery is contemplated, and it is a good tool to improve occlusion, aesthetics, and self-perception in younger patients. PMID:26080162

  7. Bone dynamics in the upward direction after a maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure: serial segmentation using synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seung-Jun; Bark, Chung Wung; Lim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Yong-Gun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maxillary sinus floor augmentation has been shown to be the most predictable surgical technique for enhancing the bone volume in the posterior area of the maxilla. The purpose of this study was to analyze the serial slice image segmentation of newly formed bone and bone substitutes after sinus floor elevation using synchrotron radiation X-ray micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT). Materials and methods Bone biopsy specimens were collected after 6 months of sinus floor augmentation. From the six bone biopsy specimens, the cross-sectional images at every 8 μm along the apical direction from the inferior border using serial segmentation from three-dimensional reconstructed X-ray images were analyzed. The amount of new bone and bone substitutes were measured at each slicing image (300–430 images per specimen). Results The bone dynamics between the new bone and bone substitutes along the inferior–superior direction in humans after maxillary sinus floor elevation (MSFE) were analyzed using the whole sample region. Although these observations suggest that the specimens are structurally inhomogeneous, sinus floor elevation was confirmed to be a reliable surgical procedure for increasing the amount of bone. Conclusion SR-μCT is highly effective for obtaining high-resolution images. An analysis of biological specimens using SR-μCT is quite reliable and this technique will be an important tool in the wide field of tissue engineering. PMID:26347146

  8. Bidimensional dentoalveolar distraction osteogenesis for treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Flavio; Agarwal, Sachin; Janakiraman, Nandakumar; Shafer, David; Nanda, Ravindra

    2013-08-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a 16-year-old girl with a unilateral posterior buccal crossbite, a unilateral Class II molar relationship, and a maxillary right canine high in the labial sulcus. The treatment plan included surgically assisted unilateral maxillary expansion for the correction of the buccal crossbite, with simultaneous dentoalveolar distraction of the maxillary right canine into the extraction space of the first premolar aided by skeletal anchorage. Reduced orthodontic treatment time was facilitated by these 2 surgical procedures. A pleasing esthetic result and a good functional occlusion were achieved in 13 months. PMID:23910210

  9. Dento-Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis for rapid Orthodontic Canine Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naveen; Prashantha, GS; Raikar, Sudhir; Ranganath, Krishnappa; Mathew, Silju; Nambiar, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rate of canine distalization by segmental alveolar distraction method in first premolar extraction cases, to evaluate the displacement of the canine and first molar teeth, to assess the effects of the procedure on the pulpal vitality of the canines, and to determine the amount of root resorption in retracted canines. Materials & Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 20 teeth in 7 patients (five females and two males, mean age 18.5 years). After the osteotomy procedure distractor was fixed. After 3 days of consolidation period, the distractor was activated 3 quarter turns per day(0.75 mm/day) till the canines comes in contact with second premolar. An electrical vitality test was applied before and after the distraction procedure and during the follow-up period. Results: The mean distal retraction of canines was 7.262 0.4864 mm. The distal displacement of the canine was mainly a combination of tipping and translation. The mean distraction procedure was completed in 14.60 1.536 days. The duration of retraction was less for mandibular canine compared to maxillary canine. The mean posterior anchorage loss was mean 0.500.688 mm. The amount of root resorption that occurred during distraction was clinically insignificant. None of the teeth reacted negatively to the electrical vitality test that was performed 6 months after the completion of the distraction procedure. There was no clinical sign of discoloration or pulpal pain in any tooth. Conclusion: With dentoalveolar distraction, as canines can be fully retracted in 12 to 16 days, the non-compliance patients, patients with root-shape malformations, periodontal problems, or ankylosed teeth will benefit from this technique. The anchorage teeth can withstand the retraction forces better with no anchorage loss, and without clinical or radiographic evidence of root resorption, ankylosis, periodontal problems, and soft tissue dehiscence. This technique reduces orthodontic treatment duration by 6 to 9 months in patients who need extraction, with no need for any sort of anchorage reinforcement. How to cite this article: Kumar N, Prashantha GS, Raikar S, Ranganath K, Mathew S, Nambiar S. Dento-Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis for rapid Orthodontic Canine Retraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):31-41 . PMID:24453442

  10. Intraoral mandibular distraction: indications, technique and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Diner, P A; Tomat, C; Soupre, V; Martinez, H; Vazquez, M P

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the experience of the Trousseau Hospital, Paris, France, with distraction osteogenesis of the mandible using an intraoral distraction device. From 1993 to 1998, 26 paediatric patients with mandibular hypoplasia underwent distraction of the mandible using the Leibinger Intraoral Distractor. The majority of the patients had hemifacial microsomia. Distraction was performed at a rate of 1 mm a day following complete osteotomy of the mandible. A mean of 15 mm of distraction was obtained. In conjunction with combined orthodontic management, satisfactory morphologic results were achieved in the majority of patients with good facial symmetry, adequate occlusal relationships and balanced maxillary mandibular relationships. Radiographic evaluation revealed that substantial new bone formation and remodelling was induced by the intraoral distraction along the entire hemimandible on the distracted side and that this contributed significantly to the aesthetically pleasing clinical results. PMID:10597346

  11. Comprehensive treatment and rehabilitation of a patient with maxillary arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Behnia, Hossein; Jafarian, Mohammad; Dehghani, Nima; Dehghani, Siavash; Seyedan, Kaveh

    2014-09-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the maxilla are rare and potentially life-threatening conditions that can pose a therapeutic dilemma. We reported the first case of maxillary AVM in a 15-year-old girl who was treated by marginal hemimaxillectomy including overlying palatal mucosa and immediate replantation of the segment after removing the AVM tissues and teeth and covering by a full-thickness pedicled temporal muscle flap rotated into the mouth. Then, this preserved bone underwent distraction osteogenesis and dental implant rehabilitation successfully. This method was previously used for the definitive treatment of mandibular AVMs, and in this case, we applied this method for the first time in maxillary AVMs. In conclusion, this surgical method may be considered as a safe, convenient, and effective treatment and reconstructive modality for such vascular malformations in the maxilla and restores function and symmetry of the jaws while obviating the need for bone harvesting and future major reconstructive operations. PMID:25148624

  12. Distracted driving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the road Your hands on the wheel Your mind on driving Distracted driving occurs when something gets in the way of you doing all 3 things. Examples include: Talking on a cell phone Reading or sending text messages Eating and drinking Grooming ( ...

  13. Biomechanics of the L5-S1 motion segment after total disc replacement - Influence of iatrogenic distraction, implant positioning and preoperative disc height on the range of motion and loading of facet joints.

    PubMed

    Dreischarf, Marcel; Schmidt, Hendrik; Putzier, Michael; Zander, Thomas

    2015-09-18

    Total disc replacement has been introduced to overcome negative side effects of spinal fusion. The amount of iatrogenic distraction, preoperative disc height and implant positioning have been considered important for surgical success. However, their effect on the postoperative range of motion (RoM) and loading of the facets merits further discussion. A validated osteoligamentous finite element model of the lumbosacral spine was employed and extended with four additional models to account for different disc heights. An artificial disc with a fixed center of rotation (CoR) was implemented in L5-S1. In 4000 simulations, the influence of distraction and the CoR's location on the RoM, facet joint forces (FJFs) and facet capsule ligament forces (FCLFs) was investigated. Distraction substantially altered segmental kinematics in the sagittal plane by decreasing range of flexion (0.5 per 1mm of distraction), increasing range of extension (0.7/mm) and slightly affecting complete sagittal RoM (0.2/mm). The distraction already strongly increased the FCLFs during surgery (up to 230N) and in flexion (~12N/mm), with higher values in models with larger preoperative disc heights, and increased FJFs in extension. A more anterior implant location decreased the RoM in all planes. In most loading cases, a more posterior location of the implant's CoR increased the FJFs and FCLFs, whereas a more caudal location increased the FCLFs but decreased the FJFs. The results of this study may explain the worse clinical results in patients with overdistraction after TDR. The complete RoM in the sagittal plane appears to be insensitive to detecting surgery-related biomechanical changes. PMID:26184587

  14. Deadly distractions.

    PubMed

    Zuzek, Crystal

    2013-04-01

    In 2011, the National Transportation Safety Board urged all states to ban the use of portable electronic devices while driving, including hand-held and hands-free devices. Texting while driving concerns several Texas legislators, who have filed bills, backed by the Texas Medical Association, to ban the practice. TMA physicians recognize that the use of hand-held and hands-free devices and other factors associated with distracted driving affect their patients' safety. PMID:23546834

  15. The distraction osteogenesis in midfacial hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alessandra; Gherlone, Enrico F; Asperio, Paolo; Baena, Ruggero Rodriguez y

    2014-05-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) can generate new bone in a gap between 2 vascularized bone surfaces in response to application of graduated tensile stress across the bone gap. The authors present the clinical result in a cleft patient with severe maxillary deficiency treated by a rigid external distraction (RED) device. A boy complained of both masticatory and psychological problems because of cleft with severe midfacial retrusion. The treatment aimed to create a well-balanced facial profile, increase maxillary incisal display, create proper overjet and overbite, and align his dentition. By the RED system, the traction is applied to the maxilla through the dentition by an intraoral splint. A complete Le Fort I osteotomy was performed, including pterygomaxillary and septal disjunction, with mobilization. Once osteotomy was completed, the halo portion of the RED device was adjusted for the width of the neurocranium and was rigidly fixed around the head with 2 scalp screws on each side. A well-balanced facial profile and a good alignment of the dentition were obtained. The patients had considerable improvement in his self-esteem. Clinical reports have suggested that maxillary advancements achieved by distraction are more stable than those achieved with orthognathic surgery with a minimal influence on velopharyngeal competence. PMID:24769612

  16. [Front Block distraction].

    PubMed

    Esnault, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    The contribution of the segmental osteotomies in the ortho-surgical protocols is no longer to demonstrate and found a new lease of life thanks to the combination with the bone distraction techniques. The osteotomy of Köle, initially described to close infraclusies, and then used to level very marked curves of Spee has more recently been used to correct anterior crowding. This support is therefore aimed at patients with an incisor and canine Class 2 but molar Class 1 with an isolated mandibular footprint. With minimal orthodontic preparation we can create in two weeks bilateral diastemas that will then be used to align the incisivocanin crowding without stripping or bicuspid extractions. Dental orthodontic movements can be resumed one month after the end of the distraction. This technique is therefore likely to avoid bicuspid extraction and replace some sagittal osteotomy advancement by correction of the overjet. It also helps to correct a incisors labial or lingual tipping playing on differential activation of the cylinders and the distractor. This segmental surgery can be combined with Le Fort 1 surgeries with correction of the transverse and associated meanings, but in a second time, to a mandibular advancement and/or a genioplasty. PMID:25888045

  17. Spring-mediated mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mofid, Mehrdad M; Inoue, Nozomu; Tufaro, Anthony P; Vander Kolk, Craig A; Manson, Paul N

    2003-09-01

    Successful performance of distraction osteogenesis requires rigorous patient compliance with a daily activation regimen of a percutaneous screw. Previous clinical studies have found that failure of patient compliance with this regimen is the most common complication leading to technical failure of the distraction process. The authors have developed an internalized spring-mediated device for mandibular distraction osteogenesis that can potentially abrogate the risks associated with patient compliance by allowing for automated distraction across an osteotomy. Twenty adult New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral mandibular osteotomy. A segment of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy reinforced at both ends with a pinball was fashioned into an inferiorly based arc and secured to the mandible with stainless steel wire. On postoperative day 12, spring activation commenced by cutting a wire binding the two pinballs to one another. Animals were observed for 6 weeks before they were killed. Radiographic studies and decalcified histologic analysis were performed on extracted mandibles. Temperature- and displacement-dependent properties of the shape memory alloy were also examined. Five animals were excluded from the study due to infection, nonunion, or device failure. A mean distraction of 1.2 mm in the distracted hemimandible relative to the nonoperated hemimandible was found (P <.001, two-tailed paired t test). The maximum distraction achieved in an experimental specimen using the spring distractor was 3.7 mm. There were no other histologic or radiographic differences found between study specimens and specimens subjected to traditional distraction methods. Biomechanical testing of the shape memory alloy revealed a temperature-dependent increase in force at body temperature compared with room temperature and a reduction in force with increased displacement of the spring. This study demonstrates the feasibility of spring-mediated distraction osteogenesis across an osteotomy. As the field of distraction osteogenesis matures, the next level of sophistication in the clinical development of devices will incorporate technology that permits fully internalized and automated distraction to occur. PMID:14501343

  18. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991

  19. Transmaxillary osteogenic distraction with intraoral tooth-borne distractors.

    PubMed

    Margaride, Luis Alberto; Breuer, Jorge

    2012-09-01

    Midfacial retrusion and class III malocclusion in maxillary hypoplasia are frequent sequelae in patients with cleft lip and palate. Similar deformities are seen in craniofacial dysostosis surgically treated in infancy. Recurrences after orthognathic surgery are unpredictable even using rigid fixations. Distraction osteogenesis, using Le Fort I osteotomies with external distractors, is uncomfortable for the patient, and internal distractors require a second procedure for removing the retractor. A new model of distraction osteogenesis is presented. Transmaxillary osteogenic distraction, using tooth-borne devices, is a simple method and allows ambulatory retraction of distractors. Osteogenesis between molars and premolars at the alveolar level is stable and allows orthodontic mobilization and dental implants. Anchorage in molars and maxillary tuberosities avoids velopharyngeal incompetence. Transmaxillary osteogenic distraction techniques are described, as well as results after 7 years of experience in 45 patients with maxillary hypoplasia. Results are satisfactory and stable, surgery is simple, and custom-made intraoral devices are easy to handle with minimal discomfort for the patients. PMID:22948655

  20. Dento-Alveolar distraction osteogenesis using rigid intra-oral tooth borne distraction device

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Arvind; Kumar, J Phani; Venkataramana, V; Yuvaraj, A; Reddy, V Sridhar; Kumar, S Kishore

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this clinical prospective study is to apply and evaluate an approach to reduce the overall orthodontic treatment time, by means of dentoalveolar distraction osteogenesis to achieve rapid canine retraction using an indigenously developed intra-oral tooth-borne distraction device. Materials & Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Four patients selected for the purpose of Maxillary and/or Mandibular canine distraction with a rigid custom-made, intra-oral distraction device made of stainless steel and were scheduled for orthodontic treatment with bilateral first premolar extraction and then subsequent bilateral canine teeth distalization. Results: In all the patients the canine teeth moved distally and made contact with the second premolars within 14-16 days range after which they were kept passive, with the appliance for a week of consolidation. The amount of canine retraction was in 7-7.5mms range, in all the patients, in each of the four quadrants studied. Bodily movement, tipping and buccal flaring of the canine teeth were noticed in all the cases. Conclusion: Combination of newer orthodontic appliances and the principles of biomechanics to maintain the control over rapid tooth movement, rapid canine distalization using distraction osteogenesis awaits further development before routine application, of this innovative and exciting approach. How to cite the article: Nair A, Kumar JP, Venkataramana V, Yuvaraj A, Reddy VS, Kumar SK. Dento-Alveolar distraction osteogenesis using rigid intra-oral tooth borne distraction device. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):106-13. PMID:24876710

  1. Driven to Distraction.

    PubMed

    Strayer, David L; Cooper, Joel M

    2015-12-01

    We address several themes that emerged in the commentaries related to our target article. First, we consider the relationship between cognitive distraction and crash risk. Second, we discuss the development of our cognitive distraction scale. Third, we weigh issues of self-regulation, appropriate baselines, and satisficing. Finally, we identify several areas where additional research is needed to refine our understanding of driver distraction and crash risk. PMID:26534853

  2. Distraction osteogenesis of a unilateral hypoplastic mandible.

    PubMed

    Liaqat, Sahrish; Baig, Amir Mushtaq; Bukhari, Syed Gulzar Ali; Ahmed, Waseem

    2011-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical process in which two bony segments are gradually separated so new soft tissue and bone will form between them by applying tension through a fixation device. There are three phases to this process: latency phase, distraction phase, and consolidation phase. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use in maxillofacial surgery. Distraction osteogenesis is a new variation of more traditional; orthognathic surgical procedures which can be applied for the correction of dento-facial deformities and syndromes of the jaws, treating upper airway obstruction in paediatric patients with mandibualr retrognathia, due to tongue collapse and physical obstruction in the hypopharangeal region. It is an effective and powerful reconstructive surgical technique, which can be performed safely without the need of bone graft or blood transfusion. We present treatment of a child with severe facial asymmetry after unilateral TMJ ankylosis corrected bydistraction osteogenesis. PMID:24800374

  3. Distracted driving: prevalence, problems, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Overton, Tiffany L; Rives, Terry E; Hecht, Carrie; Shafi, Shahid; Gandhi, Rajesh R

    2015-01-01

    While the number of motor vehicle crashes has declined over the years, crashes resulting from distracted driving are increasing in the United States resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The national public seems to be aware of the dangers associated with using technology while driving, but continues to engage in this dangerous behaviour, and may be unaware of or underestimate the impact of cell phone use on their own driving performance. Problems associated with distracted driving are not limited to novice or teenage drivers; multifaceted universal prevention efforts aimed at impacting large segments of the population may have the greatest impact. Legislation limiting drivers' cell phone use has had little impact, possibly due to low regulation and enforcement. Behaviour change programmes, improved vehicle safety, and public awareness campaigns have been developed as potential preventive efforts to reduce accidents caused by distracted drivers. PMID:24499372

  4. Posterior cranial vault distraction with resorbable distraction devices.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Samuel M; Gachiani, John M

    2014-07-01

    Posterior cranial vault distraction is recognized as a viable initial approach to patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. It offers advantages to initial anterior vault surgery and to traditional 1-stage advancements. Reports of posterior vault distraction have thus far focused on the use of standard titanium distractors. We present a case of posterior vault distraction with resorbable distraction devices, obviating the need for a second surgery and anesthetic for distractor removal. Distraction was performed successfully without complications or device-related issues. PMID:25006906

  5. Videogame Distraction using Virtual Reality Technology for Children Experiencing Cold Pressor Pain: The Role of Cognitive Processing

    PubMed Central

    Law, Emily F.; Sil, Soumitri; Weiss, Karen E.; Herbert, Linda Jones; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan Berrin

    2011-01-01

    Objective?This study examined whether increasing the demand for central cognitive processing involved in a distraction task, by involving the child in ongoing, effortful interaction with the distraction stimulus, would increase children's tolerance for cold pressor pain.?Methods?Seventy-nine children ages 615 years underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which they received interactive distraction (i.e., used voice commands to play a videogame) or passive distraction (in which they merely watched the output from the same videogame segment) in counterbalanced order. Both distraction conditions were presented via a virtual reality-type helmet.?Results?As expected, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during distraction relative to baseline. Children showed the greatest improvement during the interactive distraction task.?Conclusion?The effects of distraction on children's cold pressor pain tolerance are significantly enhanced when the distraction task also includes greater demands for central cognitive processing. PMID:20656761

  6. Distractions in Everyday Driving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a factor in more than 1 million crashes in North America annually, resulting in serious injuries, ... year. Most distractions are nothing new After reviewing crash-report data and footage from cameras mounted inside ...

  7. Salvage rapid maxillary expansion for the relapse of maxillary transverse expansion after Le Fort I with parasagittal osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Su-Jung; Kwon, Yong-Dae

    2015-04-01

    Maxillary transverse deficiency is one of the most common deformities among occlusal discrepancies. Typical surgical methods are segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and surgically-assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). This patient underwent a parasagittal split with a Le Fort I osteotomy to correct transverse maxillary deficiency. During follow-up, early transverse relapse occurred and rapid maxillary expansion (RME) application with removal of the fixative plate on the constricted side was able to regain the dimension again. RME application may be appropriate salvage therapy for such a case. PMID:25922822

  8. Salvage rapid maxillary expansion for the relapse of maxillary transverse expansion after Le Fort I with parasagittal osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary transverse deficiency is one of the most common deformities among occlusal discrepancies. Typical surgical methods are segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and surgically-assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). This patient underwent a parasagittal split with a Le Fort I osteotomy to correct transverse maxillary deficiency. During follow-up, early transverse relapse occurred and rapid maxillary expansion (RME) application with removal of the fixative plate on the constricted side was able to regain the dimension again. RME application may be appropriate salvage therapy for such a case. PMID:25922822

  9. [Principles of callus distraction].

    PubMed

    Hankemeier, S; Bastian, L; Gosling, T; Krettek, C

    2004-10-01

    Callus distraction is based on the principle of regenerating bone by continuous distraction of proliferating callus tissue. It has become the standard treatment of significant leg shortening and large bone defects. Due to many problems and complications, exact preoperative planning, operative technique and careful postoperative follow-up are essential. External fixators can be used for all indications of callus distraction. However, due to pin tract infections, pain and loss of mobility caused by soft tissue transfixation, fixators are applied in patients with open growth plates, simultaneous lengthening with continuous deformity corrections, and increased risk of infection. Distraction over an intramedullary nail allows removal of the external fixator at the end of distraction before callus consolidation (monorail method). The intramedullary nail protects newly formed callus tissue and reduces the risk of axial deviation and refractures. Recently developed, fully intramedullary lengthening devices eliminate fixator-associated complications and accelerate return to normal daily activities. This review describes principles of callus distraction, potential complications and their management. PMID:15452653

  10. Bilateral Alveolar Distraction for Large Alveolar Defects: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Aravindaksha, Shyam Prasad; Batra, Puneet; Sadhu, Partha

    2015-09-01

    Distraction osteogenesis has become a very popular technique, as the ability to reconstruct combined deficiencies in bone and soft tissue makes this process unique and invaluable to all types of reconstructive surgeons. We document a case in which an intraoral tooth-borne distractor was designed and segmental alveolar distraction was performed in a large alveolar defect in a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Cosmetic dentistry was performed to attain a pleasing result. This article aims at highlighting the use of distraction in large defects in which bone grafting only is not a suitable procedure. PMID:26317633

  11. Electronic gaming as pain distraction.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Eleanor; Trevena, Judy; Swain, Nic

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated whether active distraction reduces participants' experience of pain more than passive distraction during a cold pressor task. In the first experiment, 60 participants were asked to submerge their hand in cold (2C) water for as long as they could tolerate. They did this with no distraction, and then with active (electronic gaming system) and passive (television) distraction, in randomly assigned order. Tolerance time, pain intensity ratings and task absorption ratings were measured for each condition. A second experiment attempted to control for participants' expectations about the effects of distraction on pain. Forty participants underwent the same experimental procedure, but were given verbal suggestions about the effects of distraction by the experimenter before each distraction condition. Participants in both experiments had a significantly higher pain tolerance and reported less pain with the active distraction compared with passive or no distraction. Participants reported being more absorbed, and were significantly more willing to do the task again when they had the active distraction compared with both passive distraction and no distraction. They also had more enjoyment, less anxiety and greater reduction in pain with active distraction than with passive distraction. There was no effect of suggestion. These experiments offer further support for the use of electronic games as a method of pain control. PMID:21369538

  12. Neonatal Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Roberto L.

    2014-01-01

    Mandibular distraction has revolutionized the treatment of Robin sequence associated with severe airway obstruction. The distraction technique remains the only intervention that directly corrects mandibular hypoplasia and the retropositioned tongue, providing efficient relief of airway stenosis. Multiple studies have demonstrated the efficacy of distraction in avoiding tracheostomy and decreasing the severity airway obstruction in this patient population. The benefit to avoiding tracheostomy and relieving airway obstruction is superior to that of tonguelip adhesion. It is, therefore, not surprising that mandibular distraction has become the first-line intervention at many centers for the surgical treatment of Robin sequence. The complication profile associated with mandibular distraction appears low; the most common complication is infection, which can be treated by antibiotics alone. The severity of airway obstruction can be quantified by polysomnogram: This tool has become one of the most widely used objective metrics in the Robin sequence population. Therefore indications for surgery, timing of palatoplasty and long-term assessment of airway function should be performed in conjunction with sleep study analysis. The effects of mandibular lengthening on feeding difficulty in Robin sequence patient remains a topic of controversy. Studies have demonstrated conflicting results: This can be an area of future study. Agreed-upon indications for surgery and definitive protocols of care have yet to be formulized; future research should focus on achieving these goals. Such studies would require agreed-upon terminology for Robin sequence, an increase in comparative and prospective analysis, and the use of quantifiable metrics of clinical results. PMID:25383055

  13. Maxillary Air Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options. PMID:24421932

  14. Distraction osteogenesis for the cleft lip and palate patient.

    PubMed

    Molina, Fernando

    2004-04-01

    Gradual maxillary distraction by modified osteotomies and external force systems is a procedure with minimal morbidity and few complications. The interaction between surgeons and orthodontists is critical, however. The wide range of possibilities for remodeling a hypoplastic maxilla by distraction allows the potential to simultaneously advance and to elongate the midface, thereby restructuring the skeletal framework with mature new bone. An expansion of all the soft tissues of the face and palate (muscles, nerves, vessels, mucosa, skin) occurs in conjunction with bone elongation. This process ultimately produces excellent functional and aesthetic results in patients with midface deficiency, thus restoring their facial appearance and avoiding many years of facial deformity and associated psychologic sequelae. PMID:15145670

  15. Rotational Distraction for the Treatment of Severe Mandibular Retrognathia

    PubMed Central

    Mitsugi, Masaharu; Alcalde, Rafael E.; Yano, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Noriko; Okazaki, Mutsumi

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds: The main problem with intraoral distraction of the mandible is the inability to achieve the three-dimensional mandibular correction as planned preoperatively. We developed a technique that allows spontaneous changes in the direction of mandibular elongation using an intraoral distractor. Methods: After mandibular osteotomy, the distractor is fixed to the distal segment of the mandible using a single bicortical screw, allowing anterior-posterior, vertical and limited lateromedial changes in the vector of distraction. Mandibular lengthening is performed while keeping the maxilla and mandible in class I occlusion with intermaxillary fixation. Results: As the distraction device is activated allowing mandibular elongation, the proximal segment, guided by the surrounding soft tissues, moves and rotates posterosuperiorly. Mandibular lengthening is continued until the condylar head reaches an adequate position in the mandibular fossa as confirmed clinically and radiographically. Conclusion Thirty-three patients with mandibular retrognathia received this treatment and good results were obtained. PMID:26301156

  16. Distracted Biking: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Elizabeth Suzanne; Arabian, Sandra Strack; Breeze, Janis L; Salzler, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Commuting via bicycle is a very popular mode of transportation in the Northeastern United States. Boston, MA, has seen a rapid increase in bicycle ridership over the past decade, which has raised concerns and awareness about bicycle safety. An emerging topic in this field is distracted bicycle riding. This study was conducted to provide descriptive data on the prevalence and type of distracted bicycling in Boston at different times of day. This was a cross-sectional study in which observers tallied bicyclists at 4 high traffic intersections in Boston during various peak commuting hours for 2 types of distractions: auditory (earbuds/phones in or on ears), and visual/tactile (electronic device or other object in hand). Nineteen hundred seventy-four bicyclists were observed and 615 (31.2%), 95% CI [29, 33%], were distracted. Of those observed, auditory distractions were the most common (N = 349; 17.7%), 95% CI [16, 19], p = .0003, followed by visual/tactile distractions (N = 266; 13.5%), 95% CI [12, 15]. The highest proportion (40.7%), 95% CI [35, 46], of distracted bicyclists was observed during the midday commute (between 13:30 and 15:00). Distracted bicycling is a prevalent safety concern in the city of Boston, as almost a third of all bicyclists exhibited distracted behavior. Education and public awareness campaigns should be designed to decrease distracted bicycling behaviors and promote bicycle safety in Boston. An awareness of the prevalence of distracted biking can be utilized to promote bicycle safety campaigns dedicated to decreasing distracted bicycling and to provide a baseline against which improvements can be measured. PMID:26953533

  17. A customized distraction device for alveolar ridge augmentation and alignment of ankylosed teeth.

    PubMed

    Nocini, Pier Francesco; De Santis, Daniele; Ferrari, Francesca; Bertele, Gian Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an extraosseous, tooth-supported miniature intraoral device that could produce prosthetically driven bone distraction of small atrophic alveolar ridge segments. Extraosseous distraction requires that the distraction device be anchored to a dental implant previously placed into the ridge according to its anatomic axis. A distractor can also correct the position of implants placed in young patients before skeletal growth is completed. Similarly, it allows the alignment of ankylosed teeth not treatable by orthodontics. The device is made of (1) an engine consisting of an orthodontic micrometric screw; (2) a joint between the implant and the engine, ie, the ball attachment/o-ring system; and (3) an anchorage system to the oral cavity provided by an orthodontic appliance and a mini-implant for possible additional support. Surgery involves an osteotomy of the atrophic alveolar ridge segment, incorporating the implant, from the basal bone; afterward the device can be applied and distraction of the segment can be carried out. Distraction was successfully performed in 3 clinical cases: 2 bone-implant segments and 1 bone-ankylosed tooth segment. All cases were clinically uneventful. This mini-device for osteogenic distraction of small atrophic ridge segments can provide for accurate and precise ridge augmentation, as is required for ideal prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:14982366

  18. Distraction Osteogenesis Technique for the Treatment of Nonsyndromic Sagittal Synostosis

    PubMed Central

    Blagg, Ross; Kestle, John R. W.; Riva-Cambrin, Jay K.; Siddiqi, Faizi; Gociman, Barbu

    2015-01-01

    Background Historically, surgical treatment of children with a delayed presentation of cranial synostosis required complex cranial vault reconstruction. Recently, less invasive options for surgical correction, such as internal distraction osteogenesis, have been explored. In this study, we describe the successful management of delayed presentation of sagittal synostosis using distraction osteogenesis. Methods A bicoronal incision was made and 2 large rectangular osteotomies were performed bilaterally, involving the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital bones. A 2 cm strut of bone over the sagittal sinus was preserved, creating bilateral free-floating bone segments. Two pairs of distractors were placed transversely, along the midline strut of bone, providing lateral distraction of these segments. This placement allowed maximum displacement at the apex of the cranial vault. Distraction was performed differentially at 1 mm per day anteriorly and 2 mm per day posteriorly, for a total of 17 days, allowing for a greater degree of expansion of the posterior vault. The consolidation phase lasted for 10 weeks. The distractors were removed via the same bicoronal incision and cranioplasty was performed to smooth prominent ridging at the margins of the distracted segments. Results The childs cranial index improved from 0.67 preoperatively to 0.76 postoperatively. The overall vault contour was smooth with no bony defects. There was a significant cosmetic improvement of the childs head shape. No major complications requiring reoperation or rehospitalization were encountered. Conclusion The use of distraction osteogenesis to laterally expand the cranial vault is a useful alternative in the treatment of delayed presentation, nonsyndromic, sagittal synostosis. PMID:26301163

  19. Distraction subtalar arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J Benjamin; Jacobson, Lance; Banerjee, Rahul; Nickisch, Florian

    2015-06-01

    There is a high potential for disability following calcaneal fracture. This potential exists whether a patient is treated with conservative or operative management. Subfibular impingement and irritation of the peroneal tendon and sural nerve may also be present. Posttraumatic arthritis of the subtalar joint can occur. In patients with symptomatic calcaneal malunion, systematic evaluation is required to determine the source of pain. Nonsurgical treatment may be effective. One surgical treatment option is subtalar distraction arthrodesis. High rates of successful arthrodesis and patient satisfaction have been reported with this surgical option in correctly selected patients. PMID:26043248

  20. Neural Basis of Visual Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Yeon; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to maintain focus and avoid distraction by goal-irrelevant stimuli is critical for performing many tasks and may be a key deficit in attention-related problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that irrelevant stimuli that are consciously perceived may be filtered out on a neural level and not cause the distraction triggered by

  1. The distracted driver.

    PubMed

    Peters, G A; Peters, B J

    2001-03-01

    A serious health problem is developing from automobile collisions caused by distracted drivers. This is a result of the rapid proliferation of portable cellular telephones and personal organisers used while driving, the development of more sophisticated entertainment systems and instrument panel controls, the advent of navigation and television displays in vehicles and promises of sophisticated wireless e-mail, FAX and Internet services in the vehicle. Preoccupation with electronic gadgets may also degrade human driving performance. Many drivers however, sincerely believe they have the talent to do several things at the same time, such as hold and look at a cellular telephone in one hand and drive with a beverage container in the other hand whilst at the same time, exercise their personal skills. Obviously, they believe that they do not need two hands on the steering wheel and two eyes on the road. This is a unique situation requiring intensive health promotion as distracted or 'offensive driving' may be habit forming and difficult to change, any significant design remedies will be slow to arrive and may be circumvented, and the regulatory laws have proved difficult or impossible to enforce. This special need may require research to determine the most effective techniques for health promotion. PMID:11329694

  2. Young and Older Adults' Reading of Distracters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Mcdowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length.

  3. Computer planning for distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gateo, J; Teichgraeber, J F; Aguilar, E

    2000-03-01

    Distraction osteogenesis of the mandible has found an application in the treatment of patients with a variety of different mandibular deformities. Compared with the relatively simple unidirectional distraction of long bones as described by Ilizarov, the three-dimensional distraction of the mandible is extremely complex. Whereas experience with orthognathic surgery clearly demonstrates that careful presurgical planning is necessary to achieve predictable outcomes, there are few reported methods for the planning of mandibular distraction. The authors have developed a method for planning distraction osteogenesis of the mandible that involves the use of three-dimensional modeling and animation to simulate distraction osteogenesis in virtual reality. The first step in the authors' treatment planning process is to obtain a three-dimensional computerized scan of the facial skeleton. From this scan, a three-dimensional wire-mesh model is built using animation software. With the same software, a virtual distractor is built and installed on the wire-mesh model. The osteotomies and the distraction process are then simulated. Finally, a recipe for sequencing the linear and angular changes of the distractor is calculated. The authors have used this planning process in seven patients (age range, 4 to 10 years): four with unilateral mandibular deformities and three with bilateral. The planning process has yielded predictable and reproducible results. PMID:10724245

  4. Measurement of torque during mandibular distraction.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Fernando D; Lukas, Saylan; Forsthoffer, Dina

    2008-05-01

    In a prospective study, 26 patients aged 9 days to 12 years old underwent mandibular distraction. There were 18 bilateral and 8 unilateral distractions performed. Five patients had previous distraction. Torque measurements were performed during the distraction process. A modest linear increase in torque was noted during the distraction process. Older patients required more torque to achieve the same distraction length as younger patients. The results of this study suggest that distraction forces are relatively modest, which may allow for greater freedom of distractor design. PMID:18520377

  5. Get the message: distracted driving and teens.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Ruth; Gibbons, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Distracted driving is a growing problem in the United States. With the integration of wireless devices into everyday life, cell phone use behind the wheel is a distraction requiring increasing concern. Teen drivers are most susceptible to the dangers of distracted driving as made evident in the overrepresentation of teens in distraction-related motor vehicle crashes. This article describes the causes, consequences, and statistics related to distracted driving in teenagers and an injury prevention program for teenagers. PMID:24005117

  6. Context effects on auditory distraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

  7. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that distracted driving, especially among new drivers, ... whenever the cars were moving. A suite of sensors recorded acceleration, sudden braking or swerving, and other ...

  8. Biologic model of bone transport distraction osteogenesis and vascular response.

    PubMed

    DeCoster, T A; Simpson, A H; Wood, M; Li, G; Kenwright, J

    1999-03-01

    We developed an experimental model in the rabbit of distraction osteogenesis through bone transport that closely corresponds to the clinical use of bone transport in humans. We also applied injection angiography to study the arterial response of a limb undergoing bone transport. This model includes a proximal osteotomy and bone transport to fill in a segmental tibial diaphyseal defect. Regenerate bone formed well in the gap that was created that trailed the transport segment, and slow healing at the docking site was observed, as seen in humans. The angiographic techniques clearly revealed, by radiography and anatomic dissection, the arterial response to bone transport. The results showed that the transport segment had an arterial supply after osteotomy and after transport. They also demonstrated an extensive increase in vessels in limbs that had undergone distraction osteogenesis, an observation made clinically in humans but not well demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, angiography showed proximal stretching and distal kinking of the major artery of the leg. This model closely resembles distraction osteogenesis through bone transport in humans and definitively demonstrates that the transport segment can maintain blood supply and remain viable during the transport process. The results of this study provide a basis for further work on factors that enhance and interfere with successful bone transport in humans. PMID:10221841

  9. Distracted driving: a neglected epidemic.

    PubMed

    Dildy, Dale W

    2012-10-01

    In 2009, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimated nearly 6,000 distracted driver fatalities and 515,000 injuries in the United States alone. Distracted driving is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed. Software is available to disable cell phone usage while driving, but using the advanced technology may require legislation along with a renewed sense of driver responsibility. PMID:23061239

  10. Leading to distraction: Driver distraction, lead car, and road environment.

    PubMed

    Kountouriotis, G K; Merat, N

    2016-04-01

    Driver distraction is strongly associated with crashes and near-misses, and despite the attention this topic has received in recent years, the effect of different types of distracting task on driving performance remains unclear. In the case of non-visual distractions, such as talking on the phone or other engaging verbal tasks that do not require a visual input, a common finding is reduced lateral variability in steering and gaze patterns where participants concentrate their gaze towards the centre of the road and their steering control is less variable. In the experiments presented here, we examined whether this finding is more pronounced in the presence of a lead car (which may provide a focus point for gaze) and whether the behaviour of the lead car has any influence on the driver's steering control. In addition, both visual and non-visual distraction tasks were used, and their effect on different road environments (straight and curved roadways) was assessed. Visual distraction was found to increase variability in both gaze patterns and steering control, non-visual distraction reduced gaze and steering variability in conditions without a lead car; in the conditions where a lead car was present there was no significant difference from baseline. The lateral behaviour of the lead car did not have an effect on steering performance, a finding which indicates that a lead car may not necessarily be used as an information point. Finally, the effects of driver distraction were different for straight and curved roadways, indicating a stronger influence of the road environment in steering than previously thought. PMID:26785327

  11. Neonatal mandibular distraction in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brevi, Bruno Carlo; Leporati, Massimiliano; Sesenna, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze a case of mandibular distraction in a case of Treacher Collins syndrome. Mandibular distraction is an adequate surgical treatment of patients with Pierre Robin sequence and represents an alternative to tracheostomy. In severe hypoplastic cases or when three-dimensional vector control or gonial angle control is necessary, extraoral bidirectional or multidirectional devices have an advantage over intraoral devices. The anchorage obtained with transfixing Kirschner wires fixed in the mandibular distal segment and symphysis is crucial in neonates for the stability of the devices. Moreover, with the use of a second pin for each bone segment, the extraoral devices allow to modify the vector orientation and consequently the shape of the newly formed mandible. PMID:25569412

  12. Callus stimulation in distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mofid, Mehrdad M; Inoue, Nozomu; Atabey, Atay; Marti, Guy; Chao, Edmund Y S; Manson, Paul N; Vander Kolk, Craig A

    2002-04-15

    Distraction osteogenesis has been described as in vivo tissue engineering. The ability to stimulate this process for the repair of bony defects or lengthening of congenitally shortened facial structures is likely to significantly impact the field of craniofacial surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical stimulation of the distracted rabbit mandible would accelerate the maturation of the bony callus when applied during the early consolidation period. Twenty adult New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral mandibular osteotomy. A uni-directional internal distractor device (Synthes, Paoli, Pa.) was positioned along a plane perpendicular to the line of osteotomy. After a 7-day latency period, distraction was commenced at a rate of 1.0 mm/day for 12 days in all animals. In a control group of 10 rabbits, a consolidation period of 8 weeks was observed before they were killed. In the experimental group of 10 rabbits, daily alternate compression and distraction of 1 mm (sequential compression and distraction) was performed for 3 weeks followed by a 5-week period of rigid fixation. Each animal received a dose of a fluorescent label at three different time points during the study: at the end of the distraction period, 3 weeks after the completion of the distraction phase, and 3 days before it was killed. All animals were killed 8 weeks after the completion of the distraction phase. Undecalcified histologic analysis and 3-point bending tests to failure were performed on the extracted mandibles. The results of the experimental and control groups were compared. Four animals in the control group and three animals in the experimental group were excluded from the study because of screw loosening resulting in distractor dislodgment or because of infection. On histologic analysis, cortical thickness at the center of the callus was found to be significantly greater in the experimental group compared with the control group when normalized to the contralateral hemimandible (83 percent versus 49 percent, respectively; p < 0.007). The ratio of cortical to cancellous bone in the distracted callus was uniformly found to be greater in the experimental specimens. The mineral apposition rate was calculated by using fluorescence microscopy and found to be significantly greater in the experimental group both during the period of sequential compression and distraction (3.2 microm/day versus 2.1 microm/day, p = 0.02) and after the period of sequential compression and distraction (1.4 microm/day versus 1.1 microm/day, p = 0.006). Mechanical testing revealed no significant differences in bending strength or stiffness between experimental or control groups (p = 0.54 and 0.47, respectively). This study has demonstrated that daily alternating compression and distraction of 1 mm amplitude during the early consolidation period has a stimulatory impact on callus formation with respect to osteoblastic activity, remodeling, and maturation of bone. Optimal timing and amplitude of sequential movement, long-term biomechanical differences, and molecular pathways have yet to be elucidated. PMID:11932606

  13. Rapid canine retraction with periodontal distraction in Class II division 1 malocclusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Durgekar, Sujala G; Kumar, Priyanka Sethi; Kolur, Nagaraj

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of an 18-year-old post-pubertal male patient with a class II division 1 malocclusion. Rapid canine retraction was planned after extraction of first premolars in maxillary arch 7 mm of canine retraction was achieved in 19 days with customized periodontal distractor with minimal change (10 degrees) in canine inclination. The maxillary molars were able to withstand the retraction forces with minimal vertical anchor loss (0.5mm). During distraction phase, patient experienced slight discomfort which vanished in 2-3 days. After distraction, anterior teeth retraction was rapid because of fibrous bony tissue distal to the lateral incisor. Orthodontic treatment continued for 12 months with no clinical and radiographic evidence of complications like root fracture, resorption, ankylosis and soft tissue dehiscence. Good overjet and overbite was achieved at the end of treatment with dramatic improvement in facial esthetics. Periodontal distraction is an effective alternative to shorten treatment time eliminating need for additional anchorage. PMID:23413638

  14. Transport distraction osteogenesis using nitinol spring: an exploration in canine mandible.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Zhi; Hu, Min; Hu, Kai-Jin; Yao, Jun; Liu, Yan-Pu

    2006-09-01

    Some experiments in rabbits have presented the potential feasibility of using shape memory alloy spring for continuous distraction osteogenesis. To confirm the effectiveness of such method, we established canine models for the exploratory experiments of transport distraction osteogenesis using nitinol springs. Simple devices, including an internal 60-mm long sinusoid-shaped nitinol springs were used in the study. All dogs needed only one operation. In the operation, osteotomy was performed to create a 40-mm unilateral segmental mandibular body defect and a tooth-bearing transport bone disc. After reconstructive fixation of the remnant mandible, the spring was constricted and anchored across the distraction gap to activate transport distraction immediately. At the second experimental stage, an ePTFE sheet was further fixed to protect the defect and distraction gap before closing the incision. Control dogs underwent the same operation except for anchoring of the spring to examine the spontaneous bone regeneration. Automatic bone transportation, as a gradual slowdown process, was observed under the effect of the spring. The transport disc could get to the opposite side of the defect, or stopped halfway when ePTFE sheet intervened. Mandibular reconstruction was achieved in all these dogs and better in dogs with sheet protection. No integrated bone mass was found in the defect of control dogs. The study further proves that continuous distraction osteogenesis using nitinol springs is a practical technique, although the devices need more improvement for better control of the process of distraction and the quality of regenerated bone. PMID:17003624

  15. Comparing calvarial transport distraction with and without radiation and fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Yuhasz, Mikell M; Koch, Felix P; Kwiatkowski, Anna; Young, Calvin; Clune, James; Travieso, Rob; Wong, Kenneth; Van Houten, Joshua; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to: a) assess transport distraction to reconstruct cranial defects in radiated and non-radiated fields b) examine adipose grafting's effect on the bony regenerate and overlying wound, and c) elucidate sources of bone formation during transport distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-three male New Zealand white rabbits (3 months; 3.5 kg) were used, 10 non-irradiated and 13 irradiated (17 treatment, 6 control) with a one-time fraction of 35 Gy. A 16 16 mm defect was abutted by a 10 16 mm transport disc 5 weeks after irradiation, and 11 animals were fat grafted at the distraction site. Latency (1 day), distraction (1.5 mm/day), and consolidation (4 weeks) followed. Fluorochromes were injected subcutaneously and microCT, fluorescence, and histology assessed. In distracted animals without fat grafting, bone density measured 701.87 mgHA/ccm and 2271.95 mgHA/ccm in irradiated and non-irradiated animals. In distracted animals with fat grafting, bone density measured 703.23 mgHA/ccm and 2254.27 mgHA/ccm in irradiated and non-irradiated animals. Fluorescence revealed ossification emanating from the dura, periosteum, and transport segment with decreased formation in irradiated animals. Transport distraction is possible for cranial reconstruction in irradiated fields but short-term osseous fill is significantly diminished. Adipose grafting enhances wound healing in previously irradiated fields but does not enhance ossification. PMID:24864072

  16. Pre-arthroplastic and simultaneous mandibular distraction for correction of facial deformity in temporomandibular joint ankylosis

    PubMed Central

    Chellappa, A.L.; Mehrotra, D.; Vishwakarma, K.; Mahajan, N.; Bhutia, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In cases of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis, interposition arthroplasty allows return of functional jaw movements. In order to improve the facial appearance, distraction osteogenesis is the treatment of choice, and may be timed either as a pre-arthroplastic, simultaneous or post-arthroplastic procedure. This study was planned to compare the treatment outcomes of pre-arthroplastic distraction (PAD) and simultaneous arthroplastic distraction (SAD) to establish the better treatment modality in terms of improvement in function and aesthetics. Materials and methods This prospective randomized experimental study included 20 children and adolescents suffering from facial deformity due to long standing unilateral TMJ ankylosis. They were randomly allocated to the two surgical groups with ten in each group. Result Both groups resulted in good facial symmetry and aesthetics. Initially, during the distraction period, mouth opening of SAD group scored less than that of PAD group but became comparable in 30 days. More pain at the distraction site and over the normal TMJ was observed in PAD group. The excursive movements were almost comparable in both the groups. Conclusion We conclude that both procedures are effective in correcting the post-ankylotic deformity and improving function. Although PAD has better control over movement of the distracting segment, the contralateral TMJ may experience pain. SAD requires a shorter management period but is associated with a temporary decrease in function. Also, control of distraction may be difficult and chances of reankylosis are always there. PMID:26587380

  17. Pivot technique combined with mandibular backward distraction osteogenesis for the patient with high risk for relapse.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Kensuke; Takahashi, Tetsu; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Lethaus, Bernd

    2012-05-01

    Severe skeletal relapse is one of the most difficult problems after mandibular advancement, and the management to overcome such problems tends to require more compromised methods and longer treatment period. We described that mandibular backward distraction osteogenesis with maxillomandibular fixation at an appropriate occlusion. Furthermore, to avoid inappropriate distraction vector, the distal plates of the distraction device were fixed with 1 screw to work as a pivot after the manipulation of the condyle to the glenoid fossa at the end of distraction activation. This technique was applied to 3 female patients with mandibular deficiency. The intraoral distractors were set on the lateral surface of the mandibular body; the fixation of the distal plate was fixed with 1 monocortical screw to make the proximal segment including the condyle manipulating at the end of the distraction phase by releasing the maxillomandibular fixation. The distraction rate was 1 mm/d, and the latency period was 7 days. The follow-up period after mandibular backward distraction osteogenesis ranged from 26 to 56 months. No specific complication, such as broken device, severe infection, or bony nonunion, occurred. Postoperative relapse was not observed during the follow-up period. This technique might become 1 choice to apply for mandibular deficiency in a patient with high risk for relapse. PMID:22565870

  18. An unusual foreign body in the maxillary sinus: Dental impression material.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Y; Zengin, A Z; Karli, R

    2016-01-01

    Foreign bodies in paranasal sinuses are very rare and most of them are encountered in the maxillary sinus. These foreign bodies may be organic or inorganic and can enter the maxillary sinus through an oro-antral fistula. The oro-antral fistula is formed by a break in the bony segment of the maxillary sinus floor and usually arises subsequent to maxillary premolar and molar extractions. A 63-year-old female patient evaluated for a nonhealing, left, toothless palate lesion and chronic headache occurring over 4 years. Radiography and computed tomography revealed bone discontinuity in the left floor of the maxillary sinus and calcifications within the antrum. A blue foreign body, later identified as dental impression material, was removed by intranasal endoscopy. A careful oral examination is recommended prior to prosthetic restorations. In addition, paranasal sinus foreign bodies should be surgically removed to prevent secondary soft tissue reactions. PMID:26856299

  19. Effects of lateral osteotomy on surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T F M; Pereira-Filho, V A; Gabrielli, M A C; Gonçales, E S; Santos-Pinto, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential effects of two different osteotomy designs of the maxillary lateral wall on dental and skeletal changes after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). Thirty adult patients were divided into two groups according to the lateral osteotomy design: group 1 (n=16) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in a horizontal straight fashion, and group 2 (n=14) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in parallel to the occlusal plane with a step at the zygomatic buttress. Cone beam computed tomography scans were obtained preoperatively (T1), immediately after expansion (T2), and 6 months after expansion (T3). Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed no significant interaction effect between groups and time points. Therefore, maxillary expansion was effective in both groups. Statistically significant increases in all dental and skeletal measurements were observed immediately after expansion (P<0.001). Relapse of the nasal floor width, tipping of the supporting teeth, and an increase in root distance in molars occurred at T3 (P<0.05). In summary, the maxillary lateral osteotomy design did not influence the results of SARME, which occurred mainly through the inclination of maxillary segments. PMID:26688294

  20. 3D vector control during alveolar ridge augmentation using distraction osteogenesis and temporary anchorage devices: a new technique.

    PubMed

    Aizenbud, D; Hazan-Molina, H; Cohen, M; Rachmiel, A

    2012-02-01

    This report describes a combined orthodontic surgical technique involving vertical alveolar distraction using temporary anchorage devices (TADs) in cases of massive alveolar ridge bone and teeth loss. A combined surgical orthodontic protocol included presurgical orthodontic preparation and a preimplantation surgical augmentation stage for insertion of a vertical distractor. During the active vertical alveolar distraction process TADs were inserted. Intraoral orthodontic elastics were attached to the main orthodontic archwire exerting multidirectional forces to control the vertical distraction vector. After 3 months of vector controlling and active bone moulding, the TADs were removed. Anterior alveolar ridge augmentation using distraction osteogenesis was achieved. The application of TADs for better anterior segment curvature enabled dental implant insertion, better positioning and restoration. A combined surgical orthodontic management protocol involving vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis for augmentation purposes is an efficient treatment method to improve alveolar ridge volume for the preimplantation stage. PMID:21978932

  1. Maxillary cementoblastoma in a child.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fbio Wildson Gurgel; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves; Magalhes Dias, Marcelo; da Costa Miguel, Mrcia Cristina; de Paula Miranda, Maria Adriana Skeff; Studart Soares, Eduardo Costa

    2011-09-01

    Cementoblastoma is a rare benign tumor that almost always occurs in the premolar or molar region and more commonly in the mandible than in the maxilla. We present a unique incisor maxillary cementoblastoma in an 11-year-old child not previously described. To our knowledge, only 2 maxillary cases, both related to canine teeth, were described in the international literature. Thus, the aim of this article was to discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and subsequent treatment of a patient with a cementoblastoma in the anterior maxillary region. PMID:21959464

  2. Maxillary adenomatoid odontogenic tumour.

    PubMed

    Barodiya, Animesh; Banda, Naveen Reddy; Banda, Vanaja Reddy; Vyawahare, Saket

    2013-01-01

    An adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) is a benign, slow-growing, relatively rare oral tumour, which accounts for about 3-7% of all odontogenic tumours as reported in the literature. It is an unusual benign neoplasm which shares clinical and radiographical characteristics with odontogenic cystic lesions denoting a distinct behaviour. The three variants-follicular, extrafollicular and peripheral-present with identical histological findings. This report describes a patient with an AOT in the anterior maxilla. Radiographically, the lesion was characterised by a well circumscribed unilocular radiolucent area displacing left maxillary lateral incisor, canine and first premolars. The final diagnosis was AOT. The lesion was enucleated under local anaesthesia. The patient was followed-up for one year. This paper also provides a refresher for general dental practitioners about various diagnostic aspects of this tumour and highlights the controversies regarding its origin and management in the light of recent findings. PMID:23771977

  3. How Concentration Shields Against Distraction

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, John E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we outline our view of how concentration shields against distraction. We argue that higher levels of concentration make people less susceptible to distraction for two reasons. One reason is that the undesired processing of the background environment is reduced. For example, when people play a difficult video game, as opposed to an easy game, they are less likely to notice what people in the background are saying. The other reason is that the locus of attention becomes more steadfast. For example, when people are watching an entertaining episode of their favorite television series, as opposed to a less absorbing show, attention is less likely to be diverted away from the screen by a ringing telephone. The theoretical underpinnings of this perspective, and potential implications for applied settings, are addressed. PMID:26300594

  4. Distracted by Your Mind? Individual Differences in Distractibility Predict Mind Wandering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2014-01-01

    Attention may be distracted from its intended focus both by stimuli in the external environment and by internally generated task-unrelated thoughts during mind wandering. However, previous attention research has focused almost exclusively on distraction by external stimuli, and the extent to which mind wandering relates to external distraction is

  5. Distracted by Your Mind? Individual Differences in Distractibility Predict Mind Wandering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2014-01-01

    Attention may be distracted from its intended focus both by stimuli in the external environment and by internally generated task-unrelated thoughts during mind wandering. However, previous attention research has focused almost exclusively on distraction by external stimuli, and the extent to which mind wandering relates to external distraction is…

  6. Predicting Visual Distraction Using Driving Performance Data

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Katja; Ahlstrom, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral variables are often used as performance indicators (PIs) of visual or internal distraction induced by secondary tasks. The objective of this study is to investigate whether visual distraction can be predicted by driving performance PIs in a naturalistic setting. Visual distraction is here defined by a gaze based real-time distraction detection algorithm called AttenD. Seven drivers used an instrumented vehicle for one month each in a small scale field operational test. For each of the visual distraction events detected by AttenD, seven PIs such as steering wheel reversal rate and throttle hold were calculated. Corresponding data were also calculated for time periods during which the drivers were classified as attentive. For each PI, means between distracted and attentive states were calculated using t-tests for different time-window sizes (2 40 s), and the window width with the smallest resulting p-value was selected as optimal. Based on the optimized PIs, logistic regression was used to predict whether the drivers were attentive or distracted. The logistic regression resulted in predictions which were 76 % correct (sensitivity = 77 % and specificity = 76 %). The conclusion is that there is a relationship between behavioral variables and visual distraction, but the relationship is not strong enough to accurately predict visual driver distraction. Instead, behavioral PIs are probably best suited as complementary to eye tracking based algorithms in order to make them more accurate and robust. PMID:21050615

  7. Experience with mandibular reconstruction using transport-disc-distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pingarrn-Martn, Lorena; Otero, T Gonzlez; Gallo, L J Arias

    2015-06-01

    The goal of transport-disc-distraction osteogenesis (TDDO) is to restore bone continuity by using in-situ bone. It may be useful following trauma, gunshot injuries, or tumor ablation, especially when there may be contraindications at the donor site or for prolonged surgery. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time TDDO has been used for mandibular reconstruction reporting additional procedures, which include osseointegrated dental implants rehabilitation and orthognathic surgery. A retrospective study is performed analyzing all mandibular reconstruction cases that may be suitable for distraction from January 2006 to December 2011. A thorough description of the documented cases includes details about sex, gender, complications, duration of hospitalization, etiology, size, and location of the defect. Eight cases of mandibular reconstruction were included. Six cases correspond to mandibular ameloblastoma. The remaining two cases were mandibular gunshot comminuted fractures. Range of the defects was from 45 to 60 mm. Length of the transport disc was 15 to 20 mm. Protocolized technique consisted of 5 days of latency period, 19 to 45 days of activation term (average 30 days), and 8 to 12 weeks for consolidation. Mean distraction length achieved was 40.45 mm. We can conclude that TDDO is an alternative to conventional and more invasive procedures, when we face severe segmental mandibular defects reconstruction. It shows the potential to restore a better anatomical bone regeneration, also providing soft tissues and reducing donor-site morbidity. Patients' education and awareness about the proper use of the transport-disc-distraction device is important to optimize functional outcomes. PMID:26000082

  8. Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Claudia M.; Witmer, Kenny; Simango, Mpepera; Carteret, Alene; Loggia, Marco L.; Campbell, James N.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and distraction analgesia. Healthy participants completed three sessions in a randomized order. In one session (Pain Alone), pain was induced by topical application of a 10% capsaicin cream and simultaneous administration of a tonic heat stimulus. In another session (Pain + Distraction), identical capsaicin+heat application procedures were followed, but subjects played video games that required a high level of attention. During both sessions, verbal ratings of pain were obtained and participants rated their degree of catastrophizing. During the other session (Distraction Alone) subjects played the video games in the absence of any pain stimulus. Pain was rated significantly lower during the distraction session compared to the “pain alone” session. In addition, high catastrophizers rated pain significantly higher regardless of whether the subjects were distracted. Catastrophizing did not influence the overall degree of distraction analgesia; however, early in the session high catastrophizers had little distraction analgesia, though later in the session low and high catastrophizers rated pain similarly. These results suggest that both distraction and catastrophizing have substantial effects on experimental pain in normal subjects and these variables interact as a function of time. PMID:20188470

  9. Maxillary single-jaw surgery combining Le Fort I and modified horseshoe osteotomies for the correction of maxillary excess.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, K; Habu, M; Iwanaga, K; Kodama, M; Tsurushima, H; Kokuryo, S; Miyamoto, I; Fukudome, Y; Yoshioka, I

    2016-02-01

    A modified technique of horseshoe osteotomy combined with Le Fort I osteotomy for superior and posterior repositioning of the maxilla is presented. Eight patients with maxillary excess associated with retrogenia or microgenia were treated with this technique in combination with genioplasty. The maxillary segment was repositioned a maximum of 5.0mm posteriorly and 7.0mm superiorly at point A. The mandible autorotated anterosuperiorly to achieve sound occlusion. Point B moved 2.0-10.0mm anteriorly and 5.0-10.0mm superiorly. The pogonion moved 7.0-17.0mm anteriorly in combination with genioplasty. All patients obtained sound occlusion and a good profile after the operation. Almost no skeletal relapse was observed during 1 year of postoperative follow-up. Patients with long faces with maxillary excess and retrogenia often have small, unstable condyles. In these cases, because surgical intervention to the ramus can result in postoperative progressive condylar resorption, maxillary single-jaw surgery with a horseshoe osteotomy, thereby avoiding ramus intervention, is a less invasive option. PMID:26599693

  10. Family of Crouzon Syndrome Represents the Evolution of the Frontofacial Monobloc Advancement Technique: From Immediate Movement to Monobloc Distraction to Monobloc Bipartition Distraction.

    PubMed

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Denadai, Rafael; Ghizoni, Enrico; Buzzo, Celso Luiz; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto

    2015-09-01

    Crouzon syndrome (CS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by premature fusion of cranial sutures, midface and supraorbital ridge retrusion, exorbitism, and in some clinical scenarios strabismus, parrot-beaked nose, short upper lip and hypertelorbitism. Treatment of CS is overlapped with the beginning of craniofacial surgery and is grounded on morphologic and functional objectives. The authors reported on the outcomes and complications of family members (mother and 2 siblings) with CS, who were operated on by different techniques of frontofacial advancement and have attained skeletal maturity. Operations were performed in different moments throughout the last 3 decades of craniofacial surgery history. A 10-year-old Crouzon progenitor underwent a monobloc osteotomy with acute advancement, using rigid fixation and bone grafting in the osteotomy sites. An 8-year-old Crouzon daughter underwent gradual lengthening of a monobloc segment, using an external, institutionally made distracter device. In addition, a 10-year-old Crouzon son underwent gradual lengthening of a monobloc segment associated to facial bipartition, using an internal distracter device. After 30 years, the mother presented a mild relapse on the orbit level, but her children had satisfactory stable outcomes. The family members with CS have undergone different modifications of the monobloc approach based on different chronological momentum, from acute monobloc advancement, to monobloc distraction, to monobloc facial bipartition distraction. PMID:26267562

  11. Distracted by your mind? Individual differences in distractibility predict mind wandering.

    PubMed

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2014-01-01

    Attention may be distracted from its intended focus both by stimuli in the external environment and by internally generated task-unrelated thoughts during mind wandering. However, previous attention research has focused almost exclusively on distraction by external stimuli, and the extent to which mind wandering relates to external distraction is as yet unclear. In the present study, the authors examined the relationship between individual differences in mind wandering and in the magnitude of distraction by either response-competing distractors or salient response-unrelated and task-irrelevant distractors. Self-reported susceptibility to mind wandering was found to positively correlate with task-irrelevant distraction but not with response-competition interference. These results reveal mind wandering as a manifestation of susceptibility to task-irrelevant distraction and establish a laboratory measure of general susceptibility to irrelevant distraction, including both internal and external sources. PMID:23957365

  12. The Neural Bases of Distraction and Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Kateri; Hughes, Brent; Chopra, Sita; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Gross, James J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2010-01-01

    Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive control, and limbic regions, interpreted as mediating emotional responses. However, no study has directly compared distraction

  13. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... grant program, 77 FR 51610 (Aug. 24, 2012), which established an application deadline of October 9, 2012... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway... Transportation (DOT) announced the availability of funding authorized for distracted driving grants on August...

  14. Distractions in the School Science Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Karim M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I

  15. Distractions in the School Science Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Karim M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I…

  16. Evaluation of canine retraction following periodontal distraction using NiTi coil spring and implants A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Rohit; Tikku, Tripti; Sachan, Kiran; Maurya, R.P.; Verma, Geeta; Ojha, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the amount of canine retraction with periodontal distraction using miniscrew implants and NiTi coil spring. Material and method Sample comprised of 25 patients who were scheduled for all 1st premolar extraction (13 males and 12 females), in the age range of 1622 years with mean age 18.82.7 years. For each patient left side served as control side (Group I) and right side as experimental side (Group II). At the time of first premolar extraction, periodontal distraction was performed only on the experimental side, followed by retraction of canine from mini-implant by closed NiTi coil spring on both the sides. Nemotech software was used to evaluate the amount of canine retraction for a period of 3 months. Results Significantly higher amount of tooth movement was seen from T0T1 and from T1T2 in Group II for the maxillary parameters 3C-5C, 6CF-3C, 3C-I/3C-J and for the mandibular parameter 6CF?-3C?. Whereas no significant amount of tooth movement was observed for maxillary and mandibular parameters between T2-T3 except for 6CF?-3C? (p?0.01) which was significantly higher for the Group II. Conclusion There was accelerated canine retraction on the periodontal distraction side as compared to the control side, with negligible anchorage loss. PMID:25737943

  17. Craniofacial distraction osteogenesis en bloc.

    PubMed

    Nadal, E; Dogliotti, P L; Rodriguez, J C; Zuccaro, G

    2000-05-01

    Bone distraction of the superior and medial thirds of the craniofacial skeleton en bloc, avoiding a frontal craniectomy is presented. We applied this procedure in eight patients who were more than 5 years old with different types of craniofacial synostosis and who had not received previous treatment, and with a normal frontal shape. During monobloc advancement, major complications were encountered in older patients, especially the impossibility of the brain to expand rapidly to fill the retrofrontal dead space. Distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial skeleton en bloc (without craniectomy) is feasible. Miniplates and screws are avoided as well as the possibility of frontal relapse or fractures of the frontozygomatic region. The patients did not need skull vault remodeling, except for a small cranioplasty at the bregma zone. The results obtained were satisfactory and stable at the time. This procedure avoids any kind of osteosynthesis, there is no extradural dead space, the operative time is brief, and blood loss is minimal. The inconvenience is the necessity of a second operation to remove the distractor. PMID:11314303

  18. Sex determination using maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Kanthem, Ranjith Kumar; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Yeluri, Sivaranjani; Kumari, Geetha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individual identification is a subtle concept and often one of the most important priorities in mass disasters, road accidents, air crashes, fires, and even in the investigation of criminal cases. Matching specific features detected on the cadaver with data recorded during the life of an individual is an important aspect in forensics, and can be performed by fingerprint analysis, deoxyribonucleic acid matching, anthropological methods, radiological methods and other techniques which can facilitate age and sex identification. Sinus radiography is one such method that has been used for determination of the sex of an individual. Hence, an attempt is being made to use the different dimensions of the maxillary sinus in the determination of sex using coronal and axial sections of plain computed tomography (CT) scan. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients including 17 male and 13 female, visiting the Outpatient Department of the Mamata General Hospital were included as the study subjects. The dimensions of right and left maxillary sinuses of 30 subjects from plain CT were measured using SYNGO software and statistical analysis was done. Results: Sex determination using height, length, width, and volume of the maxillary sinus on both sides showed statistically significant results with a higher percentage of sexual dimorphism in the case of volume. Conclusion: Volume of the right maxillary sinus can be used as accurate diagnostic parameter for sex determination. PMID:26005308

  19. Distraction osteogenesis device to estimate the axial stiffness of the callus in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Mora-Macías, J; Reina-Romo, E; Domínguez, J

    2015-10-01

    Knowing the evolution of callus stiffness is very important in distraction osteogenesis and bone healing. It allows the characterization of the bone maturation process and the assessment of the moment to retire the fixator. A new distractor device that monitors the callus axial stiffness is presented in this study. It quantifies the callus stiffness during the bone transport process with some advantages over previous methods to assess stiffness during simple distraction and bone healing. This device avoids a misalignment between bone segments, uses real load conditions, monitors forces continuously, does not involve radiation for patients, and allows the study of the complete distraction process, i.e., the distraction and consolidation phases. The device was calibrated in vitro simulating different real bone load conditions depending on the stage of the process. The stiffness of the callus could be estimated for values between 4.2 N/mm and 9066.8 N/mm. The average relative error in measurements carried out in in vitro calibration tests was 7.8% during the distraction phase and 9.5% during the consolidation phase. These results improve the accuracy and increase the callus stiffness range of estimation with respect to other devices in the literature. In addition, the device was used successfully in vivo in a preliminary experiment. PMID:26320818

  20. Correction of facial asymmetry and maxillary canting with corticotomy and 1-jaw orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Seo, Dong Hwi; Kim, Seong-Hun; Lee, Baek-Soo; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Although 2-jaw orthognathic surgery is a typical recommendation for the treatment of facial asymmetry, another good treatment alternative is maxillary corticotomy with temporary skeletal anchorage devices followed by mandibular orthognathic surgery. The corticotomy procedure described here can achieve unilateral molar intrusion and occlusal plane canting correction with potentially fewer complications than 2-jaw orthognathic surgery. The approach allows movement of dentoalveolar segments in less time than with conventional dental intrusion using temporary skeletal anchorage devices. A 2-jaw asymmetry with occlusal plane canting might be corrected using maxillary corticotomy and mandibular orthognathics rather than 2-jaw orthognathics. Two patients with facial asymmetry are presented here. In each one, the maxillary cant was corrected over a period of 2 to 3months with 3.5mm of intrusion of the unilateral buccal segment. After the preorthognathic cant correction, orthognathic surgery was done to correct the mandibular asymmetry. PMID:25432261

  1. Assessment of distraction from erotic stimuli by nonerotic interference.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alex B; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Distraction from erotic cues during sexual encounters is a major contributor to sexual difficulties in men and women. Being able to assess distraction in studies of sexual arousal will help clarify underlying contributions to sexual problems. The current study aimed to identify the most accurate assessment of distraction from erotic cues in healthy men (n = 29) and women (n = 38). Participants were assigned to a no distraction, low distraction, or high distraction condition. Distraction was induced using an auditory distraction task presented during the viewing of an erotic video. Attention to erotic cues was assessed using three methods: a written quiz, a visual quiz, and a self-reported distraction measure. Genital and psychological sexual responses were also measured. Self-reported distraction and written quiz scores most accurately represented the level of distraction present, while self-reported distraction also corresponded with a decrease in genital arousal. Findings support the usefulness of self-report measures in conjunction with a brief quiz on the erotic material as the most accurate and sensitive ways to simply measure experimentally-induced distraction. Insight into distraction assessment techniques will enable evaluation of naturally occurring distraction in patients suffering from sexual problems. PMID:24611908

  2. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  3. Distraction from emotional information reduces biased judgements.

    PubMed

    Lench, Heather C; Bench, Shane W; Davis, Elizabeth L

    2016-06-01

    Biases arising from emotional processes are some of the most robust behavioural effects in the social sciences. The goal of this investigation was to examine the extent to which the emotion regulation strategy of distraction could reduce biases in judgement known to result from emotional information. Study 1 explored lay views regarding whether distraction is an effective strategy to improve decision-making and revealed that participants did not endorse this strategy. Studies 2-5 focused on several established, robust biases that result from emotional information: loss aversion, desirability bias, risk aversion and optimistic bias. Participants were prompted to divert attention away from their feelings while making judgements, and in each study this distraction strategy resulted in reduced bias in judgement relative to control conditions. The findings provide evidence that distraction can improve choice across several situations that typically elicit robustly biased responses, even though participants are not aware of the effectiveness of this strategy. PMID:25787937

  4. Temperament, Distraction, and Learning in Toddlerhood

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Wallace E.; Salley, Brenda J.; Clements, Andrea D.

    2006-01-01

    The word and non-word learning abilities of toddlers were tested under various conditions of environmental distraction, and evaluated with respect to children’s temperamental attentional focus. Thirty-nine children and their mothers visited the lab at child age 21-months, where children were exposed to fast-mapping word learning trials and nonlinguistic sequential learning trials. It was found that both word and nonword-learning was adversely affected by the presentation of environmental distractions. But it was also found that the effect of the distractions sometimes depended on children’s level of attentional focus. Specifically, children high in attentional focus were less affected by environmental distractions than children low in attentional focus when attempting to learn from a model, whereas children low in attentional focus demonstrated little learning from the model. Translationally, these results may be of use to child health-care providers investigating possible sources of cognitive and language delay. PMID:17138290

  5. Bacteria in chronic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Karma, P; Jokipii, L; Sipilä, P; Luotonen, J; Jokipii, A M

    1979-07-01

    Sixty-one chronically inflamed maxillary sinuses produced 131 bacterial strains from mucosal pieces that were taken during a Caldwell-Luc operation and cultured aerobically and anaerobically. Sinus secretions showed only 62 and nasal secretions 106 bacterial strains. Fourteen mucosal strains, including 11 Haemophilus influenzae, grew heavily. None of 24 mucosal anaerobes showed heavy growth. Of 52 antral mucosae with culturable bacteria, 37 disclosed mixed and 15 pure growth. The bacteriological characteristics of the diseased sinus and the nose did not correlate. The duration or extent of the disease, the macroscopic appearance of the diseased sinus, or the presence or absence of allergy were unrelated to bacteriological findings, except that H influenzae was concentrated in purulent sinuses. Intraoperative culture of antral mucosa seems to give the most reliable picture of the bacteriological condition in chronic maxillary sinusitis. PMID:313206

  6. The combination of endoscopy and distraction osteogenesis in the development of a canine midface advancement model.

    PubMed

    Levine, J P; Rowe, N M; Bradley, J P; Williams, J K; Mackool, R J; Longaker, M T; McCarthy, J G

    1998-09-01

    The requirements for reconstruction in patients with midface hypoplasia can be formidable: a bicoronal scalp incision, Le Fort III or monobloc skeletal advancement, harvesting and insertion of bone grafts, application of rigid (and occasionally intermaxillary) fixation, blood transfusions, and prolonged operative time and hospitalization. The introduction of the endoscope offers the possibility of minimally invasive surgery with improved visualization of the osteotomy sites. The development of distraction osteogenesis as a surgical technique allows controlled and gradual advancement of the osteotomized skeletal segment and associated soft tissue. The purpose of this study was to develop a canine model of an endoscopically assisted Le Fort III osteotomy with attendant midface distraction. Four mongrels (20 kg in weight) were study subjects. Three 2-cm skin incisions were made (two perpendicular to the zygomaticomaxillary suture and one perpendicular to the nasofrontal suture). The soft tissue and periosteum were evaluated bluntly. Retractors specially designed for the project created a space for endoscopic visualization. Bilateral zygomatic, nasofrontal, and medial orbital wall osteotomies, corticotomies, or both were performed under endoscopic visualization using a reciprocating saw; the medial orbital wall sectioning was specifically not completed (i.e., corticotomy) to avoid laceration of the mucosa and attendant bleeding. The pterygomaxillary osteotomy was completed with an osteotome and mallet. Finally, the nasal septum was only partially divided with an osteotome to avoid excessive blood loss. Four distraction devices were placed across the above-noted osteotomies (two across the nasofrontal osteotomy and one across each lateral osteotomy). The animals were distracted 1 mm per day for 16 to 40 days after surgery (16-40 mm of linear distraction). Cephalograms and computed tomography scans were obtained before and after distraction. The animals were killed after remaining in fixation for 4 to 6 weeks after distraction. All soft tissue was removed and the skull was examined. Photos were obtained throughout the experiment for documentation. The study demonstrated that Le Fort III osteotomies can be performed successfully via small incisions with endoscopic assistance in canine subjects with excellent visualization and minimal bleeding. The advancement of the midface segment can be achieved by activation of an external distraction device. PMID:9780909

  7. Establishing the Attention-Distractibility Trait.

    PubMed

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2016-02-01

    Failures to focus attention will affect any task engagement (e.g., at work, in the classroom, when driving). At the clinical end, distractibility is a diagnostic criterion of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we examined whether the inability to maintain attentional focus varies in the overall population in the form of an attention-distractibility trait. To test this idea, we administered an ADHD diagnostic tool to a sample of healthy participants and assessed the relationship between ADHD symptoms and task distraction. ADHD symptom summary scores were significantly positively associated with distractor interference in letter-search and name-classification tasks (as measured by reaction time), as long as the distractors were irrelevant (cartoon images) rather than relevant (i.e., compatible or incompatible with target names). Higher perceptual load during a task eliminated distraction irrespective of ADHD score. These findings suggest the existence of an attention-distractibility trait that confers vulnerability to irrelevant distraction, which can be remedied by increasing the level of perceptual load during the task. PMID:26667659

  8. Distraction and Mind-Wandering Under Load

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Attention research over the last several decades has provided rich insights into the determinants of distraction, including distractor characteristics, task features, and individual differences. Load Theory represented a particularly important breakthrough, highlighting the critical role of the level and nature of task-load in determining both the efficiency of distractor rejection and the stage of processing at which this occurs. However, until recently studies of distraction were restricted to those measuring rather specific forms of distraction by external stimuli which I argue that, although intended to be irrelevant, were in fact task-relevant. In daily life, attention may be distracted by a wide range of stimuli, which may often be entirely unrelated to any task being performed, and may include not only external stimuli but also internally generated stimuli such as task-unrelated thoughts. This review outlines recent research examining these more general, entirely task-irrelevant, forms of distraction within the framework of Load Theory. I discuss the relation between different forms of distraction, and the universality of load effects across different distractor types and individuals. PMID:23734138

  9. Divided maxillary artery in relation to the lateral pterygoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Aland, R Claire; Shaw, Vivien

    2016-03-01

    We describe an anatomical variation of the right maxillary artery. The variation loops deep, giving off a middle meningeal artery with an extremely short extracranial segment, then bifurcates into unequal branches. The smaller branch passes superficial to the lateral pterygoid head and distributes primarily to the masticatory muscles. The larger partially pierces the lateral pterygoid lower head, re-emerges superficially, branches again and passes into the pterygopalatine fossa. The larger lies superficial to the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves and deep to the buccal nerve. An embryonic development origin of the cranial arteries is suggested. PMID:26077959

  10. [Three-dimensional modeling of mandibular distraction].

    PubMed

    Morgon, L A; Trunde, F; Coudert, J L; Disant, F

    2003-12-01

    Facial hemi-atrophy affects 1 in 4000 or 5000 children. We propose treating this deformation of the 1st branchial arch with the "bone distraction" lengthening technique first described by Ilizarov in the 1950s, which has already been employed with the mandible. We have modelled mandibular distraction in facial hemi-atrophy patients and discuss the benefits of such pre-surgical planning encompassing the assistance of pre- and post-operative as well as surgically coordinated orthodontic therapy. Using X scanner views of a 5 year-old girl patient, we have developed a distraction-simulation software, which makes the pathological side harmonious with the healthy side along the medial sagittal plane. In order to obtain facial symmetry, put bones in balance, and orient the occlusal plane horizontally, essential requisites of occlusal stability, it is necessary: to employ a 2 or 3-dimensional distractor, to pre-plan the distraction and screw positioning, to set up a fixed orthodontic treatment plan prior to beginning distraction therapy. PMID:15301361

  11. Correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe crowding by a specially designed rapid maxillary expander.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honghong; Feng, Jing; Lu, Peijun; Shen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    To correct an Angle Class II malocclusion or to create spaces in the maxillary arch by nonextraction treatment, distal movement of the maxillary molars is required. Various modalities for distalizing the buccal segment have been reported. Conventional extraoral appliances can be used to obtain maximum anchorage. However, many patients reject headgear wear because of social and esthetic concerns, and the success of this treatment depends on patient compliance. Intraoral appliances, such as repelling magnets, nickel-titanium coils, pendulum appliance, Jones jig appliance, distal jet appliance, and modified Nance appliance, have been introduced to distalize the molars with little or no patient cooperation. However, intraoral appliances can result in anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the maxillary molars. In this case report, we introduce a diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance that was custom designed and fabricated for the treatment of a growing girl with a skeletal Class II malocclusion and severe crowding from a totally lingually positioned lateral incisor. The appliance concomitantly expanded the maxilla transversely and retracted the buccal segment sagittally, distalizing the maxillary molars to reach a Class I relationship and creating the spaces to displace the malpositioned lateral incisor. The uniqueness of this special diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance was highlighted by a series of reconstructions and modifications at different stages of the treatment to reinforce the anchorage. PMID:25636559

  12. Management of flexion distraction injuries to the thoracolumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Alejandro J; Scheer, Justin K; Smith, Zachary A; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2015-12-01

    We present an updated overview of the literature regarding the management of flexion distraction injuries (FDI). FDI are unstable fractures of the thoracolumbar spine, which require surgical management by long segment open fusion or minimally invasive posterior fixation with pedicle screws. While associated with concomitant intra-abdominal injuries that may delay operative stabilization, FDI frequently involve reversible spinal cord injuries and rapid correction is indicated. Modern biomechanical studies have identified valuable prognostic indicators that may be elucidated from determining the mechanism of injury, including the degree of flexion and presence of compression at the time of injury. An improved understanding of FDI will contribute to more appropriate diagnoses and treatment of these fractures. PMID:26209922

  13. Distractions Make Alcohol Even More Dangerous for Drivers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154731.html Distractions Make Alcohol Even More Dangerous for Drivers Risk of poor ... 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Just a bit of alcohol coupled with a distraction, such as a text ...

  14. Determinant factors of Yemeni maxillary arch dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Information about maxillary arch and palatal dimensions in human populations is important for clinical orthodontics. This study was conducted to assess the determinants of maxillary arch dimensions in a sample of Yemeni individuals aged 18–25 years. Materials and Methods The study sample comprised 214/765 adults (101 women, 113 men) who underwent clinical examination and fulfilled the study criteria. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure maxillary arch and palatal dimensions. Results The majority of mean maxillary arch dimensions were significantly greater in men than in women, with inter–second molar distance showing the greatest difference and palatal depth showing the least difference. Conclusion Measurements of palatal depth and relationships of the canines to one another and to other teeth thus had the widest ranges, implying that these dimensions are the strongest determinants of maxillary arch size. PMID:25544815

  15. Architecture and Microstructure of Cortical Bone in Reconstructed Canine Mandibles after Bone Transport Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Uriel; Halvachs, Emily K.; Dechow, Paul C.; Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Opperman, Lynne A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Reconstruction of the canine mandible using bone transport distraction osteogenesis has been shown to be a suitable method for correcting segmental bone defects produced by cancer, gunshots, and trauma. Although the mechanical quality of the new regenerate cortical bone seems to be related to the mineralization process, several questions regarding the micro-structural patterns of the new bony tissue remain unanswered. The purpose of this study was to quantify any microstructural differences that may exist between the regenerate and control cortical bone. Methods Five adult American foxhound dogs underwent unilateral bone transport distraction of the mandible to repair 3035 mm bone defects. Animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after the beginning of the consolidation period. Fourteen cylindrical cortical samples were extracted from the superior, medial, and inferior aspects of the lingual and buccal plates of the reconstructed aspect of the mandible and 21 specimens were collected similarly from the contralateral aspect of the mandible. The specimens were evaluated using histomorphometric and micro-computed tomography techniques to compare their microstructure. Results Except for differences in Haversian canal area, histomorphometric analyses suggested no statistical differences in microstructure between regenerate and control cortical bone. Morphological evaluation suggested a consistent level of anisotropy possibly related to the distraction vector. Conclusions After 12 weeks consolidation, bone created during bone transport distraction osteogenesis is comparable to native bone in microstructure, architecture, and mechanical properties. It is proposed that after enough time, the properties of the regenerate bone will be identical to that of native bone. PMID:21927873

  16. Comprehensive Review of Adipose Stem Cells and Their Implication in Distraction Osteogenesis and Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Morcos, Mina W.; Al-Jallad, Hadil; Hamdy, Reggie

    2015-01-01

    Bone is one of the most dynamic tissues in the human body that can heal following injury without leaving a scar. However, in instances of extensive bone loss, this intrinsic capacity of bone to heal may not be sufficient and external intervention becomes necessary. Several techniques are available to address this problem, including autogenous bone grafts and allografts. However, all these techniques have their own limitations. An alternative method is the technique of distraction osteogenesis, where gradual and controlled distraction of two bony segments after osteotomy leads to induction of new bone formation. Although distraction osteogenesis usually gives satisfactory results, its major limitation is the prolonged duration of time required before the external fixator is removed, which may lead to numerous complications. Numerous methods to accelerate bone formation in the context of distraction osteogenesis have been reported. A viable alternative to autogenous bone grafts for a source of osteogenic cells is mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow. However, there are certain problems with bone marrow aspirate. Hence, scientists have investigated other sources for mesenchymal stem cells, specifically adipose tissue, which has been shown to be an excellent source of mesenchymal stem cells. In this paper, the potential use of adipose stem cells to stimulate bone formation is discussed. PMID:26448947

  17. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral. PMID:24098923

  18. Distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Karun, Vinayak; Agarwal, Navneet; Singh, Virendra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Management of mandibular deformities is challenging. Distraction osteogenesis is a relatively new technique with promising results. Materials and Methods: We selected 12 patients. The osteotomy site decided was proximal to the antegonial notch. Latency time was five to seven days. Consolidation period was eight weeks in eleven cases and six weeks in one case. Results: In all the patients, appreciable lengthening of mandible was achieved. Discussion: The greatest advantage of distraction osteogenesis is growth of soft tissue along with the growth of hard tissue. This increases post operative stability PMID:24665178

  19. [Callus distraction in tibial defect fractures].

    PubMed

    Giebel, G

    1996-11-01

    Lower leg fractures with an osseous defect can be treated effectively with the callus distraction technique by Bier-Ilizarov. Because osteocytes are cultivated at the site of the defect, a real biological system is working-in contrast to other methods. Especially in lower leg fractures with a denuded tibia, the technique of primary shortening to cover the soft-tissue defect with subsequent compensatory lengthening by callus distraction is valuable. This technique does not need special hospitals but skillful surgeons. A closed surgeon-patient relation ship is required because most treatments are done on an outpatient basis. The cosmetic and functional results are good. PMID:9035939

  20. Biomechanical effects of surgical cut direction in unilateral mandibular lengthening by distraction osteogenesis using a finite element model.

    PubMed

    Tehranchi, A; Behnia, H; Heidarpour, M; Toutiaee, B; Khosropour, M J

    2012-05-01

    Although the precise prediction of the results before distraction is important, performing three-dimensional (3D) simulations for all distraction osteogenesis patients is not practical. Formulating general guidelines based on the factors affecting the 3D results of distraction treatment is recommended. This study was performed on a 3D mandible based on a finite element method. Three surgical cuts (oblique, vertical and horizontal) were made in the right side of the mandible. The amount and direction of movement of proximal and distal segments were evaluated after simulation of 15 mm of distraction. In the distal segment, the maximum displacement in the pogonion occurred in the vertical cut. In the proximal segment, the maximum displacement occurred in the coronoid process in horizontal and oblique cuts in a superior direction. The condylar process rotated in the clockwise direction when the vertical cut was used and the coronoid process moved inferiorly. To make the gonial angle more prominent the vertical cut should be used. A horizontal cut is used to lengthen the ramus. Vertical and oblique cuts can be used in patients with long anterior facial height, but all other conditions being equal horizontal cuts are better used in short faced patients. PMID:22172284

  1. The Effects of Distraction on Cognitive Task Performance during Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Nancy M.; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Haden, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of distraction on attention and task performance during toddlerhood. Thirty toddlers (24- to 26-month-olds) completed different tasks (2 of each: categorization, problem solving, memory, free play) in one of two conditions: No Distraction or Distraction. The results revealed that the distractor had varying effects on…

  2. A Source of Distractions in the Classroom: The Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lily Y. S.

    This paper identifies distracting factors which take away pupils' attention from the lesson and focus it on the teacher. Distracting factors include teachers' irritating habits, improper attire, and mannerisms. Examples of distracting features of both males and females are listed in eight categories: (1) attire; (2) hair; (3) make-up; (4) personal

  3. A Source of Distractions in the Classroom: The Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lily Y. S.

    This paper identifies distracting factors which take away pupils' attention from the lesson and focus it on the teacher. Distracting factors include teachers' irritating habits, improper attire, and mannerisms. Examples of distracting features of both males and females are listed in eight categories: (1) attire; (2) hair; (3) make-up; (4) personal…

  4. Treatment of maxillomandibular deformities with internal curvilinear distraction.

    PubMed

    Schendel, Stephen A

    2011-12-01

    Internal curvilinear distraction is successful in achieving clinically significant distraction with stable occlusion in our patient population of infants, adolescents, and adults. When distracting the mandible, the curve of the distractor, the position of the distractor, and the osteotomy site are accountable for the final result. The curved distractor can mimic part of the natural logarithmic growth of the maxillomandibular complex. In addition, the result is predictable based on this design and the internal nature of the distractor, which can be left in place longer than other distractor types. Distraction can be combined with orthognathic surgery in certain cases resulting in increased benefit. This new procedure is called distraction orthognathics. PMID:22123543

  5. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... because of traffic, a traffic light or stop sign, or otherwise; and does not include operating a motor... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: Department of Transportation (DOT), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). ACTION: Notice of...

  6. Driver distraction from a control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Thomas B

    2004-01-01

    Distraction from cell phones, navigation systems, information/entertainment systems, and other driver-interactive devices now finding their way into the highway vehicles is a serious national safety concern. However, driver distraction is neither well defined nor well understood. In an effort to bring some better definition to the problem, a framework is proposed based on the ideas of control theory. Loci and causes of distraction are represented as disturbances to various functional elements of a control loop involving driver intending (goal setting), sensing, deciding on control response, dynamics of the vehicle, and human body activation and energetics. It is argued that activation should be classed separately from the other functions. Attention switching from environmental observation/control to internal device manipulation is modeled as sampled-data control. Also fit within the control framework are mental modeling and anticipation of events in the driver's preview. The control framework is shown to suggest some salient research questions and experiments. Actual or potential applications of this research include a refined understanding of driver distraction and better modeling and prediction of driving performance as a function of vehicle and highway design. PMID:15709322

  7. Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis: modification of the intraoral splint in the rigid external distraction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyoseob; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2012-05-01

    Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a useful procedure for treating midface hypoplasia. The external distraction system has the advantage of allowing modification of the distraction vector during the activation period. This system needs an intraoral splint for the anchorage points. The intraoral splint has an important role in conducting the distraction force to the midface and in forming the advancement vector. The authors developed a modified type of splint to improve the outcome of Le Fort III DO.The intraoral splint is composed of a modified headgear face bow, molar bands, and a palatal acrylic plate without covering the teeth. Four suspension wires were applied to reinforce the stability. The zygomatic bones and the loops of the splint are selected as 4 anchorage points for Le Fort III DO. This procedure was applied to 2 patients.The midface had an advancement of more than 20 mm in both patients. The dental movement of the upper incisors and the upper first molar was minimal.The dental effect was nearly absent. The amount and vector of distraction could be decided under direct observation without blocking the dental occlusion. The vector of distraction could be adjusted during the activation period. The results of DO were satisfactory. PMID:22565908

  8. Development and evolution of distraction devices: Use of indigenous appliances for Distraction Osteogenesis-An overview

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Neelam; Gandhewar, Trupti; Kalra, Rinku

    2011-01-01

    An attempt has been made to review various devices as well as the outstanding studies done in the past for understanding the methodology of distraction for regeneration of bone. Lengthening of underdeveloped bones inclusive of the maxillofacial complex has been obtained by distraction osteogenesis by many authors. This could be achieved by the use of various extraoral or intraoral devices. Devices used for distraction osteogenesis must have a minimum of 2 important characteristics they should be able to transfer distraction forces directly to the bone and secondly, should offer adequate rigidity for osseous consolidation to occur. With advanced technology and biomechanical engineering, preformed intraoral distraction devices are now available worldwide. The introduction of these intraoral bone-bourne devices have eliminated the need for bulky, cumbersome extraoral distraction devices which had problems such as external scars, pin tract infections, nerve or tooth bud injuries and poor patient compliance. The design of completely internalized custom made appliance has opened new vistas in the field of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Indigenous internal devices are also economical and locally available. PMID:23482829

  9. Maxillary sinus disease: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bell, G W; Joshi, B B; Macleod, R I

    2011-02-12

    The maxillary sinus is the paranasal sinus that impacts most on the work of the dentist as they will often be required to make a diagnosis in relation to orofacial pain that may be sinogenic in origin. Maxillary sinus disease is often coincidentally observed on radiographs, and dentists often have to make a diagnosis and plan treatment based on the interpretation of the image. This paper aims to guide the dental professional through some of the disease processes involving the paranasal sinuses and in particular the maxillary sinus. The outcome is to encourage comprehensive history taking and examination of the patient to facilitate an accurate diagnosis that will enable successful treatment. PMID:21311531

  10. Dynamics of Driver Distraction: The process of engaging and disengaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Driver distraction research has a long history, spanning nearly 50 years, but intensifying over the last decade. The dominant paradigm guiding this research defines distraction in terms of excessive workload and limited attentional resources. This approach largely ignores how drivers come to engage in these tasks and under what conditions they engage and disengage from driving—the dynamics of distraction. The dynamics of distraction identifies breakdowns of interruption management as an important contributor to distraction, leading to describe distraction in terms of failures of task timing, switching, and prioritization. The dynamics of distraction also identifies disengagement in driving (e.g., mind wandering) as a substantial challenge that secondary tasks might exacerbate or mitigate. Increasing vehicle automation accentuates the need to consider these dynamics of distraction. Automation offers drivers more opportunity to engage in distractions and disengage from driving, and can surprise drivers by unexpectedly requiring drivers to quickly re-engage in driving—placing greater importance of interruption management expertise. This review describes distraction in terms of breakdowns in interruption management and problems of engagement, and summarizes how contingency, conditioning, and consequence traps lead to problems of engaging and disengaging in driving and distractions. PMID:24776224

  11. Dynamics of Driver Distraction: The process of engaging and disengaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, John D

    2014-01-01

    Driver distraction research has a long history, spanning nearly 50 years, but intensifying over the last decade. The dominant paradigm guiding this research defines distraction in terms of excessive workload and limited attentional resources. This approach largely ignores how drivers come to engage in these tasks and under what conditions they engage and disengage from driving-the dynamics of distraction. The dynamics of distraction identifies breakdowns of interruption management as an important contributor to distraction, leading to describe distraction in terms of failures of task timing, switching, and prioritization. The dynamics of distraction also identifies disengagement in driving (e.g., mind wandering) as a substantial challenge that secondary tasks might exacerbate or mitigate. Increasing vehicle automation accentuates the need to consider these dynamics of distraction. Automation offers drivers more opportunity to engage in distractions and disengage from driving, and can surprise drivers by unexpectedly requiring drivers to quickly re-engage in driving-placing greater importance of interruption management expertise. This review describes distraction in terms of breakdowns in interruption management and problems of engagement, and summarizes how contingency, conditioning, and consequence traps lead to problems of engaging and disengaging in driving and distractions. PMID:24776224

  12. Biomechanics and orthodontic treatment protocol in maxillofacial distraction osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Tariq, Mohd.; Prabhat, K. C.; Kumar, Shailendra

    2011-01-01

    As in the traditional combined surgical and orthodontic procedures, an Orthodontist can plays vital role in treatment planning and the orthodontic treatment of patient undergoing distraction osteogenesis. This role includes predistraction assessment of the craniofacial skeleton and occlusal function, pre-distraction, and post-distraction orthodontic care. Based on clinical evaluation, dental study models, photographic analysis, cephalometric evaluation, and three-dimensional computed tomographic analysis, the Orthodontist, in collaboration with the Surgeon, plans distraction device placement and the predicted vectors of distraction. Finally, as in other forms of orthognathic surgery, the practice of distraction osteogenesis depends on the cooperation and planning between orthodontist and surgeon as a team. Purpose of this paper is to review biomechanics and orthodontic treatment protocol of distraction osteogenesis in the maxillofacial region. PMID:22639497

  13. Virtual Reality: A Distraction Intervention for Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susan M.; Hood, Linda E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To explore virtual reality (VR) as a distraction intervention to relieve symptom distress in adults receiving chemotherapy treatments for breast, colon, and lung cancer. Design Crossover design in which participants served as their own control. Setting Outpatient clinic at a comprehensive cancer center in the southeastern United States. Sample 123 adults receiving initial chemotherapy treatments. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to receive the VR distraction intervention during one chemotherapy treatment and then received no intervention (control) during an alternate matched chemotherapy treatment. The Adapted Symptom Distress Scale2, Revised Piper Fatigue Scale, and State Anxiety Inventory were used to measure symptom distress. The Presence Questionnaire and an open-ended questionnaire were used to evaluate the subjects VR experience. The influence of type of cancer, age, and gender on symptom outcomes was explored. Mixed models were used to test for differences in levels of symptom distress. Main Research Variables Virtual reality and symptom distress. Findings Patients had an altered perception of time (p < 0.001) when using VR, which validates the distracting capacity of the intervention. Evaluation of the intervention indicated that patients believed the head-mounted device was easy to use, they experienced no cybersickness, and 82% would use VR again. However, analysis demonstrated no significant differences in symptom distress immediately or two days following chemotherapy treatments. Conclusions Patients stated that using VR made the treatment seem shorter and that chemotherapy treatments with VR were better than treatments without the distraction intervention. However, positive experiences did not result in a decrease in symptom distress. The findings support the idea that using VR can help to make chemotherapy treatments more tolerable, but clinicians should not assume that use of VR will improve chemotherapy-related symptoms. Implications for Nursing Patients found using VR during chemotherapy treatments to be enjoyable. VR is a feasible and cost-effective distraction intervention to implement in the clinical setting. PMID:17562631

  14. Facetal distraction as treatment for single- and multilevel cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha

    2011-06-01

    The authors discuss their successful preliminary experience with 36 cases of cervical spondylotic disease by performing facetal distraction using specially designed Goel cervical facet spacers. The clinical and radiological results of treatment are analyzed. The mechanism of action of the proposed spacers and the rationale for their use are evaluated. Between 2006 and February 2010, 36 patients were treated using the proposed technique. Of these patients, 18 had multilevel and 18 had single-level cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. The average follow-up period was 17 months with a minimum of 6 months. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association classification system, visual analog scale (neck pain and radiculopathy), and Odom criteria were used to monitor the clinical status of the patient. The patients were prospectively analyzed. The technique of surgery involved wide opening of the facet joints, denuding of articular cartilage, distraction of facets, and forced impaction of Goel cervical facet spacers into the articular cavity. Additionally, the interspinous process ligaments were resected, and corticocancellous bone graft from the iliac crest was placed and was stabilized over the adjoining laminae and facets after adequately preparing the host bone. Eighteen patients underwent single-level, 6 patients underwent 2-level, and 12 patients underwent 3-level treatment. The alterations in the physical architecture of spine and canal dimensions were evaluated before and after the placement of intrafacet joint spacers and after at least 6 months of follow-up. All patients had varying degrees of relief from symptoms of pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy. Analysis of radiological features suggested that the distraction of facets with the spacers resulted in an increase in the intervertebral foraminal dimension (mean 2.2 mm), an increase in the height of the intervertebral disc space (range 0.4-1.2 mm), and an increase in the interspinous distance (mean 2.2 mm). The circumferential distraction resulted in reduction in the buckling of the posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum. The procedure ultimately resulted in segmental bone fusion. No patient worsened after treatment. There was no noticeable implant malfunction. During the follow-up period, all patients had evidence of segmental bone fusion. No patient underwent reexploration or further surgery of the neck. Distraction of the facets of the cervical vertebra can lead to remarkable and immediate stabilization-fixation of the spinal segment and increase in space for the spinal cord and roots. The procedure results in reversal of several pathological events related to spondylotic disease. The safe, firm, and secure stabilization at the fulcrum of cervical spinal movements provided a ground for segmental spinal arthrodesis. The immediate postoperative improvement and lasting recovery from symptoms suggest the validity of the procedure. PMID:21417697

  15. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of maxillary central incisors exposure in patients undergoing maxillary advancement

    PubMed Central

    Trento, Guilherme dos Santos; Bernab, Felipe Bueno Rosettti; da Costa, Delson Joo; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Klppel, Leandro Eduardo; Scariot, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Patients with dentofacial deformities may undergo orthodontic or orthodontic-surgical treatment. Both modalities can affect esthetics. Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical and radiographic changes in exposure of maxillary central incisors occurring after orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement. Methods: A total of 17 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement between September, 2010 and July, 2011 were selected. Exposure of maxillary central incisors was evaluated clinically and by lateral cephalograms. Measurements were taken one week before and three months after surgery. Data were paired in terms of sex, age, nasolabial angle, height and thickness of the upper lip, the amount of maxillary advancement, clinical exposure and inclination of maxillary central incisor by statistical tests (CI 95%). Results: After maxillary advancement, incisor clinical exposure had increased even with relaxed lips and under forced smile. Moreover, there was a mean increase of 23.33% revealed by lateral cephalograms. There was an inverse correlation between upper lip thickness and incisors postsurgical exposure revealed by radiographic images (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Significant changes in the exposure of maxillary central incisors occur after maxillary advancement, under the influence of some factors, especially lip thickness. PMID:26691970

  16. Alveolar cleft closure by distraction osteogenesis with skeletal anchorage during consolidation.

    PubMed

    Pektas, Zafer Ozgr; Kircelli, Beyza Hancioglu; Bayram, Burak; Kircelli, Cem; Uckan, Sina

    2008-01-01

    Intraoral distraction osteogenesis (DO) has been widely used for the reconstruction of various dentoalveolar defects. However, its use in the management of alveolar clefts is relatively new. This method allows the closure of the cleft via the regeneration of new alveolar bone and attached gingiva through the distraction of a dento-osseous segment. It eliminates the need for a donor site for autogenous bone grafting and possible graft failure. However, the relatively long consolidation period required for the use of intraoral DO devices may result in soft tissue irritation that would compromise patient cooperation, especially in children. In the case presented, the intraoral DO technique was used for the treatment of a unilateral residual alveolar cleft and an implant was subsequently placed in the regenerated bone. A miniplate was also placed to serve as a skeletal anchor to enable the early removal of the distractor device. The distractor was removed before the beginning of the consolidation phase. PMID:18416427

  17. Distraction-induced driving error: an on-road examination of the errors made by distracted and undistracted drivers.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M; Cornelissen, Miranda

    2013-09-01

    This study explored the nature of errors made by drivers when distracted versus not distracted. Participants drove an instrumented vehicle around an urban test route both while distracted (performing a visual detection task) and while not distracted. Two in-vehicle observers recorded the driving errors made, and a range of other data were collected, including driver verbal protocols, forward, cockpit and driver video, and vehicle data (speed, braking, steering wheel angle, etc.). Classification of the errors revealed that drivers were significantly more likely to make errors when distracted; although driving errors were prevalent even when not distracted. Interestingly, the nature of the errors made when distracted did not differ substantially from those made when not distracted, suggesting that, rather than making different types of errors, distracted drivers simply make a greater number of the same error types they make when not distracted. Avenues for broadening our understanding of the relationship between distraction and driving errors are discussed along with the advantages of using a multi-method framework for studying driver behaviour. PMID:22727884

  18. Maxillary second molar extractions in orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wilson; Wong, Ricky Wing-Kit; Ikegami, Tomio; Hgg, Urban

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of the rationales, indications, methods, and effects of orthodontic treatment with maxillary second molar extractions. In addition to the patient's malocclusion, specific considerations about the status and position of the maxillary second and third molars should be taken into account. In recent years, the development of temporary anchorage devices, in addition to extraoral traction and intraoral distalization appliances, has become another armamentarium in the distalization of the maxillary posterior teeth, which may affect the selection of teeth to be extracted from second to third molars. In conclusion, extraction of maxillary second molars is a viable option in selected cases at present, but it is important to understand the indications and limitations of this treatment choice. PMID:18426106

  19. Maxillary sinus manifestations of methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Erynne A; Marsh, Katherine M; Farshad, Kayven; Erman, Audrey B; Chiu, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamines are the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and cost the United States health-care system ?$23.4 billion annually. Use of this drug affects multiple organ systems and causes a variety of clinical manifestations. Although there are commonly known sequelae of methamphetamine abuse such as "meth mouth," there is limited evidence regarding maxillary sinus manifestations. The following cases highlight the initial evaluation and management of two methamphetamine abusers with loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus as a result of methamphetamine abuse. Our aim was to delineate the otolaryngologic symptoms associated with the patients' methamphetamine abuse. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus of probable odontogenic origin in both patients. Methamphetamine abuse leading to rampant caries and poor oral hygiene may predispose individuals for craniofacial infections and fluid collections. These cases illustrate the development of maxillary sinusitis and maxilla mucoceles that have been associated with methamphetamine use. PMID:25675268

  20. Maxillary sinus manifestations of methamphetamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Faucett, Erynne A.; Marsh, Katherine M.; Farshad, Kayven; Erman, Audrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamines are the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and cost the United States health-care system ?$23.4 billion annually. Use of this drug affects multiple organ systems and causes a variety of clinical manifestations. Although there are commonly known sequelae of methamphetamine abuse such as meth mouth, there is limited evidence regarding maxillary sinus manifestations. The following cases highlight the initial evaluation and management of two methamphetamine abusers with loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus as a result of methamphetamine abuse. Our aim was to delineate the otolaryngologic symptoms associated with the patients' methamphetamine abuse. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus of probable odontogenic origin in both patients. Methamphetamine abuse leading to rampant caries and poor oral hygiene may predispose individuals for craniofacial infections and fluid collections. These cases illustrate the development of maxillary sinusitis and maxilla mucoceles that have been associated with methamphetamine use. PMID:25675268

  1. Maxillary Sinusitis Caused by Actinomucor elegans

    PubMed Central

    Davel, Graciela; Featherston, Patricia; Fernndez, Anibal; Abrantes, Ruben; Canteros, Cristina; Rodero, Laura; Sztern, Carlos; Perrotta, Diego

    2001-01-01

    We report the first case of maxillary sinusitis caused by Actinomucor elegans in an 11-year-old patient. Histopathological and mycological examinations of surgical maxillary sinuses samples showed coenocytic hyphae characteristic of mucoraceous fungi. The fungi recovered had stolons and rhizoids, nonapophyseal and globose sporangia, and whorled branched sporangiophores and was identified as A. elegans. After surgical cleaning and chemotherapy with amphotericin B administered intravenously and by irrigation, the patient became asymptomatic and the mycological study results were negative. PMID:11158140

  2. Mandibular distraction in neonates: indications, technique, results

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Pierre Robin Sequence features were first described by Robin in 1923 and include micrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress with an incidence estimated as 1:8,500 to 1:20,000 newborns. Upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulties are the main concerns related to the pathology. Mandibular distraction should be considered a treatment option (when other treatments result inadequate). Patiants and methods Ten patients between the ages of 1 month and 2 years with severe micrognathia and airway obstruction were treated with Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (MDO). All patients underwent fibroscopic examination of the upper airway and a radiographic imaging and/or computed tomography scans to detect malformations and to confirm that the obstruction was caused by posterior tongue displacement. All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Indications for surgery included frequent apneic episodes with severe desaturation (70%). Gavage therapy was employed in all patients since oral feeding was not possible. The two tracheotomy patients were 5 months and 2 years old respectively, and the distraction procedure was performed to remove the tracheotomy tube. All patients were treated with bilateral mandibular distraction: two cases with an external multivector distraction device, six cases with an internal non-resorbable device and two cases with an internal resorbable device. In one case, the patient with Goldenhar's Syndrome, the procedure was repeated. Results The resolution of symptoms was obtained in all patients, and, when present, tracheotomy was removed without complications. Of the two patients with pre-existing tracheotomies, in the younger patient (5 months old) the tracheotomy was removed 7 days postoperatively. In the Goldenhar's syndrome case (2 years old) a Montgomery device was necessary for 6 months due to the presence of tracheotomy-inducted tracheomalacia. Patients were discharged when the endpoint was obtained: symptoms and signs of airway obstruction were resolved, PAS and maxillomandibular relationship improved, and tracheotomy, when present, removed. During the follow-up, no injury to the inferior alveolar nerve was noted and scarring was significant in only the two cases treated with external devices. Conclusion Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis is a good solution in solving respiratory distress when other procedures are failed in paediatric patients with severe micrognatia. PMID:22300418

  3. Original sagittal split osteotomy revisited for mandibular distraction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Young; Hwang, Kyung-Gyun; Baek, Seung-Hak; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Myung-Jin; Chang, Young-II

    2001-06-01

    Introduction: A malformed mandible and an abnormally positioned mandibular foramen make it difficult to plan an ideal osteotomy line for mandibular distraction. In addition, there have been reports of such complications as nonunion, damage and stretch injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and tooth germ damage when conventional osteotomy or corticotomy are used for mandibular distraction. The authors utilized the original sagittal split ramus osteotomy for mandibular distraction. Patients and Methods: Five patients (three unilateral hemifacial microsomia, one bilateral hemifacial microsomia, and one mandibular retrusion) were included in this study of distraction osteogenesis using the sagittal split ramus osteotomy. Extraoral distraction devices were applied to the first four patients. An intraoral device with mono-cortical screw fixation was used for the fifth patient. Result: In all five cases, the results of the distraction were satisfactory. Complications (as listed) of conventional osteotomy when used for distraction were avoided. Satisfactory results were achieved and these were also well maintained postoperatively (mean follow up: 36 months). Conclusion: The authors believe that sagittal osteotomy for mandibular distraction osteogenesis makes it possible, to avoid injury to the inferior alveolar nerve during operation and stretching injury during distraction and to prevent tooth germ injury. It is also possible to diversify the osteotomy line for various force vectors to enlarge the bony contact surface area. Therefore, we suggest that sagittal split ramus osteotomy should be used as a preferred modification of osteotomy for mandibular distraction. Copyright 2001 European Association for Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. PMID:11403554

  4. [Distraction osteogenesis of deficient alveolar bone prior to dental rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Shilo, D; Emodi, O; Aizenbud, D; Rachmiel, A

    2015-07-01

    Implant supported rehabilitation has become very common in treatment plans nowadays, yet many patients lack the vertical and horizontal bone dimensions required for endosseous implant insertion. Distraction osteogenesis is a technique in which bone is generated by progressive elongation of two bone fragments following an osteotomy or corticotomy. Distraction osteogenesis of the alveolar ridge as a treatment modality in implant dentistry is a very useful technique that allows for adequate bone formation suitable for implant insertion. Alveolar distraction can be unidirectional, bidirectional, multidirectional or horizontal. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis can be performed by using intraosseous distraction devices, intraosseous distraction implants or by extraosseous devices which are the most prevalent today. Distraction osteogenesis has many advantages such as gradual lengthening of the bone with no need for an autogenous bone graft and lack of the associated donor site morbidity as well as distraction of the surrounding soft tissue together with the transported bone. One of the major challenges when using alveolar distraction osteogenesis is controlling the vector of distraction, this problem should be further addressed in future researches. We describe different methods for alveolar distraction osteogenesis, including the surgical procedure, latency period, lengthening and consolidation period. We also discuss the advantages, disadvantages and complications of the method. In this manuscript a case of mandibular alveolar deficiency following mandibular fracture and loss of teeth and the alveolar bone is presented. This patient was treated by alveolar distraction osteogenesis with excellent results. This patient was later rehabilitated . using endosseous implants as demonstrated by radiographs. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis provides a method to regain both hard tissue and soft tissue without additional grafting and is an efficient modality in cases of medium to severe bone loss. PMID:26548149

  5. Distalization pattern of whole maxillary dentition according to force application points

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Eui-Hyang; Kim, Sung-Jin; Chun, Youn-Sic; Park, Young-Chel; Yu, Hyung-Seog

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to observe stress distribution and displacement patterns of the entire maxillary arch with regard to distalizing force vectors applied from interdental miniscrews. Methods A standard three-dimensional finite element model was constructed to simulate the maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar process. The displacement of each tooth was calculated on x, y, and z axes, and the von Mises stress distribution was visualized using color-coded scales. Results A single distalizing force at the archwire level induced lingual inclination of the anterior segment, and slight intrusive distal tipping of the posterior segment. In contrast, force at the high level of the retraction hook resulted in lingual root movement of the anterior segment, and extrusive distal translation of the posterior segment. As the force application point was located posteriorly along the archwire, the likelihood of extrusive lingual inclination of the anterior segment increased, and the vertical component of the force led to intrusion and buccal tipping of the posterior segment. Rotation of the occlusal plane was dependent on the relationship between the line of force and the possible center of resistance of the entire arch. Conclusions Displacement of the entire arch may be dictated by a direct relationship between the center of resistance of the whole arch and the line of action generated between the miniscrews and force application points at the archwire, which makes the total arch movement highly predictable. PMID:25667914

  6. Distraction of symbolic behavior in regular classrooms.

    PubMed

    Billinger, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to develop more precise methods to explore the interaction between contextual factors in teacher instructions in regular classroom settings and students' abilities to use symbolic information in the instruction. The ability to easily show symbolic behavior could be expected to influence student's capacity to be active and participate. The present study examines distraction in students' shifts from the use of "non-symbolic" to "symbolic" behavior in regular classroom settings. The 53 students (29 boys and 24 girls), ages 11-13?years old, who participated in the study were from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school. Based on their test performances in a previous study, 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) as not showing it (non-symbolic). In the present study, new test trials with distractors were added. Students from both the symbolic and non-symbolic groups scored significantly fewer correct answers on the post-training test trials with distraction stimuli (p?distraction. In the post-training test trials with competing arbitrary distractors, both groups were distracted significantly more than in the post-training test trials with competing non-arbitrary distractors (p?

  7. Distraction of Symbolic Behavior in Regular Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Billinger, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to develop more precise methods to explore the interaction between contextual factors in teacher instructions in regular classroom settings and students abilities to use symbolic information in the instruction. The ability to easily show symbolic behavior could be expected to influence students capacity to be active and participate. The present study examines distraction in students shifts from the use of non-symbolic to symbolic behavior in regular classroom settings. The 53 students (29 boys and 24 girls), ages 1113?years old, who participated in the study were from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school. Based on their test performances in a previous study, 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) as not showing it (non-symbolic). In the present study, new test trials with distractors were added. Students from both the symbolic and non-symbolic groups scored significantly fewer correct answers on the post-training test trials with distraction stimuli (p?distraction. In the post-training test trials with competing arbitrary distractors, both groups were distracted significantly more than in the post-training test trials with competing non-arbitrary distractors (p?

  8. Sharing the responsibility for driver distraction across road transport systems: a systems approach to the management of distracted driving.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is acknowledged universally as a large and growing road safety problem. Compounding the problem is that distracted driving is a complex, multifaceted issue influenced by a multitude of factors, organisations and individuals. As such, management of the problem is not straightforward. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and implemented across the globe. The vast majority of these measures have derived from the traditional reductionist, driver-centric approach to distraction and have failed to fully reflect the complex mix of actors and components that give rise to drivers becoming distracted. An alternative approach that is gaining momentum in road safety is the systems approach, which considers all components of the system and their interactions as an integrated whole. In this paper, we review the current knowledge base on driver distraction and argue that the systems approach is not currently being realised in practice. Adopting a more holistic, systems approach to distracted driving will not only improve existing knowledge and interventions from the traditional approach, but will enhance our understanding and management of distraction by considering the complex relationships and interactions of the multiple actors and the myriad sources, enablers and interventions that make up the distracted driving system. It is only by recognising and understanding how all of the system components work together to enable distraction to occur, that we can start to work on solutions to help mitigate the occurrence and consequences of distracted driving. PMID:24767853

  9. [An experimental study of a new bidirectional distraction appliance].

    PubMed

    Lucas, R; Gounot, N; Cresseaux, P; Breton, P; Freidel, M; Ferez, C; Roger, T; Genevois, J P

    1998-07-01

    The goals of mandibular distraction are to restore a normal length but also a normal shape to the hypoplastic mandible. These two goals are related to the elongation vector which is itself related to the location of the cortictomy and of the device. Other factors influence this elongation vector. So it is impossible to precisely predict the elongation vector. With the monodirectional distraction device no modification can be made during the distraction time. With a bidirectional distraction device offering the possibility to modulate the angulation between the two elongation rods it is possible to adjust the elongation vector during distraction. Precise distraction gap modeling is possible. This is particularly important to correct anterior open-bite. This device was tested on animals (pigs). PMID:9697234

  10. Filling of a bone defect during experimental osteotaxis distraction.

    PubMed

    Alho, A; Bang, G; Karaharju, E; Armond, I

    1982-02-01

    Gradual distraction of a tibiofibular bone osteotomy in 14 rabbits was compared with a neutral osteotomy in 14 control rabbits using an osteotaxis device as fixation. The osteotomy was distracted for a period of 8 weeks at a rate of 1 mm/week. The control osteotomies united in 5 to 6 weeks with minimal external callus formation. In the distraction group, the periosteum and endosteum participated in the filling of the distraction gap. The most vigorous osteoblastic activity was observed in the middle of the osteotomy gap (growth zone) where calcification was delayed. In the distraction group the bone united in 6 to 7 weeks, not significantly later than in the controls. Two instances of non-union (2/14) were observed in the distraction group. PMID:7039217

  11. Clinical update--the teeth and the maxillary sinus: the mutual impact of clinical procedures, disease conditions and their treatment implications. Part 2. Odontogenic sinus disease and elective clinical procedures involving the maxillary antrum: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Sandler, H J

    1999-04-01

    Although odontogenic sinusitis is a rare entity when compared to sinus disease of rhinogenic origin, it is extremely important to identify a dental aetiology when it occurs. The offending tooth or teeth would thus require endodontic treatment or extraction, and the sinus disease carefully assessed and appropriately managed. Aetiology and presentation of oro-antral fistulae are also discussed and guidelines for the management of this complication are recommended. Certain lesions such as cysts and tumours may involve the jaws and hence the maxillary antrum; some of these, such as a radicular cyst are quite common, but the rarer ones are included for completeness. Surgical techniques are continuously evolving to optimise form and function of the jaws, and when applied to the maxilla there may be some impact on nasal and sinus function. The advent, and now proven success, of osseointegrated jaw implants have brought with them innovations and refinements of bone grafting techniques, and more recently distraction osteogenesis for augmentation. Maxillary osteotomies for surgical orthodontics, and to facilitate prosthodontic treatment are briefly mentioned, as most of these inevitably involve the antrum and/or nose. This paper discusses, in summary form, important aspects of clinical dental practice which may involve the maxillary antrum. It is thus a broad overview of certain pathologic conditions and elective surgical procedures which have relevance to both medical and dental practitioners. PMID:11411074

  12. Monobloc Le Fort III Distraction Osteogenesis for Correction of Severe Fronto-orbital and Midface Hypoplasia in Pediatric Crouzon Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Firdaus; Cheung, Lim Kwong; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Mathaneswaran, Vickneswaran; Ganesan, Dharmendra

    2016-01-01

    In severe syndromic craniosynostosis, distraction osteogenesis (DO) provides superior segmental advancement and allows progressive clinical monitoring to ensure that adequate skeletal expansion is achieved. We report two cases of Crouzon syndrome involving a 3-year-old boy and a 4-year-old girl, who were both treated with monobloc Le Fort III DO using a combination of external and internal distraction devices (Synthes, Oberdorf, Switzerland) to treat severe orbital proptosis and obstructed nasopharyngeal airway secondary to severe hypoplastic craniofacial skeletal components. Their skeletal segments were advanced in daily increments by 27 mm and 23 mm, respectively. Results at 18 months postoperatively showed successful outcomes, as evidenced by adequate eye protection, tracheostomy tube decannulation following objective evidence of patent nasopharyngeal airway, and acceptable facial appearance. Monobloc Le Fort III DO using a combination of external and internal devices produces favorable functional and clinical outcomes for the treatment of severe orbital and airway discrepancy in Crouzon syndrome. PMID:25650655

  13. Method for Automated Bone Shape Correction within Bone Distraction Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blynskiy, F. Yu

    2016-01-01

    The method for automated bone shape correction within bone distraction procedure is presented. High precision deformation angle measurement is provided by the software for X- Ray images processing. Special BDC v.1.0.1. application is designed. The purpose of the BDC is modeling of the bone geometry structure to calculate the appropriate distraction forces. The correction procedure control is realized by the hardware of the distraction system.

  14. External distraction impairs categorization performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wais, Peter E.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The detrimental influence of distraction on memory and attention is well established, yet it is not as clear if irrelevant information impacts categorization abilities and if this impact changes in aging. We examined categorization with morphed prototype stimuli in both younger and older adults, using an adaptive staircase approach to assess participants' performance in conditions with and without visual distractors. Results showed that distraction did not affect younger adults, but produced a negative impact on older adults' categorization such that there was an interaction of age and distraction. These results suggest a relationship between the increased susceptibility to visual distraction in normal aging and impairment in categorization. PMID:25244485

  15. Subtractive Fuzzy Classifier Based Driver Distraction Levels Classification Using EEG

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Mousa Kadhim; Murugappan, Murugappan; Ahmad, Badlishah

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In earlier studies of driver distraction, researchers classified distraction into two levels (not distracted, and distracted). This study classified four levels of distraction (neutral, low, medium, high). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty Asian subjects (n=50, 43 males, 7 females), age range 20–35 years, who were free from any disease, participated in this study. Wireless EEG signals were recorded by 14 electrodes during four types of distraction stimuli (Global Position Systems (GPS), music player, short message service (SMS), and mental tasks). We derived the amplitude spectrum of three different frequency bands, theta, alpha, and beta of EEG. Then, based on fusion of discrete wavelet packet transforms and fast fourier transform yield, we extracted two features (power spectral density, spectral centroid frequency) of different wavelets (db4, db8, sym8, and coif5). Mean ± SD was calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. A fuzzy inference system classifier was applied to different wavelets using the two extracted features. [Results] The results indicate that the two features of sym8 posses highly significant discrimination across the four levels of distraction, and the best average accuracy achieved by the subtractive fuzzy classifier was 79.21% using the power spectral density feature extracted using the sym8 wavelet. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that EEG signals can be used to monitor distraction level intensity in order to alert drivers to high levels of distraction. PMID:24259914

  16. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  17. Speech-Language Dissociations, Distractibility, and Childhood Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relation among speech-language dissociations, attentional distractibility, and childhood stuttering. Method Participants were 82 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 120 who do not stutter (CWNS). Correlation-based statistics (Bates, Appelbaum, Salcedo, Saygin, & Pizzamiglio, 2003) identified dissociations across 5 norm-based speech-language subtests. The Behavioral Style Questionnaire Distractibility subscale measured attentional distractibility. Analyses addressed (a) between-groups differences in the number of children exhibiting speech-language dissociations; (b) between-groups distractibility differences; (c) the relation between distractibility and speech-language dissociations; and (d) whether interactions between distractibility and dissociations predicted the frequency of total, stuttered, and nonstuttered disfluencies. Results More preschool-age CWS exhibited speech-language dissociations compared with CWNS, and more boys exhibited dissociations compared with girls. In addition, male CWS were less distractible than female CWS and female CWNS. For CWS, but not CWNS, less distractibility (i.e., greater attention) was associated with more speech-language dissociations. Last, interactions between distractibility and dissociations did not predict speech disfluencies in CWS or CWNS. Conclusions The present findings suggest that for preschool-age CWS, attentional processes are associated with speech-language dissociations. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the directionality of effect of this association (e.g., inefficient attentional processes → speech-language dissociations vs. inefficient attentional processes ← speech-language dissociations). PMID:26126203

  18. Maxillary sinus perforation by orthodontic anchor screws.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Sanuki-Suzuki, Rina; Uchida, Yasuki; Saiki, Akari; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2015-06-01

    To facilitate safe placement of orthodontic anchor screws (miniscrews), we investigated the frequency of maxillary sinus perforation after screw placement and the effect of sinus perforation on screw stability. Maxillary sinus perforations involving 82 miniscrews (diameter, 1.6 mm; length, 8 mm) were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography. All miniscrews were placed in maxillary alveolar bone between the second premolar and first molar for anchorage for anterior retraction in patients undergoing first premolar extraction. The placement torque and screw mobility of each implant were determined using a torque tester and a Periotest device, and variability in these values in relation to sinus perforation was evaluated. Eight of the 82 miniscrews perforated the maxillary sinus. There was no case of sinusitis in patients with miniscrew perforation and no significant difference in screw mobility or placement torque between perforating and non-perforating miniscrews. The sinus floor was significantly thinner in perforated cases than in non-perforated cases. A sinus floor thickness of 6.0 mm or more is recommended in order to avoid miniscrew perforation of the maxillary sinus. PMID:26062857

  19. Three-dimensional modeling system for unilateral mandibular bone distraction: a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Diemunsch, C; Faure, F; Trunde, F; Morgon, L; Bossard, D; Jourlin, M; Coudert, J L; Disant, F

    2007-09-01

    Facial hemiatrophies are anomalies of the first branchial arch and affect one in 4000-5000 newborns. Bone distraction is the technique of choice for the treatment of these dysmorphoses. Mandibular osteodistraction requires prior determination of the characteristics of the distraction vector whose three components will serve to activate the distractor. The patient, aged 5 years, presented with a right facial hemiatrophy, Grade IB according to the classification of Pruzansky. Tomodensitometric acquisition was obtained with a CT scanner. Software specifically designed for this application allows segmentation of the anatomical elements by a region-growing algorithm. The 3D representation of each element is added to a 3D scene, in which are placed the built-up landmarks necessary for the surgical simulation after 3D cephalometric analysis. The surgical cleavage plane is oriented according to the surgeon's requirements while preserving the predominant anatomical elements. The software allows performance of rotations and translations of the bone segments rendered independently from the cleavage plane. The distances and angles covered during the virtual movement are measured at its conclusion. The aim of moving the bone segments is to render the mandibular occlusion plane parallel to the reference occlusion plane. The vertical growth of the maxilla is realized by secondary recuperation. The distractor used was of an external multidirectional type allowing elongation of the mandibular ramus and mandibular corpus, closure of the goniac angle, and lateralization or medialization of the ramus. On the 15th day, the mandibular angle was reduced by 10 degrees, which allowed closure of the anterior gap and recentering of the incisive areas by a half-cuspid. The patient presented with a complex bone deficit in the three spatial directions, which allowed the development of software for modeling the distraction. Other clinical cases will be necessary to validate this 3D imaging-based technique. PMID:17957533

  20. Effect of platelet-rich plasma in alveolar distraction osteogenesis: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Diogo J B; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; Beder, Andra M; Sendyk, Wilson R

    2016-01-01

    We have evaluated the effect of the use of platelet-rich plasma in alveolar distraction osteogenesis. Fourteen patients who were partly edentulous in the anterior premaxilla region were selected and randomised into two groups (n=7 in each group). Those in the experimental group were give platelet-rich plasma at the time of distraction, and the control group had only distraction. Selected cases had defects in the alveolar ridge of more than 3mm, and a minimal bone height of 7mm from the alveolar ridge crest to important anatomical structures. The plaque index and gingival index were recorded on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 postoperatively. There was a strong negative correlation between the gingival index and augmentation of bone, and a strong positive correlation between the mean gingival index and loss of bone from the transported segment. The addition of platelet-rich plasma had a protective effect on the mucosa around the distractor, which decreased the potential for complications. PMID:26602586

  1. The biology of distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular and craniomaxillofacial defects: A review

    PubMed Central

    Natu, Subodh Shankar; Ali, Iqbal; Alam, Sarwar; Giri, Kolli Yada; Agarwal, Anshita; Kulkarni, Vrishali Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Limb lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was first described in 1905. The technique did not gain wide acceptance until Gavril Ilizarov identified the physiologic and mechanical factors governing successful regeneration of bone formation. Distraction osteogenesis is a new variation of more traditional orthognathic surgical procedure for the correction of dentofacial deformities. It is most commonly used for the correction of more severe deformities and syndromes of both the maxilla and the mandible and can also be used in children at ages previously untreatable. The basic technique includes surgical fracture of deformed bone, insertion of device, 5-7 days rest, and gradual separation of bony segments by subsequent activation at the rate of 1 mm per day, followed by an 8-12 weeks consolidation phase. This allows surgeons, the lengthening and reshaping of deformed bone. The aim of this paper is to review the principle, technical considerations, applications and limitations of distraction osteogenesis. The application of osteodistraction offers novel solutions for surgical-orthodontic management of developmental anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton as bone may be molded into different shapes along with the soft tissue component gradually thereby resulting in less relapse. PMID:24688555

  2. Chronic maxillary sinusitis and diabetes related maxillary osteonecrosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Huh, Suk; Lee, Chae-Yoon; Ohe, Joo-Young; Lee, Jung-Woo; Choi, Byung-Jun; Lee, Baek-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Dae

    2015-12-01

    Dental infections and maxillary sinusitis are the main causes of osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis can occur in all age groups, and is more frequently found in the lower jaw than in the upper jaw. Systemic conditions that can alter the patient's resistance to infection including diabetes mellitus, anemia, and autoimmune disorders are predisposing factors for osteomyelitis. We report a case of uncommon broad maxillary osteonecrosis precipitated by uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic maxillary sinusitis in a female patient in her seventies with no history of bisphosphonate or radiation treatment. PMID:26734561

  3. Chronic maxillary sinusitis and diabetes related maxillary osteonecrosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dental infections and maxillary sinusitis are the main causes of osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis can occur in all age groups, and is more frequently found in the lower jaw than in the upper jaw. Systemic conditions that can alter the patient's resistance to infection including diabetes mellitus, anemia, and autoimmune disorders are predisposing factors for osteomyelitis. We report a case of uncommon broad maxillary osteonecrosis precipitated by uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic maxillary sinusitis in a female patient in her seventies with no history of bisphosphonate or radiation treatment. PMID:26734561

  4. Endoscopic sinus surgery for maxillary sinus mucoceles

    PubMed Central

    Caylakli, Fatma; Yavuz, Haluk; Cagici, Alper Can; Ozluoglu, Levent Naci

    2006-01-01

    Background Maxillary sinus mucoceles are relatively rare among all paranasal sinus mucoceles. With the introduction of endoscopic sinus surgical techniques, rhinologic surgeons prefer transnasal endoscopic management of sinus mucoceles. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical presentation of maxillary sinus mucoceles and to establish the efficacy of endoscopic management of sinus mucoceles. Methods Between 2003 and 2005, 14 patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for maxillary sinus mucocele. The presenting sign and symptoms, radiological findings, surgical management and need for revision surgery were reviewed. Results There were eight males and six females with an age range of 14 to 65. Ten patients complained of nasal obstruction, five of nasal drainage, five of cheek pressure or pain and one of proptosis of the eye and cheek swelling. The maxillary sinus and ipsilateral ethmoid sinus involvement on computed tomographic studies was seen in 4 patients. Four patients had history of endoscopic ethmoidectomy surgery for ethmoid sinusitis and one had Caldwell-Luc operation in the past. Ethmoidectomy with middle meatal antrostomy and marsupialization of the mucocele was performed in all patients. Postoperative follow-up ranged between 8 to 48 months. All patients had a patent middle meatal antrostomy and healthy maxillary sinus mucosa. No patients need revision surgery. Conclusion The most common causes of mucoceles are chronic infection, allergic sinonasal disease, trauma and previous surgery. In 64% of the patients of our study cause remains uncertain. Endoscopic sinus surgery is an effective treatment for maxillary sinus mucoceles with a favorable long-term outcome. PMID:16953897

  5. Horizontally impacted maxillary premolar and bilateral canine transposition.

    PubMed

    Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2009-03-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a patient whose maxillary left first premolar was impacted horizontally, and both maxillary canines were transposed relative to the first premolars. The patient was treated without extractions, and both canines were brought to their correct positions in the maxillary arch. Treatment mechanics during the various stages are discussed. PMID:19268838

  6. New surgical technique and distraction osteogenesis for ankylosed dental movement.

    PubMed

    Agabiti, Ivo; Cappar, Paolo; Gherlone, Enrico Felice; Mortellaro, Carmen; Bruschi, Giovanni B; Crespi, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Dental ankylosis often presents a significant vertical alveolar defect that is an esthetic problem for prosthetic rehabilitation. Moreover, surgical-orthodontic treatment by corticotomies and distraction devices provides special attention to avoid the loss of blood supply to the segment; furthermore, gingival recessions may appear because the gingival tissues cannot proliferate as fast as the immediate repositioning of the tooth. This case report presents a surgical technique for buccal, palatal, and vertical movements, and examines the effects of a tooth/arch-borne tooth distractor appliance, for the alignment of ankylosed teeth. The slow movements of tooth and bone block and fine cut simplifies orthodontic treatment in patients and makes it possible to achieve complex movements in a relatively short period. The reported dislocation procedure allows a use of buccal-lingual vertical osteotomy with horizontal osteotomy to correct tooth positions via bony block movement maintaining gingival tissues in position. The used sonic saw have proven to be a valuable alternative to manual or rotating tools, oscillating saws, or piezoelectric units because it is faster and easier for surgical approach. PMID:24777021

  7. [Maxillofacial surgery and distraction osteogenesis--history, present, perspective].

    PubMed

    Dzhorov, Anton; Dzhorova, Iva

    2003-01-01

    The distraction osteogenesis is processes of planning and controlled tension over a bone after osteotomy or corticotomy. The purpose is lengthening on the base of forming a new bone tissue with normal biological characteristics. It presents historical development. The distraction osteogenesis adapts to the needs of oral maxillo-facial surgery in last ten years. The first step was a lengthening of the lower jaw with extraoral apparatus (McCarthy 1992). The surgical techniques and the principals of G. Ilizarov are shown in the overview. It describes the biological aspects of the distraction osteogenesis--the phenomena tension--stress, as such as the effect not only over the bone but over the surrounding soft tissues, blood vessels and nerves. It presents the distraction osteogenesis used in maxillo-facial surgery--mandibular distraction, distraction of alveolar bone, of mid-third face, cranio-orbito-maxillar distraction osteogenesis. Because of easy surgical technique, clinically proved by stable functional and aesthetic results, the distraction osteogenesis has perspectives in future time. PMID:15641559

  8. Neuronal Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27…

  9. Neuronal Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27

  10. The correction of the relapsed club foot by closed distraction

    PubMed Central

    Bashoura, Abdo; Berjawi, Ghina; Afeiche, Nadim; Elkattah, Rayan

    2010-01-01

    Correction of a relapsed clubfoot deformity by distraction with an external fixator is a recognized alternative to open surgery. Most published series report a good outcome but none are prospective observational studies using the scoring system of the International Clubfoot Study Group (ICFSG). We present a series of 9 relapsed club feet treated with closed gradual distraction using this scoring method. PMID:21286357

  11. Interference by Process, Not Content, Determines Semantic Auditory Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic

  12. Internal Le Fort III distraction with biodegradable devices.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S R; Holmes, R E

    2001-05-01

    Shortly after the initial application of distraction osteogenesis to the human mandible by McCarthy, distraction osteogenesis was used for gradual lengthening of the midface in children with syndromic craniosynostosis, cleft lip and palate, hemifacial microsomia, and midface hypoplasia from other causes. Both external and internal devices are available for midface distraction. In spite of the many advantages of internal metallic distraction devices, they can be more difficult to remove. By substituting the metallic fixation plates of the Stryker-Leibinger Modular Internal Distraction system, with resorbable MacroPore fixation mesh, only the distractor screw and cable drive need to be removed. Moreover, by using a resorbable stabilizer, the screw and cable components are not needed for the consolidation phase, and can be removed at the completion of active distraction. In this case report of a 4-year-old girl with Crouzon's syndrome, contouring of the resorbable distraction devices was performed using a sterilizable model, 20 mm of distraction was achieved, and 4 days later the distractor screw was replaced with a resorbable stabilizer, resulting in an excellent correction of her midface hypoplasia. PMID:11358101

  13. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins during mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Paolo; Hamdy, Reggie C; Lauzier, Dominique; Amako, Masatoshi; Rauch, Frank; Lessard, Marie-Lucie

    2003-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a form of in vivo tissue engineering in which the gradual separation of cut bone edges results in the generation of new bone. In this study, the temporal and spatial expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2, 4, and 7 was examined in a rabbit model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Fourteen skeletally mature male rabbits were studied. After osteotomy, a distractor was applied to one side of the mandible. After 1 week of latency, distraction was initiated at 0.25 mm every 12 hours for 3 weeks (distraction period), followed by a 3-week consolidation period. Two animals were killed each week after surgery. The generate bone was analyzed for the expression of BMP-2, -4, and -7 by using standard bone histological and immunohistochemical techniques. BMP-2 and -4 were highly expressed in osteoblastic cells during the distraction period and in chondrocytes during the consolidation period. BMP-7 demonstrated relatively minor expression in osteoblastic cells during the distraction period. All BMPs were strongly expressed in vascularized connective tissue during the distraction period. These data indicate that BMPs participate in the translation of mechanical stimuli into a biological response during mandibular distraction osteogenesis. PMID:12496581

  14. Effects of Auditory Distraction on Cognitive Processing of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Leonard L.; Heald, Gary R.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Kemker, Brett E.; Maurice, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The effects of interference, competition, and distraction on cognitive processing are unclearly understood, particularly regarding type and intensity of auditory distraction across a variety of cognitive processing tasks. Method: The purpose of this investigation was to report two experiments that sought to explore the effects of types

  15. Three-Dimensional Eyeball and Orbit Volume Modification After LeFort III Midface Distraction.

    PubMed

    Smektala, Tomasz; Nysjö, Johan; Thor, Andreas; Homik, Aleksandra; Sporniak-Tutak, Katarzyna; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dowgierd, Krzysztof; Olszewski, Raphael

    2015-07-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate orbital volume modification with LeFort III midface distraction in patients with craniosynostosis and its influence on eyeball volume and axial diameter modification. Orbital volume was assessed by the semiautomatic segmentation method based on deformable surface models and on 3-dimensional (3D) interaction with haptics. The eyeball volumes and diameters were automatically calculated after manual segmentation of computed tomographic scans with 3D slicer software. The mean, minimal, and maximal differences as well as the standard deviation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for intraobserver and interobserver measurements reliability were calculated. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare measured values before and after surgery. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Intraobserver and interobserver ICC for haptic-aided semiautomatic orbital volume measurements were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. The intraobserver and interobserver ICC values for manual segmentation of the eyeball volume were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively. The orbital volume increased significantly after surgery: 30.32% (mean, 5.96  mL) for the left orbit and 31.04% (mean, 6.31  mL) for the right orbit. The mean increase in eyeball volume was 12.3%. The mean increases in the eyeball axial dimensions were 7.3%, 9.3%, and 4.4% for the X-, Y-, and Z-axes, respectively. The Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that preoperative and postoperative eyeball volumes, as well as the diameters along the X- and Y-axes, were statistically significant. Midface distraction in patients with syndromic craniostenosis results in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the orbit and eyeball volumes. The 2 methods (haptic-aided semiautomatic segmentation and manual 3D slicer segmentation) are reproducible techniques for orbit and eyeball volume measurements. PMID:26086925

  16. Three-dimensional analysis of maxillary changes associated with facemask and rapid maxillary expansion compared with bone anchored maxillary protraction

    PubMed Central

    Hino, Claudia Toyama; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Nguyen, Tung T.; De Clerck, Hugo J.; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Our objectives in this study were to evaluate in 3 dimensions the growth and treatment effects on the midface and the maxillary dentition produced by facemask therapy in association with rapid maxillary expansion (RME/FM) compared with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP). Methods Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusion were treated with either RME/FM (n = 21) or BAMP (n = 25). Three-dimensional models generated from cone-beam computed tomographic scans, taken before and after approximately 1 year of treatment, were registered on the anterior cranial base and measured using color-coded maps and semitransparent overlays. Results The skeletal changes in the maxilla and the right and left zygomas were on average 2.6 mm in the RME/FM group and 3.7 mm in the BAMP group; these were different statistically. Seven RME/FM patients and 4 BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical displacement of the maxilla. The dental changes at the maxillary incisors were on average 3.2 mm in the RME/FM group and 4.3 mm in the BAMP group. Ten RME/FM patients had greater dental compensations than skeletal changes. Conclusions This 3-dimensional study shows that orthopedic changes can be obtained with both RME/FM and BAMP treatments, with protraction of the maxilla and the zygomas. Approximately half of the RME/FM patients had greater dental than skeletal changes, and a third of the RME/FM compared with 17% of the BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical maxillary displacement. PMID:24182587

  17. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    PubMed Central

    XUE, Junjie; YE, Niansong; YANG, Xin; WANG, Sheng; WANG, Jing; WANG, Yan; LI, Jingyu; MI, Congbo; LAI, Wenli

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress. Results The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises) stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. Conclusions Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction. PMID:24626249

  18. Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction

    PubMed Central

    Prabhat, K. C.; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Gupta, N. D.; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Goyal, Lata

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of distracting the periodontal ligament is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks. PMID:22628978

  19. Immediate mandibular distraction in mandibular hypoplasia and upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Schoemann, Mark B; Burstein, Fernando D; Bakthavachalam, Sivi; Williams, Joseph K

    2012-11-01

    Distraction osteogenesis of the mandible has become an alternative to tracheostomy in infants and children who present with upper airway obstruction due to micrognathia. To avoid prolonged intubation during distraction, we have implemented a protocol of immediate distraction at the time of distractor placement, which results in acute airway improvement. Over 2 years, 22 patients with micrognathia and severe airway obstruction have undergone mandibular distractor placement. Indications for surgery were apnea and desaturations with feeding. Resorbable distraction devices were placed bilaterally and activated to 5 to 8 mm. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 was placed in the gap. Distraction was implemented at postoperative day 2 at 2 mm/d. Forty-four distraction devices were placed in 22 patients (68% male, 32% female) with a mean age of 24.1 months (range, 3 days to 5.5 years). The average distance of distraction performed in the operating room was 5 mm. The average total distraction was 24 mm performed over 12 days. Overall, 89% of patients were extubated after distractor placement in the operating room. Two patients with difficult intubations were extubated 7 days later in the operating room with otolaryngology. Of the 4 tracheostomy patients, 1 patient was decannulated, whereas 3 patients are pending postoperative sleep studies. One patient had a minor wound complication. Tracheostomy and prolonged intubation in patients with mandibular hypoplasia have significant morbidity and mortality. We have implemented a successful protocol of immediate distraction in the operating room with placement of bone morphogenetic protein. Immediate distraction appears to be an effective method of avoiding postoperative intubation and tracheostomy. PMID:23154361

  20. Disposed to distraction: genetic variation in the cholinergic system influences distractibility but not time-on-task effects.

    PubMed

    Berry, Anne S; Demeter, Elise; Sabhapathy, Surya; English, Brett A; Blakely, Randy D; Sarter, Martin; Lustig, Cindy

    2014-09-01

    Both the passage of time and external distraction make it difficult to keep attention on the task at hand. We tested the hypothesis that time-on-task and external distraction pose independent challenges to attention and that the brain's cholinergic system selectively modulates our ability to resist distraction. Participants with a polymorphism limiting cholinergic capacity (Ile89Val variant [rs1013940] of the choline transporter gene SLC5A7) and matched controls completed self-report measures of attention and a laboratory task that measured decrements in sustained attention with and without distraction. We found evidence that distraction and time-on-task effects are independent and that the cholinergic system is strongly linked to greater vulnerability to distraction. Ile89Val participants reported more distraction during everyday life than controls, and their task performance was more severely impacted by the presence of an ecologically valid video distractor (similar to a television playing in the background). These results are the first to demonstrate a specific impairment in cognitive control associated with the Ile89Val polymorphism and add to behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies indicating the cholinergic system's critical role in overcoming distraction. PMID:24666128

  1. [Elastomers and peripheral seal in complete maxillary dentures].

    PubMed

    Naser, B; Postaire, M

    1991-09-01

    First the various physical factors involved in retention are discussed. Adhesion is designed by the Gibert formula: [formula: see text] bringing the notion of interfacial surface delimited by the fluid meniscus (epsilon) and the thickness of the salivary film at the site of formation of the meniscus (h). Atmospheric pressure plays a role by the formation of a periphery seal ensuring the creation of a depression of the interfacial fluid in order to oppose the forces of pulling. As a summary, it is important to achieve the formation of a salivary meniscus: with the smallest curvature; continuous despite the mobility of the mucosa; beyond the limit between the free mucosa and the attached mucosa and the "farthest" possible from this area. The purpose of recording the periphery borders is to obtain the highest and widest possible denture flanges without any over-extension or over-thickness. The authors then propose performing a comparative study of the various materials available for recording the periphery of maxillary full dentures, in order to determine which best responds to the criteria of quality mentioned. Several recording techniques are possible, depending on the material used: either a segmented border recording (widely described); or a recording of the periphery seal in one or several stages which is then illustrated by the use of Impregum. For each patient, recordings of the periphery was made according to a protocol always identical and precise; only the material used for this purpose (Kerr compound, regular Neo-Plex and Impregum) varied. The measure taken from these recordings showed that Impregum demonstrates the highest and thickness borders as opposed to Neo-Plex and Kerr compound which provided intermediary results. Thus, Impregum appears to be the material of choice for the optimal recording of the functional periphery seal in maxillary full dentures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1933555

  2. Development of Attention and Distractibility in the First 4 Years of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruff, Holly A.; Capozzoli, Mary C.

    2003-01-01

    Observed 10-, 26-, and 42-month-olds playing under several distraction conditions to describe development of attention and distractibility. Found that casual attention decreased and focused attention increased with age. Ten-month-olds were more distractible than older children, even during focused attention. Infants were most distracted by the

  3. Two-stage distraction lengthening of the forearm.

    PubMed

    Taghinia, Amir H; Al-Sheikh, Ayman A; Panossian, Andre E; Upton, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Single-stage lengthening of the forearm using callus distraction is well described; however, forearm lengthening using a 2-stage technique of distraction followed by bone grafting has received less attention. A 2-staged technique can be a better alternative in cases where the surgeon desires extensive lengthening. A retrospective review was undertaken of eleven 2-stage forearm lengthening procedures performed by 1 surgeon over a 15-year period. Indications were radial longitudinal deficiency (8 patients), neonatal ischemic contractures (2 patients), and septic growth arrest (1 patient). Average follow-up was 2.8 years. Distraction was performed on patients an average of 82 mm over an average duration of 24 weeks. Average time to union from the time of distractor removal and grafting was 87 days. Average healing index was 32.1 d/cm. Distraction problems were common and related to the length of time that the distractor was in place; they included pain, pin-related infections, and multiple mechanical device difficulties. Three patients had nonunion, and another had delayed union; however, additional procedures resulted in ultimate bony union in all patients. Demineralized bone matrix and autologous corticocancellous bone grafts yielded predictable healing and good functional results in short-distance distractions. For longer distractions, free vascularized fibula transfer produced the best outcomes. Intercalary cortical allografts did not heal well. Patients with neonatal Volkmann contractures had the most difficulty with distraction and healing, ultimately obtaining little to no lengthening and poor functional outcomes. PMID:23348260

  4. Seven years clinical experience with mandibular distraction in children.

    PubMed

    Carls, F R; Sailer, H F

    1998-08-01

    Mandibular distraction was performed on 14 children, between September 1991 and December 1997. Their average age was 6.9 years, ranging from 1.5 to 13.5 years. All patients had severe hypoplastic mandibles with retromandibulism. Seven of the children (50%) had respiratory distress due to obstruction of the upper airway before distraction. This resolved in every case. Five patients underwent unilateral and nine bilateral distraction. A total of 23 distractors were used, 15 were applied extraorally and 8 endorally. The average latency time after operation was 2.8 days, but for the past 2 years, distraction was started beginning with the operation. The distraction was increased twice daily for an average of 5.5 weeks, by 0.4 or 0.5 mm each time, depending on the distractor. Computed tomography and ultrasound were used to follow the ossification process in the distraction gap and to measure the lengthening achieved. Subsequent retention time averaged 2.4 weeks. The mandibles were elongated by up to 18 mm (average 9.3 mm) and the respiratory distress symptoms resolved in all patients. Several minor complications which are reported occurred. Six patients were followed up for periods between 3 and 7 years. During this time further growth of the distracted mandibles was recorded. PMID:9777498

  5. A segmented appliance for space closure followed by Invisalign and fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Flavio; Cutrera, Alice; Nanda, Ravinda

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the use of a segmented appliance for space closure prior to using Invisalign. The maxillary right canine was retracted into the extracted first premolar space with a sectional wire from the first molar to the canine with no visible brackets in the incisor region. The advantage of this technique is the ability to achieve better root and rotational control during space closure with a fixed appliance that also has limited visibility. A maxillary fixed appliance was used to refine the esthetics in the maxillary arch due to the limitations of the Invisalign appliance in achieving rotational and vertical movements. PMID:22299111

  6. Effects of joint position on the distraction distance during grade III glenohumeral joint distraction in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sam-Sik; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Moon, Ok-Kon; Choi, Wan-Suk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated the effects of joint position on the distraction distance during Grade III glenohumeral joint distraction in healthy individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty adults in their forties without shoulder disease were randomly divided into neutral position group (NPG; n = 7), resting position group (RPG; n = 7), and end range position group (ERPG; n = 6). After Kaltenborn Grade III distraction for 40s, the distance between glenoid fossa and humeral head was measured by ultrasound. [Results] The average distances between the humeral head and glenoid fossa before distraction were 2.86 0.81, 3.21 0.47, and 3.55 0.59?mm for the NP, RP, and ERP groups. The distances after applying distraction were 3.12 0.51, 3.86 0.55, and 4.35 0.32?mm. Between-group comparison after applying distraction revealed no significant differences between the NP and RP groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between the NP and RP groups, as well as between the NP and ERP groups. [Conclusion] Joint space was largest in ERP individuals when performing manual distraction. PMID:26644692

  7. Effects of joint position on the distraction distance during grade III glenohumeral joint distraction in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Park, Sam-Sik; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Moon, Ok-Kon; Choi, Wan-Suk

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated the effects of joint position on the distraction distance during Grade III glenohumeral joint distraction in healthy individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty adults in their forties without shoulder disease were randomly divided into neutral position group (NPG; n = 7), resting position group (RPG; n = 7), and end range position group (ERPG; n = 6). After Kaltenborn Grade III distraction for 40s, the distance between glenoid fossa and humeral head was measured by ultrasound. [Results] The average distances between the humeral head and glenoid fossa before distraction were 2.86 0.81, 3.21 0.47, and 3.55 0.59?mm for the NP, RP, and ERP groups. The distances after applying distraction were 3.12 0.51, 3.86 0.55, and 4.35 0.32?mm. Between-group comparison after applying distraction revealed no significant differences between the NP and RP groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between the NP and RP groups, as well as between the NP and ERP groups. [Conclusion] Joint space was largest in ERP individuals when performing manual distraction. PMID:26644692

  8. Critical design errors in maxillary subperiosteal implants.

    PubMed

    Linkow, L I; Ghalili, R

    1998-01-01

    A maxillary full arch subperiosteal implant consists of a metallic framework that rests closely on the atrophied residual ridge beneath the mucoperiosteum and offers support for a dental prosthesis by means of posts or bars with O-ring protrusions or internal clip attachments. The maxillary subperiosteal implant is indicated for those patients presenting with advanced atrophy of the maxilla leaving the patient with three existing stable dense bony areas (the anterior nasal spine, the canine eminences, and the palatal surface of the existing crest) for its support. Over 300 cases with up to 12 years in function are presented. The importance of the basic anatomic and physiologic background required to optimize results are emphasized. The first 600+ subperiosteal implant cases that were placed prior to 1985 showed considerably lower success rates. PMID:10321207

  9. Cholesterol granuloma of the maxillary antrum.

    PubMed

    Gunes, H A; Almac, A; Canbay, E

    1988-07-01

    The cholesterol granuloma is a particular form of granulation tissue developing as part of a variety of tissue reactions, Cholesterol granuloma is not related to cholesteatoma which may be regarded as an epidermoid cyst of the middle ear or temporal bone. Cholesterol granulomas are rarely associated with such cases (Friedmann, 1976; Gherini et al., 1985). Microscopically, the cholesterol granuloma consists of dense masses of cholesterol crystals which appear as clefts. They are surrounded by foreign body giant cells, foam cells, plasma cells and lymphocytes. There is frequently some fresh blood and some blood pigment (Wilhelm, 1977; Beales, 1979; Gibb, 1979). It seems probable that inflammation and prolonged obstruction of a bony cavity that is normally aerated, are the main ways in which cholesterol is concentrated in the paranasal sinuses. It could be expected to be relatively frequent in the maxillary and frontal sinus, but only a few cases have been reported in the literature and only nine cases affecting the maxillary sinus have been published over the last 22 years (Milton and Bickerton, 1986). We have recently found a cholesterol granuloma arising in the maxillary antrum. PMID:3411221

  10. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  11. A facial talon cusp on maxillary permanent central incisors

    PubMed Central

    Chinni, Suneelkumar; Nanneboyina, Mayuri; Ramachandran, Anilkumar; Chalapathikumar, Hanuman

    2012-01-01

    Talon cusp is a dental anomaly that occurs as an accessory cusp like structure, from the cingulum of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth. Lingual location is usually considered pathognomic. This case report discuss about the unusual appearance of talon cusp on the facial surface of the maxillary left permanent central incisor and a mild talon cusp on the facial surface of the maxillary right permanent central incisor. PMID:22368344

  12. [Naso-ethmoido-maxillary protrusion (NEMP): a specific dysmorphosis].

    PubMed

    Konopnicki, S; Nicot, R; Sauv, C; Raoul, G; Ferri, J

    2014-04-01

    Naso-ethmoido-maxillary protrusion (NEMP) is a rare dental and facial dysmorphosis, with excessive growth of basicranium, ethmoid, maxillary, and nasal bones. The clinical presentation includes nasal and upper lip protrusion, telecanthus, a class 2 malocclusion with maxillary protrusion and exoclusion. The craniofacial field is increased in Delaire's analysis. Contrary to isolated maxillary protrusion secondary to membranous ossification dysfunction, NEMP is a constitutional anomaly resulting from an excessive primary growth of the chondrocranium. The therapeutic management of NEMP should take into account these specificities. PMID:24630318

  13. Memory load modulates graded changes in distracter filtering

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Andria; Woolrich, Mark W.; Mantini, Dante; Astle, Duncan E.

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to maintain small amounts of information in mind is critical for successful performance on a wide range of tasks. However, it remains unclear exactly how this maintenance is achieved. One possibility is that it is brought about using mechanisms that overlap with those used for attentional control. That is, the same mechanisms that we use to regulate and optimize our sensory processing may be recruited when we maintain information in visual short-term memory (VSTM). We aimed to test this hypothesis by exploring how distracter filtering is modified by concurrent VSTM load. We presented participants with sequences of target items, the order and location of which had to be maintained in VSTM. We also presented distracter items alongside the targets, and these distracters were graded such that they could be either very similar or dissimilar to the targets. We analyzed scalp potentials using a novel multiple regression approach, which enabled us to explore the neural mechanisms by which the participants accommodated these variable distracters on a trial-to-trial basis. Critically, the effect of distracter filtering interacted with VSTM load; the same graded changes in perceptual similarity exerted effects of a different magnitude depending upon how many items participants were already maintaining in VSTM. These data provide compelling evidence that maintaining information in VSTM recruits an overlapping set of attentional control mechanisms that are otherwise used for distracter filtering. PMID:25610387

  14. Distracted Driving in Elderly and Middle-Aged Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kelsey R.; Johnson, Amy M.; Emerson, Jamie L.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Boer, Erwin R.

    2011-01-01

    Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an instrumented vehicle (IV) in 86 elderly (mean = 72.5 years, SD = 5.0 years) and 51 middle-aged drivers (mean = 53.7 years, SD = 9.3 year) under a concurrent auditory-verbal processing load created by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Compared to baseline (no-task) driving performance, distraction was associated with reduced steering control in both groups, with middle-aged drivers showing a greater increase in steering variability. The elderly drove slower and showed decreased speed variability during distraction compared to middle-aged drivers. They also tended to freeze up, spending significantly more time holding the gas pedal steady, another tactic that may mitigate time pressured integration and control of information, thereby freeing mental resources to maintain situation awareness. While 39% of elderly and 43% of middle-aged drivers committed significantly more driving safety errors during distraction, 28% and 18%, respectively, actually improved, compatible with allocation of attention resources to safety critical tasks under a cognitive load. PMID:22269561

  15. Rapid Maxillary Anterior Teeth Retraction En Masse by Bone Compression: A Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jincai; Xu, Pingping

    2011-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to establish an animal model to study the feasibility and safety of rapid retraction of maxillary anterior teeth en masse aided by alveolar surgery in order to reduce orthodontic treatment time. Method Extraction of the maxillary canine and alveolar surgery were performed on twelve adult beagle dogs. After that, the custom-made tooth-borne distraction devices were placed on beagles' teeth. Nine of the dogs were applied compression at 0.5 mm/d for 12 days continuously. The other three received no force as the control group. The animals were killed in 1, 14, and 28 days after the end of the application of compression. Results The tissue responses were assessed by craniometric measurement as well as histological examination. Gross alterations were evident in the experimental group, characterized by anterior teeth crossbite. The average total movements of incisors within 12 days were 4.630.10 mm and the average anchorage losses were 1.250.12 mm. Considerable root resorption extending into the dentine could be observed 1 and 14 days after the compression. But after consolidation of 28 days, there were regenerated cementum on the dentine. There was no apparent change in the control group. No obvious tooth loosening, gingival necrosis, pulp degeneration, or other adverse complications appeared in any of the dogs. Conclusions This is the first experimental study for testing the technique of rapid anterior teeth retraction en masse aided by modified alveolar surgery. Despite a preliminary animal model study, the current findings pave the way for the potential clinical application that can accelerate orthodontic tooth movement without many adverse complications. Clinical Relevance It may become a novel method to shorten the clinical orthodontic treatment time in the future. PMID:22039479

  16. CT maxillary sinus evaluation-A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Paula; Faria-Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana-Cristina; Felino, Antnio

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study. The total sample of 504 patients and their CT was included in this study. The patients were from a private dental clinic, specializing in oral surgery, where the first complaint was not directly related to sinus disease, but with dental pathology. For each patient, the etiological factors of maxillary sinusitis and the imaging CT findings were analyzed. All the axial, coronal and sagittal CT slices were evaluated and general data were registered. The latter was selected based on the maxillary sinus CT published literature. Results 32.40% of patients presented normal sinus (without any etiological factor associated), 29.00% showed presence of etiological and imaging findings in the maxillary sinus, 20.60% had only imaging changes in the maxillary sinus and 18.00% of patients presented only etiological factors and no change in the maxillary sinus. Conclusions Radiological imaging is an important tool for establishing the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology. These results indicate that the CT scan should be an excellent tool for complement the odontogenic sinusitis diagnosis. Key words: Maxillary sinusitis/etiology, odontogenic, computed tomography, maxillary sinus. PMID:25858084

  17. Closing-in behaviour and motor distractibility.

    PubMed

    Ambron, Elisabetta; Della Sala, Sergio; McIntosh, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    This study relates two behaviours, each well documented within its own literature but not previously considered together: closing-in behaviour (CIB) and the effect of visual distractors on reaching. CIB is common in typically developing children, and in adults with dementia, and classically manifests as the tendency to perform graphic copying tasks very close to, or on the top of the model. The effect of visual distractors on reaching has been studied extensively in normal adults. Distractors induce characteristic deviations of the reach, usually away from the distractor, which imply that a competing response towards the distractor is automatically primed, and actively suppressed. It is possible that CIB reflects a failure to inhibit motor distraction, such that the acting hand is attracted automatically to a salient stimulus (the model, during copying tasks). This hypothesis predicts that CIB should be associated with distractor effects during reaching, characterised by veering towards, rather than away from the distractor. We tested this prediction in groups of pre-school children with and without CIB, and in young adults, using task-relevant and task-irrelevant distractors. Both groups of children showed greater veering towards distractors than did adults, implying a lower capacity to inhibit automatic responses. Crucially, this effect was stronger in children with CIB than without CIB when a task-irrelevant distractor was presented. These findings support the idea that CIB reflects a failure to inhibit automatically primed actions towards salient stimuli. PMID:22230227

  18. Statistical analysis of axial deformity during distraction osteogenesis of the tibia.

    PubMed

    Leyes, M; Noonan, K J; Forriol, F; Cañadell, J

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we documented the prevalence of coronal axis malalignment in a series of 93 tibias (from 54 patients) lengthened with monolateral fixation. The average length obtained by distraction osteogenesis was 8.9 cm (range, 3.5-15.6) or 38% of the original bone length (range, 11-78%). Fifty (54%) of 93 tibias had documented valgus angulation of > or = 10 degrees or had fixator manipulation during the lengthening process for undesirable or progressive angulation; no cases of varus angulation were noted. Thirteen (14%) segments had later corrective osteotomy for unsatisfactory valgus malalignment. Statistical analysis revealed two factors to have a significant effect on the rate of malalignment. Those cases that had tibial osteotomy below the proximal one third of the original tibial length and those cases in which the fixator was placed > 5 degrees out of parallel had higher rates of angulation or manipulation (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002). Although the percentage of original bone lengthened was not statistically significant (p = 0.083), it did have an important effect on rates of axial malalignment. From this study we conclude that relatively high rates of malalignment in the tibia during distraction osteogenesis with monolateral external fixation are predominately the result of more distal osteotomies and nonparallel fixator placement. Attention to these details in general, and particularly where long lengthenings are planned, may significantly reduce this common complication. PMID:9580305

  19. Impact of Distracted Driving on Safety and Traffic Flow

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L.; Garner, Annie A.; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A.; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C.; Ball, Karlene K.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Fine, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16 to 25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner that impacts safety and traffic flow negatively when distracted. PMID:23465745

  20. Distraction-Induced Intestinal Growth: The Role of Mechanotransduction Mechanisms in a Mouse Model of Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sueyoshi, Ryo; Ignatoski, Kathleen M. Woods; Okawada, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Novel strategies are needed to address the problem of patients with short bowel syndrome. We previously demonstrated a three-fold lengthening of pig bowel after 2 weeks of applied distractive forces, but we have not elucidated the mechanisms facilitating this growth. We used a mouse model of distraction-induced enterogenesis. High molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) osmotically stretched an isolated small bowel segment (PEG-stretch). Significant increases in villus height and crypt depth and in intestinal epithelial cell length and numbers suggested epithelial remodeling in addition to proliferation during enterogenesis. LC-MS/MS analysis showed a two-fold upregulation of α-actinin-1 and -4. We also demonstrated that p-focal adhesion kinase (FAK), FAK, α-actinin, and Rac1 were significantly upregulated and that F-actin was relocalized in PEG-stretch versus controls. Blockade of the phosphotidyl inositol 3′ kinase pathway failed to influence the increase in proliferation or decline in apoptosis after stretch, suggesting alternative signaling pathways are used, including MEK and P38MAPK, which were both upregulated during enterogenesis. Our data suggests that several known mechanotransduction pathways drive distraction-induced enterogenesis. PMID:24070252

  1. Age-related interference from irrelevant distracters in visual feature search among heterogeneous distracters.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Edward C; Conners, Frances A

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated age-related variations in the influence of heterogeneous distracters during feature target. Participants in three age groups-6-year-old children, 9-year-old children, and young adults-completed three conditions of search. In a singleton search condition, participants searched for a circle among squares of the same color. In two feature mode search conditions, participants searched for a gray circle or a black circle among gray and black squares. Singleton search was performed at the same level of efficiency for all age groups. In contrast, the two feature mode search conditions yielded age-related performance differences in both conditions. Younger children exhibited a steeper slope than young adults when searching for a gray or black circle. Older children exhibited a steeper slope than young adults when searching for a gray circle but not when searching for a black circle. We concluded that these differences revealed age-related improvements in the relative abilities of adults and children to execute attentional control processes during visual search. In particular, it appears that children found it more difficult to maintain the goal of searching for a circle target than adults and were distracted by the presence of the irrelevant feature dimension of color. PMID:23708126

  2. Articaine and lidocaine for maxillary infiltration anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Vähätalo, K.; Antila, H.; Lehtinen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the anesthetic properties of articaine hydrochloride with 1:200,000 epinephrine (Ultracain DS) and lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (Xylocain-Adrenalin) for maxillary infiltration anesthesia. Twenty healthy dental student volunteers were included in this double-blind study. Each subject received 0.6 mL of each test solution at different times. Infiltration anesthesia was performed on the upper lateral incisor. The onset and duration of anesthesia were monitored using an electric pulp tester. No statistically significant differences were seen in the onset and duration of anesthesia between the articaine and lidocaine solutions. PMID:7943919

  3. Segmental neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Galhotra, Virat; Sheikh, Soheyl; Jindal, Sanjeev; Singla, Anshu

    2014-07-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare disorder, characterized by neurofibromas or caf?-au-lait macules limited to one region of the body. Its occurrence on the face is extremely rare and only few cases of segmental neurofibromatosis over the face have been described so far. We present a case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the buccal mucosa, tongue, cheek, ear, and neck on the right side of the face. PMID:25565748

  4. Displaced implants into maxillary sinus: report of cases.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung-In; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2014-06-01

    Although the number of implant placement in the edentulous maxillary region is increasing, there are often some cases in which implants accidentally get displaced into maxillary sinus because of low bone quality, insufficient bone height, bone resorption after surgery, and improper treatment plan. Implants displaced into the maxillary sinus can cause some complications, including mucosal thickening and sinusitis; however, there are also many cases causing no symptoms at all. Treatment procedures for implants displaced into maxillary sinus are observation, removal of implants through intraoral approach, and removal through nasal cavity using endoscope. But treatment may vary according to the presence of sinusitis, ostium obstruction, and oroantral fistula. In this study, 4 patients with present illness of implants displaced into maxillary sinus were selected, and appropriate evaluation and treatment for these cases were studied. PMID:24844385

  5. Multimodal Chemosensory Integration through the Maxillary Palp in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Shiraiwa, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has an olfactory organ called the maxillary palp. It is smaller and numerically simpler than the antenna, and its specific role in behavior has long been unclear. Because of its proximity to the mouthparts, I explored the possibility of a role in taste behavior. Maxillary palp was tuned to mediate odor-induced taste enhancement: a sucrose solution was more appealing when simultaneously presented with the odorant 4-methylphenol. The same result was observed with other odors that stimulate other types of olfactory receptor neuron in the maxillary palp. When an antennal olfactory receptor was genetically introduced in the maxillary palp, the fly interpreted a new odor as a sweet-enhancing smell. These results all point to taste enhancement as a function of the maxillary palp. It also opens the door for studying integration of multiple senses in a model organism. PMID:18478104

  6. Ectopic 3rd molar tooth in the maxillary antrum.

    PubMed

    Bello, Seidu A; Oketade, Ifeoluwa O; Osunde, Otasowie D

    2014-01-01

    Location of ectopic tooth in a nondentate area like the maxillary antrum is rare. A 17-year-old boy, with one year history of recurrent right facial swelling and radiographic finding of a maxillary third molar tooth located at the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum, is presented. Under endotracheal intubation, the tooth was extracted through a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy approach and patient had an uneventful recovery and has been symptom free for eight months. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum is rare and is commonest with maxillary third molar. It may be symptomless but is more commonly associated with inflammatory symptoms. The treatment of choice is surgical excision which is mostly carried out with Caldwell-Luc approach, even though endoscopic approach is being reported. PMID:25132999

  7. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  8. Effects of individual differences on the efficacy of different distracters during visual sexual stimulation in women.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Verena M; Prause, Nicole

    2012-02-01

    Distractions from sexual cues have been shown to decrease the sexual response, but it is unclear how distracters decrease sexual response. Individual differences may modulate the efficacy of distracters. Forty women viewed three sexual films while their labial temperature and continuous self-reported sexual arousal were monitored. One sexual film had simultaneous verbal distracters concerning dissatisfaction with one's physical appearance (higher salience distracter), a second had distracters concerning daily chores (lower salience distracter), and the third sexual film had no distracters. Participant's reporting greater relationship satisfaction and more communication with their partner about their own physical appearance were expected to decrease the efficacy (increased sexual arousal) of the distracters concerning physical appearance. Contrary to expectations, women who received less feedback about their body from their partners reported less sexual arousal during a sexual film with body distracters than a sexual film with general distracters or a sexual film with no distracters. All women exhibited lower labial temperature in Minutes 2 and 3 of the sexual film with body image distracters as compared to the other two sexual films. Possible explanations explored include self-verification theory and individual differences in the indicators that women consider when rating their sexual arousal. PMID:22083654

  9. Prevalence of and factors associated with distraction among public transit bus drivers

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Russell; Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research has suggested that driver distraction is a major cause of driving performance impairment and motor vehicle collisions. Research on the topic has focused on passenger vehicles, with studies suggesting that drivers may be distracted nearly 33% of the time spent driving. To date, no study has examined the prevalence of distraction specifically among public transit bus drivers. Methods Over a three-month period, trained investigators observed and recorded distraction behaviors of bus drivers. Distraction prevalence was compared by route characteristics (e.g., geographic area, travel speed) using chi-square test. A general estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate p-values for distraction prevalence by driver demographics. Results Overall, there was a 39% prevalence of distraction. The most prevalent distractions were due to interactions with another passenger. Distractions were more prevalent among drivers <30 years of age or ?50 years of age, on city streets or highways (relative to residential streets), and when there were more than 20 passengers. Distractions were the least prevalent in suburban areas, with the highest prevalence observed in city centers and rural areas. Conclusions Driver distraction is a common problem for public transit bus drivers, mainly due to other passengers. Drivers should be educated on the hazards of distracted driving and on ways to avoid distraction. PMID:24433192

  10. Conformational Changes in the Carpus During Finger Traps Distraction

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Evan L.; Moore, Douglas C.; Akelman, Edward; Wolfe, Scott W.; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Wrist distraction is a common treatment maneuver used clinically for the reduction of distal radial fractures and mid-carpal dislocations. Wrist distraction is also required during wrist arthroscopy to access the radiocarpal joint and has been used as a test for scapholunate ligament injury. However, the effect of a distraction load on the normal wrist has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to measure the 3-D conformational changes of the carpal bones in the normal wrist as a result of a static distractive load. Methods The dominant wrists of 14 healthy volunteers were scanned using computed tomography at rest and during application of 98N of distraction. Load was applied using finger traps and volunteers were encouraged to relax their forearm muscles and to allow distraction of the wrist. The motions of the bones in the wrist were tracked between the unloaded and loaded trial using markerless bone registration. The average displacement vector of each bone was calculated relative to the radius as well as the interbone distances for 20 bone-bone interactions. Joint separation was estimated at the radiocarpal, midcarpal and carpal-metacarpal joints in the direction of loading using the radius, lunate, capitate and 3rd metacarpal. Results With loading, the distance between the radius and 3rd metacarpal increased an average of 3.33.1mm in the direction of loading. This separation was primarily located in the axial direction at the radiocarpal (1.01.0mm) and midcarpal (2.01.7mm) joints. There were minimal changes in the transverse direction within the distal row, although the proximal row narrowed by 0.980.7mm. Distraction between the radius and scaphoid (2.52.2mm) was 2.4 times greater than between the radius and lunate (1.01.0mm). Conclusions Carpal distraction has a significant effect on the conformation of the carpus, especially at the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints. In the normal wrist, external traction causes twice as much distraction at the lunocapitate joint than at the radiolunate joint. PMID:20141894

  11. Stability following combined maxillary and mandibular osteotomies treated with rigid internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Law, J H; Rotskoff, K S; Smith, R J

    1989-02-01

    Skeletal stability was examined in 16 patients following combined maxillary and mandibular osteotomies using rigid internal fixation. Postoperative changes (T2 to T3) were generally less than 1.0 mm for linear measurements and less than 2.0 degrees for angular measurements. The removal of maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) splints accounted for 85% to 95% of the counterclockwise rotation in the proximal and distal mandibular segments from T2 to T3. Maxillary inferior repositioning and large mandibular advancements exhibited the greatest tendency for relapse; however, the changes were less than with comparable procedures using nonrigid methods for stabilization. Except for large mandibular advancements, relapse was essentially unrelated to the magnitude of the surgical repositioning. Although the use of skeletal, maxillomandibular, and transosseous wire fixation have traditionally provided satisfactory clinical results, the use of rigid internal fixation in combined osteotomy procedures provides better stabilization of dentosseous segments when compared with these nonrigid methods, and may be particularly indicated in complex surgical procedures. PMID:2913245

  12. Alveolar ridge augmentation using distraction osteogenesis: a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Anand; Singh, Saumyendra V; Kumar, Sumit; Mehrotra, Divya; Mohammad, S; Singh, Stuti

    2012-01-01

    Background Severely resorbed ridges present a great challenge to prosthodontic rehabilitation. Available reconstructive options include autologous/alloplastic augmentation with questionable results, or regeneration of new bone under gradual and controlled tension using distraction osteogenesis. This study focused on use of distraction osteogenesis for the treatment of vertically deficient alveolar ridges to assess its feasibility and outcome. Materials and Methods Alveolar distraction osteogenesis (ADO) was studied at 10 different intra-oral, partial or complete edentulous sites. After a latency period of 5 days, distraction was carried out for 67 days at the rate of 0.5 mm every 12 hours (1 mm/day). Distractor was removed after a consolidation period of 12 weeks. Results The mean height gained at the 10 intra-oral sites was 4.8 mm with standard deviation of 0.056. The mean follow-up period was 2 years. Complications of therapy included hardware failure, wound gape and extra-oral scar. The overall complication rate was 10%. Conclusion Distraction osteogenesis is a promising option to aid uneventful prosthodontic rehabilitation of severe vertically resorbed alveolar ridges. PMID:25756028

  13. Early sensory processing deficits predict sensitivity to distraction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smucny, Jason; Olincy, Ann; Eichman, Lindsay C; Lyons, Emma; Tregellas, Jason R

    2013-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia frequently report difficulties paying attention during important tasks, because they are distracted by noise in the environment. The neurobiological mechanism underlying this problem is, however, poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine if early sensory processing deficits contribute to sensitivity to distracting noise in schizophrenia. To that end, we examined the effect of environmentally relevant distracting noise on performance of an attention task in 19 patients with schizophrenia and 22 age and gender-matched healthy comparison subjects. Using electroencephalography, P50 auditory gating ratios also were measured in the same subjects and were examined for their relationship to noise-induced changes in performance on the attention task. Positive symptoms also were evaluated in patients. Distracting noise caused a greater increase in reaction time in patients, relative to comparison subjects, on the attention task. Higher P50 auditory gating ratios also were observed in patients. P50 gating ratio significantly correlated with the magnitude of noise-induced increase in reaction time. Noise-induced increase in reaction time was associated with delusional thoughts in patients. P50 ratios were associated with delusional thoughts and hallucinations in patients. In conclusion, the observation of noise effects on attention in patients is consistent with subjective reports from patients. The observed relationship between noise effects on reaction time and P50 auditory gating supports the hypothesis that early inhibitory processing deficits may contribute to susceptibility to distraction in the illness. PMID:23590872

  14. Masticatory Mechanics of a Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis Site: Interfragmentary Micromovement

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zongyang; Rafferty, Katherine L.; Egbert, Mark A.; Herring, Susan W.

    2007-01-01

    Micromovement at a fracture or distraction osteogenesis (DO) site may play an important role in bone formation and healing. Mastication is an important physiological process that can cause substantial micromovement at a mandibular disjunction. The purpose of this study is to characterize and quantify the micromovement caused by mastication. Eighteen pigs, divided into three groups based on duration of consolidation, received a unilateral (right) mandibular angle distraction osteogenesis protocol. Differential variable reluctance transducers (DVRTs) and ultrasound crystals were used to measure the change of gap width as well as interfragmentary movement during mastication. Synchronized chewing video and interfragmentary movement recordings were used to determine the magnitude and direction of micromovement at different phases of the chewing cycle. The magnitude of micromovement did not increase significantly with distraction up to almost 5 mm, but did decrease gradually with consolidation. The average micromovement magnitude during the distraction phase was 0.2-0.3 mm, equaling 50,000-250,000 microstrain (??) on interfragmentary tissue. The dominant deformation pattern was bending in the sagittal plane. The most common direction of bending at the power stroke of chewing was concave dorsally, i.e. superior shortening and inferior lengthening. These findings elucidate how masticatory mechanics affect a mandibular distraction site, and the measurements may be useful for future simulation studies. PMID:17532283

  15. Neuronal effects of auditory distraction on visual attention.

    PubMed

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C; Eichman, Lindsay C; Tregellas, Jason R

    2013-03-01

    Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27 healthy adults during two versions of the visual Sustained Attention To Response Task (SART) that differ in difficulty (and thus attentional load). A significant condition (noise or silence) by task (easy or difficult) interaction was observed in several areas, including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), fusiform gyrus (FG), posterior cingulate (PCC), and pre-supplementary motor area (PreSMA). Post hoc analyses of interaction effects revealed deactivation of DLPFC, PCC, and PreSMA during distracting noise under conditions of low attentional load, and activation of FG and PCC during distracting noise under conditions of high attentional load. These results suggest that distracting noise may help alert subjects to task goals and reduce demands on cortical resources during tasks of low difficulty and attentional load. Under conditions of higher load, however, additional cognitive resources may be required in the presence of noise. PMID:23291265

  16. Treatment options of untreatable traumatized anterior maxillary teeth for future use of dental implantation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Arad, Devorah; Levin, Liran; Ashkenazi, Malka

    2004-03-01

    The anterior maxilla is the most traumatized region during childhood. Posttraumatic complications occasionally lead to tooth loss as well as the need for future implants. Unfortunately, it is contraindicated to place dental implants during childhood. A waiting period of approximately 8 to 10 years before completion of growth is required. For this patient to become a candidate for future dental implants, it is necessary to ensure the continuous growth and to preserve the dimensions of the alveolar process until growth has ceased from time of injury until joint maturation. To achieve these goals, it is essential to coordinate the treatment sequence at the time of trauma. After loss of a traumatized anterior permanent maxillary incisor in young adults, treatment options are limited: orthodontic closure of the gap and reshaping the adjacent teeth, or tooth extraction and maintaining the gap with a temporary restoration. Orthodontic space closure has limited indications and requires prosthetic restoration of at least 2 teeth. Extraction and temporary restoration will usually lead to bone augmentation before implantation. Other possible treatment options include orthodontic extrusion of the root remnant (in cases of untreatable root fracture or complicated crown-root fracture) and a temporary crown to serve the patient until the completion of growth and development, autogenous tooth transplantation, intentional extraction and immediate tooth replantation, distraction osteogenesis, and decoronation. Because general rules do not apply, individual treatment plans are necessary. PMID:15017299

  17. Treatment options of untreatable traumatized anterior maxillary teeth for future use of dental implantation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Arad, Devorah; Levin, Liran; Ashkenazi, Malka

    2004-06-01

    The anterior maxilla is the most traumatized region during childhood. Posttraumatic complications occasionally lead to tooth loss as well as the need for future implants. Unfortunately, it is contraindicated to place dental implants during childhood. A waiting period of approximately 8 to 10 years before completion of growth is required. For this patient to become a candidate for future dental implants, it is necessary to ensure the continuous growth and to preserve the dimensions of the alveolar process until growth has ceased from time of injury until joint maturation. To achieve these goals, it is essential to coordinate the treatment sequence at the time of trauma. After loss of a traumatized anterior permanent maxillary incisor in young adults, treatment options are limited: orthodontic closure of the gap and reshaping the adjacent teeth, or tooth extraction and maintaining the gap with a temporary restoration. Orthdontic space closure has limited indications and requires prosthetic restoration of at least 2 teeth. Extraction and temporary restoration will usually lead to bone augmentation before implantation. Other possible treatment options include orthodontic extrusion of the root remnant (in cases of untreatable root fracture or complicated crown-root fracture) and a temporary crown to serve the patient until the completion of growth and development, autogenous tooth transplantation, intentional extraction and immediate tooth replantation, distraction osteogenesis, and decoronation. Because general rules do not apply, individual treatment plans are necessary. PMID:15179087

  18. Maxillary sinus carcinoma: result of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, H.; Horiuchi, J.; Suzuki, S.; Shioda, S.; Enomoto, S.

    1984-07-01

    This hundred and sixteen patients with carcinoma of the maxillary sinus received primary therapy consisting of external beam irradiation alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy at the Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital, between 1953 and 1982. In our institution, methods of treating cancer of the maxillary sinus have been changed from time to time and showed different control rates and clinical courses. An actuarial 10-year survival rate of 21% has been obtained by the megavoltage irradiation alone as well as 34% actuarial 10-year survival rate by megavoltage irradiation with surgery. After the introduction of conservative surgery followed by conventional trimodal combination therapy, the local control rate has been improved. The amount of functional, cosmetic, and brain damages have been remarkably decreased by this mode of therapy. The actuarial five year survival rate was 67%. In addition, along with the improvement of the local control rate, the control of nodal and distant organ metastases have been emerging as one of the important contributions to the prognosis of this disease.

  19. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-01-01

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation. PMID:24577171

  20. Randomized clinical trial of musical distraction with and without headphones for adolescents' immunization pain.

    PubMed

    Kristjnsdttir, lf; Kristjnsdttir, Gurn

    2011-03-01

    Distraction has shown to be a helpful pain intervention for children; however, few investigations have studied the effectiveness of this method with adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an easy and practical musical distraction in reducing adolescents' immunization pain. Furthermore, to examine whether musical distraction techniques (with or without headphones) used influenced the pain outcome. Hundred and eighteen 14-year-old adolescents, scheduled for polio immunization, participated. Adolescents were randomly assigned to one of three research groups; musical distraction with headphones (n=38), musical distraction without headphones (n=41) and standard care control (n=39). Results showed adolescents receiving musical distraction were less likely to report pain compared to the control group, controlling for covariates. Comparing musical distraction techniques, eliminating headphone emerged as a significant predictor of no pain. Results suggest that an easy and practical musical distraction intervention, implemented without headphones, can give some pain relief to adolescents during routine vaccination. PMID:20409050

  1. Perineal Post Padding Technique to Improve Hip Distraction in Tall Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Benjamin D.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Bressler, Leah R.; Sarmast, Sara M.; Nho, Shane J.

    2015-01-01

    Hip distraction is necessary for safe arthroscopic entry into the hip joint. Achieving sufficient distraction is difficult in exceedingly tall patients (>190.5 cm) because of size limitations of currently available hip distraction systems. Inadequate distraction can delay the surgical procedure and potentially lead to complications. By repurposing a foam head-positioning block, we report a safe and inexpensive positioning technique for extending the traction distance for tall patients by 2 inches. PMID:26870657

  2. Comparison of different distraction rates in the mandible: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    al Ruhaimi, K A

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated bone distracted in rabbit mandibles at different intervals and with different daily rates of distraction histologically with the goal of attaining a universally accepted distraction protocol. Osteogenesis was investigated in mandibles distracted at different rates in 24 New Zealand rabbits using a custom-made submerged distractor. Distraction was started on the third postoperative day for a total of 10 mm. The animals were divided into four groups each containing six rabbits. Group 1 was distracted 0.5 mm twice a day; Group 2 was distracted 1.0 mm once a day; Group 3 was distracted 1.0 mm twice a day and Group 4 was distracted 2.0 mm once a day. All the animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after completion of distraction. Half of the distracted mandibles were decalcified for H&E staining and polarized light microscopy studies. Sections of the undecalcified half of the samples were stained with Goldner's stain. The results indicate that a distraction rate of 1.0 mm per day produced the best osteogenesis among the tested rates. There was no great difference in osteogenesis between 1.0 mm once a day and 0.5 mm twice a day. However, 0.5-mm distraction may result in immature bone healing. Distraction of 1.0 mm twice a day resulted in incomplete osteogenesis, while distraction of 2.0 mm once a day resulted in fibrous union. It is clear from these results that a shorter period of device fixation should be achieved by methods other than rapid distraction. PMID:11420905

  3. The prevalence of distraction among passenger vehicle drivers: a roadside observational approach

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving contributes to a large proportion of motor vehicle crashes, yet little is known about the prevalence of distracted driving and the specific types of distracting behaviors. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of driver distraction using a roadside observational study design. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving direct roadside observation was conducted at 11 selected intersections. Trained investigators observed a sample of passenger vehicles and recorded distraction-related behaviors, driver characteristics, and contextual factors such as vehicle speed and traffic flow. Results Of the 3,265 drivers observed, the prevalence of distracted driving was 32.7%. Among those involved in a distracting activity, the most frequently observed distractions included interacting with another passenger (53.2%, where passengers were present), talking on the phone (31.4%), external-vehicle distractions (20.4%), and texting/dialing a phone (16.6%). The prevalence of talking on the phone was higher among females than males (38.6% vs. 24.3%), whereas external vehicle distractions were higher among males than females (25.8% vs. 24.3%). Drivers <30 years were observed being engaged in any distracting activity, interacting with other passengers and texting/dialing more frequently than drivers aged 3050 and >50 years. Drivers were engaged in distracting behaviors more frequently when the car was stopped. Conclusions When using similar methodology, roadside observational studies generate comparable prevalence estimates of driver distraction as naturalistic driving studies. Driver distraction is a common problem among passenger vehicle drivers. Despite the increased awareness on the dangers of texting and cell phone use while driving, these specific activities were two of the most frequently observed distractions. There is a continued need for road safety education about the dangers of distracted driving, especially for younger drivers. PMID:24761827

  4. New-onset craniosynostosis after posterior vault distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tahiri, Youssef; Paliga, James Thomas; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to document the incidence of new-onset craniosynostosis (NOC) after posterior vault distraction osteogenesis (PVDO), to determine risk factors for the development of NOC, and to deduce the cranial ramifications of NOC. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review of all patients who underwent PVDO at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was performed. Demographics, perioperative data, as well as preoperative and postoperative three-dimensional computed tomographic scans were analyzed. Suture patency preoperatively and postoperatively was recorded.Thirty patients underwent PVDO for suspected increased intracranial pressure and/or severe turribrachicephaly from 2008 to 2013. Twenty-four patients had syndromic diagnoses. The average age at the time of PVDO was 2.03 years. Distraction distances ranged from 19 to 40 mm, with an average of 28.7 mm. Among the 19 patients who had patent lambdoid sutures before PVDO, new-onset lambdoid fusion was seen in 17 patients after PVDO (89.5%), whereas the suture remained open in 2 patients (10.5%). New-onset lambdoid fusion was not significantly associated with age at distraction (P = 0.28), sex (P = 0.47), length of distraction (P = 0.93), or diagnosis (P = 0.61). Similarly, new-onset sagittal synostosis was not associated with age at distraction (P = 0.06), sex (P = 0.64), length of distraction (P = 0.83), or diagnosis (P = 0.25). None of the patients who developed NOC had characteristic head shape changes such as mastoid bulges or scaphocephaly. New-onset lambdoid and sagittal synostoses occur frequently after PVDO. Although the diagnosis of NOC is obvious radiographically, the clinical importance of the diagnosis morphometrically, neurodevelopmentally, and in cranial growth has yet to be fully investigated. PMID:25469894

  5. Distracted driving and implications for injury prevention in adults.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Jane; Grell, Jennifer; Lohrman, Nicole; Stehly, Christy; Stoltzfus, Jill; Wainwright, Gail; Hoff, William S

    2013-01-01

    Distracted driving, a significant public safety issue, is typically categorized as cell phone use and texting. The increase of distracted driving behavior (DDB) has resulted in an increase in injury and death. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and perception of DDB in adults. A 7-question SurveyMonkey questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of adults. Standard demographics included age, gender, and highest levels of education. Primary outcome questions were related to frequency of DDB, and overall perceptions specific to distracted driving. Results were compared on the basis of demographics. Chi-square testing and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance were applied, with statistical significance defined as P ? .05. There were 1857 respondents to the survey: 1721 were aged 23-64 years (93%); 1511 were women (81%); 1461 had high school education or greater (79%). A total of 168 respondents (9%) reported being involved in a car accident while distracted. The highest reported frequency of DDB included cell phone use (69%), eating/drinking (67%), and reaching for an object in the care (49%). Younger age (18-34 years) and higher level of education (bachelor's degree or greater) were statistically associated with these DDB; gender demonstrated no statistical significance. Text messaging was reported by 538 respondents (29%), with a statistically significant association with age (18-34 years), higher education (bachelor's degree or greater), and gender (males). A total of 1143 respondents (63%) believed that they could drive safely while distracted. This study demonstrates that DDB in adults is not restricted to reading and sending text messages. Moreover, these results indicated that people fail to perceive the dangers inherent in distracted driving. Prevention and outreach education should not be limited to texting and cell phone use but should target all forms of DDB. The age group 18-34 years should be the primary target in the adult population. PMID:23459429

  6. Analytics For Distracted Driver Behavior Modeling in Dilemma Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jan-Mou; Malikopoulos, Andreas; Thakur, Gautam; Vatsavai, Raju

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results obtained and insights gained through the analysis of TRB contest data. We used exploratory analysis, regression, and clustering models for gaining insights into the driver behavior in a dilemma zone while driving under distraction. While simple exploratory analysis showed the distinguishing driver behavior patterns among different popu- lation groups in the dilemma zone, regression analysis showed statically signification relationships between groups of variables. In addition to analyzing the contest data, we have also looked into the possible impact of distracted driving on the fuel economy.

  7. 78 FR 24817 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is concerned about the effects of distraction on motor vehicle safety due to drivers' use of electronic devices. Consequently, NHTSA is issuing nonbinding, voluntary Driver Distraction Guidelines (NHTSA Guidelines) to promote safety by discouraging the introduction of excessively distracting devices in vehicles. This notice announces......

  8. 77 FR 11199 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is concerned about the effects of distraction due to drivers' use of electronic devices on motor vehicle safety. Consequently, NHTSA is issuing nonbinding, voluntary NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines (NHTSA Guidelines) to promote safety by discouraging the introduction of excessively distracting devices in vehicles. This notice......

  9. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

  10. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they

  11. Maxillary antral bone grafts for repair of orbital fractures.

    PubMed

    Copeland, M; Meisner, J

    1991-04-01

    Use of bone from the maxillary antrum to repair defects in the orbital floor was described more than 20 years ago but has not been reported for correction of orbital rim fractures. The method is appealing because the source is contiguous with the recipient site; enhanced exposure might allow better fracture reduction and evacuation of debris and hematoma from the maxillary sinus. The intraoral approach also avoids an external incision and scar, prevents such complications as pneumothorax or dural perforation, and reduces postoperative pain. In 60 cases of orbital and zygomatic complex fractures seen between 1985 and 1990, less than 8% required more extensive graft material than the maxillary antra could provide. To assess the potential advantages of local over extraanatomical bone grafts, we evaluated maxillary antral bone grafts obtained through buccal sulcus incisions in 14 patients for restoration following fractures of the orbit. Several of these patients are described. Bone union was complete in all patients and there was no morbidity related to infection, oroantral fistula formation, dehiscence, or disfigurement. Sufficient bone was available from the uninvolved contralateral side to repair even severely comminuted fractures. In zygomatic complex fractures, maxillary antral grafts appeared to provide additional strength in the region of the fractured maxillary buttress. The success of the procedure in our experience, coupled with the safety of bone harvesting from this source, and the avoidance of an external scar make maxillary antral bone well suited to reconstruction of all areas of the orbit. PMID:1807409

  12. Bilateral inverted and impacted maxillary third molars: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Ali; Al-Turkmani, Tareq; Al-Yousef, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral inverted third molar impaction is an extremely rare condition. We reported the case of a 50-year-old female patient with bilateral inverted and impacted maxillary third molars. Both were asymptomatic and pathology free clinically and radiographically. Surgical extraction of these inverted third molars with inaccessible positions requires an aggressive bone removal on the tuberosity bilaterally. Moreover, it contains a high risk of displacement of the inverted third molar into the maxillary sinus. Conservative management was the choice, with the patients agreement, and the inverted third molars were left in situ. Key words:Bilateral inverted, maxillary third molar, upper impacted tooth. PMID:26330945

  13. [History of treatment and classification of maxillary sinus neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Skorek, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    History of treatment of maxillary malignant neoplasms goes back to the middle of 19th century, when Gensoul and Lizzard performed their first maxillectomy. However the development of maxillar surgery is connected with achivements of Moure, who as the first one characterized and applied innovative skin cut on the face. Author presents the history of other surgical procedures in therapy of maxillary tumors and describes methods which are apply nowaday. Attention is paid to the Polish contributions and accomplishments in diagnostics and treatment of tumors localized in this area. The classification of maxillary tumors from Sebileau dissertation till the newest TNM classification from 2001 is described. PMID:16471201

  14. Giant complex odontoma in maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Visioli, Adriano Rossini; de Oliveira e Silva, Clverson; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present a rare case report of giant complex odontoma in the maxillary sinus, where the applied therapy included complete excision of the lesion with a conservative approach. Odontomas are also called benign growth abnormalities or hamartomas. They represent a more common type of odontogenic tumor and are related to various disorders such as bad dental placements, expansion, increased volumetric bone, and no eruption of permanent teeth. Usually they have an asymptomatic evolutionary course. The etiologic factors, although obscure, are related to local trauma, infection, and genetic factor. The structural composition of an odontoma consists of mature dental tissues. Odontomas can be differentiated according to their anatomical presentations: Compound odontoma-clusters of several denticles and complex odontoma-well defined tumefaction mass. The diagnosis can be performed by radiographic examination. PMID:26389051

  15. Maxillary sinusitis caused by Pleurophomopsis lignicola.

    PubMed

    Padhye, A A; Gutekunst, R W; Smith, D J; Punithalingam, E

    1997-08-01

    An immunocompetent 59-year-old man developed sinusitis over a 6- to 8-month period after cutting down a rotted maple tree (Acer sp.). A polypoid obstruction with a bloody drainage was evident in his right nasal cavity. A computed tomographic scan showed an opacification of the maxillary sinus. Surgery was performed to remove a fungus ball that had extended into the patient's medial sinus cavity. Sections of the sinonasal mucosa revealed marked acute and chronic sinusitis with inflammation, congestion, and hemorrhage. Sections from the pasty brown to black debrided material revealed a fungus ball consisting of an extensive network of brown-pigmented, septate, profusely branched hyphae. When grown on oat agar, the phaeoid fungus produced pycnidia and was identified as Pleurophomopsis lignicola. The genus Pleurophomopsis includes seven species, which are all known from plant material. This report documents for the first time a coelomycetous fungus, P. lignicola, causing sinusitis in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:9230398

  16. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Roger K

    2006-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 1822 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated. PMID:16722608

  17. Maxillary cyst: description of a clinical case

    PubMed Central

    CIULLI, E.; ROCCI, M.; BOLLERO, R.; PANDOLFI, C.; OTTRIA, L.; MAMPIERI, G.; BARLATTANI, A.; BOLLERO, P.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim of the work Aim of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of the Partsch I surgical technique which is considered to be first choice in the treatment of cystic lesions according to the international literature and also to evaluate the regeneration capacity of the bone tissue without any grafting procedure. Materials and methods The patient reported pain in the second quadrant. The objective intraoral examination showed a swelling which was of a hard-elastic consistency and, the x-ray, opt and ct scan exams showed an osteolitic lesion which expanded from the element 2.3 to the elment 2.6 involving the maxillary sinus, too. The lesion was removed by the Partsch I method after disinfecting and shaping the radicular canals of the 2.3 element. It was assessed that the maxillary sinus requested no treatment for the presence of a thin cortical layer residue. The removed neoformation was then sent to the Anatomy and Histology Pathology Service. Results The histologic test confirmed the radicular origin of the odontogenic neoformation containing a necrotic-hemorrhage. Clinically the post-operative course showed no complications, with a good healing of the bone tissue and there was no oral-antral communications. Conclusions The clinical results obtained confirmed the validity of the enucleation technique in the treatment of cystic neoformations. Such approach has always to be preferred because it presents no intraoperative risks, especially for what it concerns the post-operative course. It has also been confirmed the great capacity for the bone tissue to regenerate following the organization of the hematic coagulum. PMID:23285360

  18. Changes in the inferior alveolar nerve following mandibular lengthening in the dog using distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Block, M S; Daire, J; Stover, J; Matthews, M

    1993-06-01

    Distraction osteogenesis as per Ilizarov was used to lengthen the canine mandible. In this study, physiological and ultrastructural examination of the inferior nerve was performed. Mandibular body corticotomies were performed, and the mandible was distracted 7 mm. The animals were killed 4 weeks after the distraction was completed. Bone formed within the distraction gap in all dogs. There was no statistically significant difference in the jaw-jerk voltage between control and experimental sides. There was a significant difference between the distracted and control nerves in only one area of one nerve. PMID:8492203

  19. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  20. Distraction osteogenesis for correction of post ankylosis mandibular deformities

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ahmed; Fareed, Wamiq Musheer; Tandon, Parul; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Temporomandibular joint ankylosis, a debilitating disease mainly affecting children, is characterized by progressive restriction of mouth opening and maxilla-mandibular developmental deformities. Craniofacial distraction osteogenesis has been developed as a standard surgical strategy for rectification of craniofacial deformities. The purpose of this study was to assess mono-planar distraction devices for the correction of various mandibular asymmetries in patients with unilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis who developed restricted mouth opening and mandibular retrognathia. All patients were treated using one-stage distraction osteogenesis followed by temporalis fascia interpositional arthroplasty under general anesthesia. A significant increase in mandibular ramus and base length was observed. Although an increase in anterior lower facial height was observed, it was not significant statistically. A decrease in posterior lower facial height and corpus was observed. Oblique distraction with angular osteotomy allowed lengthening of both the ramus and corpus, yielding satisfactory results and hence eliminating the need of secondary surgery. In conclusion, univector internal distractors are effective for correction of multi-planar mandibular deficiencies by optimizing its placement through meticulous planning. PMID:26243521

  1. 23 CFR 1200.24 - Distracted driving grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distracted driving grants. 1200.24 Section 1200.24 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS UNIFORM PROCEDURES FOR STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY GRANT PROGRAMS National Priority...

  2. THE EFFECT OF AGING ON DISTRACTION OSTEOGENESIS IN THE RAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of age on bone formation in the limb lengthening model of distraction osteogenesis (DO) was investigated in two studies using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats from two colonies at various ages (CAMM: 9 vs. 24 months, Harlan : 4 vs. 24 months). External fixators were placed on the right tibiae of...

  3. Nonoperative Management of Craniocervical Ligamentous Distraction Injury: Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Nathan B; Molinari, Christine; Molinari, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Literature review and case report. Objective Review the existing literature and report the successful nonoperative management of a two-level craniocervical ligamentous distraction injury. Methods A PubMed and Medline review revealed only three limited reports involving the nonoperative management of patients with craniocervical distraction injury. This article reviews the existing literature and reports the case of a 27-year-old man who was involved in a motorcycle accident and sustained multiple systemic injuries and ligamentous distraction injuries to both occipitocervical joints and both C1-C2 joints. The patient's traumatic brain injury and bilateral pulmonary contusions precluded safe operative management of the two-level craniocervical distraction injury. Therefore, the patient was placed in a halo immobilization device. Results The literature remains unclear as to the specific indications for nonoperative management of ligamentous craniocervical injuries. Nonoperative management was associated with poor outcomes in the majority of reported patients. We report a patient who was managed for 6 months in a halo device. Posttreatment computed tomography and flexion-extension radiographs demonstrated stable occipitocervical and C1-C2 joints bilaterally. The patient reported minimal neck pain and had excellent functional outcome with a Neck Disability Index score of 2 points at 41 months postoperatively. He returned to preinjury level of employment without restriction. Conclusions Further study is needed to determine which craniocervical injuries may be managed successfully with nonoperative measures. PMID:26682101

  4. Nonoperative Management of Craniocervical Ligamentous Distraction Injury: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Nathan B.; Molinari, Christine; Molinari, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Literature review and case report. Objective Review the existing literature and report the successful nonoperative management of a two-level craniocervical ligamentous distraction injury. Methods A PubMed and Medline review revealed only three limited reports involving the nonoperative management of patients with craniocervical distraction injury. This article reviews the existing literature and reports the case of a 27-year-old man who was involved in a motorcycle accident and sustained multiple systemic injuries and ligamentous distraction injuries to both occipitocervical joints and both C1–C2 joints. The patient's traumatic brain injury and bilateral pulmonary contusions precluded safe operative management of the two-level craniocervical distraction injury. Therefore, the patient was placed in a halo immobilization device. Results The literature remains unclear as to the specific indications for nonoperative management of ligamentous craniocervical injuries. Nonoperative management was associated with poor outcomes in the majority of reported patients. We report a patient who was managed for 6 months in a halo device. Posttreatment computed tomography and flexion–extension radiographs demonstrated stable occipitocervical and C1–C2 joints bilaterally. The patient reported minimal neck pain and had excellent functional outcome with a Neck Disability Index score of 2 points at 41 months postoperatively. He returned to preinjury level of employment without restriction. Conclusions Further study is needed to determine which craniocervical injuries may be managed successfully with nonoperative measures. PMID:26682101

  5. Distraction by emotional sounds: Disentangling arousal benefits and orienting costs.

    PubMed

    Max, Caroline; Widmann, Andreas; Kotz, Sonja A; Schrger, Erich; Wetzel, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    Unexpectedly occurring task-irrelevant stimuli have been shown to impair performance. They capture attention away from the main task leaving fewer resources for target processing. However, the actual distraction effect depends on various variables; for example, only target-informative distractors have been shown to cause costs of attentional orienting. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that high arousing emotional distractors, as compared with low arousing neutral distractors, can improve performance by increasing alertness. We aimed to separate costs of attentional orienting and benefits of arousal by presenting negative and neutral environmental sounds (novels) as oddballs in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Participants categorized pictures while task-irrelevant sounds preceded visual targets in two conditions: (a) informative sounds reliably signaled onset and occurrence of visual targets, and (b) noninformative sounds occurred unrelated to visual targets. Results confirmed that only informative novels yield distraction. Importantly, irrespective of sounds' informational value participants responded faster in trials with high arousing negative as compared with moderately arousing neutral novels. That is, costs related to attentional orienting are modulated by information, whereas benefits related to emotional arousal are independent of a sound's informational value. This favors a nonspecific facilitating cross-modal influence of emotional arousal on visual task performance and suggests that behavioral distraction by noninformative novels is controlled after their motivational significance has been determined. PMID:26053245

  6. Distraction and Facilitation--Two Faces of the Same Coin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Nicole; Widmann, Andreas; Schroger, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected and task-irrelevant sounds can capture our attention and may cause distraction effects reflected by impaired performance in a primary task unrelated to the perturbing sound. The present auditory-visual oddball study examines the effect of the informational content of a sound on the performance in a visual discrimination task. The…

  7. Attentional Inertia Reduces Distractibility During Young Children's TV Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the effects of an audiovisual distractor on the visual attention paid to TV by preschool children characterized as distractible. The effectiveness of an audiovisual distractor eliciting a head turn from the TV was diminished when TV viewing had been maintained for at least 15 seconds. (PCB)

  8. Auditory Distraction in Semantic Memory: A Process-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate auditory-semantic distraction in tests of memory for semantic category-exemplars. The effects of irrelevant sound on category-exemplar recall are shown to be functionally distinct from those found in the context of serial short-term memory by showing sensitivity to: The lexical-semantic, rather than acoustic,

  9. Distraction and Facilitation--Two Faces of the Same Coin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Nicole; Widmann, Andreas; Schroger, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected and task-irrelevant sounds can capture our attention and may cause distraction effects reflected by impaired performance in a primary task unrelated to the perturbing sound. The present auditory-visual oddball study examines the effect of the informational content of a sound on the performance in a visual discrimination task. The

  10. Molecular signaling in bone fracture healing and distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Luyten, F P; Lammens, J; Dequeker, J

    1999-04-01

    The process of fracture healing has been described in detail in many histological studies. Recent work has focused on the mechanisms by which growth and differentiation factors regulate the fracture healing process. Rapid progress in skeletal cellular and molecular biology has led to the identification of many signaling molecules associated with the formation of skeletal tissues, including members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family. Increasing evidence indicates that they are critical regulators of cellular proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix biosynthesis and mineralization. Limb lengthening procedure (distraction osteogenesis) is a relevant model to investigate the in vivo correlation between mechanical stimulation and biological responses as the callus is stretched by a proper rate and rhythm of mechanical strain. This model also provides additional insights into the molecular and cellular events during bone fracture repair. TGF-beta 1 was significantly increased in both the distracted callus and the fracture callus. The increased level of TGF-beta 1, together with a low concentration of calcium and an enhanced level of collagen synthesis, was maintained in the distracted callus as long as mechanical strain was applied. Less mineralization is also associated with a low level of osteocalcin production. These observations provide further insights into the molecular basis for the cellular events during distraction osteogenesis. PMID:10212821

  11. Comparison of local and systemic alendronate on distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kk, Dervi?han; Ay, Sinan; Kara, M Isa; Avunduk, M Cihat; Gmus, Cesur

    2011-12-01

    This study compared the effect of systemic and local administration of alendronate on distraction osteogenesis in rabbit mandibles. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to 3 groups: 10 rabbits for systemic alendronate; 9 for local alendronate; and 11 as controls. After a 5 day latency period, distraction was performed at a rate of 0.8mm/day for 9 days via a custom-made distractor. Animals were killed at the end of the consolidation period of 28 days. The distracted mandibles were harvested and evaluated by plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and histomorphometry. Histologically, comparing the systemic and local alendronate groups, there were no statistically significant differences in the bone healing parameters, but each group showed a statistically superior effect over the control group (p<0.05). Quantitative CT evaluation showed a significant difference mean in the density of the regeneration between experimental and control groups. There was a significant increase in mean bone mineral density in the experimental groups compared with the control group. Histologic, CT, and DEXA analysis demonstrated that using systemic and local alendronate may be effective in accelerating new bone formation in the distraction gap in rabbit mandibles. PMID:21945486

  12. Histomorphometry of distraction osteogenesis in a caprine tibial lengthening model.

    PubMed

    Welch, R D; Birch, J G; Makarov, M R; Samchukov, M L

    1998-01-01

    Standardized histomorphometry of bone formation and remodeling during distraction osteogenesis (DO) has not been well characterized. Increasing the rhythm or number of incremental lengthenings performed per day is reported to enhance bone formation during limb lengthening. In 17 skeletally immature goats, unilateral tibial lengthenings to 20 or 30% of original length were performed at a rate of 0.75 mm/day and rhythms of 1, 4, or 720 times per day using standard Ilizarov external fixation and an autodistractor system. Two additional animals underwent frame application and osteotomy without lengthening and served as osteotomy healing controls. Histomorphometric indices were measured at predetermined regions from undecalcified tibial specimens. Within the distraction region, bone formation and remodeling activity were location dependent. Intramembranous bone formed linearly oriented columns of interconnecting trabecular plates of woven and lamellar type bone. Total new bone volume and bone formation indices were significantly increased within the distraction and osteotomy callus regions (Tb.BV/TV, 226% [p < 0.05]; BFR/BS, 235-650% [p < 0.01]) respectively, compared with control metaphyseal bone. Bone formation indices were greatest adjacent to the mineralization zones at the center of the distraction gap; mineral apposition rate 96% (p < 0.01); mineralized bone surfaces 277% [p < 0.001]); osteoblast surfaces 359% [p < 0.001]); and bone formation rate (650% [p < 0.01]). There was no significant difference (p < 0.14; R = 0.4) in the bone formation rate of the distracted callus compared with the osteotomy control callus. Within the original cortices of the lengthened tibiae, bone remodeling indices were significantly increased compared with osteotomy controls; activation frequency (200% [p < 0.05]); osteoclast surfaces (295% [p < 0.01]); erosion period (75%); porosity (240% [p < 0.001]). Neither the rhythm of distraction nor the percent lengthening appeared to significantly influence any morphometric parameter evaluated. Distraction osteogenesis shares many features of normal fracture gap healing. The enhanced bone formation and remodeling appeared to result more from increased recruitment and activation of bone forming and resorbing cells rather than from an increased level of individual cellular activity. PMID:9443783

  13. Wnt6 is required for maxillary palp formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wnt6 is an evolutionarily ancient member of the Wnt family. In Drosophila, Wnt6 loss-of-function animals have not yet been reported, hence information about fly Wnt6 function is lacking. In wing discs, Wnt6 is expressed at the dorsal/ventral boundary in a pattern similar to that of wingless, an important regulator of wing size. To test whether Wnt6 also contributes towards wing size regulation, we generated Wnt6 knockout flies. Results Wnt6 knockout flies are viable and have no obvious defect in wing size or planar cell polarity. Surprisingly, Wnt6 knockouts lack maxillary palps. Interestingly, Wnt6 is absent from the genome of hemipterans, correlating with the absence of maxillary palps in these insects. Conclusions Wnt6 is important for maxillary palp development in Drosophila, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that loss of Wnt6 may also have led to loss of maxillary palps on an evolutionary time scale. PMID:24090348

  14. Oncologic profile of maxillary odontogenic myxoma: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Reena Radhikaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an ectomesenchyme derived neoplasm, almost exclusively found in jaws. This article presents a maxillary OM with a brief review of the molecular and proteomic antecedents of OMs, capturing its histopathogenesis. PMID:24124309

  15. Paecilomyces lilacinus as the cause of chronic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed Central

    Rockhill, R C; Klein, M D

    1980-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus was isolated on two separate occasions from the left antrum of a patient with chronic maxillary sinusitis. The clinical presentation and characteristics of the fungus and the sinus debris histopathology are discussed. Images PMID:7430339

  16. The influence of pretarget distracter stream properties on the skeletal attentional blink.

    PubMed

    Janson, Jolanda; Thorne, Jeremy D; Kranczioch, Cornelia

    2014-03-26

    The attentional blink (AB) occurs when the limits of temporal processing are reached. In a typical AB experiment, two targets (T1, T2) are presented within a stream of distracters, and detection of T2 is impaired when presented shortly after T1. Several theories focus on the mechanism underlying this deficit, among them proposals that see the similarity between distracters and targets as a crucial factor. The present study aimed to gain a better understanding of the effect of distracter stream properties on performance in the AB paradigm. A skeletal AB task was combined with a pretarget distracter stream. The presence and familiarity of the distracter stream and its similarityto the targets were manipulated in three separate experiments. The last distracter before T1 was sufficient to impair T1 detection in the standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Second, T2|T1 performance was impaired by an RSVP stream with low target-distracter similarity but unfamiliar stimuli. Finally, a single mask before T1 was shown to impair T2|T1. The results suggest that it is the last distracter before T1, rather than the RSVP stream per se, that impairs T1 detection performance. T2|T1 performance is influenced by a combination of transient attentional capture mechanisms that include but are not limited to target-distracter similarity. Thus, the size of an AB is determined not only by target-distracter similarity but by the overall processing demands of the distracters. PMID:24300308

  17. Changes in growth and morphology of the condyle following mandibular distraction in minipigs: Overloading or Underloading?

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Katherine L.; Sun, Zongyang; Egbert, Mark; Bakko, Daniel W.; Herring, Susan W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Loading of temporomandibular tissues during mandibular distraction may cause changes in condylar growth and cartilage thickness. This study examines the effects of distraction on the condyle in a large animal model by explicitly measuring growth and in vivo loading. Design: Unilateral mandibular distraction was carried out on twenty growing minipigs divided into three groups. One group underwent distraction but not consolidation, whereas the other two groups were allowed a period of consolidation of either one or two weeks. Animals received fluorochrome and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and masticatory strain was measured from the condylar neck. Condylar strain was also recorded in an age-matched sample of eight animals that received no distraction surgery. Immunohistochemical procedures were used to identify dividing prechondroblasts and histological analysis was used to measure mineral apposition rate, count dividing cells, and measure the thickness of condylar cartilage. Results: Strain magnitude, particularly compressive strain, was much larger on the non-distraction side compared to the distraction side condyle. Compared to normal loading levels, the distraction side condyle was underloaded whereas the condyle on the intact side was overloaded. Mineral apposition and cartilage thickness were greater on the distraction side condyle compared to the opposite side. Differences between the sides were most pronounced in the group with no consolidation and became progressively reduced with consolidation time. Conclusions: Increased mineralization and cartilage thickness on the distraction side condyle is associated with reduced, not increased loading, perhaps because of disruption of the distraction side masseter muscle. PMID:17573035

  18. Differential neural mechanisms underlying exogenous attention to peripheral and central distracters.

    PubMed

    Carreti, Luis; Albert, Jacobo; Lpez-Martn, Sara; Hoyos, Sandra; Kessel, Dominique; Tapia, Manuel; Capilla, Almudena

    2013-08-01

    Mechanisms underlying exogenous attention to central and peripheral distracters were temporally and spatially explored while 30 participants performed a digit categorization task. Neural (event-related potentials-ERPs-, analyzed both at the scalp and at the voxel level) and behavioral indices of exogenous attention were analyzed. Distracters were either biologically salient or neutral, in order to test whether the exogenous attention bias to the former observed in previous studies is independent of, or interacts with, distracter eccentricity. Two subcomponents of the N2 component of the ERPs, N2olp and N2ft, reflected processes related to peripheral distracters processing. N2olp effects, located in the dorsal attention network (supplementary motor area), were probably related to covert reorientation to peripheral distracters. N2ft effects, located in the default mode network (posterior cingulate cortex), appeared to reflect less effort in the ongoing task when peripheral distracters were presented. N2ft also showed a biological saliency effect which was independent of eccentricity and was located in the polar/ventral prefrontal cortex. P3 showed greater amplitudes to centrally presented distracters. These latter effects were located in TEO (visual cortex), and would be functionally associated with spatial interference between the target and central distracters. Behavior showed the relevance of both central and peripheral distracters in exogenous attention. These results indicate that exogenous attention to peripheral distracters differed in temporal and spatial terms from exogenous attention to central distracters and that it is biased towards biologically salient events irrespective of their eccentricity. PMID:23816957

  19. Viscoelastic behaviour of deformed spines under correction with halo pelvic distraction.

    PubMed

    Clark, J A; Hsu, L C; Yau, A C

    1975-01-01

    The applied tensile tractive force between skull and pelvis of the Halo Pelvic Distraction appliance has been measured using a simple compression spring device. Details of these external force measurements with daily distraction and correction of spinal deformity are illustrated for 10 patients which include tuberculous kyphoses, paralytic scolioses, and congenital and idiopathic scolioses. The relationships between applied load, time, amount of distraction, and extent of spinal curvature were studied in terms of the biomechanical proerties of elasticity and plasticity. A linear relationship exists between the total distraction distance and the reduction in the angle of the spinal deformity. For this correction procedure the rates of distraction, the total distraction amount, the total duration of the distractional period, and the maximum load depend on each individual spinal deformity with its particular peculiarities. PMID:1157405

  20. Bilateral Continuous Automated Distraction Osteogenesis: Proof of Principle.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Zachary S; Tricomi, Brad J; Faquin, William C; Magill, John C; Murphy, Brian A; Kaban, Leonard B; Troulis, Maria J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that automated, continuous, curvilinear distraction osteogenesis (DO) in a minipig model is effective when performed bilaterally, at rates up to 3?mm/day, to achieve clinically relevant lengthening.A Yucatan minipig in the mixed dentition phase underwent bilaterally, at a continuous DO at a rate of 2?mm/day at the center of rotation; 1.0 and 3.0?mm/day at the superior and inferior regions, respectively. The distraction period was 13 days with no latency period. Vector and rate of distraction were remotely monitored without radiographs, using the device sensor. After fixation and euthanasia, the mandible and digastric muscles were harvested. The ex vivo appearance, stability, and radiodensity of the regenerate were evaluated using a semiquantitative scale. Percent surface area (PSA) occupied by bone, fibrous tissue, cartilage, and hematoma were calculated using histomorphometrics. The effects of DO on the digastric muscles and mandibular condyles were assessed via microscopy, and degenerative changes were quantified.The animal was distracted to 21?mm and 24?mm on the right and left sides, respectively. Clinical appearance, stability, and radiodensity were scored as "3" bilaterally indicating osseous union. The total PSA occupied by bone (right?=?75.53??2.19%; left PSA?=?73.11??2.18%) approached that of an unoperated mandible (84.67??0.86%). Digastric muscles and condyles showed negligible degenerative or abnormal histologic changes.This proof of principle study is the first report of osseous healing with no ill-effect on associated soft tissue and the mandibular condyle using bilateral, automated, continuous, and curvilinear DO at rates up to 3?mm/day. The model approximates potential human application of continuous automated distraction with a semiburied device. PMID:26594967

  1. The emotional side of cognitive distraction: Implications for road safety.

    PubMed

    Chan, Michelle; Singhal, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Driver distraction is estimated to be one of the leading causes of motor vehicle accidents. However, little is known about the role of emotional distraction on driving, despite evidence that attention is highly biased toward emotion. In the present study, we used a dual-task paradigm to examine the potential for driver distraction from emotional information presented on roadside billboards. This purpose was achieved using a driving simulator and three different types of emotional information: neutral words, negative emotional words, and positive emotional words. Participants also responded to target words while driving and completed a surprise free recall task of all the words at the end of the study. The findings suggest that driving performance is differentially affected by the valence (negative versus positive) of the emotional content. Drivers had lower mean speeds when there were emotional words compared to neutral words, and this slowing effect lasted longer when there were positive words. This may be due to distraction effects on driving behavior, which are greater for positive arousing stimuli. Moreover, when required to process non-emotional target stimuli, drivers had faster mean speeds in conditions where the targets were interspersed with emotional words compared to neutral words, and again, these effects lasted longer when there were positive words. On the other hand, negative information led to better memory recall. These unique effects may be due to separate processes in the human attention system, particularly related to arousal mechanisms and their interaction with emotion. We conclude that distraction that is emotion-based can modulate attention and decision-making abilities and have adverse impacts on driving behavior for several reasons. PMID:23200451

  2. Cementoblastoma of posterior maxilla involving the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Dadhich, Anuj S; Nilesh, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cementoblastoma is a rare neoplasm, representing <1% of all odontogenic tumors. It usually occurs in the posterior mandible and is associated with roots of a mandibular first molar or second premolar. This paper presents a rare case of cementoblastoma in the maxillary posterior region involving the maxillary sinus, in a young female patient. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of the lesion are discussed along with a review of previously reported cases in the literature. PMID:26389052

  3. Cementoblastoma of posterior maxilla involving the maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Dadhich, Anuj S.; Nilesh, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cementoblastoma is a rare neoplasm, representing <1% of all odontogenic tumors. It usually occurs in the posterior mandible and is associated with roots of a mandibular first molar or second premolar. This paper presents a rare case of cementoblastoma in the maxillary posterior region involving the maxillary sinus, in a young female patient. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of the lesion are discussed along with a review of previously reported cases in the literature. PMID:26389052

  4. Management of an Unusual Maxillary Canine: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Muppalla, Jaya Nagendra Krishna; Kavuda, Krishnamurthy; Punna, Rajani; Vanapatla, Amulya

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians need to have intimate knowledge and thorough understanding of both pulp chamber and root canal anatomy. They should be aware of possibility of anatomical variations in the root canal system during endodontic treatment. Maxillary canines usually have single root and root canal but rarely may have single root with two root canals. This case describes a lengthier maxillary canine with two root canals. PMID:26779354

  5. Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Nagihan; a??rankaya, L. Berna; Akkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition. PMID:25177502

  6. Radiographic appearance of maxillary sinus feed impaction in a horse.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, James E; Carmalt, James L

    2013-01-01

    A 15-year-old Belgian gelding presented in respiratory distress, with bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, and right-sided epistaxis. The horse had a 5-year history of dental disease and had been recently losing weight. Radiographs indicated tooth root abscessation of the right maxillary third molar tooth and probable maxillary sinus feed impaction. These findings were confirmed at surgery and necropsy. The stippled, granular radiographic appearance described here is highly characteristic of sinus feed impaction. PMID:24371923

  7. Treatment of a Maxillary First Molar with Two Palatal Roots

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Vahideh; Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin; Talebzadeh, Bita; Norlouoni, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of the morphology and internal anatomy of the root canal system is essential, because it determines the successful outcome of endodontic treatment. The main goal of endodontic treatment is to prevent apical periodontitis and/or to promote the healing of periapical lesion. Presence of two canals or roots on the palatal side of the first maxillary molar has rarely been reported. This case report presents a maxillary first molar with two separate palatal roots. PMID:26523146

  8. Treatment of a Maxillary First Molar with Two Palatal Roots.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Vahideh; Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin; Talebzadeh, Bita; Norlouoni, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of the morphology and internal anatomy of the root canal system is essential, because it determines the successful outcome of endodontic treatment. The main goal of endodontic treatment is to prevent apical periodontitis and/or to promote the healing of periapical lesion. Presence of two canals or roots on the palatal side of the first maxillary molar has rarely been reported. This case report presents a maxillary first molar with two separate palatal roots. PMID:26523146

  9. Controversies in the management of neonatal micrognathia: to distract or not to distract, that is the question.

    PubMed

    Jarrahy, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic micrognathia, as seen in syndromic and isolated presentations of the Robin sequence (RS), can pose immediate an ongoing threats to the well-being of neonates. Upper airway obstruction can manifest as acute respiratory insufficiency requiring postpartum intubation and mechanical ventilation or as a mild irregularity in the oropharyngeal airflow that can be managed by positioning the newborn in a prone or decubitus position. Clinically significant micrognathia is often accompanied by some degree of feeding difficulty, obstructive sleep apnea, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, all of which should be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team of specialists before a definitive treatment plan is formulated. Numerous surgical and nonsurgical options have been described for airway management in RS; there is no single agreed-upon therapy. Most recently, our expanding experience with craniofacial distraction has resulted in greater application of distraction osteogenesis to the congenitally hypoplastic mandible. Rather than serve as a panacea, however, the practice of neonatal mandibular distraction for infants with upper airway obstruction has probably given rise to more questions than it has answered. The debate over its most appropriate indication in the micrognathia patient is quite current. In this article, we consider some of the controversies surrounding the use of distraction compared with other techniques in the management of the neonatal airway. PMID:22337418

  10. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indian population, no cases of maxillary canine agenesis have been documented. This paper reports a case of non-syndromic bilateral agenesis of permanent maxillary canines, along with agenesis of both mandibular central incisors in a healthy 13-year-old Indian female patient; and a brief literature review on prevalence, etiology and treatment modalities of the condition. How to cite this article: Kambalimath HV, Jain S, Patil RU, Asokan A, Kambalimath D. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015; 8(3):242-246. PMID:26604546

  11. Impact of over distraction on occurrence of axial symptom after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jiayue; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Di; Ding, Wenyuan; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Du, Mengzhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A retrospective review was undertaken to evaluate the impact of over distraction on cervical axial symptoms (AS) after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods: The retrospective review included 421 patients who underwent ACDF for one or two segments. Of these, 78 patients for whom complete follow-up data were available were selected for inclusion in the analysis. X-rays of the cervical vertebra were performed immediately after the surgery, 3 months postsurgery, and at a final follow up (6-24 months). According to the presence/absence of AS, the patients were divided into a symptom group (Group S) and a nonsymptom group (Group N). The ratio of intervertebral height change, change in the overall cervical curvature, change in the local curvature of the surgical segment, cervical total range of motion (ROM), and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) recovery rate were compared and analyzed. A linear regression analysis of the ratio of intervertebral height change and the symptom and severity of the AS according to the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was carried out. Results: The total incidence of AS was 33.97%. C5 nerve root palsy occurred in one case in Group S after the surgery. The neurologic symptoms of both groups were significantly alleviated after the surgery. The ratio of intervertebral height change in Group S was significantly higher than that in Group N at the last follow-up (P < 0.05). However, the changes in the overall cervical curvature, local curvature of the surgical segment, cervical ROM, and JOA recovery rates were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). In Group S, 37% of the patients had symptoms that occurred in the chest area, and the ratio of intervertebral height change was significantly positively correlated with the VAS score of the AS (r = 0.893). Conclusions: The occurrence of postoperative AS will significantly increase if the ratio of intervertebral height change of the surgical segment after ACDF is over 10%. PMID:26770640

  12. Successful Reconstruction of Nerve Defects Using Distraction Neurogenesis with a New Experimental Device

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Mohamed Abdelhamid Ali; Dionigi, Paolo; Marconi, Stefania; Calligaro, Alberto; Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Alfonsi, Enrico; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Repair of peripheral nerve injuries is an intensive area of challenge and research in modern reconstructive microsurgery. Intensive research is being carried out to develop effective alternatives to the standard nerve autografting, avoiding its drawbacks. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly designed mechanical device for the reconstruction of the sciatic nerve in rats in comparison to nerve autografting and to assess the pain during the period of distraction neurogenesis. Methods: Fourteen Sprague Dawley rats were used and randomly assigned into 2 groups with 7 rats in each group; group A (Nerve Autografting group) in which a 10-mm segment of the sciatic nerve was resected and rotated 180 degrees, then primary end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed in the reverse direction; group B (Nerve Lengthening group) in which the mechanical device was inserted after surgical resection of 10 mm of the sciatic nerve, then secondary end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed after completing the nerve lengthening. Thirteen weeks later, assessment of the functional sciatic nerve recovery using static sciatic index (SSI) was performed. Furthermore, fourteen weeks after the nerve resection, assessment of the nerve regeneration with electrophysiological study and histological analysis were performed. Also, gastrocnemius wet weight was measured. For pain assessment in group B, Rat Grimace Scale (RGS) score was used. Results: Significantly better functional recovery rate (using the SSI) was reported in the nerve lengthening group in comparison to autografting group. Also, a statistically significant higher nerve conduction velocity was detected in the nerve lengthening group. On histological analysis of the distal nerve section at 3 mm distal to the nerve repair site, significant myelin sheath thickness was detected in the nerve lengthening group. Discussion: Distraction neurogenesis with the new experimental device is a reliable therapeutic method for the reconstruction of nerve defects. PMID:26649163

  13. CT-based manual segmentation and evaluation of paranasal sinuses.

    PubMed

    Pirner, S; Tingelhoff, K; Wagner, I; Westphal, R; Rilk, M; Wahl, F M; Bootz, F; Eichhorn, Klaus W G

    2009-04-01

    Manual segmentation of computed tomography (CT) datasets was performed for robot-assisted endoscope movement during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Segmented 3D models are needed for the robots' workspace definition. A total of 50 preselected CT datasets were each segmented in 150-200 coronal slices with 24 landmarks being set. Three different colors for segmentation represent diverse risk areas. Extension and volumetric measurements were performed. Three-dimensional reconstruction was generated after segmentation. Manual segmentation took 8-10 h for each CT dataset. The mean volumes were: right maxillary sinus 17.4 cm(3), left side 17.9 cm(3), right frontal sinus 4.2 cm(3), left side 4.0 cm(3), total frontal sinuses 7.9 cm(3), sphenoid sinus right side 5.3 cm(3), left side 5.5 cm(3), total sphenoid sinus volume 11.2 cm(3). Our manually segmented 3D-models present the patient's individual anatomy with a special focus on structures in danger according to the diverse colored risk areas. For safe robot assistance, the high-accuracy models represent an average of the population for anatomical variations, extension and volumetric measurements. They can be used as a database for automatic model-based segmentation. None of the segmentation methods so far described provide risk segmentation. The robot's maximum distance to the segmented border can be adjusted according to the differently colored areas. PMID:18716789

  14. Maxillary posterior bone height in relation to maxillary sinus floor in Indian dentulous population.

    PubMed

    Jain, A; Chowdhary, R

    2013-06-01

    To establish a ratio of variable bone height (Infrazygomatic alveolar crest height) to constant bone height (Infraorbital zygomatic height) and, to estimate the relative sinus floor position from alveolar crest of maxillary first molar region of dentulous Indian males and females, using Digital panoramic radiographs. Panoramic radiographs of 74 patients were included in the study (37 male, 37 female) to measure maxillary posterior vertical bone height and their ratio in dentulous patients. Measurements were made from reference lines drawn from anatomic landmarks on soft digital versions of standardized panoramic radiographs using Kodak dental imaging software. Later the data were analyzed using normal test (Z-score). When the posterior maxillary bone height and their ratio were evaluated in Indian population, the vertical bone height (x, y, z) of males was more than the females. Ratio of Infrazygomatic-alveolar crest distance (y)/Infraorbital-zygomatic distance (x)-was 0.74 for Indian males and females. The relative sinus floor for Indian males was found to be 8.1 mm and that of Indian females to be 7.8 mm. The results are of significant value as "baseline" data, in serial studies where alveolar bone height for a single patient is compared at different times before and after tooth loss. The relative sinus floor position from alveolar crest can help in implant length selection. This study can be used as a diagnostic and predictive tool in implant treatment planning but further long-term evaluation is still required to prove the efficacy of this study. PMID:24431714

  15. Comparative characterization of maxillary expansion and alternate maxillary expansions and constrictions in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guang-yao; Zou, Bing-shuang; Zeng, Xiang-long

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the cranial and circumaxillary sutures react differently to maxillary expansion (ME) and alternate maxillary expansions and constrictions (Alt-MEC) in a rat model. Twenty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old) were used and divided into three groups. In ME group (n=9), an expander was activated for 5 days. In Alt-MEC group (9 animals), an alternate expansion and constriction protocol (5-day expansion and 5-day constriction for one cycle) was conducted for 2.5 cycles (25 days total). The control group comprised 4 animals with no appliances used, each of two sacrificed on day 5 and day 25 respectively. Midpalatal suture expansion or constriction levels were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by bite-wing X-rays and cast models. Distances between two central incisors and two maxillary first molars were measured on cast models after each activation. Circumaxillary sutures (midpalatal, maxillopalatine, premaxillary, zygomaticotemporal and frontonasal suture) in each group were characterized histologically. Results showed that midpalatal suture was widened and restored after each expansion and constriction. At the end of activation, the widths between both central incisors and first molars in Alt-MEC group were significantly larger than those in ME group (P<0.05). Histologically, all five circumaxillary sutures studied were widened in multiple zones in Alt-MEC group. However, only midpalatal suture was expanded with cellular fibrous tissue filling in ME group. Significant osteoclast hyperplasia was observed in all circumaxillary sutures after alternate expansions and constrictions, but osteoclast count increase was only observed in midpalatal suture in ME group. These results suggested that cranial and circumaxillary sutures were actively reconstructed after Alt-MEC, while only midpalatal suture had active reaction after ME. PMID:25480594

  16. Three-dimensional densitometric analysis of maxillary sutural changes induced by rapid maxillary expansion

    PubMed Central

    Lione, R; Franchi, L; Fanucci, E; Lagan, G; Cozza, P

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study evaluated the density of the midpalatal and transverse sutures as assessed by low-dose CT before rapid maxillary expansion (T0), at the end of active expansion (T1) and after a retention period of 6 months (T2). Methods: The study sample comprised 17 pre-pubertal subjects (mean age 11.2 years) with constricted maxillary arches. Total amount of expansion was 7?mm in all subjects. Multislice low-dose CT scans were taken at T0, T1 and T2. On the axial CT scanned images six regions of interest (ROIs) were placed along the midpalatal and transverse sutures and two in maxillary and palatal bony areas. Density was measured in Hounsfield units. MannWhitney U test and Friedman analysis of variance with post hoc tests were used (p?

  17. Does attention capacity moderate the effect of driver distraction in older drivers?

    PubMed

    Cuenen, Ariane; Jongen, Ellen M M; Brijs, Tom; Brijs, Kris; Lutin, Mark; Van Vlierden, Karin; Wets, Geert

    2015-04-01

    With age, a decline in attention capacity may occur and this may impact driving performance especially while distracted. Although the effect of distraction on driving performance of older drivers has been investigated, the moderating effect of attention capacity on driving performance during distraction has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether attention capacity has a moderating effect on older drivers' driving performance during visual distraction (experiment 1) and cognitive distraction (experiment 2). In a fixed-based driving simulator, older drivers completed a driving task without and with visual distraction (experiment 1, N=17, mean age 78 years) or cognitive distraction (experiment 2, N=35, mean age 76 years). Several specific driving measures of varying complexity (i.e., speed, lane keeping, following distance, braking behavior, and crashes) were investigated. In addition to these objective driving measures, subjective measures of workload and driving performance were also included. In experiment 1, crash occurrence increased with visual distraction and was negatively related to attention capacity. In experiment 2, complete stops at stop signs decreased, initiation of braking at pedestrian crossings was later, and crash occurrence increased with cognitive distraction. Interestingly, for a measure of lane keeping (i.e., standard deviation of lateral lane position (SDLP)), effects of both types of distraction were moderated by attention capacity. Despite the decrease of driving performance with distraction, participants estimated their driving performance during distraction as good. These results imply that attention capacity is important for driving. Driver assessment and training programs might therefore focus on attention capacity. Nonetheless, it is crucial to eliminate driver distraction as much as possible given the deterioration of performance on several driving measures in those with low and high attention capacity. PMID:25667202

  18. Esthetics with prosthetics in case of maxillary canine transposition: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S; Sheorain, A K; Madan, N; Bajaj, P

    2012-01-01

    Transposition is a dental anomaly manifested by a positional interchange of two permanent teeth. The maxillary permanent canine usually transposes with the first premolar and occasionally with the lateral incisor. These are mainly genetically governed and are treated orthodontically if complete segment of tooth is present; in case of missing teeth, participation of cosmetic dentist is must. The present case report describes a situation where left canine to lateral incisor complete transposition was present along with a missing left central incisor. Esthetic rehabilitation of the "smile zone" was the major concern. Scrupulous treatment planning to esthetically contour transposed teeth according to their normal positions, i.e., transposed left canine to lateral incisor and transposed left lateral incisor to canine with replacement of missing tooth, was a challenge. PMID:22437104

  19. Anterior Cingulate Cortex Makes 2 Contributions to Minimizing Distraction

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    When we detect conflicting irrelevant stimuli (e.g., nearby conversations), we often minimize distraction by increasing attention to relevant stimuli. However, dissociating the neural substrates of processes that detect conflict and processes that increase attention has proven exceptionally difficult. Using a novel cross-modal attentional cueing task in humans, we observed regional specialization for these processes in the cognitive division of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACCcd). Activity in a dorsal subregion was associated with increasing attention to relevant stimuli, correlated with behavioral measures of orienting attention to those stimuli, and resembled activity in dorsolateral prefrontal regions that are also thought to bias attention toward relevant stimuli. In contrast, activity in a rostral subregion was associated only with detecting response conflict caused by irrelevant stimuli. These findings support a 2-component model for minimizing distraction and speak to a longstanding debate over how the ACCcd contributes to cognitive control. PMID:18653665

  20. Adaptive Training Diminishes Distractibility in Aging across Species

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jyoti; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Merzenich, Michael; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Aging is associated with deficits in the ability to ignore distractions, which has not yet been remediated by any neurotherapeutic approach. Here, in parallel auditory experiments with older rats and humans, we evaluated a targeted cognitive training approach that adaptively manipulated distractor challenge. Training resulted in enhanced discrimination abilities in the setting of irrelevant information in both species that was driven by selectively diminished distraction-related errors. Neural responses to distractors in auditory cortex were selectively reduced in both species mimicking the behavioral effects. Sensory receptive fields in trained rats exhibited improved spectral and spatial selectivity. Frontal theta measures of top-down engagement with distractors were selectively restrained in trained humans. Finally, training gains generalized to group- and individual-level benefits in aspects of working memory and sustained attention. Thus, we demonstrate converging cross-species evidence for training-induced selective plasticity of distractor processing at multiple neural scales, benefitting distractor suppression and cognitive control. PMID:25467987

  1. Adaptive training diminishes distractibility in aging across species.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Jyoti; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Merzenich, Michael; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Aging is associated with deficits in the ability to ignore distractions, which has not yet been remediated by any neurotherapeutic approach. Here, in parallel auditory experiments with older rats and humans, we evaluated a targeted cognitive training approach that adaptively manipulated distractor challenge. Training resulted in enhanced discrimination abilities in the setting of irrelevant information in both species that was driven by selectively diminished distraction-related errors. Neural responses to distractors in auditory cortex were selectively reduced in both species, mimicking the behavioral effects. Sensory receptive fields in trained rats exhibited improved spectral and spatial selectivity. Frontal theta measures of top-down engagement with distractors were selectively restrained in trained humans. Finally, training gains generalized to group and individual level benefits in aspects of working memory and sustained attention. Thus, we demonstrate converging cross-species evidence for training-induced selective plasticity of distractor processing at multiple neural scales, benefitting distractor suppression and cognitive control. PMID:25467987

  2. Effects of local simvastatin on periosteal distraction osteogenesis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, O E; Erdogan, ; Namli, H; Sencar, L

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the effect of local simvastatin on the formation of new bone using a new design of periosteal distractor. The distractors were placed between the periosteum and bone at the inferior border of the mandible of 20 New Zealand rabbits. In the first group (n=10) simvastatin was applied locally to the distraction zone. The other 10 rabbits served as controls. The formation of new bone was evaluated with digital direct radiography, computed tomography (CT), and histomorphometric analyses. New bone formed in all rabbits, but more formed in the experimental group according to histomorphometric variables. However, other measurements did not differ significantly between the groups. The new design of the periosteal distraction device was successful in causing new bone to form. Local simvastatin made no significant contribution to the procedure. PMID:25640700

  3. Biomechanical Configurations of Mandibular Transport Distraction Osteogenesis Devices

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Uriel; Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Dechow, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Mandibular bone transport (MBT) distraction osteogenesis devices are used for achieving reconstruction of mandibular defects in a predictable way, with few complications, less complexity than other alternative surgical procedures, and minimal tissue morbidity. However, selection of appropriate MBT device characteristics is critical for ensuring both their mechanical soundness and their optimal distraction function for each patient's condition. This article assesses six characteristics of currently available MBT devices to characterize their design and function and to classify them in a way that assists the selection of the best device option for each clinical case. In addition, the present work provides a framework for both the biomechanical conception of new devices and the modification of existing ones. PMID:19958167

  4. U.S. State and Federal Laws Targeting Distracted Driving

    PubMed Central

    Catherine Chase, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has burgeoned with the proliferation of cell phones, global positioning systems and other in-vehicle and personal electronic devices. Annually more than 3,300 people are killed and an additional 400,000 are injured in the United States in distracted driving crashes. The United States (U.S.) federal and state governments have responded to this public health problem with policies and laws; however, a more comprehensive and more effective approach is still needed. Some restrictions on the use of electronic devices while driving by federal employees and some voluntary guidelines and recommendations have been issued. Public opinion polls show support for addressing the issue of distracted driving with state laws. The majority of states have laws banning text messaging while driving and prohibiting the use of an electronic device by teenage or novice drivers. Some states prohibit all drivers from using a hand-held cellphone. Currently no state has a total ban on the use of personal electronic devices while driving. Successful past traffic safety campaigns changing driver behavior have demonstrated the necessity to adopt a “three Es” approach of Enactment of a law, Education of the public about the law, and rigorous Enforcement of the law. Experience reveals that this approach, along with future federal regulation of in-vehicle electronic devices and the employment of technology to limit the use of electronic devices while driving, is needed to alter personal behavior in order to reduce distractions and keep drivers focused on the driving task. PMID:24776229

  5. Preliminary clinical research on epiphyseal distraction in osteosarcoma in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The feasibility of distal femur epiphysis preservation through epiphyseal distraction by external fixator in childhood osteosarcoma was explored. Methods Between July 2007 and May 2011, 10 children who were suffering from distal femur osteosarcoma received epiphyseal distraction by external fixator, combined with tumor resection and repair with massive allograft bone to preserve the epiphysis of the distal femur and knee function. There were six male and four female patients, 9- to 14-years old (average 10.5 years old). The tumors were staged clinically according to the Enneking staging method: six cases were classified as stage in IIA and four cases as stage in IIB. All patients were diagnosed by biopsy, then received chemotherapy before and after surgery. All patients received tumor bone resection and the defects of the bone were repaired with massive allograft bone that was fixed by intramedullary nails; the distracted epiphysis and allograft bone were fixed with cancellous screws. Results All cases received follow-up from 15 to 56 months (average 38.5 months). There were no local recurrences. One case died of lung metastasis and one case had poor incision healing for rejection of allograft bone. According to the functional evaluation criteria of the International Society of Limb Salvage (ISOLS) after operation, five cases were rated excellent, four cases good and one case fair. The ratio of excellent or good was 90.0%. There was no statistically significant difference in length between the operated and the normal lower limbs during the last review. Conclusions Epiphyseal distraction by external fixator can result in satisfactory limb length and joint function for children with a malignant bone tumor. PMID:25099460

  6. 3D evaluation of maxillary arches in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients treated with nasoalveolar moulding vs. Hotz's plate.

    PubMed

    Cerón-Zapata, A M; López-Palacio, A M; Rodriguez-Ardila, M J; Berrio-Gutiérrez, L M; De Menezes, M; Sforza, C

    2016-02-01

    To compare the three-dimensional changes occurring in the maxillary arch during the use of modified pre-surgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) and Hotz's plate. A clinical trial including 32 children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 16 treated with Hotz's plate and 16 with PNAM, was performed. Impressions of the maxillary arches were taken: A. prior to pre-surgical orthopaedics, B. before cheiloplasty and C. after cheiloplasty. Models were digitised using a stereophotogrammetric instrument, and geodesic distances were calculated: anterior, canine and posterior widths of the arch, and lengths and cleft depths of the larger and shorter segments. The time and treatment effects were assessed by two-factor anova. A significant effect of treatment was found for cleft depth at the larger segment: children treated with Hotz's plate had significantly deeper cleft than children treated with PNAM. All distances significantly changed during time: the anterior and canine widths decreased, while the posterior width, the lengths and depths of the cleft segments increased. Significant treatment per time interactions was found. The anterior and canine widths reduced more with PNAM between time points A and B while Hotz's treatment was more effective between B and C. The shorter segment depth increased more between B and C with PNAM, and between A and B with Hotz's plate. During pre-surgical orthopaedics, therapy with PNAM obtained the best results in reducing the width at the anterior segment of the cleft. This treatment gave a lower increase in cleft depth than treatment with Hotz's plate. PMID:26404105

  7. Knowledge of sequence structure prevents auditory distraction: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Volosin, Márta; Horváth, János

    2014-06-01

    Infrequent, salient stimuli often capture attention despite their task-irrelevancy, and disrupt on-going goal-directed behavior. A number of studies show that presenting cues signaling forthcoming deviants reduces distraction, which may be a "by-product" of cue-processing interference or the result of direct preparatory processes for the forthcoming distracter. In the present study, instead of "bursts" of cue information, information on the temporal structure of the stimulus sequence was provided. Young adults performed a spatial discrimination task where complex tones moving left or right were presented. In the predictable condition, every 7th tone was a pitch-deviant, while in the random condition the position of deviants was random with a probability of 1/7. Whereas the early event-related potential correlates of deviance-processing (N1 and MMN) were unaffected by predictability, P3a amplitude was significantly reduced in the predictable condition, indicating that prevention of distraction was based on the knowledge about the temporal structure of the stimulus sequence. PMID:24657900

  8. Distraction by irrelevant sound during foreperiods selectively impairs temporal preparation.

    PubMed

    Steinborn, Michael B; Langner, Robert

    2011-03-01

    When the interval between a warning signal (WS) and an imperative signal (IS), termed the foreperiod (FP), is variable across trials, reaction time (RT) to the IS typically decreases with increasing FP length. Here we examined the auditory filled-FP effect, which refers to a performance decrement after FPs filled with irrelevant auditory stimulation compared to FPs without additional stimulation. According to one account, irrelevant stimulation distracts individuals from processing time and probability information during the FP (distraction-during-FP hypothesis). This should predominantly affect long-FP trials. Alternatively, the filled-FP effect may arise from a failure to shift attention from FP modality to IS modality (attention-to-modality hypothesis). The first hypothesis focuses on preparatory processing, predicting a selective RT increase on long-FP trials, whereas the second hypothesis focuses on target processing, only predicting a global RT increase irrespective of FP length. Across four experiments, a filled-FP (compared to a blank-FP) condition consistently yielded a selective RT increase on long-FP trials, irrespective of FP-IS modality pairing. This pattern of results contradicts the attention-to-modality hypothesis but corroborates the distraction-during-FP hypothesis. More generally, these data have theoretical implications by supporting a multi-process view of temporal preparation under time uncertainty. PMID:21333960

  9. Multi-modal distraction: insights from children's limited attention.

    PubMed

    Matusz, Pawel J; Broadbent, Hannah; Ferrari, Jessica; Forrest, Benjamin; Merkley, Rebecca; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-03-01

    How does the multi-sensory nature of stimuli influence information processing? Cognitive systems with limited selective attention can elucidate these processes. Six-year-olds, 11-year-olds and 20-year-olds engaged in a visual search task that required them to detect a pre-defined coloured shape under conditions of low or high visual perceptual load. On each trial, a peripheral distractor that could be either compatible or incompatible with the current target colour was presented either visually, auditorily or audiovisually. Unlike unimodal distractors, audiovisual distractors elicited reliable compatibility effects across the two levels of load in adults and in the older children, but high visual load significantly reduced distraction for all children, especially the youngest participants. This study provides the first demonstration that multi-sensory distraction has powerful effects on selective attention: Adults and older children alike allocate attention to potentially relevant information across multiple senses. However, poorer attentional resources can, paradoxically, shield the youngest children from the deleterious effects of multi-sensory distraction. Furthermore, we highlight how developmental research can enrich the understanding of distinct mechanisms controlling adult selective attention in multi-sensory environments. PMID:25497524

  10. Concealed by conspicuousness: distractive prey markings and backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Marina; Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H Martin; Merilaita, Sami

    2009-05-22

    High-contrast markings, called distractive or dazzle markings, have been suggested to draw and hold the attention of a viewer, thus hindering detection or recognition of revealing prey characteristics, such as the body outline. We tested this hypothesis in a predation experiment with blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and artificial prey. We also tested whether this idea can be extrapolated to the background appearance and whether high-contrast markings in the background would improve prey concealment. We compared search times for a high-contrast range prey (HC-P) and a low-contrast range prey (LC-P) in a high-contrast range background (HC-B) and a low-contrast range background (LC-B). The HC-P was more difficult to detect in both backgrounds, although it did not match the LC-B. Also, both prey types were more difficult to find in the HC-B than in the LC-B, in spite of the mismatch of the LC-P. In addition, the HC-P was more difficult to detect, in both backgrounds, when compared with a generalist prey, not mismatching either background. Thus, we conclude that distractive prey pattern markings and selection of microhabitats with distractive features may provide an effective way to improve camouflage. Importantly, high-contrast markings, both as part of the prey coloration and in the background, can indeed increase prey concealment. PMID:19324754

  11. Distraction osteogenesis of the mandible with an internal bioresorbable device.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Alexander; Patel, Pravin K; Daw, Joseph L; Bauer, Bruce S

    2003-09-01

    Lengthening of the mandible by distraction osteogenesis has been shown to be an effective treatment of hypoplastic mandibles. Use of an internal technique with a bioresorbable distraction device is presented. Mandibular lengthening was performed in seven patients aged 3.2 to 7 years. Six of the patients were diagnosed with craniofacial microsomia, anthe buccal aspect of the mandible, and distraction was started on the second postoperative day at the rate of d one was diagnosed with Nager syndrome. An internal bioresorbable device was placed along 1 mm/d and continued for 17 to 20 days. The distractor screw was maintained for retention for an additional 6 weeks and was then removed. All the patients showed clinical improvement. The postdistraction craniofacial computed tomography scans demonstrated elongation of the mandible with increase in the bony mass. The complications included device failure in one patient. The advantage of this method compared with the internal metal device is that it does not necessitate an additional procedure for device removal. PMID:14501350

  12. Concealed by conspicuousness: distractive prey markings and backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Marina; Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H. Martin; Merilaita, Sami

    2009-01-01

    High-contrast markings, called distractive or dazzle markings, have been suggested to draw and hold the attention of a viewer, thus hindering detection or recognition of revealing prey characteristics, such as the body outline. We tested this hypothesis in a predation experiment with blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and artificial prey. We also tested whether this idea can be extrapolated to the background appearance and whether high-contrast markings in the background would improve prey concealment. We compared search times for a high-contrast range prey (HC-P) and a low-contrast range prey (LC-P) in a high-contrast range background (HC-B) and a low-contrast range background (LC-B). The HC-P was more difficult to detect in both backgrounds, although it did not match the LC-B. Also, both prey types were more difficult to find in the HC-B than in the LC-B, in spite of the mismatch of the LC-P. In addition, the HC-P was more difficult to detect, in both backgrounds, when compared with a generalist prey, not mismatching either background. Thus, we conclude that distractive prey pattern markings and selection of microhabitats with distractive features may provide an effective way to improve camouflage. Importantly, high-contrast markings, both as part of the prey coloration and in the background, can indeed increase prey concealment. PMID:19324754

  13. Age-related hearing loss increases cross-modal distractibility.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Bendixen, Alexandra; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-10-01

    Recent electrophysiological studies have provided evidence that changes in multisensory processing in auditory cortex cannot only be observed following extensive hearing loss, but also in moderately hearing-impaired subjects. How the reduced auditory input affects audio-visual interactions is however largely unknown. Here we used a cross-modal distraction paradigm to investigate multisensory processing in elderly participants with an age-related high-frequency hearing loss as compared to young and elderly subjects with normal hearing. During the experiment, participants were simultaneously presented with independent streams of auditory and visual input and were asked to categorize either the auditory or visual information while ignoring the other modality. Unisensory sequences without any cross-modal input served as control conditions to assure that all participants were able to perform the task. While all groups performed similarly in these unisensory conditions, hearing-impaired participants showed significantly increased error rates when confronted with distracting cross-modal stimulation. This effect could be observed in both the auditory and the visual task. Supporting these findings, an additional regression analysis indicted that the degree of high-frequency hearing loss significantly modulates cross-modal visual distractibility in the auditory task. These findings provide new evidence that already a moderate sub-clinical hearing loss, a common phenomenon in the elderly population, affects the processing of audio-visual information. PMID:25080386

  14. Supraliminal But Not Subliminal Distracters Bias Working Memory Recall

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Information of which observers are not consciously aware can nevertheless influence perceptual processes. Whether subliminal information might exert an influence on working memory (WM) representations is less clear, and relatively few studies have examined the interactions between subliminal and supraliminal information in WM. We present 3 experiments examining this issue. Experiments 1a and b replicated the finding that orientation stimuli can influence behavior subliminally in a visuomotor priming task. Experiments 2 and 3 used the same orientation stimuli, but participants had to remember a target orientation and report it back by adjusting a probe orientation after a memory delay. Before or after presentation of the target orientation, a subliminal or supraliminal distracter orientation was presented that was either irrelevant for task completion and never had to be reported (Experiment 2), or was relevant for task completion because it had to be reported on some trials (Experiment 3). In both experiments, presentation of a supraliminal distracter influenced WM recall of the target orientation. When the distracter was presented subliminally, however, there was no bias in orientation recall. These results suggest that information stored in WM is protected from influences of subliminal stimuli, while online information processing is modulated by subliminal information. PMID:25867502

  15. Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Emerson, Jamie L.; Yu, Lixi; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to quantify and compare performance of middle-aged and older drivers during a naturalistic distraction paradigm (visual search for roadside targets) and predict older driver performance given functioning in visual, motor, and cognitive domains. Background Distracted driving can imperil healthy adults and may disproportionally affect the safety of older drivers with visual, motor, and cognitive decline. Methods Two hundred and three drivers, 120 healthy older (61 men and 59 women, ages 65 years or greater) and 83 middle-aged drivers (38 men and 45 women, ages 40–64 years), participated in an on-road test in an instrumented vehicle. Outcome measures included performance in roadside target identification (traffic signs and restaurants) and concurrent driver safety. Differences in visual, motor, and cognitive functioning served as predictors. Results Older drivers identified fewer landmarks and drove slower but committed more safety errors than middle-aged drivers. Greater familiarity with local roads benefited performance of middle-aged but not older drivers. Visual cognition predicted both traffic sign identification and safety errors while executive function predicted traffic sign identification over and above vision. Conclusion Older adults are susceptible to driving safety errors while distracted by common secondary visual search tasks that are inherent to driving. The findings underscore that age-related cognitive decline affects older driver management of driving tasks at multiple levels, and can help inform the design of on-road tests and interventions for older drivers. PMID:23964422

  16. Unilateral maxillary molar distalization with zygoma-gear appliance.

    PubMed

    Kilkis, Dogan; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Nur, Metin

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the orthodontic treatment of a 15-year-old boy with a unilateral maxillary molar distalization system, called the zygoma-gear appliance. It consisted of a zygomatic anchorage miniplate, an inner bow, and a Sentalloy closed coil spring (GAC International, Bohemia, NY). A distalizing force of 350 g was used during the distalization period. The unilateral Class II malocclusion was corrected in 5 months with the zygoma-gear appliance. The maxillary left first molar showed distalization of 4 mm with an inclination of 3. The maxillary premolars moved distally with the help of the transseptal fibers. In addition, there were slight decreases in overjet (-0.5 mm) and maxillary incisor inclination (-1), indicating no anchorage loss from the zygoma-gear appliance. Preadjusted fixed appliances (0.022 0.028-in, MBT system; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were placed in both arches to achieve leveling and alignment. After 14 months of unilateral distalization with the zygoma-gear appliance and fixed appliances, Class I molar and canine relationships were established with satisfactory interdigitation of the posterior teeth. Acceptable overjet and overbite were also achieved. This article shows that this new system, the zygoma-gear appliance, can be used for unilateral maxillary molar distalization without anchorage loss. PMID:22858341

  17. Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on sleep characteristics in children

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Navya; Varma, N. K. Sapna; Ajith, V. V.; Gopinath, Siby

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthopedic treatment procedure routinely used to treat constricted maxillary arches and also a potential additional treatment in children presenting with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RME on sleep characteristics in children. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on children of 8-13 years of age before expansion (T0), after expansion (T1) and after a period of 3 months after retention (T2). Bonded rapid maxillary expander was cemented in all children. Inter-molar distance was also measured at T0 and T2. Statistical Analysis: Nonparametric Friedman test was used for comparing the averages of sleep parameters at different time period (T0, T1, T2). Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for comparing the averages of inter-molar width (T0-T2). P < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: All children showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, decreased in arousal and desaturation index after expansion. Total sleep time showed a statistically significant increase after expansion. A statistically significant increase in inter-molar distance was obtained after expansion. Conclusions: Rapid maxillary expansion is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep even in normal children without SDB. It also induces widening of the maxilla, corrects posterior crossbites and improves maxillary and mandibular dental arch coordination. PMID:25395765

  18. Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction Osteogenesis with Barrel Stave Osteotomy in the Treatment of Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    KOMURO, Yuzo; SHIMIZU, Azusa; SHIMOJI, Kazuaki; MIYAJIMA, Masakazu; ARAI, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since distraction osteogenesis was introduced into the field of craniomaxillofacial surgery, with distraction osteogenesis gradually consolidating its position for midface advancement in syndromic craniosynostosis. On the other hand, no consensus has been reached regarding its adaptation to calvarial bone. We reported that distraction osteogenesis was useful in posterior cranial vault expansion, and subsequently, similar reports have been successively observed worldwide. In posterior cranial vault distraction, intracranial capacity could be greatly expanded due to its simultaneous expansion with the scalp, with little risk of relapse because new bone is regenerated in the distraction gap. The possibility was suggested that the standard of first carrying out fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) for brachycephaly observed in syndromic craniosynostosis will greatly change posterior cranial vault distraction. PMID:26226978

  19. Potential Distractions and Unsafe Driving Behaviors Among Drivers of 1- to 12-year-old Children

    PubMed Central

    Macy, Michelle L.; Carter, Patrick M.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Driver distraction has been identified as a threat to individual drivers and public health. Motor vehicle collisions remain a leading cause of death for children yet little is known about distractions among drivers of children. This study sought to characterize potential distractions among drivers of children. Methods A two-site, cross-sectional, computerized survey of child passenger safety practices was conducted among adult drivers of 1- to 12-year-old children who presented for emergency care between October 2011-May 2012. Drivers indicated the frequency with which they engaged in ten potential distractions in the past month while driving with their child. Distractions were grouped in four categories: 1) non-driving, 2) cellular phone, 3) child, 4) directions. Information about other unsafe driving behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics was collected. Results Nearly 90% of eligible parents participated. Analysis included 570 (92.2%) drivers. Non-driving and cellular phone-related distractions were disclosed by >75% of participants. Fewer participants disclosed child (71.2%) and directions-related distractions (51.9%). Child age was associated with each distraction category. Cellular phone-related distractions were associated with the child riding daily in the family car, non-Hispanic white and other race/ethnicity, and higher education. Parents admitting to drowsy driving and being pulled over for speeding had over two-times higher odds of disclosing distractions from each category. Conclusions Distracted driving activities are common among drivers of child passengers and associated with other unsafe driving behaviors. Child passenger safety may be improved by preventing crash events through the reduction or elimination of distractions among drivers of child passengers. PMID:24767781

  20. Treatment of Ectopic Permanent Maxillary First Molar Using a K-loop.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ok Hyung; Ahn, Hyo Jung; Kim, Mi Sun; Park, Jae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic eruption of permanent maxillary first molar can cause root resorption of adjacent primary second molar, thus leading to early loss of primary maxillary second molar. Therefore, it is necessary to correct ectopic maxillary first molar. This case report demonstrates that K-loop can be used as a simple, comfortable, and easier method to correct ectopic eruption of permanent maxillary first molar in existing severe root resorption on adjacent primary second molar. PMID:26161613

  1. Neurofibroma of the maxillary antrum: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepali; Chaudhary, Minal; Patil, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromas are benign tumors of peripheral nerve tissue, frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Their isolated occurrence in the maxillary antrum is rare, with only 6 cases described in the English literature to the best of our knowledge. Primary neurogenic tumors in the maxillary sinus are unusual entities. The majority of the reported cases that have dealt with neurilemmomas and isolated neurofibromas are extremely rare. Here, a case of neurofibroma of the maxillary sinus. We present the case of a 60-year-old female patient with the chief complain of growth in the upper right back region of the jaw, which was preceded by exfoliation of teeth in the same region 1 month back. PMID:24808710

  2. Etiologies and Treatments of Odontogenic Maxillary Sinusitis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Fahimeh; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Safai, Pooria

    2015-01-01

    Context: Maxillary sinusitis is an important issue in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. This study aims to present a systematic review of etiologies and treatments of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic database search was performed based on related MeSH keywords. Articles published between January 2001 and December 2014 was selected according to the inclusion criteria. The information extracted from various studies was categorized in various tables. Results: The study selected 19 studies. In most studies, oroantral fistula (OAF) was the most common etiology of odontogenic sinusitis. Alpha-hemolytic streptococcus was the most common flora in sinusitis with dental origin. The literature shows that the Caldwell-Luc approach may be the best method for treating sinusitis in cases of displaced teeth. Conclusions: OAF is a common cause of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis and may easily be treated by endoscopy and fistula closure. Maxillofacial surgeons and dentists should consider this problem to avoid misdiagnosis and prevent complications. PMID:26756016

  3. Interdisciplinary treatment of multiple maxillary anterior diastemas: case report.

    PubMed

    Terzioglu, Hakan; Akcam, Okan; Yilmaz, Burak; Halil, Suleyman

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary (orthodontic and prosthodontic) approach for treating a 28-year-old woman who had multiple maxillary anterior diastemas, insufficient lip support, and inadequate anterior guidance. Although the patient also had diastemas among her mandibular anterior teeth, she declined orthodontic or restorative treatment for this arch. Initially, ceramic orthodontic brackets and polytetrafluoroethylene-coated arch wires were used. Orthodontic treatment involved leveling and aligning the maxillary dental arch, correcting the incisor angulations, and providing appropriate spaces for prosthetic restoration. After orthodontic treatment, IPS Empress 2 crowns were delivered to the six maxillary anterior teeth. This interdisciplinary approach produced a successful outcome and improved esthetics. The patient remained satisfied at the three-year follow-up examination. PMID:21466998

  4. Aberration in the palatal root of the maxillary first molar

    PubMed Central

    Rajalbandi, Sandeep; Shingte, Sandhya Narayan; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for the endodontic therapy. Variations in the root and root canal morphology, especially in multirooted teeth, are a constant challenge for diagnosis and management. The dentist needs to be familiar with the various root canal configurations and their variations for successful endodontic therapy. There are rare variations in canal number and configuration in maxillary molars, which could affect treatment outcome. Two lingual root structures are occasionally found on human permanent maxillary molars. One of these is the normal lingual root, which is always present, the other is a supernumerary structure which can be located either mesiolingually (radix mesiolingualis) or distolingually (radix distolingualis). The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and to demonstrate a case report which describes the successful non-surgical endodontic management of an unusual maxillary first molar with four separate roots and four canals. PMID:23632609

  5. Methylene blue mediated laser therapy of maxillary sinusitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Chikina, E. E.; Knyazev, A. B.; Mareev, O. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is a clinical study of photodynamic therapy of maxillary sinusitis. 0.1%-Methylene Blue aqueous solution in combination with He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm) have been used for treatment of maxillary sinus mucous of patients with acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis. The differences between the results of the treatment with dye and light versus treatment with a drug for every group of patients were statistically analyzed by Students t test. The efficacy of the photodynamic therapy was estimated with the use of the following criteria: the state of respiration, olfaction, duration of purulent discharge, reconstruction of transport function of ciliary epithelium, etc. The obtained results have shown that the photodynamic therapy is effective in comparison with conservative methods of treatment of the disease.

  6. Unusual cause of maxillary sinus mass with proptosis.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Regi; Babu, Telugu Ramesh; Rupa, Vedantam

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 21-year-old Indian man with an 8-month history of left-sided headache, maxillary sinus mass, proptosis and swelling of the left temple, whose contrast-enhanced CT scans of the paranasal sinuses showed an enhancing, destructive soft tissue mass involving the left maxillary sinus, orbit, infratemporal fossa and anterior cranial fossa, suggestive of a malignancy or chronic granulomatous disease. Histopathological examination of the sinus mass, which was debulked and partially excised via an endoscopic approach, suggested a diagnosis of immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease of the maxillary sinus. Subsequent immunohistochemical staining and biochemical tests confirmed the diagnosis. We highlight the importance of considering this increasingly recognised but rare entity that can mimic a malignant lesion with its clinical and radiological features but which, unlike the latter, has a very good prognosis with appropriate treatment. PMID:26392443

  7. A simplified modification of a reconstruction plate into a mandibular transport distraction device: A technical note

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujata; Dabas, Jitender; Gupta, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Transport distraction is nowadays gaining enormous popularity and is becoming a promising option for reconstruction of mandibular defects. However, the vast number of distraction device designs create huge confusion in the clinician's mind to choose the right one. Considering these complex and costly designs, the authors decided to find a simplified way of combining a modified conventional reconstruction plate and monofocal distraction device that can act as a transport distraction device for bridging of bony defects. A case performed by this technique and device has been presented along with the description of device design. PMID:26933289

  8. Age-Related Preservation of Top-Down Control over Distraction in Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Matthew C.; Madden, David J.; Shepler, Anne M.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; Leber, Andrew B.

    2009-01-01

    Visual search studies have demonstrated that older adults can have preserved or even increased top-down control over distraction. However, the results are mixed as to the extent of this age-related preservation. The present experiment assesses group differences in younger and older adults during visual search, with a task featuring two conditions offering varying degrees of top-down control over distraction. After controlling for generalized slowing, the analyses revealed that the age groups were equally capable of utilizing top-down control to minimize distraction. Furthermore, for both age groups, the distraction effect was manifested in a sustained manner across the reaction time distribution. PMID:20544447

  9. Rapid tooth movement and orthodontic treatment using dentoalveolar distraction (DAD). Long-term (5 years) follow-up of a Class II case.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Gkmen; I?eri, Haluk; Ki?ni?ci, Reha

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the dentoalveolar distraction (DAD) technique and to present its effects on the surrounding structures by presenting a Class II case. A 15-year-old skeletal and dental Class II female patient with an overjet of 9 mm was treated by DAD osteogenesis. A custom-made, rigid, tooth-borne intraoral distraction device was used for rapid canine retraction. Osteotomies surrounding the canines were made to achieve rapid movement of the canines within the dentoalveolar segment, in compliance with distraction osteogenesis principles. The amount of canine retraction was 7.5 mm in 12 days at a rate of 0.625 mm per day, with no posterior anchorage loss. The canine teeth showed 1.6 mm extrusion and 11 degrees inclination change (distal tipping) during the same period. Orthodontic treatment continued for 6 months with no clinical and radiographic evidence of complications such as root fracture, root resorption, ankylosis, and soft tissue dehiscence. The DAD technique is an innovative method, because it reduces overall orthodontic treatment time by about 50%, with no unfavorable effects on periodontal tissues and surrounding structures and with no need to use any intraoral or extraoral anchorage appliances. PMID:20050758

  10. Multidisciplinary approach to a traumatized unerupted dilacerated maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Ruellas, Antônio Carlos; Mattos, Claudia Trindade

    2012-07-01

    A patient with an impacted dilacerated maxillary left central incisor is presented. The 8-year-old girl also presented with protrusion of teeth and lips, posterior crossbite, anterior open bite, thumb-sucking habit, and transposition of the maxillary left lateral incisor and canine. The treatment consisted of a multidisciplinary approach, including surgery, orthodontics, endodontics, and prosthodontics. The dilacerated incisor was surgically exposed, tractioned, endodontically treated, and restored. Four premolars were extracted to correct the protrusion. The outcome was the accomplishment of a balanced and functional occlusion, resulting in a pleasant smile. PMID:22149545

  11. MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, A.O; Dosumu, O.O; Amedari, McKing

    2013-01-01

    The maxillary first premolar is the most commonly bi- rooted tooth with occasional presentation of three roots system; it is a transitional tooth between incisors and molars. Although it usually has two canals, it may rarely have three and this third canal can easily be missed. Thus meticulous knowledge of tooth morphology, careful interpretation of angled radiographs, proper access cavity preparation and a detailed exploration of the interior of the tooth is needed to ensure a proper endodontic treatment. This article reports a rare finding of three canals in a maxillary first premolar with non well defined root outline radiographically during an elective root canal treatment. PMID:25161429

  12. Endodontic management of a maxillary molar with three mesiobuccal canals.

    PubMed

    Gundam, Sirisha; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

    2014-01-01

    It is imperative that the clinician should have comprehensive knowledge about the normal anatomy and its variations of the teeth as the deviations from the usual are very common. An increased awareness of unusual anatomy and a better understanding of the root canal system guide the clinician in accurate diagnosis and treatment of such variations in order to achieve a successful endodontic outcome. The maxillary first molar has been shown to have a wide variation in respect to the number of canals specifically noted in the mesiobuccal root. The current case report shows the successful management of a maxillary molar in which the mesiobuccal root had three canals. PMID:25505997

  13. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, H L; Nagarathna, J; Kumar, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233. PMID:26604543

  14. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, HL; Nagarathna, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233. PMID:26604543

  15. Laser therapy of acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Chikina, Elena E.; Meglinski, Igor V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Knyazev, Anatoly B.; Mareev, Oleg V.

    2006-06-01

    The clinical results of photodynamic therapy of maxillary sinusitis have been presented. 0.1%-Methylene Blue aqueous solution in combination with He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm) has been used for treatment of patients with acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis. Efficacy of the photodynamic therapy was estimated with the use of the following criteria: the state of respiration, olfaction, duration of purulent discharge, reconstruction of transport function of ciliary epithelium, etc. The obtained results have shown that the photodynamic therapy is effective in comparison with conservative methods of treatment of the diseases.

  16. Endodontic Management of a Maxillary Molar with Three Mesiobuccal Canals

    PubMed Central

    Gundam, Sirisha; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

    2014-01-01

    It is imperative that the clinician should have comprehensive knowledge about the normal anatomy and its variations of the teeth as the deviations from the usual are very common. An increased awareness of unusual anatomy and a better understanding of the root canal system guide the clinician in accurate diagnosis and treatment of such variations in order to achieve a successful endodontic outcome. The maxillary first molar has been shown to have a wide variation in respect to the number of canals specifically noted in the mesiobuccal root. The current case report shows the successful management of a maxillary molar in which the mesiobuccal root had three canals. PMID:25505997

  17. Remote implant anchorage for the rehabilitation of maxillary defects.

    PubMed

    Parel, S M; Brnemark, P I; Ohrnell, L O; Svensson, B

    2001-10-01

    The rehabilitation of maxillary defects is a significant challenge in terms of creating retention and preserving existing dentition in an environment of expanded functional stress. The advent of osseointegration has enhanced the dental practitioner's capabilities in this regard with a remarkably improved potential for increasing prosthesis stability and preserving tissue. For patients with extensive prosthetic cantilevers, however, the opportunity for implant placement in defect areas is compromised unless remote bone sites are considered. Implants in the defect buttress zone through the maxillary sinus in non-defect sites (zygoma implants) can be valuable in providing a level of functional rehabilitation previously unattainable. PMID:11677531

  18. Segmental neuromyotonia

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Ajay; Junewar, Vivek; Sahu, Ritesh; Shukla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral focal neuromyotonia has been rarely reported in fingers or extraocular muscles. We report a case of segmental neuromyotonia in a 20-year-old boy who presented to us with intermittent tightness in right upper limb. Electromyography revealed myokymic and neuromyotonic discharges in proximal as well as distal muscles of the right upper limb. Patient's symptoms responded well to phenytoin therapy. Such an atypical involvement of two contiguous areas of a single limb in neuromyotonia has not been reported previously. Awareness of such an atypical presentation of the disease can be important in timely diagnosis and treatment of a patient. PMID:26167035

  19. Brookhaven segment interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, W.M.; Benenson, G.; Leipuner, L.B.; Larsen, R.C.; Black, J.K.; Blatt, S.R.; Campbell, M.K.; Kasha, H.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schwarz, C.; Adair, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    We have performed a high energy physics experiment using a multisegment Brookhaven FASTBUS system. The system was composed of three crate segments and two cable segments. We discuss the segment interconnect module which permits communication between the various segments.

  20. Parathyroid hormone reverses radiation induced hypovascularity in a murine model of distraction osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Stephen Y.; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Donneys, Alexis; Rodriguez, Joey J.; Nelson, Noah S.; Felice, Peter A.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation treatment results in a severe diminution of osseous vascularity. Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been shown to have an anabolic effect on osteogenesis, though its impact on angiogenesis remains unknown. In this murine model of distraction osteogenesis, we hypothesize that radiation treatment will result in a diminution of vascularity in the distracted regenerate and that delivery of intermittent systemic PTH will promote angiogenesis and reverse radiation induced hypovascularity. Materials and methods Nineteen Lewis rats were divided into three groups. All groups underwent distraction of the left mandible. Two groups received radiation treatment to the left mandible prior to distraction, and one of these groups was treated with intermittent subcutaneous PTH (60 ?g/kg, once daily) beginning on the first day of distraction for a total duration of 21 days. One group underwent mandibular distraction alone, without radiation. After consolidation, the rats were perfused and imaged with micro-CT angiography and quantitative vascular analysis was performed. Results Radiation treatment resulted in a severe diminution of osseous vascularity in the distracted regenerate. In irradiated mandibles undergoing distraction osteogenesis, treatment with intermittent PTH resulted in significant increases in vessel volume fraction, vessel thickness, vessel number, degree of anisotropy, and a significant decrease in vessel separation (p < 0.05). No significant difference in quantitative vascularity existed between the group that was irradiated, distracted and treated with PTH and the group that underwent distraction osteogenesis without radiation treatment. Conclusions We quantitatively demonstrate that radiation treatment results in a significant depletion of osseous vascularity, and that intermittent administration of PTH reverses radiation induced hypovascularity in the murine mandible undergoing distraction osteogenesis. While the precise mechanism of PTH-induced angiogenesis remains to be elucidated, this report adds a key component to the pleotropic effect of intermittent PTH on bone formation and further supports the potential use of PTH to enhance osseous regeneration in the irradiated mandible. PMID:23643680

  1. Quantitative study of new bone formation in distraction osteogenesis of craniofacial bones by bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Rojvachiranonda, Nond; Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Mahatumarat, Charan

    2007-09-01

    Although distraction osteogenesis is widely accepted as a technique to augment the craniofacial skeleton, timing to start distraction after an osteotomy or to remove distractors is basically based on studies on long bones. Because bone scintigraphy is well known to be the gold standard for quantitative measurement of bone formation, we conducted this pilot study to evaluate its feasibility as a tool for assessing new bone formation by distraction osteogenesis. Five patients with midface hypoplasia and four with mandibular hypoplasia were studied. Each patient had five bone scans: before surgery, 3 and 30 days after stopping distraction, and 3 days before and 3 months after distractor removal. Radiotracer uptake values at distraction sites were measured at 1 and 3 hours. Each uptake value was compared with preoperative study as uptake ratio. A typical pattern of radiotracer uptake ratio was observed in all cases with successful distraction. Uptake rose to the maximum during the consolidation period and remained at or above the preoperative level until the study end point. In one patient who had mandibular distraction and nonunion of the right ramus, there was no uptake peak during early consolidation as seen in the successfully distracted body and in the other cases. Bone scintigraphy was found to be a useful investigation in craniofacial distraction. It showed the dynamic of new bone formation by demonstrating the osteoblastic activity, which is important objective information for determining distraction rate and consolidation duration in each case. It may also be a tool that can predict the outcome of distraction osteogenesis. PMID:17912120

  2. Effect of calcium sulphate on the rate of osteogenesis in distracted bone.

    PubMed

    al Ruhaimi, K A

    2001-06-01

    The effect of applying resorbable calcium sulphate material to newly distracted bone to hasten osteogenesis and consolidation was investigated using 24 New Zealand rabbits. The animals were divided into four groups each containing six rabbits. Groups 1 and 2 were test groups and Groups 3 and 4 were controls. A custom-made submerged distractor was used to distract the rabbit mandibles. The distractor was first used on the third postoperative day at a rate of 1 mm/day for a total of 10 mm. After the completion of distraction, a medical grade resorbable calcium sulphate mixture was applied on the distracted bones in the test groups, whereas the distracted bones in the control groups were exposed postdistraction and closed without intervention. Groups 1 and 3 were sacrificed 11 days postdistraction and Groups 2 and 4 were sacrificed 21 days postdistraction. Undecalcified sections of the distracted bone were examined. Half of the distracted mandibles in each group were stained with Goldner's trichome stain to identify the amount and maturity of the new bone in the distraction zone. The other half of each group was stained with von Kossa stain to identify the amount of calcification and calcium deposition in the distracted bone. Osteogenesis was seen as early as 11 days postdistraction in test animals. Rich lamellar bone deposition was noted in Group 2 (21 days postdistraction +CaSO4). Calcification of the newly formed bone was predominant in the distraction zone in the test groups, especially Group 2, compared to the control groups, which showed incomplete bone deposition and calcification. In conclusion, the application of calcium sulphate to newly distracted bone increased the rate of osteogenesis and calcification. PMID:11420906

  3. Neural signatures of the response to emotional distraction: a review of evidence from brain imaging investigations

    PubMed Central

    Iordan, A. D.; Dolcos, S.; Dolcos, F.

    2013-01-01

    Prompt responses to emotional, potentially threatening, stimuli are supported by neural mechanisms that allow for privileged access of emotional information to processing resources. The existence of these mechanisms can also make emotional stimuli potent distracters, particularly when task-irrelevant. The ability to deploy cognitive control in order to cope with emotional distraction is essential for adaptive behavior, while reduced control may lead to enhanced emotional distractibility, which is often a hallmark of affective disorders. Evidence suggests that increased susceptibility to emotional distraction is linked to changes in the processing of emotional information that affect both the basic response to and coping with emotional distraction, but the neural correlates of these phenomena are not clear. The present review discusses emerging evidence from brain imaging studies addressing these issues, and highlights the following three aspects. First, the response to emotional distraction is associated with opposing patterns of activity in a ventral hot affective system (HotEmo, showing increased activity) and a dorsal cold executive system (ColdEx, showing decreased activity). Second, coping with emotional distraction involves topdown control in order to counteract the bottom-up influence of emotional distraction, and involves interactions between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Third, both the response to and coping with emotional distraction are influenced by individual differences affecting emotional sensitivity and distractibility, which are linked to alterations of both HotEmo and ColdEx neural systems. Collectively, the available evidence identifies specific neural signatures of the response to emotional challenge, which are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of emotion-cognition interactions in healthy functioning, and the changes linked to individual variation in emotional distractibility and susceptibility to affective disorders. PMID:23761741

  4. Interactions of neural networks: models for distraction and concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L P; Ross, J

    1990-01-01

    We present a model of neural group interactions, which are projections from one neural network (network B) of McCulloch-Pitts neurons connected via a Hebbian rule, to another network (network A) of the same structure. We first consider the case in which the projecting network B is in a pattern different from the initial attracting state of network A. A critical projecting strength lambda c is found such that for lambda below this value there exists a noise threshold sigma lambda corresponding to each lambda. For the case where lambda less than lambda c and the noise level sigma less than sigma lambda, there are two possible retrievals, with different probabilities: the initial attracting state of network A and the projecting pattern. If lambda less than lambda c and sigma greater than sigma lambda, stable states of network A disappear. In the case lambda greater than lambda c, network A is pulled out of its initial basin of attraction and into that of the projecting pattern. This analysis provides a model for distraction. Second-order interactions reduce the distraction. When the projecting network B is in the same pattern as the initial attracting state of network A, the projection acts as an external reinforcement, which enables network A to retrieve in highly noisy conditions. Sharp noise thresholds for nonzero retrievals are shown to be eliminated by the projection. Higher-order connectivity improves the retrieval ability of the network. The second case serves as a model of concentration. We discuss the model of distraction and concentration (i) in connection with common experience of expectation of recognition and (ii) in connection with recent T-maze experiments on infant rats; finally, we suggest a refined version of the Bruner-Potter experiment to test our prediction of the disappearance of hysteresis. PMID:2402493

  5. Virtual Reality as a Distraction Technique in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  6. Improving orthodontic results in cases with maxillary incisors missing.

    PubMed

    Zachrisson, B U

    1978-03-01

    This article has aimed at providing information on how to improve clinical orthodontic results in cases in which maxillary central and lateral incisors are missing. Different sections deal with (1) treatment approach and mechanics, (2) details in finishing, (3) modifications of clinical tooth crowns by special procedures (grinding, composite "corners," gingivectomy), (4) functional considerations and root resorption, and (5) retention. PMID:274073

  7. Neonatal nasal obstruction and a single maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Levison, John; Neas, Katherine; Wilson, Meredith; Cooper, Peter; Wojtulewicz, Julian

    2005-07-01

    We present two neonates with nasal obstruction because of anterior choanal stenosis (congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis). An associated single maxillary central incisor was also shown on computed tomography imaging in the neonatal period. These midline anomalies are recognized minimal manifestations (microforms) of holoprosencephaly. We describe their neonatal investigation, multidisciplinary management and clinical course. PMID:16014147

  8. Bilateral maxillary fused second and third molars: a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rui-Zhen; Wu, Jin-Tao; Wu, You-Nong; Smales, Roger J; Hu, Ming; Yu, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Guang-Dong

    2012-12-01

    This case report describes the diagnosis and endodontic therapy of maxillary fused second and third molars, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 31-year-old Chinese male, with no contributory medical or family/social history, presented with throbbing pain in the maxillary right molar area following an unsuccessful attempted tooth extraction. Clinical examination revealed what appeared initially to be a damaged large extra cusp on the buccal aspect of the distobuccal cusp of the second molar. However, CBCT revealed that a third molar was fused to the second molar. Unexpectedly, the maxillary left third molar also was fused to the second molar, and the crown of an unerupted supernumerary fourth molar was possibly also fused to the apical root region of the second molar. Operative procedures should not be attempted without adequate radiographic investigation. CBCT allowed the precise location of the root canals of the right maxillary fused molar teeth to permit successful endodontic therapy, confirmed after 6 months. PMID:23222992

  9. Maxillary molar distalization with a bone-anchored pendulum appliance.

    PubMed

    Kircelli, Beyza Hancio?lu; Pekta?, Zafer Ozgr; Kircelli, Cem

    2006-07-01

    To obtain an effective and compliance-free molar distalization without an anchorage loss, we designed the bone-anchored pendulum appliance (BAPA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of the anchoring screw, distalization of the maxillary molars, and the movement of teeth anterior to maxillary first molars. The study group comprised 10 patients (mean age 13.5 +/- 1.8 years) with Class II molar relationship. A conventional pendulum appliance was modified to obtain anchorage from an intraosseous screw instead of the premolars. The screw was placed in the anterior paramedian region of the median palatal suture. Skeletal and dental changes were measured on cephalograms, and dental casts were obtained before and after distalization. A super Class I molar relationship was achieved in a mean period of 7.0 +/- 1.8 months. The maxillary first molars distalized an average of 6.4 +/- 1.3 mm in the region of the dental crown by tipping distally an average of 10.9 degrees +/- 2.8 degrees . Also, the maxillary second premolar and first premolar moved distally an average of 5.4 +/- 1.3 mm and 3.8 +/- 1.1 mm, respectively. The premolars tipped significantly distally. No anterior incisor movement was detected. The BAPA was found to be an effective, minimally invasive, and compliance-free intraoral distalization appliance for achieving both molar and premolar distalization without any anchorage loss. PMID:16808573

  10. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma in the maxillary sinus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the maxillary sinus is a very rare malignancy and it can be difficult to make a pre-operative diagnosis. Case presentation A 72-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with an isolated right-side epistaxis that had been present for three months, with the results of a computed tomography scan showing a soft tissue mass in the right maxillary sinus with an impacted tooth. The results of a transnasal endoscopic biopsy were compatible with a lymphoepithelial carcinoma, following which our patient underwent a radical excision of the mass. The final histology results revealed lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the maxillary sinus with negative assays for Epstein-Barr virus. Our patient was given post-operative external radiotherapy and has remained disease-free at three-year follow-up. Conclusions This report details the diagnosis and management of a case of lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the maxillary sinus, which is a very rare malignant tumor with very little mention in the literature. Only a strong suspicion with systematic use of various patho-immunological tests helps to arrive at a definitive diagnosis by excluding other better-known tumors. PMID:23231992

  11. Extraction of Maxillary Central Incisors: An Orthodontic-Restorative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Zohreh; Zare, Maryam; Bahramnia, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Malformed central incisors with poor prognosis could be candidates for extraction especially in crowded dental arches. This case report refers to a 12-year-old boy who suffered from malformed upper central incisors associated with severe attrition. Upper lateral incisors were positioned palatally and canines were rotated and positioned in the high buccal area. The patient had class II malocclusion and space deficiency in both dental arches. Due to incisal wear and malformed short maxillary central incisors and the need for root canal therapy with a major crown build-up, these teeth were extracted. The maxillary lateral incisors were substituted. Thus the maxillary canines were substituted for lateral incisors and the first premolars were substituted for canines. In the lower dental arch the first bicuspids were extracted. Composite resin build-up was performed on the maxillary lateral incisors and canines. This allowed for the crowding and the malocclusion to be corrected. Subsequent gingivectomy improved the patient's gingival margins and smile esthetics one month after orthodontic therapy. PMID:25400954

  12. Maxillary Antrolith: A Rare Cause of the Recurrent Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vijendra; Maller, Vijetha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. An antrolith is a calcified mass within the maxillary sinus. The origin of the nidus of calcification may be extrinsic (foreign body in sinus) or intrinsic (stagnant mucus and fungal ball). Most antroliths are small and asymptomatic. Larger ones may present as sinusitis with symptoms like pain and discharge. Case Report. We report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with heaviness on the left side of the face and loosening of the left 2nd molar tooth since two months. CT scan of the osteomeatal complex and paranasal sinuses showed an opacification of bilateral maxillary sinus and an amorphous area of bone density in the left maxillary sinus. Because of the size of the mass, benign neoplasms were considered in the differential diagnosis. During an endoscopic sinus surgery, it was found to be an antrolith, which was successfully managed by antrostomy and Caldwell-Luc Surgery. Discussion. Antrolith is a rare condition. Rhinoliths are known to invade into the maxillary antrum, but a localised lesion in the antrum is very unusual. A case of an isolated antrolith is presented for its rarity and for differential diagnosis of localised antral disease. Conclusion. Antrolith should be considered as differential diagnosis of unilateral radio-opaque paranasal sinus lesions. PMID:23476856

  13. Sealing maxillary titanium obturators with removable flexible caps.

    PubMed

    Reitemeier, Bernd; Schaal, Wolfgang; Wolf, Annette; Walter, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Maxillary obturator prostheses with hollow metal obturators can be made of titanium to reduce weight. To prevent perforation of the hollow obturator during modifications, the obturator is slightly undersized and covered with a replaceable cap. This cap is made of a soft copolymer to facilitate uncomplicated modifications in the resection area and to improve function. PMID:26581659

  14. Posterior P1 and early frontal negativity reflect developmental changes in attentional distraction during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Hong; Chen, Jie; Chen, Ning; Liu, Xia; Wang, Dahua; Shen, Jiliang

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies in adults have revealed that attentional distraction modulates the late positive potential (LPP) during emotion regulation. To determine whether early visual components reflect developmental changes in attentional distraction during adolescence, we collected event-related potentials from 20 young adolescents, 18 older adolescents, and 18 young adults as they performed a distraction task (counting) while viewing affective images. Consistent with previous findings obtained in distraction studies, the distraction task (counting) reduced emotional modulation of the LPP. At an early stage of processing, counting reduced emotional modulation of P1 and increased the negativity bias of early frontal negativity (eFN) for negatively valenced pictures compared to simple viewing with no distraction. sLORETA analyses further revealed eFN indexing of rostral prefrontal cortical activation, a cortical area that has been shown in recent fMRI studies to be activated by distraction. Moreover, P1 amplitudes in young and older adolescents did not differ but were both larger than the P1s in young adults. In addition, eFN amplitudes significantly decreased with age. The dissociable distraction patterns between the posterior P1 and eFN provide evidence not only for the timing hypothesis of emotion regulation but also for different developmental trajectories of visual processing areas and the prefrontal cortex during affective processing in adolescence. PMID:24658081

  15. Object-Based Attention Overrides Perceptual Load to Modulate Visual Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to ignore task-irrelevant information and overcome distraction is central to our ability to efficiently carry out a number of tasks. One factor shown to strongly influence distraction is the perceptual load of the task being performed; as the perceptual load of task-relevant information processing increases, the likelihood that

  16. "Shhh! We're Tryin' to Concentrate": Attention and Environmental Distracters in Novel Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Wallace E., Jr.; Salley, Brenda J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this study was to evaluate the role of attention, as a central dimension of temperament, in children's real-time acquisition of novel vocabulary. Environmental distractions were administered to 47 22-month-old children as they acquired novel vocabulary in a fast-mapping task. Two distraction conditions impeded novel word

  17. Why Does Working Memory Capacity Predict RAPM Performance? A Possible Role of Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Andrew F.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Current theories concerning individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) suggest that WMC reflects the ability to control the focus of attention and resist interference and distraction. The current set of experiments tested whether susceptibility to distraction is partially responsible for the established relationship between

  18. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: "Just Hang Up and Drive".

    PubMed

    Kahn, Christopher A; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-12-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as "distracted driving." The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article "Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011" highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family. PMID:26759649

  19. Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julien T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N=27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders were trained along with their parents to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Distraction produced significant positive effects for observer-rated distress scores for the low hypnotizable children. Discusses

  20. The Use of Choice-Based Distraction to Decrease the Distress of Children at the Dentist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filcheck, Holly A.; Allen, Keith D.; Ogren, Hilary; Darby, James Brandt; Holstein, Brian; Hupp, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine whether choice-based distraction provides an effective means of reducing the distress of children undergoing routine dental treatment. Sixty children between the ages of 5-12 who required restorative dental treatment were assigned randomly to either a Control group or a Distraction group in which the…

  1. Biomechanical analysis of axial distraction mobilization of the glenohumeral joint--a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ar-Tyan; Chiu, Jing-Fang; Chang, Jia Hao

    2009-08-01

    The axial distraction mobilization techniques are frequently employed for treating patients with joint hypomobility. However, there is a lack of basic biomechanical studies and description of this procedure. The purpose of this study was to analyze humeral head displacement while performing an axial distraction mobilization of the glenohumeral joint. Twelve experienced orthopedic physical therapists participated. Distraction mobilization techniques were performed in three different positions of glenohumeral abduction on a fresh cadaveric specimen. Outcome measures were displacements of the humeral head center during distraction mobilization. Result indicated that displacement of the humeral head was largest in the resting position (27.38 mm) followed by the neutral (22.01 mm) and the end range position (9.34 mm). There were significant differences for both the displacement of the humeral head (p<0.002) and the distraction forces used (p<0.015) among the three joint positions. Greater gain in mobility was obtained in distraction at the end range position. In conclusion, during distraction mobilization, the force applied by the therapist and displacement of the humeral head depends on the joint position tested. Our results also provide rationales for choosing end range distraction mobilization for improving joint mobility. PMID:18805038

  2. Keep Your Eyes on the Road: Young Driver Crash Risk Increases According to Duration of Distraction

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Guo, Feng; Klauer, Sheila G; Ehsani, Johnathon P; Pradhan, Anuj K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Secondary task engagement that distracts the driver is a contributing factor to motor vehicle crashes among adults. However, the association between eye glance duration and crash risk with novice teenage drivers has not been determined. Methods Vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers were instrumented with cameras, accelerometers, GPS, and other devices. Data were collected continuously for 18 months. Crashes and near crashes (CNCs) were identified by examining highly elevated gravitational force events. Video footage of the 6 seconds prior to each CNC and randomly sampled non-CNC road segments were coded for the duration of eye glances off the forward roadway and the presence of secondary task engagement. The likelihood (odds ratios) of CNC due to eye glance behavior was calculated by comparing the prevalence of secondary task engagement and duration of eyes off road prior to CNC with the prevalence and duration of eyes off road during non-CNC road segments. Results Crash risk increased with the duration of single longest glance during all secondary tasks (OR=3.8 for >2s) and wireless secondary task engagement (OR=5.5 for >2s). Single longest glance provided a more consistent estimate of crash risk than total time eyes off the forward roadway. Conclusions Eyes glances away from forward roadway involving secondary tasks increased the likelihood of CNC. The longer the duration of eye glance away from the road the greater the risk, regardless of type of secondary task. Education and policy discouraging secondary task engagement, particularly for prolonged periods, is warranted. PMID:24759443

  3. Mindless feeding: Is maternal distraction during bottle-feeding associated with overfeeding?

    PubMed

    Golen, Rebecca B; Ventura, Alison K

    2015-08-01

    Mindless eating, or eating while distracted by surrounding stimuli, leads to overeating. The present study explored whether "mindless feeding," or maternal distraction during bottle-feeding, is associated with greater infant formula/milk intakes and lower maternal sensitivity to infant cues. Mothers and their ≤24-week-old bottle-feeding infants (N = 28) visited our laboratory for a video-recorded feeding observation. Infant intake was assessed by weighing bottles before and after the feedings. Maternal sensitivity to infant cues was objectively assessed by behavioral coding of video-records using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Maternal distraction was defined as looking away from the infant >75% of the feeding; using a mobile device; conversing with another adult; or sleeping. Twenty-nine percent (n = 8) of mothers were distracted. While differences in intakes for infants of distracted vs. not distracted mothers did not reach significance (p = 0.24), the association between distraction and infant intake was modified by two dimensions of temperament: orienting/regulation capacity (p = 0.03) and surgency/extraversion (p = 0.04). For infants with low orienting/regulation capacity, infants of distracted mothers consumed more (177.1 ± 33.8 ml) than those of not distracted mothers (92.4 ± 13.8 ml). Similar findings were noted for infants with low surgency/extraversion (distracted: 140.6 ± 22.5 ml; not distracted: 78.4 ± 14.3 ml). No association between distraction and intake was seen for infants with high orienting/regulation capacity or surgency/extraversion. A significantly greater proportion of distracted mothers showed low sensitivity to infant cues compared to not distracted mothers (p = 0.04). In sum, mindless feeding may interact with infant characteristics to influence feeding outcomes; further experimental and longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:25953601

  4. Methods for the Study of the Zebrafish Maxillary Barbel

    PubMed Central

    LeClair, Elizabeth E.; Topczewski, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    Barbels are skin sensory appendages found in fishes, reptiles and amphibians. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, develops two pairs of barbels- a short nasal pair and a longer maxillary pair. Barbel tissue contains cells of ectodermal, mesodermal and neural crest origin, including skin cells, glands, taste buds, melanocytes, circulatory vessels and sensory nerves. Unlike most adult tissue, the maxillary barbel is optically clear, allowing us to visualize the development and maintenance of these tissue types throughout the life cycle. This video shows early development of the maxillary barbel (beginning approximately one month post-fertilization) and demonstrates a surgical protocol to induce regeneration in the adult appendage (>3 months post-fertilization). Briefly, the left maxillary barbel of an anesthetized fish is elevated with sterile forceps just distal to the caudal edge of the maxilla. A fine, sterile spring scissors is positioned against the forceps to cut the barbel shaft at this level, establishing an anatomical landmark for the amputation plane. Regenerative growth can be measured with respect to this plane, and in comparison to the contralateral barbel. Barbel tissue regenerates rapidly, reaching maximal regrowth within 2 weeks of injury. Techniques for analyzing the regenerated barbel include dissecting and embedding matched pairs of barbels (regenerate and control) in the wells of a standard DNA electrophoresis gel. Embedded specimens are conveniently photographed under a stereomicroscope for gross morphology and morphometry, and can be stored for weeks prior to downstream applications such as paraffin histology, cryosectioning, and/or whole mount immunohistochemistry. These methods establish the maxillary barbel as a novel in vivo tissue system for studying the regenerative capacity of multiple cell types within the genetic context of zebrafish. PMID:19935639

  5. Understanding commercial truck drivers' decision-makin process concerning distracted driving.

    PubMed

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-05-01

    A concurrent mixed methods design was used to explore personal and workplace factors, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, that affect truck drivers' decision-making about distracted driving on the job. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with experts in truck safety and distracted driving, and quantitative data were collected via online survey of truck drivers in the United States. Findings from the interviews illustrated how drivers perceived distractions and the importance of supervisors enforcing organizational distracted driving policies. Survey results found that behavioral intentions were most important in regards to texting and crash and near-crash outcomes, while perceived norms from management best described the correlation between dispatch device use and negative crash-related outcomes. By using a mixed methods design, rather than two separate studies, these findings revealed nuanced differences into the influence of supervisors on distracted driving. PMID:25732132

  6. Effects of first premolar extraction on maxillary and mandibular third molar angulation after orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gohilot, Avinash; Pradhan, Tejashri; Keluskar, Kanhoba Mahabaleshwar

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims To compare the change in the angulation of developing mandibular third molar in both first premolar extraction and non-extraction cases and to determine whether premolar extraction results in a more mesial movement of the mandibular buccal segment and causes favorable rotational changes in the mandibular third molar tilt, which can enhance later eruption of the third molars. Materials and methods Pretreatment (T1) and post treatment (T2) panoramic radiographs were taken of 25 subjects (age 14–19 years) who had been treated by the extraction of all the first premolars and 25 subjects who had been treated with non-extraction. The horizontal reference plane was used to measure and compare the changes in the angles of the developing mandibular third molars. Results The mean uprighting of the maxillary third molars seen in the extraction group was 4 ± 9° on the left side and −17 ± 13° on the right side following treatment (T2 _ T1). For the non-extraction group the mean difference was −16 ± 12° on the left side and 2 ± 13° on the right side. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P _ 0.021 on the right side and P _ 0.041 on the left side). Mandibular 3rd molars in extraction group showed no statistical significant change in the angulation. Conclusion Premolar extractions had a positive influence on the developing maxillary third molar angulations both on right and left. Mandibular 3rd molar have shown change in the angulation but not statistically significant. Non-extraction therapy did not have any adverse effect. PMID:25737843

  7. Analysis of the Biomechanical Properties of the Mandible After Unilateral Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Daniel A.; Arman, Krikor G.; Kakwan, Mehreen S.; Jamali, Ameen M.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to establish biomechanical outcomes measures to evaluate how mandibular distraction osteogenesis affects the overall quality of bone healing in the mandible. Strength and functional integrity of the regenerate was quantitatively determined after unilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis in comparison to the contralateral mandible, and a partially reduced fracture. We hypothesized that the breaking load, yield and stiffness of mandibular distraction osteogenesis would be significantly reduced in comparison to both the contralateral mandible and a partially reduced fracture. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats underwent mandibular distraction osteogenesis (n=8) or a partially reduced fracture (n=6). External fixators were secured, unilateral osteotomies created behind the 3rd molar, followed by either mandibular distraction osteogenesis: 4days latency then 0.3mm Q12hrs 8days (5.1mm) or a partially reduced mandibular fracture: fixed gap post-operatively (2.1mm). Both groups underwent 4 weeks consolidation. The contralateral mandibles were used as controls (n = 14). Mandibles were tension tested at 0.5mm/s to failure and then breaking load, yield and stiffness were determined. Results mandibular distraction osteogenesis had significantly lower breaking load, yield and stiffness when compared to the contralateral mandible, by 40%, 30% and 60%, respectively. Breaking load was reduced in partially reduced mandibular fractures by 40% when compared to mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Conclusion Utilizing a standard Ilizarov protocol, the strength and durability of the regenerate, as measured by breaking load, yield and stiffness in mandibular distraction osteogenesis was significantly lower than contralateral mandibles. Surprisingly, the breaking load of mandibular distraction osteogenesis was significantly greater than partially reduced mandibular fracture. These verifiable metrics of regenerate integrity can be utilized to discern optimal outcomes of mandibular distraction osteogenesis, and to extrapolate the data from the bench and bring it to the bedside, enhancing the clinical applications of this powerful technique. PMID:20375764

  8. Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction Osteogenesis: Evolution of Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Juling; Harshbarger, Raymond J.; Kelley, Patrick; George, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of the brain in the first few years of life drives the expansion of the cranial vault. This expansion occurs primarily at the cranial sutures; premature fusion of these results in growth restriction perpendicular to the axis of the suture. The result of this is physical deformation of the cranial and facial skeleton, as well as the distortion of the underling brain and its physiology. These patients can present with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, neurodevelopmental delay, as well as the morphological features of craniosynostosis. Acquired conditions such as the slit ventricle syndrome may also result in cephalocranial disproportion with these clinical features. Traditional vault remodeling surgery is able to correct the physical abnormalities as well as correcting cephalocranial disproportion. Its limitations include the degree of scalp expansion achievable as well as resulting defects in the bone. The use of distraction osteogenesis of the cranial vault permits a controlled expansion in a predetermined vector in a gradual manner. When used in the calvarium, this combines the benefits of tissue expansion on the scalp, as well as stimulating the production of new bone, reducing the defects resulting from expansion. In this review, the authors describe some of the surgical considerations important to the use of this technique. This includes the relevant anatomy and technical aspects illustrated with the use of clinical cases. Finally, they present a summary of their experience and discuss the complications associated with cranial vault distraction osteogenesis. PMID:25383052

  9. Do advertisements at the roadside distract the driver?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettwich, Carmen; Klinger, Karsten; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment. More and more cars are on the road. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio and navigation system, the environment outside the car has also become more and more complex. Hoardings, advertising pillars, shop fronts and video screens are just a few examples. For this reason the potential risk of driver distraction is rising. But in which way do the advertisements at the roadside influence the driver's attention? The investigation which is described is devoted to this topic. Various kinds of advertisements played an important role, like illuminated and non-illuminated posters as well as illuminated animated ads. Several test runs in an urban environment were performed. The gaze direction of the driver's eye was measured with an eye tracking system. The latter consists of three cameras which logged the eye movements during the test run and a small-sized scene camera recording the traffic scene. 16 subjects (six female and ten male) between 21 and 65 years of age took part in this experiment. Thus the driver's fixation duration of the different advertisements could be determined.

  10. Olfactory Identification Test Using Familiar Distracters for Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Myung; Jeong, Mi Soon; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Seol, Jeong-Hun; Hong, Seok-Chan; Cho, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Odors used in an odor identification test should be familiar to the subject, but there are some unfamiliar distracters in Korean version of Sniffin' stick (KVSS) II identification test. In this study, we used the results of the original version of KVSS II identification to modify the KVSS II identification test. Methods Eighty-three participants took an original version of KVSS II identification test and a visual analogue scale of subjective odor function. KVSS II identification which has 16 items was performed to choose one out of four odors items. And visual analogue scale was checked from 0 to 10 points of their subjective olfactory function. Two weeks later they took the modified version of KVSS II identification test. Hyposmic or anosmic patients were excluded. Results The mean score of the original version of KVSS II identification and modified version of KVSS II identification were 11.3 and 12.5, respectively (P<0.05). The KVSS II identification test and subjective olfactory function were positively correlated (r=0.247, P<0.05), as were the modified KVSS II identification test and subjective olfactory function (r=0.329, P<0.05). Conclusion After modification of distracters, KVSS II identification test appears to be suited for assessment of olfactory function. PMID:24587876

  11. Perceptions of driver distraction by cellular phone users and nonusers.

    PubMed

    Wogalter, Michael S; Mayhorn, Christopher B

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the perceptions of cellular phone users and nonusers on issues relating to vehicle control and driver distraction. Participants were asked if they own a cellular phone; if so, how much they use it; and their beliefs regarding cellular phone use while driving, including actions involving the use of cellular phones which could potentially cause vehicular accidents and the need for laws. A total of 330 individuals participated; 72% owned a cellular phone. The results indicate that nonusers of cellular phones believed more strongly than users that cellular phone use while driving negatively affects driving performance and that talking on the cellular phone could potentially cause an accident, and they also had a greater preference for new laws limiting such acts. Cellular phone users, more than nonusers, preferred no laws limiting cellular phone use and believed more strongly that other people driving while using a cellular phone were more dangerous than themselves doing the same. Implications of these results are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include interventions that limit driver distractibility. PMID:16170950

  12. A custom mandibular distraction device for the rat.

    PubMed

    Connolly, John P; Liu, Zi-Jun; Wang, Lingli; Whelan, Michael F; Huang, Greg J; Williams, Joseph K; King, Greg J

    2002-05-01

    In the last several years, the rat model has been used as a reliable means of studying distraction osteogenesis (DO). This model has several benefits, including lower cost, the availability of molecular reagents for the rat, and the ability to perform a large number of operations in a short time. We have recently developed an external device that is custom-made for the rat mandible and secured at the mandibular ramus. The device consists of a Leone (Florence, Italy) jackscrew distraction assembly (0.2 mm per one-quarter turn), 2 Luhr L-shaped 0.8-mm five-hole microplates, and four 0.8-mm x 3-mm microscrews (Stryker-Leibinger Corp., Kalamazoo, MI) for fixation. Additionally, there is a methylmethacrylate block that is placed on the lingual surface of the angle of the mandible to support the posterior screws. Sterile surgical technique was used, and the same two surgeons performed all operations. To date, we have operated on 153 Sprague-Dawley rats. The procedure has been well tolerated by the animals. We had 17 postoperative deaths (11% mortality), largely as a result of anesthetic complications. There were no wound infections or dehiscence. A mandible fracture was noted in 6 rats (4%), which occurred at the time of device placement. There were no device dislodgments. Postmortem examination showed the device to be well positioned in all rats, with good callous formation at the distraction site. The rats surpassed their preoperative weight after an average of 9.2 days. These results compare favorably with those of other models currently in use. We have developed a device that is currently being used in the study of DO in the rat mandible. Our device is small in size, does not require wide undermining for its placement, and has had a low incidence of device dislodgment or infection. This model has shown great reproducibility and thus should be effective in its application for the histologic and biochemical investigation of DO in the rat. PMID:12040216

  13. The effect of human amniotic fluid on mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gokce, S M; Karacayli, U; Nalcaci, R; Avunduk, M C; zgmen, M; Karasahin, E; Gokce, H S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local administration of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on newly formed bone obtained by mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) with histomorphometry. A unilateral mandibular osteotomy at the left corpus was performed in 32 adult male rabbits. After a 5-day latency period, the left mandibles were lengthened by mandibular DO over 5 days, at a rate of 1mm/day, via a custom-made distractor. After the distraction, the rabbits were divided randomly into four groups: 0.3 ml HAF was injected into the distraction gap followed by 21 (group 1) or 45 (group 2) days of consolidation; or 0.3 ml normal saline (NS) was administered followed by 21 (group 3) or 45 (group 4) days of consolidation. Mandibles were removed at the end of the consolidation period and investigated histomorphometrically. The newly formed bone area (NFBA) and number of fibroblasts increased significantly in the HAF groups compared to the NS groups (NFBA: group 1 vs. group 3, P<0.05; group 2 vs. group 4, P<0.01; fibroblasts: group 1 vs. group 3, and group 2 vs. group 4, P<0.05), and also in both 45-day consolidation groups compared to the 21-day consolidation groups (NFBA: group 1 vs. group 2, and group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.001; fibroblasts: group 1 vs. group 2, and group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.01). Additionally, the numbers of osteoblasts and capillaries were increased significantly at 45 days of consolidation compared to 21 days in both the HAF and NS groups (osteoblasts: group 1 vs. group 2, P<0.01; group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.05; capillaries: group 1 vs. group 2, and group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.01). Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that local HAF administration effectively accelerated bone formation. Thus, a HAF injection procedure could improve new bone formation around the bone in maxillofacial operations such as DO. PMID:25457823

  14. Virtual-Reality Distraction and Cold-Pressor Pain Tolerance: Does Avatar Point of View Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Linda J.; Weiss, Karen E.; Jimeno, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study tested the effects of distraction using virtual-reality (VR) technology on acute pain tolerance in young adults. Forty-one undergraduate students, aged 18–23 years, used a VR head-mounted display helmet, steering wheel, and foot pedal to play an auto racing video game while undergoing exposure to very cold water (cold pressor set at 1°C). Two different game views were tested that were hypothesized to affect the degree to which participants felt “present” in the virtual environment: a first-person view, in which the participant saw the virtual environment through the eyes of the game character being manipulated; and a third-person view, in which the participant viewed the game character from a distance. The length of time participants tolerated the cold-water exposure (pain tolerance) under each distraction condition was compared to a baseline (no distraction) trial. Subjects also rated the degree to which they felt “present” in the virtual environment after each distraction trial. Results demonstrated that participants had significantly higher pain tolerance during both VR-distraction conditions relative to baseline (no distraction) trials. Although participants reported a greater sense of presence during the first-person condition than the third-person condition, pain-tolerance scores associated with the two distraction conditions did not differ. The types of VR applications in which presence may be more or less important are discussed. PMID:20950186

  15. When aging does not increase distraction: Evidence from pure auditory and visual oddball tasks.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Alicia; Andrs, Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2015-12-01

    Past research indicates that age increases deviance distraction in cross-modal oddball tasks, but results are few and less conclusive in purely auditory oddball tasks, with 3 studies not reporting age-related increase in deviance distraction against 1 that did (d = 1.04). This study aimed to (a) examine the effect of age on deviance distraction using the largest sample size to date to ensure adequate statistical power and (b) extend the study of same-modality deviance distraction to the visual modality. We compared 42 young and 42 older adults in auditory and visual duration discrimination tasks in which stimuli were presented with rare and unexpected task-irrelevant changes in pitch (in the auditory task) or location (in the visual task). The statistical power of our experiment to detect an effect size (d) of 1.04 was .999. Our results showed deviance distraction (longer response times for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli) in both modalities. Importantly, these effects did not vary with age. Strong support for the absence of age-related variation in deviance distraction was further demonstrated by Bayes factor analysis. We conclude that aging does not appear to increase behavioral distraction by deviant stimuli in same-modality oddball tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26214503

  16. Virtual-reality distraction and cold-pressor pain tolerance: does avatar point of view matter?

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Herbert, Linda J; Weiss, Karen E; Jimeno, Monica

    2010-10-01

    This study tested the effects of distraction using virtual-reality (VR) technology on acute pain tolerance in young adults. Forty-one undergraduate students, aged 18-23 years, used a VR head-mounted display helmet, steering wheel, and foot pedal to play an auto racing video game while undergoing exposure to very cold water (cold pressor set at 1 C). Two different game views were tested that were hypothesized to affect the degree to which participants felt "present" in the virtual environment: a first-person view, in which the participant saw the virtual environment through the eyes of the game character being manipulated; and a third-person view, in which the participant viewed the game character from a distance. The length of time participants tolerated the cold-water exposure (pain tolerance) under each distraction condition was compared to a baseline (no distraction) trial. Subjects also rated the degree to which they felt "present" in the virtual environment after each distraction trial. Results demonstrated that participants had significantly higher pain tolerance during both VR-distraction conditions relative to baseline (no distraction) trials. Although participants reported a greater sense of presence during the first-person condition than the third-person condition, pain-tolerance scores associated with the two distraction conditions did not differ. The types of VR applications in which presence may be more or less important are discussed. PMID:20950186

  17. Non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity in sexual minority and heterosexual young adults.

    PubMed

    Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21796485

  18. Dynamics of Distraction: Competition among Auditory Streams Modulates Gain and Disrupts Inter-Trial Phase Coherence in the Human Electroencephalogram

    PubMed Central

    Ponjavic-Conte, Karla D.; Hambrook, Dillon A.; Pavlovic, Sebastian; Tata, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Auditory distraction is a failure to maintain focus on a stream of sounds. We investigated the neural correlates of distraction in a selective-listening pitch-discrimination task with high (competing speech) or low (white noise) distraction. High-distraction impaired performance and reduced the N1 peak of the auditory Event-Related Potential evoked by probe tones. In a series of simulations, we explored two theories to account for this effect: disruption of sensory gain or a disruption of inter-trial phase consistency. When compared to these simulations, our data were consistent with both effects of distraction. Distraction reduced the gain of the auditory evoked potential and disrupted the inter-trial phase consistency with which the brain responds to stimulus events. Tones at a non-target, unattended frequency were more susceptible to the effects of distraction than tones within an attended frequency band. PMID:23326548

  19. The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain.

    PubMed

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Thompson, Caitlin; Hahn, Amy; Herbert, Linda; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness. Sixty-two children (6-13 years old) underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered both with and without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found. Children's coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles. PMID:23184062

  20. Automating skeletal expansion: An implant for distraction osteogenesis of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Magill, John C; Byl, Marten F; Goldwaser, Batya; Papadaki, Maria; Kromann, Roger; Yates, Brent; Morency, Joseph R; Kaban, Leonard B; Troulis, Maria J

    2009-03-01

    BACKGROUND: Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a technique of bone lengthening that makes use of the body's natural healing capacity. An osteotomy is created and a rigid distraction device is attached to the bone. After a latency period, the device is activated 2-4 times per day for a total of 1 mm/day of bone lengthening. This technique is used to correct a variety of congenital and acquired deformities of the mandible, midface and long bones. To shorten the treatment period and to eliminate the complications of patient activation of the device, an automated continuous distraction device would be desirable. It has been reported that continuous distraction generates adequate bone with lengthening at a rate of 2 mm/day, thereby reducing the treatment time. METHOD OF APPROACH: The device we describe here uses miniature high-pressure hydraulics, position feedback, and a digital controller to achieve closed-loop control of the distraction process. The implanted actuator can produce up to 40N of distraction force on linear trajectories as well as curved distraction paths. In the paper we detail the spring-powered hydraulic reservoir, controller, and user interface. RESULTS: Experiments to test the new device design were performed in a porcine cadaver head and in live pigs. In the cadaver head, the device performed an 11-day/11 mm distraction with a root-mean-squared position error of 0.09 mm. The device functioned for periods of several days in each of five live animals, though some component failures occurred, leading to design revisions. CONCLUSIONS: The test series showed that the novel design of this system provides the capabilities necessary to automate distraction of the mandible. Further developments will focus on making the implanted position sensor more robust and then carrying out clinical trials. PMID:20740071

  1. Automating skeletal expansion: An implant for distraction osteogenesis of the mandible

    PubMed Central

    Magill, John C.; Byl, Marten F.; Goldwaser, Batya; Papadaki, Maria; Kromann, Roger; Yates, Brent; Morency, Joseph R.; Kaban, Leonard B.; Troulis, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a technique of bone lengthening that makes use of the body’s natural healing capacity. An osteotomy is created and a rigid distraction device is attached to the bone. After a latency period, the device is activated 2–4 times per day for a total of 1 mm/day of bone lengthening. This technique is used to correct a variety of congenital and acquired deformities of the mandible, midface and long bones. To shorten the treatment period and to eliminate the complications of patient activation of the device, an automated continuous distraction device would be desirable. It has been reported that continuous distraction generates adequate bone with lengthening at a rate of 2 mm/day, thereby reducing the treatment time. Method of Approach The device we describe here uses miniature high-pressure hydraulics, position feedback, and a digital controller to achieve closed-loop control of the distraction process. The implanted actuator can produce up to 40N of distraction force on linear trajectories as well as curved distraction paths. In the paper we detail the spring-powered hydraulic reservoir, controller, and user interface. Results Experiments to test the new device design were performed in a porcine cadaver head and in live pigs. In the cadaver head, the device performed an 11-day/11 mm distraction with a root-mean-squared position error of 0.09 mm. The device functioned for periods of several days in each of five live animals, though some component failures occurred, leading to design revisions. Conclusions The test series showed that the novel design of this system provides the capabilities necessary to automate distraction of the mandible. Further developments will focus on making the implanted position sensor more robust and then carrying out clinical trials. PMID:20740071

  2. Bone Regeneration by Transplantation of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in a Rabbit Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In Sook; Cho, Tae Hyung; Lee, Zang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a potential cell population for tissue regeneration strategy. Xenogeneic transplantation using human MSCs (hMSCs) can be an approach to reveal what hMSCs guide in bone regeneration with distinguishable gene expression from a host animal. In this study, we investigated the regenerating effect of hMSCs varying injection time point in a rabbit distraction osteogenesis model. Undifferentiated hMSCs (2106 cells) were injected transcutaneously into the osteotomy site of one side of the mandible 1 day before the onset of distraction (Group 1) or after distraction (Group 2). The contralateral side of the mandible, which was subjected to distraction, but no hMSC injection, was used as the control in each group. hMSCs showed lack of major histocompatibility complex class II expression and suppression of xenogeneic lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by a proinflammatory cytokine. A microcomputed tomography-based evaluation showed a significant increase in new bone volume in the distracted callus in Group 1 compared to the contralateral side. Injection of hMSCs increased the bone mineral density (BMD) of the regenerated bone in both Group 1 and 2, although the former had a higher BMD than the latter. hMSCs of Group 1 subjected to distraction after injection expressed insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and fibronectin (FN), while the expression of most osteoblast differentiation-related markers and growth factors was negligible. These results demonstrated that hMSCs exerted immune suppressive behavior in rabbit T cells in vitro, and hMSC transplantation into the distracted callus of a rabbit model provided osteogenic benefits that were more pronounced when the hMSCs were injected just before distraction than at the end of distraction. The beneficial effect of hMSCs might be mediated, partly by the expression of matrix proteins or IGF-1, which are known to favor bone formation. PMID:23083133

  3. Surgical management of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis

    PubMed Central

    Chandna, Shalu; Sachdeva, Surinder; Kochar, Deepak; Kapil, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Buccal exostosis is benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the maxilla and less commonly, the mandible. They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over the years. A 24-year-old female presented with gingival enlargement on the buccal aspect of both the quadrants of the maxillary arch. The overgrowth was a cosmetic problem for the patient. The etiology of the overgrowth remains unclear though the provisional diagnosis indicates toward a bony enlargement, which was confirmed with the help of transgingival probing. The bony enlargement was treated with resective osseous surgery. The following paper presents a rare case of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis and its successful management. PMID:26229284

  4. Correction of palatally displaced maxillary lateral incisors without brackets

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Yoonjung; Kim, Minji

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 25-year-old Korean female patient with anterior crowding, including palatally displaced lateral incisors. Her facial profile was satisfactory, but 3.5 mm of maxillary anterior crowding was observed. To correct this crowding, we decided to minimize the use of the conventional fixed orthodontic appliances and employed a less bulky and more aesthetic appliance for applying light continuous force. We determined the final positions of the maxillary teeth via a working model for diagnostic set up and achieved space gaining and alignment with simple Ni-Ti spring and stainless steel round tubes. Tooth alignment was achieved efficiently and aesthetically without the conventional brackets. PMID:24015390

  5. [Dissertations 25 years after date 26. Maxillary sutural surfaces].

    PubMed

    Remmelink, H J

    2011-06-01

    In the case of growing children with a deviation in the size or position of the upper jaw orthopaedic devices are often used to direct the growth at the level of the sutures. In the PhD thesis 'The postnatal development of the human maxillary sutural surfaces', published in 1985, the orientation and macroscopic morphology of the sutural surfaces of the maxilla in children's skulls were described. The existence of premaxillomaxillary and pterygomaxillary sutures could not be demonstrated. It was observed that the maxillary sutural surfaces were mainly sagittally oriented. Some sutural surfaces became increasingly rough with age, while the majority of the surfaces remained smooth. It was concluded that advice concerning the determination of the direction of orthopaedic forces in relation to the orientation of the sutures needed revision. Subsequent systematic reviews have reported that so far little is known about the long-term stability of orthopaedic effects in orthodontics. PMID:21761798

  6. [Nasal cavity supernumerary tooth and maxillary sinusitis: one case reported].

    PubMed

    Guo, Guangliang; Hu, Limin; Lu, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Supernumerary tooth is a rare case. This report described a case of nasal cavity supernumerary tooth association with maxillary sinusitis. A 28-year-old male patient reported with the chief complaint of nasal obstruction, headache and purulent secretion for the past three months. Clinic examination and CT examination showed that there was a supernumerary tooth in the right nasal bottom, and maxillary sinus was infected in the same side. This patient was performed supernumerary tooth removing and given antibiotics for 3 days. Ten days after the operation, there was no clinical symptoms, and nasal bottom mucosa was normal. After 3 months of follow-up, reexamination of coronal CT scan appeared normal. PMID:26665468

  7. Maxillary Swelling as the First Evidence of Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Kimura, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Hideki; Kanazawa, Harusachi; Koide, Nao; Miyamoto, Isao; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells characterized by proliferation of a single clone of abnormal immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. Since the amount of hemopoietic bone marrow is decreased in the maxilla, oral manifestations of multiple myeloma are less common in the maxilla than in the mandible. We report the case of 33-year-old Japanese man who presented with a mass in the right maxillary alveolar region. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images showed a soft tissue mass in the right maxilla eroding the anterior and lateral walls of the maxillary sinus and extending into the buccal space. The biopsy results, imaging, and laboratory investigations led to the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. This case report suggests that oral surgeons and dentists should properly address oral manifestations as first indications of multiple myeloma. PMID:26640721

  8. Intraoral Mass Presenting as Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Omid; Boostani, Najmehalsadat; Karimi, Sharareh; Tabesh, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. It is of unknown etiology, and occurs more commonly in the elderly men, with a routinely shown aggressive behavior and poor prognosis for survival. Radiographically, it looks like severe osteomyelitis. Histopathologic study is essential to confirm diagnosis, and the undifferentiated histologic appearance often necessitates immunohistochemical studies for differentiation from other high-grade neoplasms. We present an 83-year-old man complaining of pain and unilateral swelling on the left side of the face due to a rare malignant tumor of maxillary sinus origin, a sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. He underwent hemimaxillectomy and radiotherapy, but refused chemotherapy. Maxillary sinus malignancy may be presented with unspecific symptoms mimicking sinusitis or dental pain. Coming across such symptoms, the physician or dentist must consider malignancies as well, and carry out medical and dental workups. PMID:24910668

  9. Surgical management of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Shalu; Sachdeva, Surinder; Kochar, Deepak; Kapil, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Buccal exostosis is benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the maxilla and less commonly, the mandible. They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over the years. A 24-year-old female presented with gingival enlargement on the buccal aspect of both the quadrants of the maxillary arch. The overgrowth was a cosmetic problem for the patient. The etiology of the overgrowth remains unclear though the provisional diagnosis indicates toward a bony enlargement, which was confirmed with the help of transgingival probing. The bony enlargement was treated with resective osseous surgery. The following paper presents a rare case of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis and its successful management. PMID:26229284

  10. Cementoblastoma Solely Involving Maxillary Primary Teeth- A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Urs, Aadithya B; Singh, Hanspal; Rawat, Garima; Mohanty, Sujata; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    Cementoblastoma is a rare benign neoplasm of odontogenic ectomesenchyme origin, involving the roots of any tooth, which occurs predominantly in second and third decade of life. Very few cases of cementoblastoma associated with a primary tooth or having a maxillary presentation have been reported in the past. Here, a rare case of a ten year old boy who presented to the department with a swelling in maxillary posterior region since one month is being discussed. The radiographic presentation was mimicking an odontoma. The final diagnosis was cementoblastoma. We have advocated the use of polarized microscopy to support the histopathological diagnosis with respect to its cemental origin. Cementoblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of radio-opaque lesions in the transitional dentition. PMID:26950817

  11. Maxillary Swelling as the First Evidence of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Kimura, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Hideki; Kanazawa, Harusachi; Koide, Nao; Miyamoto, Isao; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells characterized by proliferation of a single clone of abnormal immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. Since the amount of hemopoietic bone marrow is decreased in the maxilla, oral manifestations of multiple myeloma are less common in the maxilla than in the mandible. We report the case of 33-year-old Japanese man who presented with a mass in the right maxillary alveolar region. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images showed a soft tissue mass in the right maxilla eroding the anterior and lateral walls of the maxillary sinus and extending into the buccal space. The biopsy results, imaging, and laboratory investigations led to the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. This case report suggests that oral surgeons and dentists should properly address oral manifestations as first indications of multiple myeloma. PMID:26640721

  12. A Case of Maxillary Bone Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Hirotomo; Kidokoro, Yoshinobu; Yanai, Aya; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Wada, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    We experienced a very rare case of maxillary bone metastasis from lung cancer. The patient was a 77-year-old Japanese man with 1-month history of right alar swelling with hard pain as his chief complaint. Computed tomography scan showed a 1 cm length round lesion in the right nasal vestibule close to the pyriform fossa edge of the right maxillary bone. He had severe pulmonary dysfunction due to recurrent end stage lung cancer and diabetes. The expected remainder of his life would be half a year. Therefore, his very poor condition precluded general anesthesia. To relieve the nasal pain, shorten the stay in the hospital and improve the quality of life (QOL), we performed minimally invasive surgery under local anesthesia. Our minimally invasive surgery could improve QOL by relieving the hard nasal pain until the recurrence of cancer and enable the patient to live at home.

  13. Cone beam computed tomographic analysis of maxillary premolars and molars to detect the relationship between periapical and marginal bone loss and mucosal thickness of maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Sekerci, Ahmet-Ercan; Köse, Emre; Sisman, Yildiray

    2015-01-01

    Background This study assessed the relationship between mucosal thickness (MT) of the maxillary sinus and periodontal bone loss (PBL) and periapical condition of related teeth. We also aimed to identify the association between root apices and the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus using Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods In this study, CBCT images of 205 patients with 410 maxillary sinuses were examined, retrospectively. A total of 582 maxillary molars and 587 premolars were observed. The relationship of each root with maxillary sinus and apical lesions of these roots were classified, PBL was examined and the situations of adjacent teeth were estimated. The effect of these conditions on sinus mucosal thickness (MT) was evaluated. Results There was a significant correlation between MT of maxillary sinus and both PBL and age (r = 0.52, p=0.000 and r = 0.111, p= 0.002, respectively). The frequency of MT increased as the severity of apical lesion enlarged. A positive correlation was found between MT and degree of PBL and periapical lesions. To reveal the association between MT and pulpoperiapical condition bivariate correlation was done and a significant relationship between the pulpoperiapical condition and MT was found (r = 0.17, p=0.000). Conclusions This retrospective study showed that MT of the maxillary sinus was common among patients with PBL and MT was significantly associated with PBL and apical lesions. The relationship of maxillary sinus to adjacent teeth had also positive correlation with MT. CBCT imaging enabled better evaluation of maxillary sinus, posterior teeth and surrounding structures compared to other imaging tools. Key words:Maxillary sinus mucosal thickness, apical periodontitis, periodontal bone loss, CBCT. PMID:26241459

  14. Primary small cell undifferentiated (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Shetty, Premalatha

    2014-01-01

    Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) of the paranasal sinuses is an extremely rare and distinctive tumor with aggressive clinical behavior. Moreover, SNECs originating in the head and neck region have been reported to be highly aggressive and to have a poor prognosis. This report describes a patient with a maxillary sinus SNEC who was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy. PMID:24639904

  15. Masticatory efficiency after rehabilitation of acquired maxillary and mandibular defects

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, N. Vasantha; Ramesh, Ganesh; Thareja, Amit; Patil, Seema

    2015-01-01

    The effect of oral cancer with its therapeutic intervention involves significant facial and functional disabilities. It is customary to rehabilitate these patients by surgical or prosthetic means. Studies have been done to assess mastication and other functions after rehabilitation. A review of these studies for assessing masticatory function has been done under separate sections for maxillary and mandibular defects. Different masticatory tests are mentioned. Further scope for research has been highlighted. PMID:26392731

  16. Skeletal features in patient affected by maxillary canine impaction

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, Emanuele; Cavallini, Costanza; Vicari, Donatella; Leonardi, Rosalia; Barbato, Ersilia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the skeletal features of patients with maxillary canine impaction. Material and Methods: The complete pre-treatment records of 1674 orthodontic patients were examined. From the subjects with maxillary impacted canine 12 patients were excluded , remaining 108. The subjects with maxillary impacted canine were divided into two study groups: a palatally displaced canine group (PDCG) (77 patients) and a buccally displaced canine group (BDCG) (31 patients). The values of the skeletal features measured on the lateral cephalometric radiograph were compared with a control group (CG) of 121 subjects randomly selected from the initial sample without maxillary canine impaction. The statistical analysis of the difference between the study groups and the CG was tested using ?2 test and Fishers exact test. The level of significance was set at P ?0.05. Results: The CG was characterized by increased values of A point-Nasion-B point angle (ANB) and by a retro-positioned or smaller lower jaw. PDCG patients showed normal skeletal features compared to the CG, presenting mainly I class and lower rank of II and III sagittal skeletal features. PDCG subjects presented also normal values of the Steiner vertical skeletal relationship angles with normal facial divergence compared to the CG. PDCG cases were also characterized by horizontal and prognathic growth. BDCG did not present significant differences in skeletal features compared to the CG, except for an increased ANB. Conclusions: Palatally displaced canine (PDC) was frequently the only orthodontic problem of patients and was not associated whit altered skeletal features. The frequent absence of malocclusion in PDC patients explains the delayed identification of this problem. BDCG patients did not present significant differences in skeletal features with respect to the orthodontic population. The presence of both buccally displaced canine (BDC) and malocclusion makes the patient with BDC both aware of the need for, and motivated to undergo, orthodontic treatment. Key words:Canine impaction, palatal displacement, buccal displacement, skeletal features. PMID:23722128

  17. Inhibitory Control During Emotional Distraction Across Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the changing relation between emotion and inhibitory control during adolescence. One hundred participants between 11 and 25 years of age performed a go-nogo task in which task-relevant stimuli (letters) were presented at the center of large task-irrelevant images depicting negative, positive, or neutral scenes selected from the International Affective Picture System. Longer reaction times for negative trials were found across all age groups, suggesting that negative but not positive emotional images captured attention across this age range. However, age differences in accuracy on inhibitory trials suggest that response inhibition is more readily disrupted by negative emotional distraction in early adolescence relative to late childhood, late adolescence or early adulthood. PMID:23506340

  18. Treatment of lateral open bite with vertical dentoalveolar distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aras, I??l; Olmez, Sultan; Akay, Mehmet Cemal; Oztrk, Veli Ozgen; Aras, Aynur

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the surgical, orthodontic, and periodontal treatment of an adult patient with a lateral open bite, anterior crowding, and gingival recession on the mandibular right lateral incisor. The lateral open bite, which resisted conventional mechanics, was successfully corrected by the combination of dento-osseous osteotomies and vertical alveolar distraction using orthodontic multibracket appliances in conjunction with nickel-titanium archwires and intermaxillary elastics. After the orthodontic treatment, the denuded root surface of the mandibular right lateral incisor was closed using a coronally advanced flap technique with platelet-rich fibrin. The results at the 2-year posttreatment follow-up were satisfactory from both the occlusal and the periodontal standpoints. PMID:26232841

  19. The effects of visual distracter complexity on auditory evoked p3b in contact sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew J; Harkrider, Ashley W; King, Kristin A

    2014-01-01

    "Classic" P3b auditory oddball paradigms are insensitive to subtle deficits. An auditory oddball paradigm paired with visual distracters was used to compare football players with history of concussion, football players without history of concussion, and non-contact sport athletes. As hypothesized, increasing complexity of, and attention to, visual distracters reduced P3b amplitude. P3b amplitudes from non-contact athletes were larger than those from football players; however, players with and without a history of concussion were not significantly different. An auditory oddball paradigm with simple visual distracter improves sensitivity to cognitive deficits. Subconcussive impacts may contribute to brain damage frequently attributed to concussions. PMID:24571930

  20. Removal of an Upper Third Molar from the Maxillary Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Klinger de Souza; da Silva, Vanessa Tavares; da Cunha, Rafael Soares; Souto, Maria Luisa Silveira; So Mateus, Carla Rocha; Souza, Liane Maciel de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary sinus or antrum is the largest of the paranasal sinuses. It is located in the maxillary bone and has a proximity to the apexes of upper molars and premolars, which allows it to form a direct link between the sinus and the oral cavity. Dislocation of a foreign body or tooth to the interior of a paranasal sinus is a situation that can occur as a result of car accidents, firearm attacks, or iatrogenic in surgical procedures. Therefore, it is necessary to know how to treat this kind of situation. This study's objective is to report the case of a 23-year-old female patient, leucoderma, who sought treatment from the Surgical Unit at the Dental Faculty of the Federal University of Sergipe. She had a history of pain and edema in the right side of the genian region and two failed attempts at removing dental unit (DU) 18. The extraoral clinical exam revealed intense edema of the left hemiface with signs of infection, excoriation of the labial commissure, hematoma, a body temperature of 39C, and a limited ability to open her mouth. The patient was medicated and treated surgically. The tooth was removed from the maxillary sinus with caution, as should have been done initially. PMID:25705524

  1. A case of desmoplastic ameloblastoma occupying maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hideharu; Nomura, Jouji; Matsumura, Yoshihiro; Tagawa, Toshiro

    2011-07-01

    We report a rare case of desmoplastic ameloblastoma lesion that filled the entire maxillary sinus. The patient visited our hospital with a chief complaint of swelling around the upper left premolars. A panoramic X-ray captured an image of a mixture of ill-defined radiolucency and radiopacity from the swollen area to the maxillary sinus. Computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic resononce imaging (MRI) showed that the lesion occupied almost the entire left maxillary sinus and had entered the nasal cavity. A pathologic diagnosis of ameloblastoma was made after biopsy, and the tumor was removed and the marginal bone curetted under general anesthesia. A CT scan at 4 months postoperatively indicated the presence of residual and recurrent tumor in the area of the upper left lateral incisor, and removal and curettage were performed again. Recurrence may be detected relatively easily based on radiographic characteristics, and therefore follow-up with an X-ray examination such as a CT scan is important. PMID:22090771

  2. Proximal contact areas of the maxillary anterior dentition.

    PubMed

    Stappert, Christian F J; Tarnow, Dennis P; Tan, Jocelyn H-P; Chu, Stephen J

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the apicoincisal extent of the proximal contact area (PCA) between the eight maxillary anterior teeth. A total of 140 PCA sites and 160 crown lengths were measured in 20 healthy patients. The percentage ratio of PCA to clinical crown length was computed and defined as the proximal contact area proportion (PCAP). Mean PCA dimensions between central incisors (CI/CI), central and lateral incisors (CI/LI), lateral incisors and canines (LI/CA), and canines and first premolars (CA/PM) were 4.2, 2.9, 2.0, and 1.5 mm, respectively. Mesial mean PCAPs were 41%, 32%, 20%, and 18%, respectively. The paired sample t test demonstrated significant differences between all PCAs (P < .0001), except for CA/PM sites (P = .24). Contact areas, not contact points, were observed between neighboring maxillary anterior teeth. Natural PCAPs emerged as well defined in the maxillary anterior dentition bilaterally. Therefore, PCAPs should be taken into consideration for clinical anterior restorations since they determine the papillary and incisal embrasures. PMID:20814600

  3. Composite orbital reconstruction using the vascularized segmentalized osteo-fascio-cutaneous fibula flap.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, T Kalle; Pignatti, Marco; Halle, Martin; Boscaini, Giulia; Docherty Skogh, Ann-Charlotte; Luigi, Chiarini; De Santis, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Reconstruction of composite orbital defects must address the orbit and an exposed skull base and/or maxillary region. The orbit should not only be covered but also reshaped to accommodate the orbital contents or an epithesis when warranted. This study presents a rationale for a near-anatomical reconstruction of the orbit, together with adjacent dead space obliteration, using the segmentalized osteo-fascia-cutaneous fibula flap. Before the flap transfer, a cutting template for the fibula is made according to the measures and requirements of the facial defect. The segmentalized bone is then osteosynthesized to the facial skeleton and revascularized. Thus, an orbital depth is created by the bony fibula, whereas the fascio-cutaneous part of the flap may be used for lining the orbit and obliteration of the skull base or the maxillary region, or resurface the palate and/or the nasal cavity. PMID:26687794

  4. Microscope-aided endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolars with three roots: a case series.

    PubMed

    Karumaran, C S; Gunaseelan, R; Krithikadatta, J

    2011-01-01

    Maxillary premolars have a highly variable root canal morphology. However, the presence of three roots is a rare occurrence. This clinical article describes the unusual anatomy detected in maxillary premolars during routine endodontic treatment using microscope. The diagnosis and clinical management of maxillary first premolars with three roots and canals using radiographic interpretation, access cavity modification and visual enhancement with operative microscopes is discussed in the article. PMID:22406717

  5. A patient with severe maxillary gingival exposure treated with combined compression osteogenesis of the anterior alveolar bone and conventional Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Kohara, Haruka; Kawasaki, Takako; Fujimura, Yuji; Yoshida, Noriaki; Asahina, Izumi

    2013-11-01

    Excessive gingival exposure at the maxillary anterior region during not only smiling (a gummy face) but also at rest creates both functional and aesthetic problems for patients. We herein introduce a unique treatment procedure for mandibular retrognathia with a gummy face. This procedure combines conventional Le Fort I osteotomy and following corticotomy at the anterior region of the maxilla. Subsequently, the anterior segment is continuously compressed (compression osteogenesis) in a posterior-superior direction until it reaches an ideal position. This procedure appears to safely and adequately resolve both the aesthetic and functional complaints associated with patients with a gummy face. PMID:24220408

  6. Fabrication of maxillary overdenture supported by custom waxed and cast locator abutments: case report.

    PubMed

    Zinner, Ira D; Reid, Patrick E; Shapiro, Herbert J; Markovits, Stanley; Jansen, Curtis; Argerakis, George P

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of a maxillary overdenture supported and retained by custom waxed and cast locator attachments will be described. These angulated abutments were made necessary by a lack of maxillary bone due to advanced periodontal problems that contributed to the loss of all of the maxillary and mandibular teeth; thus, the maxillary anterior implants were placed in a labially or facially inclined position, which necessitated placement of labially inclined implant bodies. This article describes a method for correcting this angulation to create a more vertical path of placement and to allow the facially inclined implants to be used for an overdenture retentive device. PMID:23513543

  7. Patterns of bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars and agenesis of other teeth.

    PubMed

    Sanpei, Sugako; Ishida, Rieko; Sanpei, Shinya; Endo, Saori; Tanaka, Satoshi; Endo, Toshiya; Sekimoto, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns of bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars and other tooth agenesis in Japanese orthodontic patients. A group of 262 subjects with bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars (group A) was divided into three subgroups: group 1A consisting of 114 subjects without agenesis of mandibular third molars; group 2A, 31 subjects with unilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars; and group 3A, 117 subjects with agenesis of all third molars. As controls, 926 other subjects without third molar agenesis were selected (group C). Panoramic radiographs were mainly used to examine for tooth agenesis. The Chi square test and odds ratio were used to make statistical comparisons. The prevalence rates of agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors, mandibular incisors and maxillary and mandibular second premolars, and bilateral agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors and second premolars were significantly higher in any one of the third molar agenesis groups than in the control group. Characteristically, no significant increase in occurrence of bilateral agenesis of mandibular second premolars was demonstrated by the subjects with bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars. Irrespective of whether unilateral or bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars is present or not, the Japanese orthodontic patients with bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars exhibited a significantly increased occurrence of unilateral or bilateral agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors, mandibular incisors and maxillary and mandibular second premolars, except for bilateral agenesis of mandibular incisors and second premolars. PMID:25636272

  8. Three-dimensional linear and volumetric analysis of maxillary sinus pneumatization

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy, Reham M.; Abdel-Wahed, Naglaa

    2013-01-01

    Considering the anatomical variability related to the maxillary sinus, its intimate relation to the maxillary posterior teeth and because of all the implications that pneumatization may possess, three-dimensional assessment of maxillary sinus pneumatization is of most usefulness. The aim of this study is to analyze the maxillary sinus dimensions both linearly and volumetrically using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to assess the maxillary sinus pneumatization. Retrospective analysis of 30 maxillary sinuses belonging to 15 patients CBCT scans was performed. Linear and volumetric measurements were conducted and statistically analyzed. The maximum craniocaudal extension of the maxillary sinus was located around the 2nd molar in 93% of the sinuses, while the maximum mediolateral and antroposterior extensions of the maxillary sinus were located at the level of root of zygomatic complex in 90% of sinuses. There was a high correlation between the linear measurements of the right and left sides, where the antroposterior extension of the sinus at level of the nasal floor had the largest correlation (0.89). There was also a high correlation between the Simplant and geometric derived maxillary sinus volumes for both right and left sides (0.98 and 0.96, respectively). The relations of the sinus floor can be accurately assessed on the different orthogonal images obtained through 3D CBCT scan. The geometric method offered a much cheaper, easier, and less sophisticated substitute; therefore, with the availability of software, 3D volumetric measurements are more facilitated. PMID:25685506

  9. New approach of maxillary protraction using modified C-palatal plates in Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Ki Beom; Kim, Seong-Hun; Chung, Kyu-Rhim

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary protraction is the conventional treatment for growing Class III patients with maxillary deficiency, but it has undesirable dental effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce an alternative modality of maxillary protraction in patients with dentoskeletal Class III malocclusion using a modified C-palatal plate connected with elastics to a face mask. This method improved skeletal measurements, corrected overjet, and slightly improved the profile. The patients may require definitive treatment in adolescence or adulthood. The modified C-palatal plate enables nonsurgical maxillary advancement with maximal skeletal effects and minimal dental side effects. PMID:26258067

  10. BONE REGENERATION AND DOCKING SITE HEALING AFTER BONE TRANSPORT DISTRACTION OSTEOGENESIS IN THE CANINE MANDIBLE

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Lucy K; Newby, Michelle Rondon; Zakhary, Ibrahim E; Nagy, William W; Zapata, Uriel; Dechow, Paul C; Opperman, Lynne A; Elsalanty, Mohammed E

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Bone transport distraction osteogenesis (BTDO) provides a promising alternative to traditional grafting techniques. However, existing BTDO devices have many limitations. The purpose of this research was to test a new device, the mandibular bone transport reconstruction plate (BTRP), in an animal model with comparable mandible size to humans and to histologically and mechanically examine the regenerate bone. Materials and methods Eleven adult foxhound dogs were divided into an unreconstructed control group of 5 animals, and an experimental group of 6 animals. In each animal, a 34 mm segmental defect was created in the mandible. The defect was reconstructed with BTRP. Histological and biomechanical characteristics of the regenerate and un-repaired defect were analyzed and compared to bone on the contralateral side of the mandible after 4 weeks of consolidation. Results The reconstructed defect was bridged with new bone, with little bone in the control defect. Regenerate density and microhardness were 22.3% and 42.6% lower than the contralateral normal bone, respectively. Likewise, the anisotropy of the experimental group was statistically lower than in the contralateral bone. Half the experimental animals showed non-union at the docking site. Conclusion The device was very stable and easy to install and activate. After one month of consolidation, the defect has been bridged with new bone with evidence of active bone formation. Regenerate bone was less mature than the control bone. Studies are underway to identify when the regenerate properties compare to normal bone, and to identify methods to augment bone union at the docking site. PMID:21601342

  11. Effects of sound location on visual task performance and electrophysiological measures of distraction.

    PubMed

    Corral, Maria-Jose; Escera, Carles

    2008-10-01

    Novel sounds embedded in a repetitive stream of auditory stimuli impair performance of the visual task at hand. Parmentier et al. suggested that this distraction effect might be because of the shifting cost of moving attention from the task-irrelevant (auditory) to the task-relevant (visual) channel, or from their shifting of spatial locations. Here, the source location of the sounds in an audio-visual distraction paradigm was varied systematically (headphones and 0, -18, -72, 18, and 72 degrees), and the results revealed significant distracting effects of novel sounds occurring in the headphone and the right location conditions. This supports the assumption that in the behavioral cost observed in the audio-visual distraction paradigm a spatial shift of attention is involved. PMID:18797312

  12. Development of attention and distractibility in the first 4 years of life.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Holly A; Capozzoli, Mary C

    2003-09-01

    This observational study describes the early development of attention and discractibility. Under several conditions of distraction, 172 children at 10, 26, and 42 months of age played with toys. Attention to the toys was coded as casual, settled, or focused. All 3 levels of attention changed with age, withcasual attention decreasing and focused attention increasing. The 10-month-olds were more distractible than the other children, even during focused attention. The infants were most distracted by the auditory-visual distractor, whereas the oldest children were most distracted by the visual distractor. Some 42-month-olds showed evidence of being more focused in the presence of distractors. Overall, the results point to a developmental transition in the processes underlying attention during play. PMID:12952400

  13. Le Fort II midfacial distraction combined with orthognathic surgery in the treatment of nasomaxillary hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongbo; Dai, Jiewen; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Wenbin; Shen, Steve Guofang

    2014-05-01

    Patients with nasomaxillary hypoplasia have severe facial concavity and compromised skeletal class III malocclusion. Its treatment is still a challenge to surgeons. Our aim was to evaluate the combination of midfacial distraction and orthognathic surgery in the treatment of nasomaxillary hypoplasia. Four patients with nasomaxillary hypoplasia were enrolled in this study. After Le Fort II osteotomy, the rotational distraction of nasomaxillary complex was performed to rehabilitate facial convexity. Then bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy with or without Le Fort I osteotomy was used to correct malocclusion. All patients healed uneventfully, and the maxillae moved forward conspicuously. No obvious pain and severe discomfort were complained during distraction. A significant advancement and downward movement of the maxilla were shown by cephalometric analysis. The combination of midfacial distraction and orthognathic surgery provides us an ideal alternative in the treatment of nasomaxillary hypoplasia. PMID:24777005

  14. Le Fort IV + I distraction osteogenesis using an internal device for syndromic craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Hideo; Tamada, Ikkei; Sakamoto, Teruo

    2014-04-01

    Monobloc and Le Fort III distractions can improve midfacial hypoplasia, a characteristic feature of syndromic craniosynostosis. The purpose of treating midfacial hypoplasia is to improve exophthalmos and dental occlusion. Typically, in Le Fort III or monobloc distractions, the midface is mobilized en bloc, and the extent and direction of the mobilization is determined according to the preferred intermaxillary occlusion. However, to obtain the preferred functional and esthetic results while correcting midface hypoplasia, the most sensible approach is the use of different degrees of mobilization and vectors for the upper and lower halves of the midface. This report describes the case of an adolescent with Crouzon syndrome showing frontal recession exophthalmos and an anterior crossbite. His condition was treated with monobloc minus Le Fort I and Le Fort I distraction using only internal devices, which the authors have designated Le Fort IV plus I distraction. PMID:24280175

  15. Distraction lengthening following growth cessation due to thumb replantation in a child.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G

    1996-12-01

    Growth disturbance due to premature physeal closure as a sequela of digit replantation, on occasion, can cause shortening, resulting in suboptimal function. A simple method for correction using only local tissues is possible via gradual bony distraction. This was attempted in a toddler, whose dominant thumb was amputated by a riding lawn mower when he was an infant, because replantation caused significant growth cessation. The first metacarpal distraction over 64 days netted 22 mm of lengthening. Because a further immobilization period to allow spontaneous consolidation by neo-osteogenesis was aborted at the family's insistence, a fibular autograft of that dimension was inserted into the created bony gap. Ultimately, after 24 months of follow-up, the distracted thumb had been increased 26% in length and was 88% of the length of the contralateral thumb at that time, compared to only 74% prior to initiating the distraction. PMID:8988775

  16. Distraction and action slips in an everyday task: evidence for a dynamic representation of task context.

    PubMed

    Botvinick, Matthew M; Bylsma, Lauren M

    2005-12-01

    We report here a novel and counterintuitive effect of distraction on routine sequential action. The effect, predicted by a recent computational model of sequential behavior, relates to the tendency for a momentary distraction, such as a brief interruption, to lead to subsequent slips of action. The specific prediction is that errors should be more likely following a distraction occurring toward the middle of a subtask sequence than following a distraction occurring at the end of a subtask. This was tested and confirmed in an experiment involving repeated performance of an everyday task (coffee making) under conditions involving frequent interruption. The observed effect provides differential support for existing models of sequential behavior and offers a highly constraining benchmark for future theories. PMID:16615321

  17. Matching Doses of Distraction With Child Risk for Distress During a Medical Procedure

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kleiber, Charmaine; Hanrahan, Kirsten; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Ersig, Anne; Westhus, Nina; Allen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background Parents often want to provide support to their children during medical procedures, but not all parents are effective in providing distraction after brief training. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three doses of distraction intervention for children at high and medium risk for procedure-related distress. Methods Children undergoing scheduled intravenous insertions for diagnostic or treatment purposes and their parents participated. A computerized application, Children, Parents and Distraction, was used to predict distress risk. Doses of intervention were basic (parents trained on providing distraction), enhanced (basic training plus tailored instructions, environmental modifications, and support and guidance from the research assistant), and professional (a trained research assistant provided distraction). Outcome measures were Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised for behavioral distress, Oucher for self-reported pain, parent report of child distress, and salivary cortisol for physiological distress. Results A total of 574 children, ages 4–10, and their parents participated. The Children, Parents and Distraction predicted that the risk for distress was high for 156 children, medium for 372, and low for 46. Children predicted to have higher risk for distress displayed more behavioral distress (p < .01). Children in the medium-risk group who had the professional intervention displayed significantly less behavioral distress (p < .001). Children in the high-risk group tended to have less behavioral distress when receiving the professional intervention (p = .07). There were no significant group differences for self-report of pain, parent report of distress, or cortisol levels. Discussion Some parents may need additional training in providing distraction to their children during procedures, and some children at medium and high risk for distress may need professional support. Parents should be asked about their preferences in acting as the distraction coach and, if willing, be provided as much training and support as possible in the clinical situation. PMID:25350539

  18. The effects of high dose and highly fractionated radiation on distraction osteogenesis in the murine mandible

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The ability of irradiated tissue to support bony growth remains poorly defined, although there are anecdotal cases reported showing mixed results for the use of mandibular distraction osteogenesis after radiation for head and neck cancer. Many of these reports lack objective measures that would allow adequate analysis of outcomes or efficacy. The purpose of this experiment was to utilize a rat model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis after high dose and highly fractionated radiation therapy and to evaluate and quantify distracted bone formation under these conditions. Male SpragueDawley rats underwent 12 fractions of external beam radiation (48 Gray) of the left mandible. Following a two week recovery period, an external frame distractor was applied and gradual distraction of the mandible was performed. Tissue was harvested after a twenty-eight day consolidation period. Gross, radiologic and histological evaluations were undertaken. Those animals subjected to pre-operative radiation showed severe attenuation of bone formation including bone atrophy, incomplete bridging of the distraction gap, and gross bony defects or non-union. Although physical lengthening was achieved, the irradiated bone consistently demonstrated marked damaging effects on the normal process of distraction osteogenesis. This murine model has provided reliable evidence of the injurious effects of high dose radiation on bone repair and regeneration in distraction osteogenesis utilizing accurate and reproducible metrics. These results can now be used to assist in the development of therapies directed at mitigating the adverse consequences of radiation on the regeneration of bone and to optimize distraction osteogenesis so it can be successfully applied to post-oncologic reconstruction. PMID:22958832

  19. Parathyroid Hormone Therapy Mollifies Radiation-Induced Biomechanical Degradation in Murine Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sagar S.; Gallagher, Katherine K.; Donneys, Alexis; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Sarhaddi, Deniz; Nelson, Noah S.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Descriptions of mandibular distraction osteogenesis for tissue replacement after oncologic resection or for defects caused by osteoradionecrosis have been limited. Previous work demonstrated radiation decreases union formation, cellularity and mineral density in mandibular distraction osteogenesis. The authors posit that intermittent systemic administration of parathyroid hormone will serve as a stimulant to cellular function, reversing radiation-induced damage and enhancing bone regeneration. Methods Twenty male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 (radiation and distraction osteogenesis, n = 7) and group 2 (radiation, distraction osteogenesis, and parathyroid hormone, n = 5) received a human-equivalent dose of 35 Gy of radiation (human bioequivalent, 70 Gy) fractionated over 5 days. All groups, including group 3 (distraction osteogenesis, n = 8), underwent a left unilateral mandibular osteotomy with bilateral external fixator placement. Distraction osteogenesis was performed at a rate of 0.3 mm every 12 hours to reach a gap of 5.1 mm. Group 2 was injected with parathyroid hormone (60 ?g/kg) subcutaneously daily for 3 weeks after the start of distraction osteogenesis. On postoperative day 40, all left hemimandibles were harvested. Biomechanical response parameters were generated. Statistical significance was considered at p ? 0.05. Results Parathyroid hormonetreated mandibles had significantly higher failure load and higher yield than did untreated mandibles. However, these values were still significantly lower than those of nonirradiated mandibles. Conclusions The authors have successfully demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of parathyroid hormone to stimulate and enhance bone regeneration in their irradiated murine mandibular model of distraction osteogenesis. Anabolic regimens of parathyroid hormone, a U.S. Food and Drug Administrationapproved drug on formulary, significantly improve outcomes in a model of postoncologic craniofacial reconstruction. PMID:23806959

  20. A Mobile App Offering Distractions and Tips to Cope With Cigarette Craving: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Wally; Pearce, Jon; Borland, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite considerable effort, most smokers relapse within a few months after quitting due to cigarette craving. The widespread adoption of mobile phones presents new opportunities to provide support during attempts to quit. Objective To design and pilot a mobile app "DistractMe" to enable quitters to access and share distractions and tips to cope with cigarette cravings. Methods A qualitative study with 14 smokers who used DistractMe on their mobiles during the first weeks of their quit attempt. Based on interviews, diaries, and log data, we examined how the app supported quitting strategies. Results Three distinct techniques of coping when using DistractMe were identified: diversion, avoidance, and displacement. We further identified three forms of engagement with tips for coping: preparation, fortification, and confrontation. Overall, strategies to prevent cravings and their effects (avoidance, displacement, preparation, and fortification) were more common than immediate coping strategies (diversion and confrontation). Tips for coping were more commonly used than distractions to cope with cravings, because they helped to fortify the quit attempt and provided opportunities to connect with other users of the application. However, distractions were important to attract new users and to facilitate content sharing. Conclusions Based on the qualitative results, we recommend that mobile phone-based interventions focus on tips shared by peers and frequent content updates. Apps also require testing with larger groups of users to assess whether they can be self-sustaining. PMID:25099632

  1. TVAR modeling of EEG to detect audio distraction during simulated driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Nabaraj; (Nanda Nandagopal, D.; Cocks, Bernadine; Vijayalakshmi, Ramasamy; Dasari, Naga; Gaertner, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The objective of our current study was to look for the EEG correlates that can reveal the engaged state of the brain while undertaking cognitive tasks. Specifically, we aimed to identify EEG features that could detect audio distraction during simulated driving. Approach. Time varying autoregressive (TVAR) analysis using Kalman smoother was carried out on short time epochs of EEG data collected from participants as they undertook two simulated driving tasks. TVAR coefficients were then used to construct all pole model enabling the identification of EEG features that could differentiate normal driving from audio distracted driving. Main results. Pole analysis of the TVAR model led to the visualization of event related synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) patterns in the form of pole displacements in pole plots of the temporal EEG channels in the z plane enabling the differentiation of the two driving conditions. ERS in the EEG data has been demonstrated during audio distraction as an associated phenomenon. Significance. Visualizing the ERD/ERS phenomenon in terms of pole displacement is a novel approach. Although ERS/ERD has previously been demonstrated as reliable when applied to motor related tasks, it is believed to be the first time that it has been applied to investigate human cognitive phenomena such as attention and distraction. Results confirmed that distracted/non-distracted driving states can be identified using this approach supporting its applicability to cognition research.

  2. The effect of distraction strategies on pain perception and the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex).

    PubMed

    Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Kreusch, Annette; Albers, Christoph; Sommer, Jens; Marziniak, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Distraction from pain reduces pain perception, and imaging studies have suggested that this may at least partially be mediated by activation of descending pain inhibitory systems. Here, we used the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex) to directly quantify the effects of different distraction strategies on basal spinal nociception and its temporal summation. Twenty-seven healthy subjects participated in 3 distraction tasks (mental imagery, listening to preferred music, spatial discrimination of brush stimuli) and, in a fourth task, concentrated on the painful stimulus. Results show that all 3 distraction tasks reduced pain perception, but only the brush task also reduced the RIII reflex. The concentration-on-pain task increased both pain perception and the RIII reflex. The extent of temporal summation of pain perception and the extent of temporal summation of the RIII reflex were not affected by any of the tasks. These results suggest that some, but not all, forms of pain reduction by distraction rely on descending pain inhibition. In addition, pain reduction by distraction seems to preferentially affect mechanisms of basal nociceptive transmission, not of temporal summation. PMID:21925793

  3. A piezoelectric motor-based microactuator-generated distractor for continuous jaw bone distraction.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Jae-Gi; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Gyu-Hag; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Cha, Jung-Yul; Kim, Hyung Jun; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2011-07-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is widely applied to correct oral and maxillofacial deformities, and intermittent distraction protocols have been used in various clinical applications. There are many challenges for continuous distraction of the jaw bone such as when using hydraulic motors and motor-driven plates. The size of the motor is critical to the ability to miniaturize the complete distractor system, and the importance of size makes it difficult to extrapolate the results of animal models to the clinical situation. This study developed a microactuator-generated distractor (MAGD) for continuous jaw bone distraction. The MAGD system consists of control software based on Microsoft Windows and a Squiggle piezoelectric motor. The system allows various intermittent and continuous distraction protocols to be simply selected using the control software. The maximum force of the laboratory-scale MAGD is 3 N, and the device is ready for adoption in small-animal distraction models such as the rat and mouse. The MAGD needs further refinement before it can be applied to humans, but a fully implanted MAGD system will reduce soft-tissue complications resulting from exposure of the extraoral component. Moreover, the MAGD will support the patient's social activities and require only minimal cooperation from the patient. PMID:21778842

  4. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Loureno, Joana S.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  5. Stuck in the 70s: the role of social norms in distracted driving.

    PubMed

    Atchley, Paul; Hadlock, Chelsie; Lane, Sean

    2012-09-01

    Successful campaigns to end distracted driving must understand prevailing social norms for behaviors such as texting and phoning while driving. The current work examined this issue by asking younger drivers to read car crash scenarios and rate the responsibility of the driver for the crash, and to levy fines and assign jail time, as a function of whether the driver was attentive, had been drinking, or was distracted by phoning or texting. In the first experiment, ratings were performed in the absence of injunctive norm information (laws against drunk and distracted driving). In the second experiment, injunctive norm information was included. Impaired drivers were viewed as more responsible in both experiments, with texting drivers viewed as the most responsible. However, drunk drivers received the most fines and jail time. When compared to data from the 1970s, the results show that anti-drunk driving campaigns have changed how younger drivers view drunk driving, but that norms have not yet changed for distracted driving, despite consistent results showing they know the risk of driving distracted. Implications for social norm distracted driving campaigns are discussed. PMID:22664691

  6. Bioresorbable distraction device for the treatment of airway problems for infants with Robin sequence.

    PubMed

    Breugem, Corstiaan; Paes, Emma; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B; van der Molen, Aebele B Mink

    2012-08-01

    Pierre Robin sequence is a well known craniofacial entity. There are numerous ways to treat the respiratory insufficiency, but sometimes surgical intervention is needed. Tracheotomy could be associated with morbidity, and distraction osteogenesis has been established as a stable method to obtain a safe airway. Distraction osteogenesis has traditionally been performed with an external device. In this manuscript we describe the feasibility of an internal bioresorbable device. Retrospective descriptive study was performed in a tertiary academic children's hospital. After multidisciplinary team consultation, 12 consecutive patients with Robin sequence were treated with this internal distraction device. The mean age at surgery was 32 days, and the average amount of mandibular distraction was 18 mm. All patients were extubated after an average of 7.5 days after the surgery. The average length of stay in the hospital was 17 days after surgery. There were no major surgical complications. A tracheotomy was prevented in all our patients, and complications were limited. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the influence that internal distraction has on the growth of the mandible and teeth. The internal distraction system seems safe for infants with micrognathia and has certain benefits when compared to the external distractor. PMID:22009183

  7. Posterior approach for subtalar joint distraction arthrodesis by compact external fixation: a technique guide.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Guido; Bock, Felicia; Ghate, Nihar

    2013-01-01

    Subtalar joint arthrodesis is a commonly used surgical procedure for the management of rearfoot pathologic features. We present a technique guide for a posterior incisional approach to subtalar joint arthrodesis for correction of a calcaneal deformity secondary to calcaneal fracture malunion. This technique uses a monolateral external fixation device for controlled distraction and intercallary allograft placement. In contrast to a standard lateral approach, this incision provides better visualization of the joint space, and the use of a distractor enhances access to the joint surfaces for fusion preparation and maintains alignment while internal fixation is applied. A44-year-old male underwent isolated subtalar joint arthrodesis to repair a malunion of a nonsurgically managed calcaneal fracture sustained 1 year before the surgical intervention. Controlled distraction was applied using a Hoffmann() Compact MRI external fixation device. This device maintained distraction and tibial-calcaneal alignment until placement of the allograft-bone marrow aspirate. The use of external fixation is a viable option for distraction arthrodesis in subtalar joint fusions. It facilitates frontal plane deformity correction. We have described the surgical technique and presented a case in which the posterior approach with distraction was successfully used in subtalar joint arthrodesis. At 12 weeks postoperatively, serial radiographs displayed incorporation of the graft, with distraction maintained at the subtalar joint arthrodesis site. At the 3-month follow-up visit, the patient had successfully transitioned to weightbearing in a CAM walker without any complications. PMID:23529016

  8. Informational masking of speech in children: Effects of ipsilateral and contralateral distracters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    2005-11-01

    Using a closed-set speech recognition paradigm thought to be heavily influenced by informational masking, auditory selective attention was measured in 38 children (ages 4-16 years) and 8 adults (ages 20-30 years). The task required attention to a monaural target speech message that was presented with a time-synchronized distracter message in the same ear. In some conditions a second distracter message or a speech-shaped noise was presented to the other ear. Compared to adults, children required higher target/distracter ratios to reach comparable performance levels, reflecting more informational masking in these listeners. Informational masking in most conditions was confirmed by the fact that a large proportion of the errors made by the listeners were contained in the distracter message(s). There was a monotonic age effect, such that even the children in the oldest age group (13.6-16 years) demonstrated poorer performance than adults. For both children and adults, presentation of an additional distracter in the contralateral ear significantly reduced performance, even when the distracter messages were produced by a talker of different sex than the target talker. The results are consistent with earlier reports from pure-tone masking studies that informational masking effects are much larger in children than in adults.

  9. Effect of mandibular distraction osteogenesis on temporomandibular joint after previous irradiation and hyperbaric oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, A; Peltomki, T; Hinkka, S; Happonen, R P

    2002-08-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the effect of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) on condylar cartilage after radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO). Unilateral DO was performed on low- and high-dose irradiated rabbits with or without accompanying HBO, and non-irradiated animals. High-dose irradiated animals were given irradiation in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) equivalent to 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Low-dose irradiated rabbits received scattered irradiation of 10% of that of high-dose irradiated animals. After radiotherapy, some of the animals were given HBO 18 times at 2.5 ATA for 90 min/day. One month after completion of radiotherapy, distraction osteotomy with distractor placement was performed. After a latency period, distraction was started at the rate of 1 mm/day, continued for 2 weeks, and the regenerate was allowed to consolidate for 1 month. Condyles of non-operated rabbits served as controls. Histological changes were more evident on the distracted than on the non-distracted side. In distracted, non-irradiated animals, condylar cartilage changes were minor and probably clinically insignificant. In irradiated rabbits, condylar cartilage changes on the lengthened side were severe, and often cartilage was either totally or partially sealed off by bone. Condylar heads were morphologically deformed. Even low doses of irradiation resulted in notable changes on the operated side, and HBO did not prevent disadvantageous effects. PMID:12361073

  10. Effect of icariin on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit mandible.

    PubMed

    Wei, H; Zili, L; Yuanlu, C; Biao, Y; Cheng, L; Xiaoxia, W; Yang, L; Xing, W

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of icariin on bone formation during mandibular distraction. 40 Rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Mandibular distraction was performed 5 days after unilateral mandibular osteotomy using a custom-made external distractor at a rate of 0.5mm/12h for 10 days. From the first day of distraction, icariin (2.5mg/kg day) was orally administered to the experimental group and placebo to the controls. 10 Rabbits were killed at the end of weeks 2 and 4 of the consolidation phase. The distracted hemimandible was harvested and newly formed bone was evaluated by soft radiography, histology and bone histomorphometry. Regenerated bone was evaluated for bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The experimental group had fewer radiolucent areas on soft radiography. Bone mineral density of regenerated bone was higher in the experimental than in the control group at 2 and 4 weeks. At 4 weeks, the experimental group had greater volumes of new bone, higher trabecular number, and less trabecular separation than the controls. Oral administration of icariin could promote bone formation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis and might be a promising method for shortening the course of distraction osteogenesis. PMID:21084174

  11. The effects of distraction on exercise and cold pressor tolerance for chronic low back pain sufferers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M H; Petrie, S M

    1997-01-01

    Distraction has been found to be effective for the attenuation of experimental and acute clinical pain but its efficacy for chronic pain management remains unclear. There are even some suggestions that distraction may be a counterproductive strategy for chronic pain sufferers. In this study we found that a word shadowing distraction task increased the ability of a group of 12 female and eight male chronic low back pain (CLBP) sufferers to carry out a brief (maximum 300 s) step-up exercise that temporarily increased their pain (P < 0.05). This 15% increase in exercise time was not accompanied by an increase in reported pain after the exercise. Interestingly, the same distraction task did not increase the cold pressor (CP) tolerance time for the CLBP group but produced a 26% increase in tolerance time for a pain-free control group consisting of nine females and nine males (P < 0.05). Also, performance on the distraction task during the CP was worse for the CLBP group than the controls (P < 0.05). Although these findings should be interpreted cautiously because of the parameters of the experiment, they do suggest that distraction is a potentially useful technique to assist chronic pain sufferers. PMID:9060011

  12. The Molecular and Cellular Events That Take Place during Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rachmiel, Adi

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Gradual bone lengthening using distraction osteogenesis principles is the gold standard for the treatment of hypoplastic facial bones. However, the long treatment time is a major disadvantage of the lengthening procedures. The aim of this study is to review the current literature and summarize the cellular and molecular events occurring during membranous craniofacial distraction osteogenesis. Mechanical stimulation by distraction induces biological responses of skeletal regeneration that is accomplished by a cascade of biological processes that may include differentiation of pluripotential tissue, angiogenesis, osteogenesis, mineralization, and remodeling. There are complex interactions between bone-forming osteoblasts and other cells present within the bone microenvironment, particularly vascular endothelial cells that may be pivotal members of a complex interactive communication network in bone. Studies have implicated number of cytokines that are intimately involved in the regulation of bone synthesis and turnover. The gene regulation of numerous cytokines (transforming growth factor-β, bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor-1, and fibroblast growth factor-2) and extracellular matrix proteins (osteonectin, osteopontin) during distraction osteogenesis has been best characterized and discussed. Understanding the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate membranous distraction osteogenesis may guide the development of targeted strategies designed to improve distraction osteogenesis and accelerate bone regeneration that may lead to shorten the treatment duration. PMID:25289295

  13. Effects of explicit knowledge and predictability on auditory distraction and target performance.

    PubMed

    Max, Caroline; Widmann, Andreas; Schrger, Erich; Sussman, Elyse

    2015-11-01

    This study tested effects of task requirements and knowledge on auditory distraction effects. This was done by comparing the response to a pitch change (an irrelevant, distracting tone feature) that occurred predictably in a tone sequence (every 5th tone) under different task conditions. The same regular sound sequence was presented with task conditions varying in what information the participant was given about the predictability of the pitch change, and when this information was relevant for the task to be performed. In all conditions, participants performed a tone duration judgment task. Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were obtained to measure distraction effects and deviance detection. Predictable deviants produced behavioral distraction effects in all conditions. However, the P3a amplitude evoked by the predictable pitch change was largest when participants were uninformed about the regular structure of the sound sequence, showing an effect of knowledge on involuntary orienting of attention. In contrast, the mismatch negativity (MMN) component was only modulated when the regularity was relevant for the task and not by stimulus predictability itself. P3a and behavioral indices of distraction were not fully concordant. Overall, our results show differential effects of knowledge and predictability on auditory distraction effects indexed by neurophysiological (P3a) and behavioral measures. PMID:26386396

  14. Relationships between throwing mechanics and shoulder distraction in collegiate baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sherry L; Guido, John A; Stewart, Gregory W; McNeice, Ryan P; VanDyke, Travis; Jones, Deryk G

    2007-01-01

    A distraction force occurs at the shoulder joint in all throwing motions. At the professional level, the relationship between this force and pitching mechanics has been explained. Three-dimensional, high-speed (240 Hz) video data were collected on fastballs from 48 collegiate baseball pitchers. Kinematic parameters related to pitching mechanics and resultant kinetics on the throwing arm elbow and shoulder joints were calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the relationships between shoulder distraction and pitching mechanics. Shoulder distraction stress averaged 81% body weight for the collegiate pitchers. The mean ball velocity was 81 mph. Ten parameters of pitching mechanics accounted for 89% of the variance in shoulder distraction. Two of the variables (maximum shoulder abduction torque and elbow angle at release) previously shown to affect shoulder distraction in professional baseball pitchers appear to be important for collegiate pitchers as well. These data provide a scientific basis for clinicians, athletes, and coaches to establish methods to reduce distraction force at the shoulder joint through modification of pitching mechanics. PMID:17169584

  15. Diagnosis and conservative treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and asymmetric maxillary crowding.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Linda L Y; Chang, Chris H; Roberts, W Eugene

    2016-04-01

    A man, aged 28 years 9 months, came for an orthodontic consultation for a skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB angle, -3°) with a modest asymmetric Class II and Class III molar relationship, complicated by an anterior crossbite, a deepbite, and 12 mm of asymmetric maxillary crowding. Despite the severity of the malocclusion (Discrepancy Index, 37), the patient desired noninvasive camouflage treatment. The 3-Ring diagnosis showed that treatment without extractions or orthognathic surgery was a viable approach. Arch length analysis indicated that differential interproximal enamel reduction could resolve the crowding and midline discrepancy, but a miniscrew in the infrazygomatic crest was needed to retract the right buccal segment. The patient accepted the complex, staged treatment plan with the understanding that it would require about 3.5 years. Fixed appliance treatment with passive self-ligating brackets, early light short elastics, bite turbos, interproximal enamel reduction, and infrazygomatic crest retraction opened the vertical dimension of the occlusion, improved the ANB angle by 2°, and achieved excellent alignment, as evidenced by a Cast Radiograph Evaluation score of 28 and a Pink and White dental esthetic score of 3. PMID:27021460

  16. [Finite-element investigation on center of resistance of maxillary anterior teeth].

    PubMed

    Su, Jiehua; Liu, Jiali; Zhang, Duangqiang; Luo, Gusheng; Chen, Libing; Yu, Xiaonan; Lin, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jian

    2014-10-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model of premaxillary bone and anterior teeth was established with ANSYS 13.0. The anterior teeth were fixed with strong stainless labial archwire and lingual frame. In the horizontal loading experiments, a horizontal retraction force of 1.5 N was applied bilaterally to the segment through hooks at the same height between 7 and 21 mm from the incisal edge of central incisor; in vertical loading experiments, a vertical intrusion force of 1.5 N was applied at the midline of lingual frame with distance between 4 and 16 mm from the incisal edge of central incisor. After loading, solution was done and displacement and maximum principle stress were calculated. After horizontal loading, lingual displacement and stress in periodontal membrane (PDM) was most homogeneous when the traction force was 14 mm from the edge of central incisor; after vertical loading, intrusive displacement and stress in PDM were most homogeneous when the traction force was 12 mm from the incisal edge of central incisor. The results of this study suggested that the location of center of resistance (CRe) of six maxillary anterior teeth is about 14 mm gingivally and 12 mm lingually to incisal edge of central incisor. The location can provide evidence for theoretical and clinical study in orthodontics. PMID:25764710

  17. Olfactory sensilla on antennae and maxillary palps of Fannia hirticeps (Stein, 1892) (Diptera: Fanniidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi-Ke; Zhang, Ming; Li, Kai; Zhang, Dong

    2012-10-01

    The Fanniidae is one of four families in the superfamily Muscoidea (Diptera), including some important medical and hygienic flies. There is a paucity of reports on the ultrastructure of olfactory sensilla for the fanniid species. To provide more information on the morphology of the antennal and palpal sensilla of fanniid fly, Fannia hirticeps (Stein, 1892) has been studied using scanning electron microscopy. The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are covered by microtrichiae and several chaetic sensilla. Six distinct morphological types of sensilla are recorded on the antennal funiculus, including one trichoid, two basiconic, two coeloconic sensilla, and one clavate sensilla. The measurement and density of each sensilla type are also provided. The trichoid sensilla tend to be longer and denser toward the apex of antennal funiculus. Basiconic sensilla spread all over the funicular surface. F. hirticeps bears two types of coeloconic sensilla, type 2 coeloconic sensilla distributed on the distal part of the anterior surface, whereas type 1 distributed on the rest of the funiculus. Clavate sensilla are found on the base of antennal funiculus. Only one large sensory pit is located on the posterior surface. Maxillary palps bear one type of basiconic sensilla. These results are compared with eight other muscid flies. Our findings provide a morphological basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behavior of this group. PMID:22556028

  18. Mandibular deviation and canted maxillary occlusal plane treated with miniscrews and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy: functional and morphologic changes.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Fukunaga, Tomohiro; Kuroda, Shingo; Sakai, Yuichi; Yamashiro, Takashi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2009-12-01

    Conventionally, the combination of mandibular and maxillary osteotomy is used to correct both mandibular deviation and maxillary canted occlusal plane. This case report describes functional and morphologic changes after an alternative treatment with miniscrew anchorage instead of maxillary osteotomy. A boy, aged 16 years 5 months, had temporomandibular joint disease symptoms, facial asymmetry with mandibular deviation, and a maxillary canted occlusal plane. The maxillary molars on the right side were extruded 3 mm compared with those on the left side. In addition, there were functional problems: lopsided chewing and asymmetric motion range of the bilateral condyles. After correction of the maxillary canted occlusal plane by intrusion of the maxillary right molars with miniscrew anchorage, the mandibular deviation was corrected with mandibular osteotomy. As the therapeutic result, functional symmetry was achieved in addition to symmetric morphologic changes, suggesting that combination treatment of miniscrew anchorage and mandibular osteotomy is effective for treating patients with mandibular deviation and maxillary canted occlusal plane. PMID:19962611

  19. A new method of morphological comparison for bony reconstructive surgery: maxillary reconstruction using scapular tip bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Harley; Gilbert, Ralph W.; Pagedar, Nitin A.; Daly, Michael J.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2010-02-01

    esthetic appearance is one of the most important factors for reconstructive surgery. The current practice of maxillary reconstruction chooses radial forearm, fibula or iliac rest osteocutaneous to recreate three-dimensional complex structures of the palate and maxilla. However, these bone flaps lack shape similarity to the palate and result in a less satisfactory esthetic. Considering similarity factors and vasculature advantages, reconstructive surgeons recently explored the use of scapular tip myo-osseous free flaps to restore the excised site. We have developed a new method that quantitatively evaluates the morphological similarity of the scapula tip bone and palate based on a diagnostic volumetric computed tomography (CT) image. This quantitative result was further interpreted as a color map that rendered on the surface of a three-dimensional computer model. For surgical planning, this color interpretation could potentially assist the surgeon to maximize the orientation of the bone flaps for best fit of the reconstruction site. With approval from the Research Ethics Board (REB) of the University Health Network, we conducted a retrospective analysis with CT image obtained from 10 patients. Each patient had a CT scans including the maxilla and chest on the same day. Based on this image set, we simulated total, subtotal and hemi palate reconstruction. The procedure of simulation included volume segmentation, conversing the segmented volume to a stereo lithography (STL) model, manual registration, computation of minimum geometric distances and curvature between STL model. Across the 10 patients data, we found the overall root-mean-square (RMS) conformance was 3.71+/- 0.16 mm

  20. Accuracy of virtual models in the assessment of maxillary defects

    PubMed Central

    Kurşun, Şebnem; Kılıç, Cenk; Özen, Tuncer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the reliability of measurements performed on three-dimensional (3D) virtual models of maxillary defects obtained using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 3D optical scanning. Materials and Methods Mechanical cavities simulating maxillary defects were prepared on the hard palate of nine cadavers. Images were obtained using a CBCT unit at three different fields-of-views (FOVs) and voxel sizes: 1) 60×60 mm FOV, 0.125 mm3 (FOV60); 2) 80×80 mm FOV, 0.160 mm3 (FOV80); and 3) 100×100 mm FOV, 0.250 mm3 (FOV100). Superimposition of the images was performed using software called VRMesh Design. Automated volume measurements were conducted, and differences between surfaces were demonstrated. Silicon impressions obtained from the defects were also scanned with a 3D optical scanner. Virtual models obtained using VRMesh Design were compared with impressions obtained by scanning silicon models. Gold standard volumes of the impression models were then compared with CBCT and 3D scanner measurements. Further, the general linear model was used, and the significance was set to p=0.05. Results A comparison of the results obtained by the observers and methods revealed the p values to be smaller than 0.05, suggesting that the measurement variations were caused by both methods and observers along with the different cadaver specimens used. Further, the 3D scanner measurements were closer to the gold standard measurements when compared to the CBCT measurements. Conclusion In the assessment of artificially created maxillary defects, the 3D scanner measurements were more accurate than the CBCT measurements. PMID:25793180

  1. Seismic Image Segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiseman, S.

    1999-06-07

    Image segmentation is a standard low-level task in computer vision. We demonstrate how the segmentation of seismic images can assist in geologic interpretation. An image segmentation technique is applied to images of the acoustic impedance. A salient feature of the resulting segments is that the hydrocarbon-bearing regions are characterized by a finer segmentation than the other regions. A modified apparent polarity attribute is introduced, and images of this attribute are segmented. The boundaries of the resulting segments pass through the minima and maxima of the acoustic impedance in a manner that allows us to segment the acoustic impedance image into layers of high and low acoustic impedance. Our methods can assist in segmentation of acoustic impedance images according to lithology or geologic facies.

  2. Case Report: retained gutta-percha as a cause for persistent maxillary sinusitis and pain

    PubMed Central

    Hodnett, Benjamin L.; Ferguson, Berrylin

    2014-01-01

    Dental sources of infection can produce acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis. In some cases, the source of the infection may be related to the presence of endodontic materials in the oral cavity. In this article, we report a case of retained gutta-percha in the maxillary sinus resulting in chronic sinusitis. PMID:24795809

  3. Complications in 54 frontofacial distraction procedures in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jesse A; Paliga, James Thomas; Taylor, Jesse A; Bartlett, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis manifest midfacial hypoplasia often treated by midfacial advancement. Benefits of midfacial advancement by distraction osteogenesis have been well studied; little is known about the perioperative morbidity of these procedures, specifically relating to device selection. This study compares the perioperative complications between semiburied- and halo-type distraction osteogenesis of the midface. A retrospective review was performed on all patients with syndromic craniosynostosis who underwent midface distraction with semiburied- or halo-type external distractors. Demographic information and operative/postoperative course were reviewed. Complications were categorized as hardware-related, infectious, and either as major (requiring additional intervention) or minor (requiring medication only). Chi-squared and Fisher exact test were used to compare variables.From 1999 to 2012, a total of 54 patients underwent midface distraction osteogenesis, including 23 patients with Apert syndrome, 19 patients with Crouzon syndrome, 10 patients with Pfeiffer syndrome, and 2 patients with other craniofacial syndromes. Thirty-three patients underwent a total of 34 subcranial Le Fort III distraction procedures and 21 underwent 21 monobloc distraction procedures. The mean age during surgery was 8.0 (range, 4.0-17.7) years, whereas the mean time between distractor placement and removal was 102.9 days. Thirty procedures were performed with external halo-type distractors (18 Le Fort III and 12 monobloc distractions), whereas 25 were performed with buried midface distractors (16 Le Fort III and 9 monobloc distractions). There were no significant differences in diagnoses or interventions between the distraction devices. Of the 19 distractor-related complications, there were a total of 10 (18.2%) in the halo group including 5 (9.1%) requiring separate operative intervention as well as 9 (16.4%) in the buried distractor group including 6 (10.1%) requiring separate operative intervention. Major infections were more common in the buried distractor group (n = 8) compared with the halo distractor group (n = 3) (P = 0.048). There were 4 (7.3%) patients in the halo group who had malposition or transcranial pin migration related to postoperative positioning or falls and required operative repositioning. Frontofacial distraction is an important technique in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. Higher rates of halo displacement requiring surgery are offset with lower rates of infections compared with buried distractors. PMID:25569391

  4. Fifth alternative for replacement of maxillary first molar.

    PubMed

    Palencar, Adrian J

    2013-01-01

    There are occasions when the patient is missing only one first molar or the first molar is slated for an odontectomy (extraction). Most of the time, there are only four common avenues for replacement: partial removable prosthesis, Maryland bridge, ceramic or ceramic to metal fixed prosthesis and osseo-integrated implant supported crown. In this article, the author discusses the least common avenue for replacement of missing maxillary first molar--an orthodontic closure. He discusses and demonstrates; Maximum, Medium and Minimum Anchorage strategies on acrylic models. Preserving the anchorage is necessary for successful execution of this orthodontic procedure. This demonstration is followed by presentation of the actual case. PMID:23941033

  5. Traumatic Intrusion of a Maxillary Canine Tooth: 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Edstrom, Emily J; Smith, Mark M; Taney, Kendall; Smithson, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    Of the six recognized types of tooth luxation injuries, intrusion generally carries the most guarded long-term prognosis due to the high risk of complications, including root resorption, ankylosis, marginal bone loss, and pulp canal obliteration or necrosis. The degree of traumatic intrusion and stage of root development affects the outcome and treatment planning. This report describes the clinical history, oral and radiographic examination findings, and rationale for surgical extraction in 2 dogs and 1 cat with traumatic intrusion of a maxillary canine tooth. PMID:26197689

  6. [Maxillary sinusitis in children: clinical and diagnostic aspects].

    PubMed

    Lapetina, F; Canino, R; Compagnoni, G; Teza, F; Romano, A; Maldera, F; Negri, D

    1989-01-01

    Acute or chronic sinusitis is often overlooked and poorly understood in the pediatric population as many children have frequent episodes of upper respiratory infections that confuse accurate diagnosis. The authors present a prospective study in 89 children with clinical and radiographic presence of maxillary sinusitis in order to underline the most frequent clinical symptoms and signs and the most significant diagnostic procedures that help confirm precise definition of this common disease. The authors also discuss the relationship with allergic factors, clinical causes of poor sinus drainage, and environmental factors that may increase the possibility of sinus infection. PMID:2717481

  7. Maxillary mesenchymal chondrosarcoma presenting with epistaxis in a child.

    PubMed

    Uppaluri, Srinivas Anand Swaroop; Yin, Loi Hoi; Goh, Giap Hean

    2015-08-01

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are a rare variant of primary chondrosarcomas and can pose a diagnostic dilemma, especially when the features on conventional imaging are equivocal for an aggressive lesion. There is very little PET-CT experience in mesenchymal chondrosarcomas as per the literature and to the best of our knowledge, we are the first to describe a maxillary mesenchymal chondrosarcoma on PET-CT imaging. We report a case where PET-CT not only complemented conventional imaging in suspecting a malignant osseous lesion, but also was indicative of the grade of the tumor. PMID:26629302

  8. A Variation in Tooth Position-180 Rotated Maxillary Second Premolar

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Gurudutt; Singh, Inderpreet

    2013-01-01

    Rotation of a tooth around an axis which is perpendicular to the occlusal plane through angles which approach 180 is a rare anomaly which is found in the human dentition. Such aberrations present a multifactorial model in their origin. Both genetic and local factors seem to contribute to this abnormality. If the contribution of local factors could be identified, a way could open to an early treatment and prevention of secondary rotations of opposing and contiguous teeth. A case of a 180 rotation of maxillary left second premolar in a male patient of Indian origin has been described here. PMID:24086921

  9. Peripheral odontogenic myxoma of maxillary gingiva: A rare clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Soundarya Narayana

    2013-09-01

    Odontogenic myxoma comprises 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxomas are relatively rare benign mesenchymal tumors found exclusively in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaw and are usually located centrally in the mandible. Soft-tissue localization is rarely seen and is classified as peripheral myxoma. Peripheral myxoma is slow growing and less aggressive, as compared to the central myxoma. It has a low recurrence rate. Till date, only few cases of maxillary gingival myxomas are reported in the literature. Here, we present an unusual case of primary peripheral odontogenic myxoma occurring in the gingiva of anterior maxilla in a 41-year-old female patient. PMID:24174762

  10. [Cystic lesion with a displaced tooth in the maxillary sinus].

    PubMed

    Braun, T; Ihrler, S; Kisser, U; Leunig, A

    2011-07-01

    Ameloblastomas are epithelial odontogenic tumors in the mandibula or maxilla with potential local infiltrating growth; therefore, relapses can occur after incomplete resection. Among the different histological subtypes, the following are of clinical importance: The so-called unicystic ameloblastoma, radiologically presenting as a common dentigerous cyst, and the so-called extraosseous ameloblastoma. This case report describes the rare combination of a unicystic ameloblastoma with extraosseous localization in the maxillary sinus and association with a displaced tooth. This unusual constellation can cause major diagnostic problems. PMID:21607801

  11. Maxillary canine transposition A literature review with case report

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shuchi; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Singh, Saumyendra Vikram; Arya, Deeksha

    2014-01-01

    Tooth transposition is a severe disturbance of tooth eruptive position and their sequence, which involve certain teeth occurring at any of several specific sites in the mouth. Tooth transposition is of several types and their classification depends on the teeth involved. The review of literature aims to discuss the incidence and identifying factors related to occurrence of this dental anomaly. The present study aims to discuss about the prosthetic treatment of a patient with unilateral maxillary canine lateral incisor transposition with the absence of permanent lateral incisor. PMID:25737936

  12. Maxillary mesenchymal chondrosarcoma presenting with epistaxis in a child

    PubMed Central

    Uppaluri, Srinivas Anand Swaroop; Yin, Loi Hoi; Goh, Giap Hean

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are a rare variant of primary chondrosarcomas and can pose a diagnostic dilemma, especially when the features on conventional imaging are equivocal for an aggressive lesion. There is very little PET-CT experience in mesenchymal chondrosarcomas as per the literature and to the best of our knowledge, we are the first to describe a maxillary mesenchymal chondrosarcoma on PET-CT imaging. We report a case where PET-CT not only complemented conventional imaging in suspecting a malignant osseous lesion, but also was indicative of the grade of the tumor. PMID:26629302

  13. The role of saliva in retention of maxillary complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Y; Hamada, T

    1978-08-01

    In this study maxillary denture retention was influenced by the salivary volume between the denture base and the mucous membrane. An optimum intervening salivary volume, at which the greatest retention was developed, was also observed. It was observed from determination of electric resistance of palatal mucous membrane that inward and outward flow of intervening saliva was greater in the denture with poor retention than in the one with good retention. Moreover, when the salivary volume between the denture base and mucous membrane was optimum the salivary flow under the denture was minimum. PMID:357707

  14. Modified Segmental Osteotomy for Relocation of Malpositioned Implant: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, André Luis Fernandes; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Freitas, Diogo Loureiro; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining a good cosmetic and proper mastication in oral rehabilitation with dental implants are directly linked to the correct positioning of the implant in the alveolar bone. The malposition of the implant is a challenge in rehabilitation, which can often compromise the entire process. In cases of severely malpositioned implants, one has the option to remove it or leave it submerged under bone and gums. Another option is the modified segmental osteotomy that aims repositioning osseointegrated implant with the surrounding bone. The objective of this case report is to present a case where an implant was severely malpositioned after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, requiring a modified segmental osteotomy technique to reposition it. PMID:26464556

  15. Modified Segmental Osteotomy for Relocation of Malpositioned Implant: Case Report.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Andr Luis Fernandes; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Freitas, Diogo Loureiro; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2015-08-01

    Obtaining a good cosmetic and proper mastication in oral rehabilitation with dental implants are directly linked to the correct positioning of the implant in the alveolar bone. The malposition of the implant is a challenge in rehabilitation, which can often compromise the entire process. In cases of severely malpositioned implants, one has the option to remove it or leave it submerged under bone and gums. Another option is the modified segmental osteotomy that aims repositioning osseointegrated implant with the surrounding bone. The objective of this case report is to present a case where an implant was severely malpositioned after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, requiring a modified segmental osteotomy technique to reposition it. PMID:26464556

  16. The impact of driver distraction on road safety: results from a representative survey in two Australian states

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, S P; Stevenson, M R; Woodward, M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To quantify the prevalence and effects of distracting activities while driving. Design Cross sectional driver survey. Setting New South Wales and Western Australia, Australia. Participants 1347 licensed drivers aged between 18 and 65 years. Data were weighted to reflect the corresponding driving population. Main outcome measures Prevalence of distracting activities while driving; perceived risks and adverse outcomes due to distractions. Results The most common distracting activities during the most recent driving trip were lack of concentration (weighted percentage (standard error, SE) 71.8% (1.4%) of drivers); adjusting in?vehicle equipment (68.7% (1.5%)); outside people, objects or events (57.8% (1.6%)); and talking to passengers (39.8% (1.6%)). On average, a driver engaged in a distracting activity once every six minutes. One in five crashes (21%) during the last three years, involving one in 20 drivers (5.0% (0.7%)), was attributed to driver distraction based on self?report. In the population under study, this equated to 242,188 (SE 34,417) drivers. Younger drivers (1830?years) were significantly more likely to report distracting activities, to perceive distracting activities as less dangerous, and to have crashed as a result. Conclusions Distracting activities while driving are common and can result in driving errors. Driver distraction is an important cause of crashes. Further research is needed to estimate the risk conferred by different distracting activities and the circumstances during which activities pose greatest risk. These results suggest that a strategy to minimize distracting activities while driving, with a focus on young drivers, is indicated. PMID:16887946

  17. EEG-Based Attention Tracking During Distracted Driving.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Kai; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2015-11-01

    Distracted driving might lead to many catastrophic consequences. Developing a countermeasure to track drivers' focus of attention (FOA) and engagement of operators in dual (multi)-tasking conditions is thus imperative. Ten healthy volunteers participated in a dual-task experiment that comprised two tasks: a lane-keeping driving task and a mathematical problem-solving task (e.g., 24+15=37?) during which their electroencephalogram (EEG) and behaviors were concurrently recorded. Independent component analysis (ICA) was employed as a spatial filter to separate the contributions of independent sources from the recorded EEG data. The power spectra of six components (i.e., frontal, central, parietal, occipital, left motor, and right motor) extracted from single-task conditions were fed into support vector machine (SVM) based on the radial basis function (RBF) kernel to build an FOA assessment system. The system achieved 84.6±5.8% and 86.2±5.4% classification accuracies in detecting the participants' FOAs on the math versus driving tasks, respectively. This FOA assessment system was then applied to evaluate participants' FOAs during dual-task conditions. The detected FOAs revealed that participants' cognitive attention and strategies dynamically changed between tasks to optimize the overall performance, as attention was limited and competed. The empirical results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a practical system to continuously estimating cognitive attention through EEG spectra. PMID:25850090

  18. Propolis accelerates the consolidation phase in distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bereket, Cihan; Özan, Fatih; Şener, İsmail; Tek, Mustafa; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Semirgin, Sibel Uçak; Şenel, Erman; Özdemir, Muhsin

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of propolis on new bone formation after distraction osteogenesis (DO). This study examined 3 groups: control group, P100, and P200. Rabbits underwent DO of the left mandible after an osteotomy between the first molar and the mental foramen. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were evaluated using dual-energy x-ray absorption 1 and 4 weeks after the procedure. The volume of connective tissue and new bone and the number of capillaries were measured using stereologic analysis after the subjects were killed. Dual-energy x-ray absorption showed that the bone mineral content and bone mineral density were higher in the groups treated with propolis by week 4, and these parameters were higher in the P200 group. Stereologic analysis showed no significant differences in connective tissue volume and number of capillaries among the groups. New bone volume was lowest in the P200 group. We concluded that propolis accelerates bone formation and may shorten the consolidation phase with DO. PMID:25203585

  19. Neural correlates of 'distracting' from emotion during autobiographical recollection.

    PubMed

    Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Sanda; Dolcos, Florin

    2015-02-01

    Remembering emotional autobiographical memories (AMs) is important for emotional well-being, and investigation of the role of emotion regulation (ER) during AM recollection has relevance for understanding mental health issues. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the brain mechanisms underlying ER and AM, less is known about the role of ER during AM recollection. The present study investigated how focusing away (or 'distracting') from the emotional content during AM recollection influences the subjective re-experiencing of emotions and the associated neural correlates, by manipulating the retrieval focus of participants who remembered emotional AMs while fMRI data were recorded. First, focusing away from emotion led to decreased self-reported emotional responses, along with increased engagement of ER-related regions (ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, vmPFC), and reduced activity in emotion-related regions (amygdala, AMY). Second, increased vmPFC activity was linked to reduced emotional ratings, during the non-emotional focus. Third, mediation analysis identified vmPFC as a functional hub integrating affective signals from AMY and mediating their impact on the subjective re-experiencing of emotion, according to the current retrieval focus. Collectively, these findings shed light on the neural mechanisms underlying the ability to effectively switch attentional focus away from emotions during AM recollections and have direct relevance for understanding, preventing and treating affective disorders, characterised by reduced ability to regulate emotions. PMID:24603021

  20. Intradiscal Pressure Changes during Manual Cervical Distraction: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Gudavalli, M. R.; Potluri, T.; Carandang, G.; Havey, R. M.; Voronov, L. I.; Cox, J. M.; Rowell, R. M.; Kruse, R. A.; Joachim, G. C.; Patwardhan, A. G.; Henderson, C. N. R.; Goertz, C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure intradiscal pressure (IDP) changes in the lower cervical spine during a manual cervical distraction (MCD) procedure. Incisions were made anteriorly, and pressure transducers were inserted into each nucleus at lower cervical discs. Four skilled doctors of chiropractic (DCs) performed MCD procedure on nine specimens in prone position with contacts at C5 or at C6 vertebrae with the headpiece in different positions. IDP changes, traction forces, and manually applied posterior-to-anterior forces were analyzed using descriptive statistics. IDP decreases were observed during MCD procedure at all lower cervical levels C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7. The mean IDP decreases were as high as 168.7 KPa. Mean traction forces were as high as 119.2 N. Posterior-to-anterior forces applied during manual traction were as high as 82.6 N. Intraclinician reliability for IDP decrease was high for all four DCs. While two DCs had high intraclinician reliability for applied traction force, the other two DCs demonstrated only moderate reliability. IDP decreases were greatest during moving flexion and traction. They were progressevely less pronouced with neutral traction, fixed flexion and traction, and generalized traction. PMID:24023587

  1. Segment alignment control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.

    1988-01-01

    The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

  2. Is the Maxillary Sinus Really Suitable in Sex Determination? A Three-Dimensional Analysis of Maxillary Sinus Volume and Surface Depending on Sex and Dentition.

    PubMed

    Mhlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Heussen, Nicole; Peters, Florian; Steiner, Timm; Hlzle, Frank; Modabber, Ali

    2015-11-01

    The morphometric analysis of maxillary sinus was recently presented as a helpful instrument for sex determination. The aim of the present study was to examine the volume and surface of the fully dentate, partial, and complete edentulous maxillary sinus depending on the sex. Computed tomography data from 276 patients were imported in DICOM format via special virtual planning software, and surfaces (mm) and volumes (mm) of maxillary sinuses were measured. In sex-specific comparisons (women vs men), statistically significant differences for the mean maxillary sinus volume and surface were found between fully dentate (volume, 13,267.77 mm vs 16,623.17 mm, P?maxillary sinuses. Between the sexes, no differences were only measured for female and male partially dentate fully edentulous sinuses (2 teeth missing) and between partially edentulous sinuses in women and men (1 teeth vs 2 teeth missing). With a corresponding software program, it is possible to analyze the maxillary sinus precisely. The dentition influences the volume and surface of the pneumatic maxillary sinus. Therefore, sex determination is possible by analysis of the maxillary sinus event through the increase in pneumatization. PMID:26594986

  3. Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiurong; Ma, Yingwei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metallic foreign bodies are rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and usually they have a dental origin. Two main surgical approaches are currently used for the removal of foreign bodies in the maxillary sinus: the bone flap and the endoscopic sinus techniques. However, the treatment is not only surgical removal. We are reporting one case of foreign body like a hand sewing needle entered into the maxillary sinus through an unusual route carious deciduous molar tooth. It was diagnosed by three-dimensional images from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and removed by a simple procedure, with magnetic iron, thereby avoiding the risk of damage to a large portion of the alveolar bone near the maxillary sinus. How to cite this article: Shao L, Qin X, Ma Y. Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):61-64. PMID:25206242

  4. Removal of maxillary sinus metallic foreign body like a hand sewing needle by magnetic iron.

    PubMed

    Shao, Linqin; Qin, Xiurong; Ma, Yingwei

    2014-01-01

    Metallic foreign bodies are rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and usually they have a dental origin. Two main surgical app-roaches are currently used for the removal of foreign bodies in the maxillary sinus: the bone flap and the endoscopic sinus tech-niques. However, the treatment is not only surgical removal. We are reporting one case of foreign body like a hand sewing needle entered into the maxillary sinus through an unusual route- carious deciduous molar tooth. It was diagnosed by three-dimensional images from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and removed by a simple procedure, with magnetic iron, thereby avoiding the risk of damage to a large portion of the alveolar bone near the maxillary sinus. How to cite this article: Shao L, Qin X, Ma Y. Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):61-64. PMID:25206242

  5. Progressive immediate loading of a perforated maxillary sinus dental implant: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2015-01-01

    The displacement of a dental implant into the maxillary sinus may lead to implant failure due to exposure of the apical third or the tip of the implant beyond the bone, resulting in soft tissue growth. This case report discusses dental implant placement in the upper first molar area with maxillary sinus involvement of approximately 2 mm. A new technique for progressive implant loading was used, involving immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus perforation and low primary stability. Follow-up was performed with resonance frequency analysis and compared with an implant placed adjacent in the upper second premolar area using a conventional delayed loading protocol. Implants with maxillary sinus involvement showed increasing stability during the healing period. We found that progressive implant loading may be a safe technique for the placement of immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus involvement. PMID:25678816

  6. Application of orthodontic mini-implants and ligation for absolute skeletal anchorage to the intraoral labiolingual appliance: midface distraction osteogenesis cases treated with the RED System.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Hak; Seo, Yu-Jin

    2011-03-01

    Patients with cleft and several craniofacial syndromes usually show skeletal class III malocclusion with midface hypoplasia. Although the Rigid External Distraction (RED) System (KLS Martin, LP, Jacksonville, FL) has been used widely, bowing of the external traction hooks (ETHs) and tooth-borne anchorage for the intraoral labiolingual appliance (ILA) can result in inappropriate change of force application level and vector control, eventually improper rotation of the osteotomized bony segment and unwanted dentoalveolar effect. Instead of the ETH and ILA, direct fixation of the skeletal plate on the maxilla can be another option. However, it also has some disadvantages including inflammation, fixation failure, and the need for a second surgery to remove the plates. These phenomena could be minimized by the addition of rigidity to the ETHs and fortification of absolute skeletal anchorage to the ILA. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to introduce application orthodontic mini-implants on the buccal attached gingiva and palate areas and ligation for absolute skeletal anchorage to the ILA in midface distraction osteogenesis cases treated with the RED System. In cases that need a large amount of advancement and bodily translation or clockwise rotation of the midface and that have oligodontia or anchorage problem for the ILA, application of the orthodontic mini-implants and ligation for absolute skeletal anchorage to the ILA can be a highly effective fixation approach to obtain more accurate vector control. PMID:21403527

  7. Effects of distracting ads and cognitive control on the processing of online news stories with stereotype-related information.

    PubMed

    Kononova, Anastasia G

    2013-05-01

    An experiment (N=123) examined how individuals cognitively process online news stories depicting African-American characters with stereotype-consistent and -inconsistent attributes and whether distracting online ads interfere with story processing. Two cognitive control functions, updating and inhibition, were predicted to moderate the effects of distracting ads. Recall of characters' attributes and overall characters' description were included in the study as dependent measures. Findings indicated that distracting online ads hinder recall of information about and descriptions of story characters. Inhibition and updating affect dependent measures and moderate the effects of distracting online ads on characters' descriptions. PMID:23574346

  8. Comparison of the effects of rapid maxillary expansion and surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion in the sagittal, vertical and transverse planes

    PubMed Central

    Trkkahraman, Hakan; Baykul, Timucin; Alkis, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and surgically assisted RME (SARME) in the sagittal, vertical, and transverse planes. Study design: Orthodontic records of 28 patients were selected retrospectively and divided into two treatment groups. Group 1 comprised 14 patients (4 boys, 10 girls, mean age 14.2 0.74 years) who had been treated with RME. Group 2 comprised 14 patients (4 boys, 10 girls, mean age 19.6 2.73 years) who had been treated with SARME. Measurements were performed on lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms and dental casts obtained before (T0) and after (T1) expansion. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in soft tissue convexity angle, anterior face height, and upper nasal width in group 1, and in U1NA length and posterior face height measurements in group 2 (P<.05). In both groups significant increases were found in interpremolar, intermolar, maxillary, and lower nasal widths and in anterior lower face height (P<.01). Statistically significant intergroup differences were found in the ANB angle (P<.05) and maxillary intercanine (P<.01) measurements. Conclusion: With both RME and SARME, successful expansion of maxillary dentoalveolar structures and nasal cavity and palatal widening were achieved. Sagittal plane effects of SARME were similar to those of RME on dental skeletal and airway measurements. Key words: Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, Rapid maxillary expansion, Airway, Transverse deficiency. PMID:22143686

  9. Combined micro computed tomography and histology study of bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgenstein, Bernd; Deyhle, Hans; Jaquiery, Claude; Kunz, Christoph; Stalder, Anja; Stbinger, Stefan; Jundt, Gernot; Beckmann, Felix; Mller, Bert; Hieber, Simone E.

    2012-10-01

    Bone augmentation is a vital part of surgical interventions of the oral and maxillofacial area including dental implantology. Prior to implant placement, sufficient bone volume is needed to reduce the risk of peri-implantitis. While augmentation using harvested autologous bone is still considered as gold standard, many surgeons prefer bone substitutes to reduce operation time and to avoid donor site morbidity. To assess the osteogenic efficacy of commercially available augmentation materials we analyzed drill cores extracted before implant insertion. In younger patients, distraction osteogenesis is successfully applied to correct craniofacial deformities through targeted bone formation. To study the influence of mesenchymal stem cells on bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis, human mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the distraction gap of nude rat mandibles immediately after osteotomy. The distraction was performed over eleven days to reach a distraction gap of 6 mm. Both the rat mandibles and the drill cores were scanned using synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography. The three-dimensional data were manually registered and compared with corresponding two-dimensional histological sections to assess bone regeneration and its morphology. The analysis of the rat mandibles indicates that bone formation is enhanced by mesenchymal stem cells injected before distraction. The bone substitutes yielded a wide range of bone volume and degree of resorption. The volume fraction of the newly formed bone was determined to 34.4% in the computed tomography dataset for the augmentation material Geistlich Bio-Oss. The combination of computed tomography and histology allowed a complementary assessment for both bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis.

  10. Visual and cognitive distraction metrics in the age of the smart phone: A basic review

    PubMed Central

    McGehee, Daniel V.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of distraction are numerous and varied, and defining and measuring distraction and attention is complicated. The driving task requires constant adjustments and reallocation of attention to cognitive, motor, and visual processes. While it is fairly straightforward to measure distraction in an experimental situation (e.g., simulator, closed course), driver distraction in the real world is highly contextual. While no single metric is capable of capturing the complexities of distraction, several have proved useful in helping researchers gain fuller understanding of it. Few have reached a level of consensus among researchers and user interface designers. ISO and SAE may be considered the gold standard for providing mechanisms through which open scientific consensus-based standards can be achieved. While there are a number of metrics used in predicting distraction, three have been studied closely and are going through the SAE and ISO standards process. They are (1) the occlusion method; (2) the Lane Change Test (LCT); and (3) the Detection Response Task (DRT). The metrics described here apply generally to the experimental context where driving is tightly controlled. Like any method, there are limitations with eachand they dont necessarily agree with one another. Experimental methods and analyses are different than those in naturalistic driving (ND). ND relies more on data mining versus traditional experimental manipulation. ND data are a challenge precisely in that they lack experimental control. In future, driver metrics will go beyond specific measurement of task load, and will include how drivers self regulate when they choose to be distracted. PMID:24776223

  11. Thinking About Walking: Effects of Conscious Correction Versus Distraction on Locomotor Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Control of the human walking pattern normally requires little thought, with conscious control used only in the face of a challenging environment or a perturbation. We have previously shown that people can adapt spatial and temporal aspects of walking to a sustained perturbation generated by a split-belt treadmill. Here we tested whether conscious correction of walking, versus distraction from it, modifies adaptation. Conscious correction of stepping may expedite the adaptive process and help to form a new walking pattern. However, because walking is normally an automatic process, it is possible that conscious effort could interfere with adaptation, whereas distraction might improve it by removing competing voluntary control. Three groups of subjects were studied: a control group was given no specific instructions, a conscious correction group was instructed how to step and given intermittent visual feedback of stepping during adaptation, and a distraction group performed a dual-task during adaptation. After adaptation, retention of aftereffects was assessed in all groups during normal treadmill walking without conscious effort, feedback, or distraction. We found that conscious correction speeds adaptation, whereas distraction slows it. Subjects trained with distraction retained aftereffects longest, suggesting that the training used during adaptation predicts the time course of deadaptation. An unexpected finding was that these manipulations affected the adaptation rate of spatial but not temporal elements of walking. Thus conscious processes can preferentially access the spatial walking pattern. It may be that spatial and temporal controls of locomotion are accessible through distinct neural circuits, with the former being most sensitive to conscious effort or distraction. PMID:20147417

  12. Visual and cognitive distraction metrics in the age of the smart phone: A basic review.

    PubMed

    McGehee, Daniel V

    2014-01-01

    Sources of distraction are numerous and varied, and defining and measuring distraction and attention is complicated. The driving task requires constant adjustments and reallocation of attention to cognitive, motor, and visual processes. While it is fairly straightforward to measure distraction in an experimental situation (e.g., simulator, closed course), driver distraction in the real world is highly contextual. While no single metric is capable of capturing the complexities of distraction, several have proved useful in helping researchers gain fuller understanding of it. Few have reached a level of consensus among researchers and user interface designers. ISO and SAE may be considered the 'gold standard' for providing mechanisms through which open scientific consensus-based standards can be achieved.While there are a number of metrics used in predicting distraction, three have been studied closely and are going through the SAE and ISO standards process. They are (1) 'the occlusion method'; (2) the Lane Change Test (LCT); and (3) the Detection Response Task (DRT). The metrics described here apply generally to the experimental context where driving is tightly controlled. Like any method, there are limitations with each-and they don't necessarily agree with one another.Experimental methods and analyses are different than those in naturalistic driving (ND). ND relies more on data mining versus traditional experimental manipulation. ND data are a challenge precisely in that they lack experimental control.In future, driver metrics will go beyond specific measurement of task load, and will include how drivers self regulate when they choose to be distracted. PMID:24776223

  13. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  14. Malignant tumours of the maxillary complex: an 18-year review.

    PubMed

    Stavrianos, S D; Camilleri, I G; McLean, N R; Piggot, T A; Kelly, C G; Soames, J V

    1998-12-01

    Over an 18-year period, 147 patients with malignant tumours involving the maxillary complex were treated in a combined head and neck clinic, of whom 50 underwent surgery. There were 33 males and 17 females, the mean age was 57 years (range 11-87 years). The most common clinical presentations were either painful facial swelling, infraorbital anaesthesia, palatal ulceration or nasal obstruction. Preoperative investigations included EUA, biopsy and either CT or MRI scans. Of the 50 tumours, 62% were squamous cell carcinomas. Surgery consisted of either partial or total maxillectomy including craniofacial resection in nine patients. Reconstruction was by either split skin grafting or by free tissue transfer when the cranial contents had been exposed. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given in 82% of the patients. The mean follow-up was 5 years and 59% of patients are alive and disease free. The 5-year local control rate was 67%; it was greatly influenced by histological evidence of nerve invasion, local recurrence being the major cause of death. It was concluded that adequate surgical clearance, followed by planned postoperative radiotherapy, is the most effective treatment for malignant disease of the maxillary complex. PMID:10209459

  15. [Skeletal anchorage: use of miniscrews for impacted maxillary canine management].

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Andrs; Seres, Lszl; Kocsis-Savanya, Gbor; Kovcs, Adm

    2010-03-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. Patients' refusal to a long orthodontic treatment or ankylosis of the impacted tooth results in various treatment difficulties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of miniscrews in the management of impacted upper canines. In a series of 28 consecutive patients with a total of 31 impacted maxillary canines (12 men and 16 women aged from 14 to 63 years, mean 24 years), each impacted tooth was surgically exposed and an attachment was bonded. An intraosseous screw (1.5 mm in diameter and 8-10 mm long) with an endosseous body and intraoral neck section was inserted into the premolar-molar interradicular space. Following soft tissue healing, orthodontic traction was initiated. After correction of the angulation of the canine, the mini-screw was removed and traditional orthodontic therapy was completed. Twenty-seven canines were extruded successfully (87%), the duration of the orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances was decreased. In the 3 cases that failed due to ankylosis, the skeletal anchorage spared the patients and the clinicans the disappointment of a long-term unsuccessful traditional orthodontic treatment. In one patient, the mini-screw was removed because of inflammation and pain before the beginning of the orthodontic traction. This study shows that mini screw anchorage should be taken into consideration when extrusion of an impacted canine is planned. PMID:20443350

  16. Root canal morphology of South Asian Indian maxillary molar teeth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shishir; Pawar, Mansing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian Maxillary molars using a tooth clearing technique. Materials and Methods: Hundred teeth each comprising of first, second, and third molars collected from different dental schools and clinics in India were subjected to standard dye penetration, decalcification and clearing procedure before being studied. Results: The first molar mesiobuccal roots exhibited 69% Type I, 24% Type II, 4% Type IV, 2% Type V, and 1% exhibited a Vertuccis Type VIII canal anatomy. In the group with three separate roots the second molar mesiobuccal roots in exhibited 80.6% Type I, 15.3% Type II, 2.7% Type IV, and 1.4% Type V canal anatomy while the third molars mesiobuccal roots exhibited 57.4% Type I, 32% Type II, 2.1% Type III, 8.5% Type IV, 1% had a Type V canal anatomy in the similar group. Conclusion: A varied root canal anatomy was seen in the mesiobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars. PMID:25713497

  17. Endoscopic lift of the maxillary sinus floor in Beagles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, JiSi; Zhang, ShanYong; Lu, ErYi; Yang, Chi; Zhang, WenJie; Zhao, JingYang

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a modified endoscopic lift of the floor of the maxillary sinus in Beagles. Twelve operations (bilateral and randomly chosen) were done in 6 Beagles each in the test group (modified endoscopic operation), and the control group, in which the operation was done with an osteotome. All operations were evaluated by two indices of safety (perforation of the sinus membrane and nasal bleeding) and 3 effective indices (the intraoperative height after lifting, volume of bone grafts, and dislocation of the sinus grafts). The sinus membrane was not perforated and there were no nasal bleeds in either group. The intraoperative height after lifting was 13.7 (0.8) mm in the test group and 9.1 (0.5) mm in the control group, so it was significantly higher in the test group than the control group (p=0.0001). Similarly, the volume of bone graft was 0.9 (0.04) ml in the test group and 0.5 (0.02) ml in the control group (p=0.0001). The volume of the anterior and posterior bone grafts in the implant cavity in the test group did not differ significantly (p=0.102), while there were significant differences in the control group (p=0.002). Endoscopic lifting of the floor of the maxillary sinus is a safe and effective approach based on direct observation in Beagles. PMID:25174319

  18. Maxillary Sinus Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumors: A Review and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Chase C.; Eisenbach, Colby; Torres, Carlos; Graham, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an immunohistochemically diverse entity demonstrating neoplastic and nonneoplastic qualities. Although IMTs can arise in any area of the body, lesions arising in certain sites, namely, the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pterygopalatine fossa, demonstrate a heightened neoplastic and invasive potential. Despite case specific complete tumor regression and disease remission in response to pharmacotherapeutics, a subset of IMTs remain resistant to all forms of therapy. We present such a case, a 34-year-old female patient, with a highly resistant, maxillary sinus IMT. Her refractory, ALK-1 negative IMT has not responded well to novel therapies reported in current literature. This case suggests the role of zonal expressivity within a single lesion as a probable mechanism for its highly resistant nature and should promote determination of each IMT's cytogenetic profile to provide more effective targeted therapy. Paper includes a literature review of all maxillary sinus IMTs from 1985 to 2014 along with their immunohistochemical staining, treatments, and outcomes. PMID:25763286

  19. Possible and Impossible Segments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rachel; Pullum, Geoffrey K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between phonetic possibility and phonological permissibility of segment types. Specific focus is on whether there are any phonetically impossible segments phonologically permissible, and whether there are any phonetically possible segments phonologically impermissable. Examines the case of nasality spreading in Sudanese

  20. Drivers' visual scanning impairment under the influences of alcohol and distraction: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, Brook; Stough, Con; Downey, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication and distraction are two of the leading factors associated with impaired driving and fatalities, especially among younger drivers. However, it is currently unclear how these conditions affect mechanisms of visual attention considered essential for driving. The present article first reviews the literature to provide an overview of visual attention as it relates to driving. Secondly, the effects of alcohol and distraction on neurocognitive mechanisms of visual attention are summarised to provide a background which informs discussion of selected driving studies. Visual scanning impairment is identified as a consequence of both alcohol and distraction. Thus, experimental studies combining the use of simulated driving and eye tracking technologies are selected and critically reviewed to assess the relationship between eye movements and driving errors as possible indicators of visual scanning impairment. Seven of the eight studies selected investigated the effects of distraction while only one addressed alcohol. Evaluation of these studies suggests that distraction may affect visual scanning by increasing cognitive load which interferes with visual processing. The evidence for effects of alcohol on drivers' visual scanning capacity is currently scarce due to the lack of research with a specific focus on impairments of eye movement in intoxicated drivers. Lack of consistency between studies is identified as a current issue which makes it difficult to compare the results of different studies. Finally, we note that our strict selection of driving studies to avoid greater disparity between them is a limitation of the present review. PMID:25563441

  1. Improving Dental Experiences by Using Virtual Reality Distraction: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Pahl, Sabine; P. White, Mathew; Andrade, Jackie; Qian, Cheng; Bruce, Malcolm; May, Jon; Moles, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Dental anxiety creates significant problems for both patients and the dental profession. Some distraction interventions are already used by healthcare professionals to help patients cope with unpleasant procedures. The present study is novel because it a) builds on evidence that natural scenery is beneficial for patients, and b) uses a Virtual Reality (VR) representation of nature to distract participants. Extending previous work that has investigated pain and anxiety during treatment, c) we also consider the longer term effects in terms of more positive memories of the treatment, building on a cognitive theory of memory (Elaborated Intrusions). Participants (n = 69) took part in a simulated dental experience and were randomly assigned to one of three VR conditions (active vs. passive vs. control). In addition, participants were distinguished into high and low dentally anxious according to a median split resulting in a 3×2 between-subjects design. VR distraction in a simulated dental context affected memories a week later. The VR distraction had effects not only on concurrent experiences, such as perceived control, but longitudinally upon the vividness of memories after the dental experience had ended. Participants with higher dental anxiety (for whom the dental procedures were presumably more aversive) showed a greater reduction in memory vividness than lower dental-anxiety participants. This study thus suggests that VR distractions can be considered as a relevant intervention for cycles of care in which people’s previous experiences affect their behaviour for future events. PMID:24621518

  2. Plugging the Attention Deficit: Perceptual Load Counters Increased Distraction in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Increased vulnerability to extraneous distraction is a key symptom of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which may have particularly disruptive consequences. Here we apply Load Theory of attention to increase understanding of this symptom, and to explore a potential method for ameliorating it. Previous research in nonclinical populations has highlighted increased perceptual load as a means of improving the ability to focus attention and avoid distraction. The present study examines whether adults with ADHD can also benefit from conditions of high perceptual load to improve their focused attention abilities. Method: We tested adults with ADHD and age- and IQ-matched controls on a novel measure of irrelevant distraction under load, designed to parallel the form of distraction that is symptomatic of ADHD. During a letter search task, in which perceptual load was varied through search set size, participants were required to ignore salient yet entirely irrelevant distractors (colorful images of cartoon characters) presented infrequently (10% of trials). Results: The presence of these distractors produced a significantly greater interference effect on the search RTs for the adults with ADHD compared with controls, p = .005, ηp2 = .231. Perceptual load, however, significantly reduced distractor interference for the ADHD group and was as effective in reducing the elevated distractor interference in ADHD as it was for controls. Conclusions: These findings clarify the nature of the attention deficit underlying increased distraction in ADHD, and demonstrate a tangible method for overcoming it. PMID:24219607

  3. Aging increases distraction by auditory oddballs in visual, but not auditory tasks.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Alicia; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Andrs, Pilar

    2015-05-01

    Aging is typically considered to bring a reduction of the ability to resist distraction by task-irrelevant stimuli. Yet recent work suggests that this conclusion must be qualified and that the effect of aging is mitigated by whether irrelevant and target stimuli emanate from the same modalities or from distinct ones. Some studies suggest that aging is especially sensitive to distraction within-modality while others suggest it is greater across modalities. Here we report the first study to measure the effect of aging on deviance distraction in cross-modal (auditory-visual) and uni-modal (auditory-auditory) oddball tasks. Young and older adults were asked to judge the parity of target digits (auditory or visual in distinct blocks of trials), each preceded by a task-irrelevant sound (the same tone on most trials-the standard sound-or, on rare and unpredictable trials, a burst of white noise-the deviant sound). Deviant sounds yielded distraction (longer response times relative to standard sounds) in both tasks and age groups. However, an age-related increase in distraction was observed in the cross-modal task and not in the uni-modal task. We argue that aging might affect processes involved in the switching of attention across modalities and speculate that this may due to the slowing of this type of attentional shift or a reduction in cognitive control required to re-orient attention toward the target's modality. PMID:24852497

  4. Improving dental experiences by using virtual reality distraction: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Pahl, Sabine; White, Mathew P; Andrade, Jackie; Qian, Cheng; Bruce, Malcolm; May, Jon; Moles, David R

    2014-01-01

    Dental anxiety creates significant problems for both patients and the dental profession. Some distraction interventions are already used by healthcare professionals to help patients cope with unpleasant procedures. The present study is novel because it a) builds on evidence that natural scenery is beneficial for patients, and b) uses a Virtual Reality (VR) representation of nature to distract participants. Extending previous work that has investigated pain and anxiety during treatment, c) we also consider the longer term effects in terms of more positive memories of the treatment, building on a cognitive theory of memory (Elaborated Intrusions). Participants (n?=?69) took part in a simulated dental experience and were randomly assigned to one of three VR conditions (active vs. passive vs. control). In addition, participants were distinguished into high and low dentally anxious according to a median split resulting in a 32 between-subjects design. VR distraction in a simulated dental context affected memories a week later. The VR distraction had effects not only on concurrent experiences, such as perceived control, but longitudinally upon the vividness of memories after the dental experience had ended. Participants with higher dental anxiety (for whom the dental procedures were presumably more aversive) showed a greater reduction in memory vividness than lower dental-anxiety participants. This study thus suggests that VR distractions can be considered as a relevant intervention for cycles of care in which people's previous experiences affect their behaviour for future events. PMID:24621518

  5. The Relationship between Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), Working Memory and Distraction A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    do Vale, Snia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, Joo Martin; Gomes, Ana Coelho; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) have been reported to have memory enhancement effects in humans. A neuro-stimulatory action and an anti-cortisol mechanism of action may contribute to that relation. In order to study DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol relations to working memory and distraction, we recorded the electroencephalogram of 23 young women performing a discrimination (no working memory load) or 1-back (working memory load) task in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. We measured salivary DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol both before each task and at 30 and 60 min. Under working memory load, a higher baseline cortisol/DHEA ratio was related to higher distraction as indexed by an enhanced novelty P3. This suggests that cortisol may lead to increased distraction whereas DHEA may hinder distraction by leading to less processing of the distractor. An increased DHEA production with consecutive cognitive tasks was found and higher DHEA responses attributed to working memory load were related to enhanced working memory processing as indexed by an enhanced visual P300. Overall, the results suggest that in women DHEA may oppose cortisol effects reducing distraction and that a higher DHEA response may enhance working memory at the electrophysiological level. PMID:25105970

  6. Assessment of Mandibular Distraction Regenerate Using Ultrasonography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Dabas, Jitender; Mohanty, Sujata; Chaudhary, Zainab; Rani, Amita

    2016-03-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is becoming a popular method of reconstruction for maxillofacial bony deformities or defects secondary to trauma or surgical tumor ablation. However, the technique is very sensitive in terms of the rate and rhythm of distraction. Because of this, there is a need for monitoring of the distraction regenerate during the distraction as well as the consolidation period. The present study was conducted to assess the regenerate using two imaging modalities, namely, ultrasonography (USG) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to determine their relative efficacies and to weigh their clinical usefulness in assessment of DO regenerate. The study was conducted on 12 patients (18 sites) who underwent mandibular distraction for correction of facial deformities. The results showed that overall USG correlated better with the condition of regenerate (r = 0.606) as compared with CBCT (r = 0.476). However, USG was less effective as compared with CBCT in assessing the regenerate once corticomedullary differentiation occurred in the bone. PMID:26889351

  7. Denervation impairs bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis in rabbit tibia lengthening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purposes The nervous system plays an important role in bone metabolism. However, the effect of denervation on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis (DO) remains unclear. We studied neural influence on bone regeneration during DO in a rabbit model. Methods 24 New Zealand male white rabbits underwent left tibial osteodistraction. Before distraction, the animals were randomly divided into group R (resected left sciatic nerve) and group I (intact left sciatic nerve). 8 weeks after completion of distraction, the animals were killed and the lengthened tibias were harvested for radiography, micro-CT, histological evaluation, and mechanical testing. Results New regenerated bone was present in the distraction gaps of all animals at the end of the study, as revealed by radiography, micro-CT, and histology. However, less new bone formation and a lower degree of mineralization were observed in group R. The mechanical strength of the distraction gap in group I was 1.3-fold greater than that in group R when measured using the 3-point bending test. Interpretation The results suggest that the nervous system plays an essential role during DO: the denervation appears to have an inhibitory effect on bone formation. PMID:22880710

  8. Spatial and Temporal Localization of WNT Signaling Proteins in a Mouse Model of Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kasaai, Bahar; Moffatt, Pierre; Al-Salmi, Loai; Lauzier, Dominique; Lessard, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    While the surgical procedure of distraction osteogenesis (DO) is very successful in the treatment of orthopedic conditions, its major limitation of slow bone formation in the distracted gap has prompted numerous attempts to understand and accelerate this slow bone formation. Interestingly, WNT/FZD signaling has been identified as a critical pathway in mediating bone formation and regeneration but has not yet been studied in the context of DO. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial and temporal localization of endogenous WNT signaling proteins at various times of bone formation in a wild-type mouse model of DO. In this study, the DO protocol performed on mice consisted of three phases: latency (5 days), distraction (12 days), and consolidation (34 days). Our immunohistochemical findings of distracted bone specimens show an increased expression of WNT ligands (WNT4 and WNT10A), receptors (FZD1 and 2, LRP5 and 6), ?-catenin, and pathway antagonizers (DKK1; CTBP1 and 2; sFRP1, 2, and 4) during the distraction phase, which were then down-regulated during consolidation. This is the first published report to show an activation of the WNT pathway in DO and could help identify WNT as a potential therapeutic target in accelerating bone regeneration during DO. PMID:22356868

  9. Histological evaluation of condylar hyperplasia model of rabbit following distraction osteogenesis of the condylar neck.

    PubMed

    Meng, Q; Chen, G; Long, X; Deng, M; Cai, H; Li, J

    2011-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is the excessive unilateral growth of mandibular leading to facial asymmetry, occlusal disturbance, joint pain and dysfunction. The aim of this study is to evaluate the histological presence of temporomandibular joint in model of condylar hyperplasia by lengthening unilateral condylar neck of distraction osteogenesis. An extra oral distractor was employed to achieve unilateral condylar neck distraction (10 mm daily for 7 days). The experimental condylar necks were elongated by 7 mm compared to the contralateral. Eleven adult white rabbits were used. Eight rabbits were, respectively, sacrificed after the post-distraction period (4 or 8 weeks). All animals were evaluated clinically and histomorphometrically. The condyles radiologically showed remodelling, flattening and sclerosis. In 4-week group, thinning of the cartilage was evident, and the trabeculae were long, not multiply connected. A thin, dense fibrous layer covered all over the surface of cartilage. In 8-week group, the cartilaginous layer was similar to thickness of the normal cartilage, but still thinner than control. However, the fibrous layers covering condyle manifested slight degenerative changes, and even depressions and erosions were seen in the cartilage and subchondral bone. The trabeculae showed denser and multiply connected. In 8-week group, the cartilaginous thickness of surgical condyles was significantly thinner than the contralateral. This study indicates that unilateral distraction of condylar neck loads the condyles asymmetrically. Asymmetrical loads affect more on the surgical condyles than the contralateral, and after 8 weeks of the post-distraction, condyle could recover from asymmetrical loads in some degree. PMID:20626572

  10. Early detection and late cognitive control of emotional distraction by the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Garca-Pacios, Javier; Garcs, Pilar; Del Ro, David; Maest, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Unpleasant emotional distraction can impair the retention of non-emotional information in working memory (WM). Research links the prefrontal cortex with the successful control of such biologically relevant distractors, although the temporal changes in this brain mechanism remain unexplored. We use magnetoencephalography to investigate the temporal dynamics of the cognitive control of both unpleasant and pleasant distraction, in the millisecond (ms) scale. Behavioral results demonstrate that pleasant events do not affect WM maintenance more than neutral ones. Neuroimaging results show that prefrontal cortices are recruited for the rapid detection of emotional distraction, at early latencies of the processing (70-130?ms). Later in the processing (360-450?ms), the dorsolateral, the medial and the orbital sections of the prefrontal cortex mediate the effective control of emotional distraction. In accordance with the behavioral performance, pleasant distractors do not require higher prefrontal activity than neutral ones. These findings extend our knowledge about the brain mechanisms of coping with emotional distraction in WM. In particular, they show for the first time that overriding the attentional capture triggered by emotional distractors, while maintaining task-relevant elements in mind, is based on the early detection of such linked-to-survival information and on its later cognitive control by the prefrontal cortex. PMID:26067780

  11. Auditory distraction transmitted by a cochlear implant alters allocation of attentional resources

    PubMed Central

    Finke, Mareike; Sandmann, Pascale; Kopp, Bruno; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses which restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The successful adaptation of auditory cognition to the CI input depends to a substantial degree on individual factors. We pursued an electrophysiological approach toward an analysis of cortical responses that reflect perceptual processing stages and higher-level responses to CI input. Performance and event-related potentials on two cross-modal discrimination-following-distraction (DFD) tasks from CI users and normal-hearing (NH) individuals were compared. The visual-auditory distraction task combined visual distraction with following auditory discrimination performance. Here, we observed similar cortical responses to visual distractors (Novelty-N2) and slowed, less accurate auditory discrimination performance in CI users when compared to NH individuals. Conversely, the auditory-visual distraction task was used to combine auditory distraction with visual discrimination performance. In this task we found attenuated cortical responses to auditory distractors (Novelty-P3), slowed visual discrimination performance, and attenuated cortical P3-responses to visual targets in CI users compared to NH individuals. These results suggest that CI users process auditory distractors differently than NH individuals and that the presence of auditory CI input has an adverse effect on the processing of visual targets and the visual discrimination ability in implanted individuals. We propose that this attenuation of the visual modality occurs through the allocation of neural resources to the CI input. PMID:25798083

  12. What determines sustained visual attention? The impact of distracter positions, task difficulty and visual fields compared.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Antje; Pape, Nele; Hagendorf, Herbert; Schmidt, Sein; Naito, Aki; Brandt, Stephan A

    2007-02-16

    We quantified the interference of distracter stimuli on sustained visuo-spatial attention as a function of the distribution of attended positions in the visual fields (bilateral/unilateral, left/right, upper/lower), distracter positions (peripheral, between attended positions, between fixation and attended positions) and task difficulty. Compared to distinct distracter positions, bilateral field and lower field presentation had much stronger influence on the performance. Additionally, interactive effects between task difficulty and distracter position were found. This result was at variance with the previous models of visuo-spatial attention, which attached much more importance to the role of distracter positions compared to visual field effects. In directly comparing the impact of the abovementioned factors, the converse finding is evident-visual field effects, in particular bilateral presentations have a much stronger importance. Moreover, metaphoric concepts of attention like the "zoom lens" are not compatible with these results. The findings are discussed in the light of alternative models of sustained visuo-spatial attention. The visual system architecture and top-down mechanisms are considered. PMID:17174284

  13. Students distracted by electronic devices perform at the same level as those who are focused on the lecture

    PubMed Central

    Nalliah, Romesh P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the characteristics of internet distractions that students may engage in during lecture. The objective of this pilot study is to identify some of the internet-based distractions students engage in during in-person lectures. The findings will help identify what activities most commonly cause students to be distracted from the lecture and if these activities impact student learning. Methods. This study is a quasi-experimental pilot study of 26 students from a single institution. In the current study, one class of third-year students were surveyed after a lecture on special needs dentistry. The survey identified self-reported utilization patterns of smart devices during the lecture. Additionally, twelve quiz-type questions were given to assess the students recall of important points in the lecture material that had just been covered. Results. The sample was comprised of 26 students. Of these, 17 were distracted in some form (either checking email, sending email, checking Facebook, or sending texts). The overall mean score on the test was 9.85 (9.53 for distracted students and 10.44 for non-distracted students). There were no significant differences in test scores between distracted and non-distracted students (p = 0.652). Gender and types of distractions were not significantly associated with test scores (p > 0.05). All students believed that they understood all the important points from the lecture. Conclusions. Every class member felt that they acquired the important learning points during the lecture. Those who were distracted by electronic devices during the lecture performed similarly to those who were not. However, results should be interpreted with caution as this study was a small quasi-experimental design and further research should examine the influence of different types of distraction on different types of learning. PMID:25279260

  14. Dancing to distraction: mediating 'docile bodies' in 'Philippine Thriller video'.

    PubMed

    Mangaoang, ine

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the conditions behind the 'Philippine Prison Thriller' video, a YouTube spectacle featuring the 1,500 inmates of Cebu Provincial Detention and Rehabilitation Centre (CPDRC) dancing to Michael Jackson's hit song 'Thriller'. The video achieved viral status after it was uploaded onto the video-sharing platform in 2007, and sparked online debates as to whether this video, containing recorded moving images of allegedly forced dancing, was a form of cruel and inhumane punishment or a novel approach to rehabilitation. The immense popularity of the video inspired creative responses from viewers, and this international popularity caused the CPDRC to host a monthly live dance show held in the prison yard, now in its seventh year. The essay explores how seemingly innocuous products of user-generated-content are imbued with ideologies that obscure or reduce relations of race, agency, power and control. By contextualising the video's origins, I highlight current Philippine prison conditions and introduce how video-maker/programme inventor/prison warden Byron Garcia sought to distance his facility from the Philippine prison majority. I then investigate the 'mediation' of 'Thriller' through three main issues. One, I examine the commodification and transformation from viral video to a thana-tourist destination; two, the global appeal of 'Thriller' is founded on public penal intrigue and essentialist Filipino tropes, mixed with a certain novelty factor widely suffused in YouTube formats; three, how dance performance and its mediation here are conducive to creating Foucault's docile bodies, which operate as a tool of distraction for the masses and ultimately serve the interests of the state far more than it rehabilitates(unconvicted and therefore innocent) inmates. PMID:24480892

  15. [Clinical study of routes of onset of inflammatory diseases in the maxillary sinuses].

    PubMed

    Racić, A; Janosević, Lj; Stosić-Divjak, S; Djukić, V; Radulović, R; Babić, D; Janosević-Dotlić, S

    2004-01-01

    Pathways of the maxillary sinus diseases is an interesting issue investigated by many authors during the past decades. The goal of this research was to study the pathways of infection spreading into the maxillary sinuses and to compare them in relation to their frequency, underlying causes and general epidemiologic characteristics of the involved population. A total number of 150 adult patients of both gender suffering different diseases of maxillary sinuses were included into the study. Pathways rising maxillary sinuses diseases were diagnosed on the basis of standard clinical procedures including CT scean and MRI of the region. We found inflammatory processes to dominate the tumorous ones (107:43 patients). Rhinogenic type of sinusitis was the most frequent disease (72 patients) while odontogenic sinusitis (35 patients) was significantly less frequent. No case of traumatic or hematogenic maxillary sinusitis was found. Rhinogenic maxillary sinusitis is characterised by spontaneous onset while odontogenic one is mostly of arteficial origin after surgical procedures in the oral cavity (88% of patients). In contrast to rhinogenic type, odontogenic maxillary sinusitis is far more frequent in younger patients. PMID:15756797

  16. What is a segment?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Animals have been described as segmented for more than 2,000years, yet a precise definition of segmentation remains elusive. Here we give the history of the definition of segmentation, followed by a discussion on current controversies in defining a segment. While there is a general consensus that segmentation involves the repetition of units along the anterior-posterior (a-p) axis, long-running debates exist over whether a segment can be composed of only one tissue layer, whether the most anterior region of the arthropod head is considered segmented, and whether and how the vertebrate head is segmented. Additionally, we discuss whether a segment can be composed of a single cell in a column of cells, or a single row of cells within a grid of cells. We suggest that segmentation be used in its more general sense, the repetition of units with a-p polarity along the a-p axis, to prevent artificial classification of animals. We further suggest that this general definition be combined with an exact description of what is being studied, as well as a clearly stated hypothesis concerning the specific nature of the potential homology of structures. These suggestions should facilitate dialogue among scientists who study vastly differing segmental structures. PMID:24345042

  17. An Analysis of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Dimensions for the Existence of Golden Proportion: Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Nalla; Satwalekar, Parth; Srinivas, Siva; Reddy, Chandra Sekhar; Reddy, G Ramaswamy; Reddy, B Anantha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Appearance of the face is a great concern to everyone, as it is a significant part of self-image. The study analyzed the clinical crown dimensions of the maxillary anterior teeth with respect to their apparent mesiodistal widths, width-to-height ratio to determine whether golden proportion existed among the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 dentulous subjects were chosen for the study (120 males and 120 females) age ranging between 18 and 28 years. Full face and anterior teeth images of the subjects were made on specially designed device resembling a face-bow, mounted onto the wall under a standard light source. The width and height of the maxillary central incisors were measured on the stone casts using a digital caliper. Results: The mean perceived maxillary lateral incisor to central incisor width ratio was 0.67 in males and 0.703 in females. The mean perceived maxillary canine to lateral incisor width ratio was 0.744 in males and 0.714 in females. The mean width-to-height ratio of the maxillary central incisor was 79.49% in males and 79.197% in females. Conclusion: The golden proportion was not found between perceived mesiodistal widths of maxillary central and lateral incisors and nor between perceived mesiodistal widths of maxillary lateral incisors and canines. In the majority of subjects, the width-to-height ratio of maxillary central incisor was within 75-80%. There are no statistically significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth proportions between males and females. The results may serve as guidelines for treatment planning in restorative dentistry and periodontal surgery. PMID:26435610

  18. Differential impact of affective and cognitive attributes on preference under deliberation and distraction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zuo-Jun; Chan, Kai-Qin; Chen, Jiao-Jiao; Chen, Ai; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that affective information looms relatively larger than cognitive information when individuals are distracted for a period of time compared to when they engage in deliberative thinking. In two studies, participants were presented with information about 4 decision alternatives: An affective alternative that scored high on affective attributes but low on cognitive attributes, a cognitive alternative with the opposite trade-off, and two fillers. They were then asked to indicate their attitudes toward each of four decision alternatives either immediately, after a period of deliberation, or after a period of distraction. The results of both experiments demonstrated that participants significantly preferred the affective alternative to the cognitive alternative after distraction, but not after deliberation. The implications for understanding when and how unconscious thought may lead to better decisions are being discussed. PMID:25983714

  19. Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation?: A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method A diverse community sample (55% African-American) of males (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of age (M = 25.80) were randomly assigned to one of two beverage conditions (i.e., alcohol, no-alcohol control) and one of two distraction conditions (i.e., distraction, no-distraction). Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks and a verbal insult from a fictitious male opponent. Participants’ attention-allocation to aggression words (i.e., aggression bias) and physical aggression were measured using a dot probe task and a shock-based aggression task, respectively. Results Intoxicated men whose attention was distracted displayed significantly lower levels of aggression bias and enacted significantly less physical aggression than intoxicated men whose attention was not distracted. However, aggression bias did not account for the lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in the distraction, relative to the no-distraction, condition. Conclusions These results replicated and extended past evidence that cognitive distraction is associated with lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in highly provoked males and provide the first known cognitive data to support the attentional processes posited by the attention-allocation model. Discussion focused on how these data inform intervention programming for alcohol-related aggression. PMID:21500889

  20. Appropriate indication of fronto-orbital advancement by distraction osteogenesis in syndromic craniosynostosis: Beyond the conventional technique.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kaneshige; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Akita, Shinsuku

    2015-12-01

    Currently the distraction technique could be very useful for posterior expansion in syndromic craniosynostosis. Even for fronto-orbital advancement (FOA), it is thought that distraction has the definitive advantage over the conventional technique. The authors describe the appropriate indication of distraction for FOA in our series of craniosynostosis patients. Since 1998, FOA by distraction has been used for 61 cases of simple and syndromic craniosynostosis. Among these, seven severe cases were extracted with a conspicuous craniofacial deformity with a multiple honeycomb appearance in 3DCT views. Early surgery for FOA by distraction to the extent possible was performed and a retrospective study was conducted. Seven children were identified. All of them exhibited a severe craniofacial deformity. Pfeiffer syndrome in 5 children and clover-leaf skull in two unidentified children were diagnosed. Mean age at surgery for FOA by distraction ranged 10-18 months. Mean operative time: 3-3.5h. Blood loss: 230-320mL. The mean advancement by distraction: 20-27mm. We conclude FOA by distraction when a large amount of advancement is required for early severe cases as our series can be definitely one of the most appropriate candidates beyond the conventional technique, despite disadvantages. PMID:26463472

  1. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: “Just Hang Up and Drive”

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Christopher A.; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as “distracted driving.” The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article “Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011” highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15–19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family. PMID:26759649

  2. Anatomical aberrations in root canals of maxillary first and second molar teeth: an endodontic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manish; Patel, Pathik; Desai, Parth; Patel, Jayanti R

    2014-01-01

    Root canal anatomy variations present a constant challenge in successful diagnosis and endodontic treatment, especially the multirooted teeth. Maxillary first molar is the most commonly treated tooth yet with frequent failures because of undetected canals, especially the mesiobuccal second canal (MB2) with more frequency and distobuccal second canal (DB2) with quite a less frequency. Also, there are limited chances to find MB2 in maxillary second molars. We present two such cases, each of maxillary first and second molar with extra distobuccal and mesiobuccal canals, respectively. PMID:24445844

  3. Endodontic Management of Maxillary First Molar with Type I Canal Configuration A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Niranjan; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya; Mittal, Priya; Patil, Gururaj

    2015-01-01

    Thorough knowledge about the root canal variations is essential for the predictable endodontic treatment outcome. The root and root canal anatomy of maxillary first molar varies greatly. A Pub-med literature search about single rooted single canalled maxillary first molar was done to know its details such as incidence, diagnostic method used, age, sex and ethnic background of patient. This article presented report of a single rooted single canalled maxillary first molar in a 27-year-old healthy Asian female. PMID:26023655

  4. Piezoelectric surgery in maxillary sinus floor elevation with hydraulic pressure for xenograft and simultaneous implant placement.

    PubMed

    Li, Juanjuan; Lee, Kyungmo; Chen, Haohua; Ou, Guomin

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low bone quality in the posterior maxilla, edentulism in this area often results in a resorbed osseous structure and a pneumatized maxillary sinus, which makes dental implant surgery in the posterior maxilla a challenge. Two main surgical approaches are available for the sinus lift procedure: lateral and crestal. Improvement of the maxillary sinus floor elevation technique and increase in predictability are desirable. This article describes an innovative approach to maxillary sinus floor elevation with piezoelectric surgery and hydraulic pressure for xenograft and simultaneous implant placement in situations with insufficient residual alveolar bone. PMID:24084145

  5. Mitigating the effects of in-vehicle distractions through use of the Psychological Refractory Period paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Daryl L; Jamson, Samantha L; Carsten, Oliver M J

    2013-01-01

    Modern driving involves frequent and potentially detrimental interactions with distracting in-vehicle tasks. Distraction has been shown to slow brake reaction time and decrease lateral and longitudinal vehicle control. It is likely that these negative effects will become more prevalent in the future as advances are made in the functionality, availability, and number of in-vehicle systems. This paper addresses this problem by considering ways to manage in-vehicle task presentation to mitigate their distracting effects. A driving simulator experiment using 48 participants was performed to investigate the existence of the Psychological Refractory Period in the driving context and its effect on braking performance. Drivers were exposed to lead vehicle braking events in isolation (single-task) and with a preceding surrogate in-vehicle task (dual-task). In dual-task scenarios, the time interval between the in-vehicle and braking tasks was manipulated. Brake reaction time increased when drivers were distracted. The in-vehicle task interfered with the performance of the braking task in a manner that was dependent on the interval between the two tasks, with slower reactions following a shorter inter-task interval. This is the Psychological Refractory Period effect. These results have implications for driver safety during in-vehicle distraction. The findings are used to develop recommendations regarding the timing of in-vehicle task presentation so as to reduce their potentially damaging effects on braking performance. In future, these guidelines could be incorporated into a driver workload management system to minimise the opportunity for a driver to be distracted from the ongoing driving task. PMID:22999382

  6. Effects of cell-phone and text-message distractions on true and false recognition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Theodore S; Isaak, Matthew I; Senette, Christian G; Abadie, Brenton G

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the effects of electronic communication distractions, including cell-phone and texting demands, on true and false recognition, specifically semantically related words presented and not presented on a computer screen. Participants were presented with 24 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists while manipulating the concurrent presence or absence of cell-phone and text-message distractions during study. In the DRM paradigm, participants study lists of semantically related words (e.g., mother, crib, and diaper) linked to a non-presented critical lure (e.g., baby). After studying the lists of words, participants are then requested to recall or recognize previously presented words. Participants often not only demonstrate high remembrance for presented words (true memory: crib), but also recollection for non-presented words (false memory: baby). In the present study, true memory was highest when participants were not presented with any distraction tasks during study of DRM words, but poorer when they were required to complete a cell-phone conversation or text-message task during study. False recognition measures did not statistically vary across distraction conditions. Signal detection analyses showed that participants better discriminated true targets (list items presented during study) from true target controls (items presented during study only) when cell-phone or text-message distractions were absent than when they were present. Response bias did not vary significantly across distraction conditions, as there were no differences in the likelihood that a participant would claim an item as "old" (previously presented) rather than "new" (not previously presented). Results of this study are examined with respect to both activation monitoring and fuzzy trace theories. PMID:21198365

  7. Comparison of acceptance and distraction strategies in coping with experimentally induced pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Hazel; Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McGuire, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compared an acceptance-based strategy with a control-based strategy (distraction) in terms of the ability of participants to tolerate a painful stimulus, across two experiments. In addition, participants were either actively encouraged, or not, to link pain tolerance with pursuit of valued goals to examine the impact of pursuing a personally meaningful goal or value on the extent to which pain will be tolerated. Methods Participants in experiment 1 (n=41) and experiment 2 (n=52) were equally assigned to acceptance or distraction protocols. Further, half the participants in each group generated examples from their own lives in which they had pursued a valued objective, while the other half did not. In experiment 2, the values focus was enhanced to examine the impact on pain tolerance. Results There were no significant differences overall between the acceptance and distraction groups on pain tolerance in either experiment. However, in experiment 2, individuals classified as accepting in terms of general coping style and who were assigned to the acceptance strategy showed significantly better pain tolerance than accepting individuals who were in the distraction condition. Across both experiments, those with strong goal-driven values in both protocols were more tolerant of pain. Participants appeared to have more difficulty adhering to acceptance than to distraction as a strategy. Conclusion Acceptance may be associated with better tolerance of pain, but may also be more difficult to operationalize than distraction in experimental studies. Matching coping style and coping strategy may be most effective, and enhancement of goal-driven values may assist in pain coping. PMID:25834464

  8. Impact of social and technological distraction on pedestrian crossing behaviour: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Leah L; Rivara, Frederick P; Ayyagari, Rajiv C; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present work was to study the impact of technological and social distraction on cautionary behaviours and crossing times in pedestrians. Methods Pedestrians were observed at 20 high-risk intersections during 1 of 3 randomly assigned time windows in 2012. Observers recorded demographic and behavioural information, including use of a mobile device (talking on the phone, text messaging, or listening to music). We examined the association between distraction and crossing behaviours, adjusting for age and gender. All multivariate analyses were conducted with random effect logistic regression (binary outcomes) and random effect linear regression (continuous outcomes), accounting for clustering by site. Results Observers recorded crossing behaviours for 1102 pedestrians. Nearly one-third (29.8%) of all pedestrians performed a distracting activity while crossing. Distractions included listening to music (11.2%), text messaging (7.3%) and using a handheld phone (6.2%). Text messaging, mobile phone use and talking with a companion increased crossing time. Texting pedestrians took 1.87 additional seconds (18.0%) to cross the average intersection (3.4 lanes), compared to undistracted pedestrians. Texting pedestrians were 3.9 times more likely than undistracted pedestrians to display at least 1 unsafe crossing behaviour (disobeying the lights, crossing mid-intersection, or failing to look both ways). Pedestrians listening to music walked more than half a second (0.54) faster across the average intersection than undistracted pedestrians. Conclusions Distracting activity is common among pedestrians, even while crossing intersections. Technological and social distractions increase crossing times, with text messaging associated with the highest risk. Our findings suggest the need for intervention studies to reduce risk of pedestrian injury. PMID:23243104

  9. Comparison of two methods of joint distraction for arthrodesis of the foot.

    PubMed

    Segler, Christopher P; Heninger, Spencer; Seegmiller, David C

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the efficacy of two methods of obtaining the joint exposure needed to perform arthrodesis or exploration of various joints of the foot. The investigation was performed by means of simulated arthrodesis in a cadaveric model. On each specimen, a single investigator performed standard incisions and dissection as typically performed for surgical arthrodesis of the first metatarsocuneiform, naviculocuneiform, medial intercuneiform, talonavicular, calcaneocuboid, and subtalar joints. Each joint was exposed and distracted once using the Tarsal Joint Distractor (Orthovation LLC, Sealy, Texas) and once using the Inge Laminar Spreader (K-Medic, Northvale, New Jersey). While a given joint was distracted, a calibrated digital photograph of the exposed joint was taken from an angle best representing the surgeon's view of the articular space. Digital images were analyzed to calculate the maximum distance between articular surfaces and the total area of articular surfaces exposed while distracted. Thirty-six joints involving six feet were distracted using each device. The mean area of articular exposure was 178.3 mm(2) for the Tarsal Joint Distractor and 116.4 mm(2) for the Inge Laminar Spreader (P = .0001). The mean distance of distraction was 8.1 mm for the Tarsal Joint Distractor and 6.5 mm for the Inge Laminar Spreader (P = .0001). An average of 53.1% more exposure and 25.2% more distance between distracted surfaces was achieved when using the Tarsal Joint Distractor. The Tarsal Joint Distractor provides significantly better visualization of articular spaces typical of midfoot and rearfoot arthrodesis procedures than the Inge Laminar Spreader. PMID:16988173

  10. Immunolocalization of Sibling and RUNX2 Proteins During Vertical Distraction Osteogenesis in the Human Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa R.; Jovanovic, Andreas; Perdijk, Frits B. T.; Toyosawa, Satoru; Everts, Vincent; Bronckers, Antonius L. J. J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that mechanical loading of human bone increases expression of the transcription factor RUNX2 and bone matrix proteins osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE). We examined this in tissue sections of atrophic mandibular bone taken from edentulous patients who had undergone distraction osteogenesis. In undistracted bone, weak to moderate staining for OPN and BSP was found in osteoblasts and bone matrix of immature woven bone. RUNX2 was also detectable in osteoblasts and in cells of the periosteum. In woven bone, but not in lamellar bone, a small number of osteocytes stained for all proteins tested. After distraction, staining intensity had increased in the existing old bone and staining was seen in more bone cells than before distraction. We also found a high expression of DMP1 and MEPE in many osteocytes embedded in woven bone and in some osteocytes of lamellar bone not seen before distraction. New bone trabeculae were forming in the fibrous tissue of the distraction gap containing all stages of intramembranous bone formation. Moderate to strong staining was seen for all five proteins tested in osteocytes located in woven bone of these trabeculae and for RUNX2, OPN, and BSP in osteoblasts lining the trabecular surfaces. We conclude that loading of atrophic human jawbone by distraction activates matrix synthesis of bone cells in and around existing bone. Increased staining of DMP1 and MEPE in osteocytes after loading is in line with the concept that these proteins may be involved in signaling the effector cells to adapt the bone structure to its mechanical demands. PMID:17625229

  11. Regenerate Healing Outcomes in Unilateral Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis Using Quantitative Histomorphometry

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Daniel A.; Arman, Krikor G.; Kakwan, Mehreen S.; Jamali, Ameen M.; Elmeligy, Ayman A.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The authors goal was to ascertain regenerate bone-healing metrics using quantitative histomorphometry at a single consolidation period. Methods Rats underwent either mandibular distraction osteogenesis (n=7) or partially reduced fractures (n=7); their contralateral mandibles were used as controls (n=11). External fixators were secured and unilateral osteotomies performed, followed by either mandibular distraction osteogenesis (4 days latency, then 0.3 mm every 12 hours for 8 days; 5.1 mm) or partially reduced fractures (fixed immediately postoperatively; 2.1 mm); both groups underwent 4 weeks of consolidation. After tissue processing, bone volume/tissue volume ratio, osteoid volume/tissue volume ratio, and osteocyte count per high-power field were analyzed by means of quantitative histomorphometry. Results Contralateral mandibles had statistically greater bone volume/tissue volume ratio and osteocyte count per high-power field compared with both mandibular distraction osteogenesis and partially reduced fractures by almost 50 percent, whereas osteoid volume/tissue volume ratio was statistically greater in both mandibular distraction osteogenesis specimens and partially reduced fractures compared with contralateral mandibles. No statistical difference in bone volume/tissue volume ratio, osteoid volume/tissue volume ratio, or osteocyte count per high-power field was found between mandibular distraction osteogenesis specimens and partially reduced fractures. Conclusions The authors findings demonstrate significantly decreased bone quantity and maturity in mandibular distraction osteogenesis specimens and partially reduced fractures compared with contralateral mandibles using the clinically analogous protocols. If these results are extrapolated clinically, treatment strategies may require modification to ensure reliable, predictable, and improved outcomes. PMID:20463629

  12. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Vizhi G

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

  13. A rare occurrence of geminated-taloned maxillary lateral incisor.

    PubMed

    Neeraja, R; Kayal, Vizhi G

    2012-05-01

    The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

  14. Maxillary fixed prosthesis design based on the preoperative physical examination.

    PubMed

    Block, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of physical examination findings that can be used to determine the design characteristics of a full arch restoration in the maxilla. These anatomic findings include 1) the resting and 2) smile line exposures of the central incisor; 3) the vertical position of the edentulous ridge when smiling; 4) the anteroposterior relation of the teeth to the edentulous ridge; 5) the presence of bone posterior to the premolar region; 6) the anterior height of the alveolar bone in relation to the floor of the nose; and 7) the planned inclination of the maxillary teeth. Based on these physical findings, the final prosthetic plan can be established before surgery. Determination of the final restorative plan determines the surgical procedures to be performed. PMID:25659360

  15. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of maxillary sinus: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Adwani, Dwarkadas Gokuldas; Arora, Rajender Singh; Bhattacharya, Anirudh; Bhagat, Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) are a group of neoplasms that originate from the cells of the lymphoreticular system. Forty percent of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arises from extranodal sites. The nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses are rarely affected by primary NHL. Common primary extranodal sites of lymphomas include stomach, liver, soft tissue, dura, bone, intestine and bone marrow. Most patients present with rapidly enlarging masses, often with symptoms both locally and systemically (fever, recurrent night sweats, or weight loss). The vast majority of patients with localized disease are curable with combined modality therapy or combination chemotherapy alone. About 50% patients are cured with doxorubicin based combination chemotherapy and rituximab. An atypical case of extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of maxillary sinus is discussed. PMID:23662270

  16. Periodontal bacteria in rabbit mandibular and maxillary abscesses.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Jenkins, Jeffrey R; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2002-03-01

    Despite the high incidence of odontogenic abscesses in pet rabbits, published data on the bacteriology of these infections are lacking, and clinical cultures are often ambiguous, making antibiotic choices difficult. In order to define the bacteriology of these infections, 12 rabbit mandibular and maxillary abscesses were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. All specimens yielded pathogenic bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Prevotella spp., Peptostreptococcus micros, Streptococcus milleri group, Actinomyces israelii, and Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. These organisms are consistent with the characterized bacteriology of periodontal disease in human and other mammalian studies. The isolates were tested against 10 antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat rabbits; 100% of the strains tested were susceptible to clindamycin, 96% were susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone, 54% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and only 7% were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:11880435

  17. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rohan; Parveen, Shahista; Ansari, Tariq Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable. PMID:26097371

  18. Bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia, or agenesis of six or more teeth, excluding third molars, which involves canine agenesis is rare, and restorative management can be challenging. Bilateral agenesis of a permanent canine in the general population often indicates a several missing adult teeth. The most common sign of it is the primary canine retention beyond its exfoliation age. The multistage restorative management includes the early diagnosis, excluding associated medical problems as well as assessment of patient's malocclusion and facial skeletal pattern, life span of deciduous teeth, possibility of premolar substitution, minimum required number of prosthetic units, patient's preferences, and the cost of treatment. A 10-year-old boy with bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is described. Some thoughts on the multidisciplinary restorative management of this case are discussed. PMID:25657989

  19. Severe maxillary osteomyelitis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Dental injuries to or abnormalities in functionally important teeth and associated bones in predators may significantly reduce the ability to kill and consume prey (Lazar et al. 2009). This impairment is likely exacerbated in coursing predators, such as Gray Wolves, that bite and hold onto fleeing and kicking prey with their teeth. Damage to carnassials (upper fourth premolar, P4, and lower first molar, M1) and associated bones in Gray Wolves may especially inhibit the consumption of prey because these teeth slice meat and crush bone. Here I report maxillary osteomyelitis involving the carnassials in a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota of such severity that I hypothesize it ultimately caused the Gray Wolf to starve to death.

  20. Dens invaginatus in a geminated maxillary lateral incisor.

    PubMed

    Pallivathukal, Renjith George; Misra, Alok; Nagraj, Sumanth Kumbargere; Donald, Preethy Mary

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) and gemination are two developmental abnormalities that are well reported in the dental literature, but their coexistence in a single tooth is rare. Such situations worsen the risk factors associated with these anomalies, and the treatment plan should be customised as they possess altered morphology and anatomy. A 19-year-old girl came for evaluation of a cracked tooth in the front region of the upper jaw. The tooth showed clinical features of gemination and radiographic features of DI, and was diagnosed as DI in geminated maxillary lateral incisor. The differential diagnoses based on clinical appearance without radiographic investigation may warrant the treatment approach if these two abnormalities coexist in a single tooth. The report also highlights the importance of three-dimensional imaging in diagnosis and treatment planning of teeth with altered pulp canal anatomy. There are few reported cases in the literature detailing the treatment options for these two anomalies occurring in the same tooth. PMID:26002668