Sample records for maxillary segmental distraction

  1. Combined maxillary and mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Molina, F

    1999-03-01

    Mandibular elongation by gradual distraction in patients with hemifacial microsomia is a simple and effective procedure to correct facial asymmetry. The changes in mandibular dimension result in changes in dental occlusion. These are minimal in children because of the rapid growth of the maxilla and can be corrected easily with minor orthodontic treatment. Mandibular distraction in adults with hemifacial microsomia produces good aesthetic results but leaves the patient with a severe alteration in the occlusion requiring complex orthodontic treatment over a long period of time. To avoid this problem, an incomplete Le Fort I osteotomy is performed simultaneously with the mandibular corticotomy. Intermaxillary fixation is placed on the fifth postoperative day, and distraction is initiated. This technique preserves the preexisting stable occlusion. After distraction, both the maxillary and mandibular occlusal planes become horizontal, and facial asymmetry is corrected. PMID:10371939

  2. Distraction in GVF-based segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jierong Cheng; Say-Wei Foo

    2007-01-01

    For complex images with the presence of stronger edges near the desired boundary, the snake used in gradient vector flow (GVF)-based segmentation method may be distracted to converge wrongly on the boundary with stronger edges. The factors and conditions which bring about this phenomenon are investigated in detail and the results are described in this paper. Possible solutions to the

  3. Removable splint with locking attachments for maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the RED system.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, E Y; Suzuki, B

    2007-12-01

    The external traction hooks of the intraoral splint used to control traction forces applied to the maxilla with the rigid external distraction system represent a major barrier to surgical procedures. The purpose of this article is to introduce a removable intraoral splint with locking attachments that can be placed post-surgically immediately before distraction, facilitating surgery and consequently reducing the operative time. Fifteen cleft lip and palate patients underwent maxillary distraction osteogenesis using a rigid external distraction device in combination with the proposed removable splint that was fixed onto the maxillary teeth to provide anchorage. Initial records showed severe maxillary hypoplasia and negative overjet. The removable splint was fabricated using 1.5-mm diameter stainless-steel rigid orthodontic wires soldered to the locking attachments (Y&B Products LP, Chiang Mai, Thailand), making possible its placement post-surgically. Stable splint fixation was achieved prior to the distraction procedure and the desired treatment goals were reached. No complications inserting or removing the splint post-surgically, including pain or discomfort, were observed. The use of the removable splint with locking attachments has proved to be a highly effective fixation approach to manage the severely hypoplastic maxilla, eliminating lip constraints resulting from scarring, and allowing for easier, more deliberate and careful dissection. PMID:17629458

  4. Evaluation of transverse maxillary expansion after a segmental posterior subapical maxillary osteotomy in cleft lip and palate patients with severe collapse of the lateral maxillary segments.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, S; van Gastel, J; Schoenaers, J; Carels, C; Vander Poorten, V; Coucke, W; Verdonck, A

    2014-11-01

    Objective : The purpose of this longitudinal retrospective study was to evaluate transverse maxillary expansion after a Schuchardt or segmental posterior subapical maxillary osteotomy (SPSMO) in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). A second aim was to compare these data with data for adult patients without CLP who were receiving a surgical assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). Method : The study group comprised 19 patients with CLP and a severe transversally collapsed maxilla who were treated with SPSMO followed by hyrax expansion at the University Hospitals Leuven. Dental casts of the 19 patients were analyzed before treatment, at maximum expansion, during orthodontic treatment, at the completion of orthodontic treatment. and 2 years after orthodontic treatment and were measured at the canine, premolar, and molar levels. Adult patients without CLP who were enrolled in a prospective study served as the control group. Results : Maxillary expansion within the study group was significantly greater (P < .05) at all measured levels compared with the maxillary arch before treatment. No significant relapse was measured in the study group 2 years after orthodontic treatment. When comparing the study and control groups, the only statistical difference was that canine expansion was significantly greater in the study group. Conclusion : SPSMO followed by maxillary expansion and orthodontic treatment is an appropriate treatment option to correct a severe transversally collapsed maxilla in patients with CLP. The overall treatment effect of SPSMO expansion is comparable with the effects of SARPE, although canine expansion was greater in the SPSMO group. PMID:25368909

  5. Evaluation of Transverse Maxillary Expansion After a Segmental Posterior Subapical Maxillary Osteotomy in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients With Severe Collapse of the Lateral Maxillary Segments.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, S; van Gastel, J; Schoenaers, J; Carels, C; Vander Poorten, V; Coucke, W; Verdonck, A

    2014-06-11

    Objective :? The purpose of this longitudinal retrospective study was to evaluate transverse maxillary expansion after a Schuchardt or segmental posterior subapical maxillary osteotomy (SPSMO) in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). A second aim was to compare these data with data for adult patients without CLP who were receiving a surgical assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). Method :? The study group comprised 19 patients with CLP and a severe transversally collapsed maxilla who were treated with SPSMO followed by hyrax expansion at the University Hospitals Leuven. Dental casts of the 19 patients were analyzed before treatment, at maximum expansion, during orthodontic treatment, at the completion of orthodontic treatment. and 2 years after orthodontic treatment and were measured at the canine, premolar, and molar levels. Adult patients without CLP who were enrolled in a prospective study served as the control group. Results :? Maxillary expansion within the study group was significantly greater (P < .05) at all measured levels compared with the maxillary arch before treatment. No significant relapse was measured in the study group 2 years after orthodontic treatment. When comparing the study and control groups, the only statistical difference was that canine expansion was significantly greater in the study group. Conclusion :? SPSMO followed by maxillary expansion and orthodontic treatment is an appropriate treatment option to correct a severe transversally collapsed maxilla in patients with CLP. The overall treatment effect of SPSMO expansion is comparable with the effects of SARPE, although canine expansion was greater in the SPSMO group. PMID:24919125

  6. Removable splint with locking attachments for maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the RED system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Y. Suzuki; B. Suzuki

    2007-01-01

    The external traction hooks of the intraoral splint used to control traction forces applied to the maxilla with the rigid external distraction system represent a major barrier to surgical procedures. The purpose of this article is to introduce a removable intraoral splint with locking attachments that can be placed post-surgically immediately before distraction, facilitating surgery and consequently reducing the operative

  7. Combined use of alveolar distraction osteogenesis and segmental osteotomy in anterior vertical ridge augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Öncü, Elif; Isik, Kubilay; Alaaddino?lu, E. Emine; Uçkan, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vertical defects of the anterioral veolar ridge are challenging cases in implant dentistry. Various techniques, such as onlay bone grafting, segmental osteotomy (SO) oral veolar distraction osteogenesis (ADO), have been suggested to manage those situations. ADO has an advantage of being capable of enhancing both hard and soft tissue simultaneously. Presentation of case One of the possible complications of ADO is rotation ortilting the transport segment (TS). In this report, we present a 30-year old woman who had a severe anterior vertical deficiency. ADO was started to manage the case, but advancement of the TS lagged on the left side and the segment rotated. A SO was planned and the lagged side was corrected. Two years after the surgery, hard and soft tissue gains were found to be preserved. Discussion Vertical alveolar bone deficiencies are challenging cases for dental implantology. Alveolar DO promotes soft tissue along with hard tissue, and the bone regeneration process and shows lower infection rates and greater stability over the long term. However, the technique has some disadvantages and can lead to complications, such as breaking of the distraction device, nerve injury or paresthesia, fracture of transport bone, hematoma, wound dehiscence, severe bleeding, and even jaw fractures. Deviation of the TS from the distraction path is another undesired situation. The rigidity of the device, the width of the mucosa, the volume of the transport and anchor segments, and the amount of augmentation can affect vector deviation. Conclusion We suggest that SO can be used in similar cases in which TS could not be distracted on a straight vector line. PMID:25661636

  8. Comparative morphometry of the bone structure in the dentoalveolar segments of maxillary incisors and canines.

    PubMed

    Efimova, E Yu; Krayushkin, A I; Efimov, Yu V

    2015-04-01

    We examined morphometric parameters of the bone tissue of 168 dentoalveolar segments that include maxillary incisors and canines regarding vertical midline. The area of dentoalveolar medial incisor segments was 1.81±0.14 cm(2); it did not differ significantly from the area of lateral incisor segments. The area of dentoalveolar segments including canines exceeded the corresponding figures in incisor segments. The thickness of the compact bone on the vestibular surface significantly increased from the cervical portion of the segment towards its base. The maximum thickness of the spongy bone on the vestibular surface was recorded in the apical part of canines dentition segments; the minimum thickness, in the middle portion of the dentoalveolar segments of lateral incisors. PMID:25894786

  9. The role of soft-tissue traction forces in bone segment transport for callus distraction : A force measurement cadaver study on eight human femora using a novel intramedullary callus distraction system.

    PubMed

    Horas, Konstantin; Schnettler, Reinhard; Maier, Gerrit; Schneider, Gaby; Horas, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Callus distraction using bone segment transport systems is an applied process in the treatment of bone defects. However, complications such as muscle contractures, axial deviation and pin track infections occur in the treatment process using the currently available devices. Since successful treatment is influenced by the applied distraction force, knowledge of the biomechanical properties of the involved soft tissues is essential to improve clinical outcome and treatment strategies. To date, little data on distraction forces and the role of soft-tissue traction forces are available. The aim of this study was to assess traction forces generated by soft tissues during bone segment transport using a novel intramedullary callus distraction system on eight human femora. For traction force measurements, bone segment transport over 60-mm femoral defects was conducted under constant load measurement using 40- and 60-mm bone segments. The required traction forces for 60-mm bone segments were higher than forces for 40-mm bone segments. This study demonstrates that soft tissues are of relevance biomechanically in bone segment transport. The size of the bone segment and the selection of the region for osteotomy are of utmost importance in defining the treatment procedure. PMID:25820868

  10. Ankylosed maxillary incisor with severe root resorption treated with a single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy, vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis, and mini-implant anchorage.

    PubMed

    Sen???k, Neslihan Ebru; Koçer, Gülperi; Kaya, Bulem Üreyen

    2014-09-01

    Dentoalveolar ankylosis interferes with the vertical growth of the alveolar process, which can lead to an open bite, an unesthetic smile, and occlusal disharmony. This case report presents a new treatment protocol for an ankylosed tooth with severe root resorption using a combined surgical orthodontic management protocol involving a single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy and vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis with intraoral elastics and mini-implant anchorage. After distraction and active orthodontic treatment, the patient's anterior open bite was corrected. A Class I dental relationship was achieved, overjet was decreased, and a normal incisor relationship was obtained. PMID:25172260

  11. Initial Experience With a New Intraoral Midface Distraction Device.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Fernando; Soldanska, Magdalena; Granger, Michael; Berhane, ChiChi; Schoemann, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia that necessitates surgical advancement affects approximately 25% of patients born with cleft lip and palate. Syndromic conditions such as Crouzon may also be accompanied by significant maxillary hypoplasia. Severe maxillary hypoplasia can result in airway obstruction, malocclusion, proptosis, and facial disfigurement. For optimal stability, severe hypoplasia is best addressed with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-two patients (15 boys, 7 girls, ages 6-16 years, mean age 10 years) with severe midface hypoplasia underwent midface distraction with new internal maxillary distraction (IMD) device at our institution. Total distraction distances ranged from 15 to 30?mm. There were no major complications, and all of them had improvement in functional and aesthetic parameters. There were 2 minor complications and 2 patients failed to distract the full distance because of converging vectors. Early maxillary distraction in patients with severe midface hypoplasia is a useful technique to provide interval correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia before skeletal maturity and definitive orthognathic surgery is contemplated, and it is a good tool to improve occlusion, aesthetics, and self-perception in younger patients. PMID:26080162

  12. What Is distracted driving?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... These types of distractions include: Texting Using a cell phone or smartphone Eating and drinking Talking to passengers ... across America, approximately 660,000 drivers are using cell phones or manipulating electronic devices while driving, a number ...

  13. Bilateral Alveolar Distraction for Large Alveolar Defects: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Aravindaksha, Shyam Prasad; Batra, Puneet; Sadhu, Partha

    2014-10-01

    Distraction osteogenesis has become a very popular technique, as the ability to reconstruct combined deficiencies in bone and soft tissue makes this process unique and invaluable to all types of reconstructive surgeons. We document a case in which an intraoral tooth-borne distractor was designed and segmental alveolar distraction was performed in a large alveolar defect in a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Cosmetic dentistry was performed to attain a pleasing result. This article aims at highlighting the use of distraction in large defects in which bone grafting only is not a suitable procedure. PMID:25279587

  14. Continuous mandibular distraction osteogenesis using superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA).

    PubMed

    Idelsohn, S; Peña, J; Lacroix, D; Planell, J A; Gil, F J; Arcas, A

    2004-04-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a well-established method of endogenous tissue engineering. It is a biological process of bone neo-formation between segments subjected to tension. The concept of this study was to investigate the distraction osteogenesis with a device capable of creating a permanent and constant force during the whole process as if a very large number of small elongations were applied constantly. The mechanical testing of the device used to produce the constant force and the in vivo analysis of the bone growth after it was implanted in rabbits are presented on this work. The device consists of a NiTi coil spring, superelastic at body temperature, in order to have a stress plateau during the austenitic retransformation during the unloading. The in vivo analysis was made on six female rabbits of 12 months old. A segmental mandibulectomy at the horizontal arm of the mandible and a corticotomy at 5mm distant from the gap were made. Next, following a latency period of five days, the SMA springs were implanted to induce the bone neo-formation. The displacement at the unloading plateau shows that it is necessary to have longer springs or to use several (available commercially) in series in order to fulfil the requirements of a human distraction. The temperature variations induced changes in the spring force. However, when the temperature returns to 37 degrees C the distraction force recovers near the initial level and does so completely when the distraction process continues. For the in vivo study, all six rabbits successfully completed the distraction. The radiographies showed the gap as distraction advanced. A continuity in the newly formed bone with similar transversal and horizontal dimensions than the original bone can be observed on the histologies. In conclusion, the application of a constant force on distraction osteogenesis, using SMA springs, may be a successful alternative to the conventional gradual distraction. PMID:15332632

  15. Learning to Ignore Distracters

    E-print Network

    Rozek, Ellen Kathryn; Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan

    2012-03-01

    or vary their head position. The paragraphs were presented on a flat panel computer screen at a viewing distance of 16 inches. The stimuli were presented in white font Rozek, Ellen;Kemper, Susan;McDowd, Joan. “Learning to Ignore Distracters...Rozek, Ellen;Kemper, Susan;McDowd, Joan. “Learning to Ignore Distracters.” Psychology and Aging, Vol 27(1), Mar 2012, 61-66. Publisher’s official version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025578. Open Access version: http...

  16. Distractibility and hypersensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James B. Victor; Charles F. Halverson

    1975-01-01

    The present paper reports on the development of a modified problem checklist for use in normal samples of elementary school children. The two factors, Hypersensitivity and Distractibility, replicated over male and female samples. Hypersensitivity showed a significant grade effect, with a decrease between the first and second grade for both boys and girls. In contrast, boys scored higher than girls

  17. Neural Basis of Visual Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Yeon; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to maintain focus and avoid distraction by goal-irrelevant stimuli is critical for performing many tasks and may be a key deficit in attention-related problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that irrelevant stimuli that are consciously perceived may be filtered out on a neural level and not cause the distraction triggered by…

  18. Young and Older Adults' Reading of Distracters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Mcdowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length.…

  19. A case of Sotos syndrome treated with distraction osteogenesis in maxilla and mandible.

    PubMed

    Takano, Masayuki; Kasahara, Kiyohiro; Ogawa, Chiharu; Katada, Hidenori; Sueishi, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Sotos syndrome is inherited in an autosomal-dominant manner and is characterized by increased birth weight, excessive growth, advanced bone age, and distinctive facial features, including dolichocephaly, hypertelorism, and a prominent mandible. We treated a jaw deformity due to Sotos syndrome consisting of malocclusion due to a narrow maxillary dental arch and mandibular retrusion from hypoplasia of the rami. The patient was a 17-year-old man. Malocclusion due to a narrow maxillary dental arch and mandibular retrusion was diagnosed. Rapid maxillary expansion with Lines corticotomy and mandibular advancement with distraction osteogenesis were performed. The maxilla was expanded laterally a total of 3 mm and the mandible prolonged 12 mm in the posterior area of the mandibular body. Subsequently, orthodontic treatment was continued. At present, 5 years after surgery, occlusion remains good and stable. PMID:22790336

  20. Distracted driving: a neglected epidemic.

    PubMed

    Dildy, Dale W

    2012-10-01

    In 2009, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimated nearly 6,000 distracted driver fatalities and 515,000 injuries in the United States alone. Distracted driving is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed. Software is available to disable cell phone usage while driving, but using the advanced technology may require legislation along with a renewed sense of driver responsibility. PMID:23061239

  1. Distraction Dodger Lessons for High School Students

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    collaborated with education and game design experts to create the Distraction Dodger of driving to increase interest in cognitive psychology as an area of interest how cognitive psychology applies to driver distraction and other transportation

  2. DRIVER DISTRACTION: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristie Young; Michael Regan; Mike Hammer

    Approximately one quarter of vehicle crashes in the United States are estimated to result from the driver being inattentive, or distracted. As more wireless communication, entertainment and driver assistance systems proliferate the vehicle market, the incidence of distraction-related crashes is expected to escalate. In North America, Europe and Japan, driver distraction is a priority issue in road safety. However, the

  3. Mobile telephones, distracted attention, and pedestrian safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Nasar; Peter Hecht; Richard Wener

    2008-01-01

    Driver distraction is a major cause of traffic accidents, with mobile telephones as a key source of distraction. In two studies, we examined distraction of pedestrians associated with mobile phone use. The first had 60 participants walk along a prescribed route, with half of them conversing on a mobile phone, and the other half holding the phone awaiting a potential

  4. Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia M. Campbell; Kenny Witmer; Mpepera Simango; Alene Carteret; Marco L. Loggia; James N. Campbell; Jennifer A. Haythornthwaite; Robert R. Edwards

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We

  5. On the maxillary nerve.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Hiroki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The trigeminal, the fifth cranial nerve of vertebrates, represents the rostralmost component of the nerves assigned to pharyngeal arches. It consists of the ophthalmic and maxillomandibular nerves, and in jawed vertebrates, the latter is further divided into two major branches dorsoventrally. Of these, the dorsal one is called the maxillary nerve because it predominantly innervates the upper jaw, as seen in the human anatomy. However, developmentally, the upper jaw is derived not only from the dorsal part of the mandibular arch, but also from the premandibular primordium: the medial nasal prominence rostral to the mandibular arch domain. The latter component forms the premaxillary region of the upper jaw in mammals. Thus, there is an apparent discrepancy between the morphological trigeminal innervation pattern and the developmental derivation of the gnathostome upper jaw. To reconcile this, we compared the embryonic developmental patterns of the trigeminal nerve in a variety of gnathostome species. With the exception of the diapsid species studied, we found that the maxillary nerve issues a branch (nasopalatine nerve in human) that innervates the medial nasal prominence derivatives. Because the trigeminal nerve in cyclostomes also possesses a similar branch, we conclude that the vertebrate maxillomandibular nerve primarily has had a premandibular branch as its dorsal element. The presence of this branch would thus represent the plesiomorphic condition for the gnathostomes, implying its secondary loss within some lineages. The branch for the maxillary process, more appropriately called the palatoquadrate component of the maxillary nerve (V(2)), represents the apomorphic gnathostome trait that has evolved in association with the acquisition of an upper jaw. PMID:24151219

  6. Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Claudia M; Witmer, Kenny; Simango, Mpepera; Carteret, Alene; Loggia, Marco L; Campbell, James N; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert R

    2010-05-01

    Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and distraction analgesia. Healthy participants completed three sessions in a randomized order. In one session (Pain Alone), pain was induced by topical application of a 10% capsaicin cream and simultaneous administration of a tonic heat stimulus. In another session (Pain+Distraction), identical capsaicin+heat application procedures were followed, but subjects played video games that required a high level of attention. During both sessions, verbal ratings of pain were obtained and participants rated their degree of catastrophizing. During the other session (Distraction Alone) subjects played the video games in the absence of any pain stimulus. Pain was rated significantly lower during the distraction session compared to the "Pain Alone" session. In addition, high catastrophizers rated pain significantly higher regardless of whether the subjects were distracted. Catastrophizing did not influence the overall degree of distraction analgesia; however, early in the session high catastrophizers had little distraction analgesia, though later in the session low and high catastrophizers rated pain similarly. These results suggest that both distraction and catastrophizing have substantial effects on experimental pain in normal subjects and these variables interact as a function of time. PMID:20188470

  7. Healing process after alveolar ridge distraction in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Gaggl; Günter Schultes; Siegrid Regauer; Hans Kärcher

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Mandibular augmentation by distraction of the alveolar ridge has been in use for several years. Since 1996, a distraction device that remains in the alveolar ridge after distraction has been used by the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Graz University. The distraction device is transformed into a dental implant after the end of the distraction process and

  8. Pediatric maxillary fractures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jack; Dinsmore, Robert; Mar, Philip; Bhatt, Kirit

    2011-07-01

    Pediatric craniofacial structures differ from those of adults in many ways. Because of these differences, management of pediatric craniofacial fractures is not the same as those in adults. The most important differences that have clinical relevance are the mechanical properties, craniofacial anatomy, healing capacity, and dental morphology. This article will review these key differences and the management of pediatric maxillary fractures. From the mechanical properties' perspective, pediatric bones are much more resilient than adult bones; as such, they undergo plastic deformation and ductile failure. From the gross anatomic perspective, the relative proportion of the cranial to facial structures is much larger for the pediatric patients and the sinuses are not yet developed. The differences related to dentition and dental development are more conical crowns, larger interdental spaces, and presence of permanent tooth buds in the pediatric population. The fracture pattern, as a result of all the above, does not follow the classic Le Fort types. The maxillomandibular fixation may require circum-mandibular wires, drop wires, or Ivy loops. Interfragmentary ligatures using absorbable sutures play a much greater role in these patients. The use of plates and screws should take into consideration the future development with respect to growth centers and the location of the permanent tooth buds. Pediatric maxillary fractures are not common, require different treatments, and enjoy better long-term outcomes. PMID:21772207

  9. Distracted by Your Mind? Individual Differences in Distractibility Predict Mind Wandering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2014-01-01

    Attention may be distracted from its intended focus both by stimuli in the external environment and by internally generated task-unrelated thoughts during mind wandering. However, previous attention research has focused almost exclusively on distraction by external stimuli, and the extent to which mind wandering relates to external distraction is…

  10. Reflections of Distraction in Memory: Transfer of Previous Distraction Improves Recall in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ruthann C.; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting

  11. Distractions in the School Science Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Karim M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I…

  12. Driver Distraction From a Control Theory Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas B. Sheridan

    2004-01-01

    Distraction from cell phones, navigation systems, information\\/entertainment systems, and other driver-interactive devices now finding their way into the highway vehicles is a serious national safety concern. However, driver distraction is neither well defined nor well understood. In an effort to bring some better definition to the problem, a framework is proposed based on the ideas of control theory. Loci and

  13. A Novel Method to Monitor Driver's Distractions

    E-print Network

    . Experiment-1 focused on driver's cognitive distraction by allowing cell phone talking while driving driving task. In the current era, the debate has gained attention for cell phone usage in the vehicle. Experiment-2 focused on driver's visual distraction by allowing texting while driving. The experimental

  14. Distractions in the School Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Karim M.

    2013-08-01

    In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I examined in close detail the conversations of three groups of high school students trying to explain how a real galvanic cell works. The three groups experienced the same two distractions, (1) a nonworking light-emitting diode and (2) negative readings on a voltmeter. The analysis reveals how one of the groups, through a series of contingencies, successively made the two distractions continuous with the main purpose of the activity. In the remaining two groups, no such continuity was established. The results show that (a) experiences initially being distracting, perplexing, and confusing may indeed acquire significance for the students' possibilities of coping with the main purpose of the activity but that (b) the outcome is highly contingent on the particular experiences drawn upon by the students to cope with the distractions. Consequently, I discuss ways in which teachers may turn distractions encountered in laboratory activities into educative experiences for more than a few lucky students.

  15. The effects of distraction on metacognition and metacognition on distraction: evidence from recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, C. Philip; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Jones, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of auditory distraction in memory tasks have, to date, been examined with procedures that minimize participants’ control over their own memory processes. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to metacognitive control factors which might affect memory performance. In this study, we investigate the effects of auditory distraction on metacognitive control of memory, examining the effects of auditory distraction in recognition tasks utilizing the metacognitive framework of Koriat and Goldsmith (1996), to determine whether strategic regulation of memory accuracy is impacted by auditory distraction. Results replicated previous findings in showing that auditory distraction impairs memory performance in tasks minimizing participants’ metacognitive control (forced-report test). However, the results revealed also that when metacognitive control is allowed (free-report tests), auditory distraction impacts upon a range of metacognitive indices. In the present study, auditory distraction undermined accuracy of metacognitive monitoring (resolution), reduced confidence in responses provided and, correspondingly, increased participants’ propensity to withhold responses in free-report recognition. Crucially, changes in metacognitive processes were related to impairment in free-report recognition performance, as the use of the “don’t know” option under distraction led to a reduction in the number of correct responses volunteered in free-report tests. Overall, the present results show how auditory distraction exerts its influence on memory performance via both memory and metamemory processes. PMID:24860543

  16. Reflections of Distraction in Memory: Transfer of Previous Distraction Improves Recall in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ruthann C.; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults’ free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting words. When the memory task was indirect in its use of distraction (Study 1), only older adults showed transfer, with better recall of previously distracting compared with new words, which increased their recall to match that of younger adults. However, younger adults showed transfer when cued about the relevance of previous distraction both before studying the words (Study 2) and before recalling the words (Study 3) in the memory test. Results suggest that both younger and older adults encode distraction, but younger adults require explicit cueing to use their knowledge of distraction. In contrast, older adults transfer knowledge of distraction in both explicitly cued and indirect memory tasks. Results are discussed in terms of age differences in inhibition and source-constrained retrieval. PMID:21843024

  17. Assessment of distraction from erotic stimuli by nonerotic interference.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alex B; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Distraction from erotic cues during sexual encounters is a major contributor to sexual difficulties in men and women. Being able to assess distraction in studies of sexual arousal will help clarify underlying contributions to sexual problems. The current study aimed to identify the most accurate assessment of distraction from erotic cues in healthy men (n = 29) and women (n = 38). Participants were assigned to a no distraction, low distraction, or high distraction condition. Distraction was induced using an auditory distraction task presented during the viewing of an erotic video. Attention to erotic cues was assessed using three methods: a written quiz, a visual quiz, and a self-reported distraction measure. Genital and psychological sexual responses were also measured. Self-reported distraction and written quiz scores most accurately represented the level of distraction present, while self-reported distraction also corresponded with a decrease in genital arousal. Findings support the usefulness of self-report measures in conjunction with a brief quiz on the erotic material as the most accurate and sensitive ways to simply measure experimentally-induced distraction. Insight into distraction assessment techniques will enable evaluation of naturally occurring distraction in patients suffering from sexual problems. PMID:24611908

  18. Temperament, Distraction, and Learning in Toddlerhood

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Wallace E.; Salley, Brenda J.; Clements, Andrea D.

    2006-01-01

    The word and non-word learning abilities of toddlers were tested under various conditions of environmental distraction, and evaluated with respect to children’s temperamental attentional focus. Thirty-nine children and their mothers visited the lab at child age 21-months, where children were exposed to fast-mapping word learning trials and nonlinguistic sequential learning trials. It was found that both word and nonword-learning was adversely affected by the presentation of environmental distractions. But it was also found that the effect of the distractions sometimes depended on children’s level of attentional focus. Specifically, children high in attentional focus were less affected by environmental distractions than children low in attentional focus when attempting to learn from a model, whereas children low in attentional focus demonstrated little learning from the model. Translationally, these results may be of use to child health-care providers investigating possible sources of cognitive and language delay. PMID:17138290

  19. The Neural Bases of Distraction and Reappraisal

    E-print Network

    McRae, Kateri

    Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive ...

  20. Living Dangerously: Driver Distraction at High Speed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK B. JOHNSON; ROBERT B. VOAS; JOHN H. LACEY; A. SCOTT MCKNIGHT; JAMES E. LANGE

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that cell phone use can distract drivers from safe vehicle operation. However, estimates of the prevalence of cell phone use while driving have been limited to daytime hours and low-speed roadways. This paper describes the results of a study to estimate rates of cell phone use and other distractions by examining approximately 40,000 high-quality digital photographs of

  1. Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors.

    PubMed

    Trosman, Samuel J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors offer considerable challenges to otolaryngologists, oral surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists alike. Because of the close proximity to vital structures, appropriate steps toward a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan are of paramount importance. This article reviews the most common causes of pediatric jaw masses and discusses diagnostic and therapeutic considerations and recommendations. PMID:25442129

  2. Correction of facial asymmetry and maxillary canting with corticotomy and 1-jaw orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Seo, Dong Hwi; Kim, Seong-Hun; Lee, Baek-Soo; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Although 2-jaw orthognathic surgery is a typical recommendation for the treatment of facial asymmetry, another good treatment alternative is maxillary corticotomy with temporary skeletal anchorage devices followed by mandibular orthognathic surgery. The corticotomy procedure described here can achieve unilateral molar intrusion and occlusal plane canting correction with potentially fewer complications than 2-jaw orthognathic surgery. The approach allows movement of dentoalveolar segments in less time than with conventional dental intrusion using temporary skeletal anchorage devices. A 2-jaw asymmetry with occlusal plane canting might be corrected using maxillary corticotomy and mandibular orthognathics rather than 2-jaw orthognathics. Two patients with facial asymmetry are presented here. In each one, the maxillary cant was corrected over a period of 2 to 3 months with 3.5 mm of intrusion of the unilateral buccal segment. After the preorthognathic cant correction, orthognathic surgery was done to correct the mandibular asymmetry. PMID:25432261

  3. The sensilla on the labial and maxillary palps of the nymph of Baetis rhodani (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELDA GAINO; MANUELA REBORA

    The nymph of Baetis rhodani shows an orthognathous head in which only the tips of the maxillary and labial palps contact the substrate. In these areas many setae are located. These setae have been investigated under scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) in order to disclose their sensory function. The labial palps consist of three segments. The most represented

  4. Maxillary osteomyelitis secondary to osteopetrosis.

    PubMed

    Hanada, T; Furuta, S; Moriyama, I; Hanamure, Y; Miyanohara, T; Ohyama, M

    1996-12-01

    A 41-year-old Japanese woman complained of a gradually enlarging swelling of her left cheek for seven months. She was diagnosed with osteopetrosis by standard skeletal radiographs, and her cheek swelling was diagnosed as maxillary osteomyelitis secondary to osteopetrosis. She underwent a left partial maxillectomy, and her post-operative course was stable with no complications. A literature review is also presented. PMID:9050105

  5. [Maxillary cementoblastoma. A case report].

    PubMed

    Slimani, F; Elbouihi, M; Oukerroum, A; Lazreqh, H; Mahtar, M; Karkouri, M; Abdelouafi, A; Benjelloun, A; Chekkoury-Idrissi, A

    2009-01-01

    Cementoblastoma is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. Its cause is unknown. It represents less 6 % of all odontogenic tumors. The aim of our work is to present a rare case of maxillary cementoblastoma involving an included central incisor. A 32-year old man consulted for a left maxillary swelling to projection under nostril. A panoramic radiographic examination revealed an included tooth 21 with a radiopaque lesion around its root. The computed tomography revealed the included tooth 21 with a process around its root. This process is well-defined, high-dense and is surrounded by a radiolucent halo. The treatment should consist of complete removal of the lesion with the tooth 21. Histological examination concluded to the diagnosis of a cementoblastoma. The cementoblastoma occurs most frequently in young persons and predominantly among men. The mandibular premolar and molar are the more frequently reached. The maxillary localization remains rare. This tumor occurs around the roots of the posterior and lower teeth. Radiographically, the lesion is well-defined and attached to the root of the tooth, radiopaque dense and surrounded by a radiolucent halo. The cementoblastoma evolves slowly and has the tendency to blow the cortical. The prognosis is good. PMID:19642490

  6. Distraction osteogenesis: a method to improve facial balance in asymmetric patients.

    PubMed

    Robiony, Massimo

    2010-03-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a well-established surgical procedure to elongate the maxillofacial skeleton. The authors propose a new method to balance facial asymmetry by means of distraction of the inferior borders of the mandible, without change of the occlusion, using an alveolar device. Nine patients with asymmetry were treated. Records included panoramic radiographs and computed tomographic scans. Preoperatively, stereolithographic models and virtual-reality surgery were performed to have a precise surgical planning. The surgical procedure was based on segmental inferior osteotomy and simultaneous positioning of the alveolar device upside-down. Postoperative clinical evaluation demonstrated that a very impressive elongation of the inferior bony border with simultaneous expansion of the soft tissues had been achieved, resulting in a satisfying facial balance. The postdistraction radiographs showed the ossification of the gap, and the new bone formation was observed and confirmed by biopsy. Distraction osteogenesis of the inferior border of the mandible and the chin represents a new method to correct facial asymmetry and is a valid alternative to the traditional techniques. In addition, surgical virtual reality and stereolithographic models are, without a doubt, an advantage in defining the vector of distraction and in simulating the final result. PMID:20216446

  7. Effects of rumination and distraction on naturally occurring depressed mood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Nolen-hoeksema; Jannay Morrow

    1993-01-01

    Mildly-to-moderately depressed and nondepressed subjects were randomly assigned to spend 8 minutes focusing their attention on their current feeling states and personal characteristics (rumination condition) or on descriptions of geographic locations and objects (distraction condition). Depressed subjects in the rumination condition became significantly more depressed, whereas depressed subjects in the distraction condition became significantly less depressed. Rumination and distraction did

  8. Assessment of Distracted Driving At Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    with distracted driving #12;Types of Secondary Tasks Talking to front seat passenger Eating/drinking Cell phone violations (25%) included distracted driving (cell phone use, smoking, reaching for in-vehicle object) Larger was talking to passenger followed by cell phone usage Cell phone usage is perhaps one of the few distractive

  9. Correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe crowding by a specially designed rapid maxillary expander.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honghong; Feng, Jing; Lu, Peijun; Shen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    To correct an Angle Class II malocclusion or to create spaces in the maxillary arch by nonextraction treatment, distal movement of the maxillary molars is required. Various modalities for distalizing the buccal segment have been reported. Conventional extraoral appliances can be used to obtain maximum anchorage. However, many patients reject headgear wear because of social and esthetic concerns, and the success of this treatment depends on patient compliance. Intraoral appliances, such as repelling magnets, nickel-titanium coils, pendulum appliance, Jones jig appliance, distal jet appliance, and modified Nance appliance, have been introduced to distalize the molars with little or no patient cooperation. However, intraoral appliances can result in anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the maxillary molars. In this case report, we introduce a diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance that was custom designed and fabricated for the treatment of a growing girl with a skeletal Class II malocclusion and severe crowding from a totally lingually positioned lateral incisor. The appliance concomitantly expanded the maxilla transversely and retracted the buccal segment sagittally, distalizing the maxillary molars to reach a Class I relationship and creating the spaces to displace the malpositioned lateral incisor. The uniqueness of this special diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance was highlighted by a series of reconstructions and modifications at different stages of the treatment to reinforce the anchorage. PMID:25636559

  10. Distracted and confused?: Selective attention under load

    E-print Network

    Lavie, Nilli

    Distracted and confused?: Selective attention under load Nilli Lavie Department of Psychology critically on the level and type of load involved in the processing of goal-relevant information. Whereas high perceptual load can eliminate distractor proces- sing, high load on `frontal' cognitive control

  11. Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis: modification of the intraoral splint in the rigid external distraction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyoseob; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2012-05-01

    Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a useful procedure for treating midface hypoplasia. The external distraction system has the advantage of allowing modification of the distraction vector during the activation period. This system needs an intraoral splint for the anchorage points. The intraoral splint has an important role in conducting the distraction force to the midface and in forming the advancement vector. The authors developed a modified type of splint to improve the outcome of Le Fort III DO.The intraoral splint is composed of a modified headgear face bow, molar bands, and a palatal acrylic plate without covering the teeth. Four suspension wires were applied to reinforce the stability. The zygomatic bones and the loops of the splint are selected as 4 anchorage points for Le Fort III DO. This procedure was applied to 2 patients.The midface had an advancement of more than 20 mm in both patients. The dental movement of the upper incisors and the upper first molar was minimal.The dental effect was nearly absent. The amount and vector of distraction could be decided under direct observation without blocking the dental occlusion. The vector of distraction could be adjusted during the activation period. The results of DO were satisfactory. PMID:22565908

  12. Dynamics of Driver Distraction: The process of engaging and disengaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, John D

    2014-01-01

    Driver distraction research has a long history, spanning nearly 50 years, but intensifying over the last decade. The dominant paradigm guiding this research defines distraction in terms of excessive workload and limited attentional resources. This approach largely ignores how drivers come to engage in these tasks and under what conditions they engage and disengage from driving-the dynamics of distraction. The dynamics of distraction identifies breakdowns of interruption management as an important contributor to distraction, leading to describe distraction in terms of failures of task timing, switching, and prioritization. The dynamics of distraction also identifies disengagement in driving (e.g., mind wandering) as a substantial challenge that secondary tasks might exacerbate or mitigate. Increasing vehicle automation accentuates the need to consider these dynamics of distraction. Automation offers drivers more opportunity to engage in distractions and disengage from driving, and can surprise drivers by unexpectedly requiring drivers to quickly re-engage in driving-placing greater importance of interruption management expertise. This review describes distraction in terms of breakdowns in interruption management and problems of engagement, and summarizes how contingency, conditioning, and consequence traps lead to problems of engaging and disengaging in driving and distractions. PMID:24776224

  13. Truncal anaesthesia of the maxillary nerve for outpatient surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.

    PubMed

    Robiony, M; Demitri, V; Costa, F; Politi, M; Cugini, U

    1998-10-01

    We present our experience of transcutaneous truncal anaesthesia of the maxillary nerve in association with transmucosal anaesthesia of the sphenopalatine ganglion in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. Twelve patients with a skeletal transverse discrepancy of the maxilla were treated in our department from 1994 to 1995. Maxillary transcutaneous nerve block was done with a Quincke 8 cm spinal needle together with transmucosal anaesthesia of the sphenopalatine ganglion. Mepivacaine without adrenaline and sodium bicarbonate 1/10 was used for truncal anaesthesia and lidocaine-prilocaine cream for transmucosal anaesthesia. A Le Fort I osteotomy, lateral nasal wall osteotomy, pterygomaxillary osteotomy, and a palatal osteotomy were done for all patients before the maxillary expansion. Total anaesthesia of the maxillary area facilitated the operations and appreciably reduced the amount of postoperative pain. The ease of achieving effective anaesthesia before and after operation and the absence of side-effects make this form of anaesthetic particularly useful in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. PMID:9831062

  14. Bilateral Tessier's 7 Cleft with Maxillary Duplication.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Dinesh Singh; Guruprasad, Yadavalli

    2015-03-01

    Tessier's 7 cleft or lateral facial cleft are unusual lesions that result from failure of the embryonic mandibular and maxillary process of the first branchial arch to fuse properly and form the corners of the mouth. It may be seen alone or in combination with other anomalies, accompanied by varying degrees of severity. We report an extremely rare case of bilateral Tessier's 7 cleft along with maxillary duplication, macrostomia, bilateral posterior maxillary cleft, and mandibular retrusion in an 18-year-old male patient. PMID:25838682

  15. Nonconcurrently presented auditory tones reduce distraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Dittrich; Christoph Stahl

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that task-irrelevant stimuli presented simultaneously with a target–distractor stimulus reduce\\u000a distraction and improve selective attention. In studies examining this reduced interference effect, visual selective attention\\u000a tasks and concurrently presented task-irrelevant stimuli are used. We report first evidence for a similar effect in the auditory\\u000a domain and with nonconcurrent stimuli (i.e., the task-irrelevant stimuli are presented before

  16. DISTRACTION AND STROOP COLOR-WORD PERFORMANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. KENT HOUSTON; THOMAS M. JONES

    1967-01-01

    3 GROUPS OF 14 COLLEGE STUDENTS PERFORMED THE STROOP COLOR-WORD AND COLOR-NAME TASKS UNDER 3 CONDITIONS OF AUDITORY DISTRACTION: VARIED NOISES TO BE IGNORED, VARIED NOISES REQUIRING ATTENTION FOR A SPOKEN COMMAND, AND NO NOISE. IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT THERE WOULD BE A SPECIFIC INTERACTION BETWEEN THE COLOR-WORD AND THE CONDITION OF NOISES TO BE IGNORED. THE HYPOTHESIZED INTERACTION WAS

  17. Distraction of Symbolic Behavior in Regular Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Billinger, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to develop more precise methods to explore the interaction between contextual factors in teacher instructions in regular classroom settings and students’ abilities to use symbolic information in the instruction. The ability to easily show symbolic behavior could be expected to influence student’s capacity to be active and participate. The present study examines distraction in students’ shifts from the use of “non-symbolic” to “symbolic” behavior in regular classroom settings. The 53 students (29 boys and 24 girls), ages 11–13?years old, who participated in the study were from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school. Based on their test performances in a previous study, 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) as not showing it (non-symbolic). In the present study, new test trials with distractors were added. Students from both the symbolic and non-symbolic groups scored significantly fewer correct answers on the post-training test trials with distraction stimuli (p?distraction. In the post-training test trials with competing arbitrary distractors, both groups were distracted significantly more than in the post-training test trials with competing non-arbitrary distractors (p?

  18. Distraction of symbolic behavior in regular classrooms.

    PubMed

    Billinger, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to develop more precise methods to explore the interaction between contextual factors in teacher instructions in regular classroom settings and students' abilities to use symbolic information in the instruction. The ability to easily show symbolic behavior could be expected to influence student's capacity to be active and participate. The present study examines distraction in students' shifts from the use of "non-symbolic" to "symbolic" behavior in regular classroom settings. The 53 students (29 boys and 24 girls), ages 11-13?years old, who participated in the study were from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school. Based on their test performances in a previous study, 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) as not showing it (non-symbolic). In the present study, new test trials with distractors were added. Students from both the symbolic and non-symbolic groups scored significantly fewer correct answers on the post-training test trials with distraction stimuli (p?distraction. In the post-training test trials with competing arbitrary distractors, both groups were distracted significantly more than in the post-training test trials with competing non-arbitrary distractors (p?

  19. How does distraction work in the management of pain?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm H. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    Engaging in thoughts or activities that distract attention from pain is one of the most commonly used and highly endorsed\\u000a strategies for controlling pain. The process of distraction appears to involve competition for attention between a highly\\u000a salient sensation (pain) and consciously directed focus on some other information processing activity. In this article, the\\u000a evidence for distraction from pain is

  20. Horizontal maxillary sinus septa: An uncommon entity

    PubMed Central

    Gül?en, U?ur; Mehdiyev, ?lham; Üngör, Cem; ?entürk, Mehmet Fatih; Ula?an, Ali Direnç

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maxillary sinus septas are barriers of cortical bone that arise from the floor or from the walls of sinus and may even divide the sinus into two or more cavities. Morphologically maxillary sinus septa are generally oriented in buccopalatinal orientation horizontal or sagittal orientation of the sinus septa is a rare condition. Presentation of Case This report presents two sinus lift case, in which observed septa in a horizontal orientation was presented. Both cases were fixed by an implant supported prosthethic restoration. Discussion Surgeons must know detailed knowledge about maxillary sinus anatomy for successful sinus augmentation. Computed tomography (CT) is useful for examining the maxillary sinus. Conclusion Horizontal-type sinus septa are rarely seen. Surgeons must be aware of septa types and orientations. PMID:26011804

  1. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  2. Early treatment of the Class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion and maxillary protraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho; Adriana Cecilia Magro; Leopoldino Capelozza Filho

    1998-01-01

    This study comprised a sample of 31 patients with Class III malocclusion (21 girls and 10 boys), with ages ranging from 5 years 2 months to 11 years 6 months. All patients were in the deciduous or mixed dentition. The indicated treatment was rapid maxillary expansion, immediately followed by maxillary protraction with the facial mask. Mean treatment time was 8

  3. The role of motivation in distracting attention away from pain: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Katrien; Crombez, Geert; Eccleston, Christopher; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Morley, Stephen; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2010-05-01

    Research on the effectiveness of distraction as a method of pain control is inconclusive. One mechanism pertains to the motivational relevance of distraction tasks. In this study the motivation to engage in a distraction task during pain was experimentally manipulated. Undergraduate students (N=73) participated in a cold pressor test (CPT) and were randomly assigned to three groups: a distraction-only group performed a tone-detection task during the CPT, a motivated-distraction group performed the same task and received a monetary reward for good task performance, and a control group did not perform the tone-detection task. Results indicated that engagement in the distraction task was better in the motivated-distraction group in comparison with the distraction-only group. Participants in both distraction groups experienced less pain compared to the control group. There were no overall differences in pain intensity between the two distraction groups. The effect of distraction was influenced by the level of catastrophic thinking about pain. For low catastrophizers, both distraction groups reported less pain as compared to the non-distracted control group. This was not the case for high catastrophizers. For high catastrophizers it mattered whether the distraction task was motivationally relevant: high catastrophizers reported less intense pain in the motivated-distraction group, as compared to the non-distracted control group. We conclude that increasing the motivational relevance of the distraction task may increase the effects of distraction, especially for those who catastrophize about pain. PMID:20188469

  4. Neuronal Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27…

  5. Effects of Auditory Distraction on Cognitive Processing of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Leonard L.; Heald, Gary R.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Kemker, Brett E.; Maurice, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The effects of interference, competition, and distraction on cognitive processing are unclearly understood, particularly regarding type and intensity of auditory distraction across a variety of cognitive processing tasks. Method: The purpose of this investigation was to report two experiments that sought to explore the effects of types…

  6. Distraction increases yielding to propaganda by inhibiting counterarguing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Osterhouse; Timothy C. Brock

    1970-01-01

    In 2 experiments, 84 and 162 undergraduates listened to a discrepant communication while they were distracted by having to call out a series of lights which flashed with systematically manipulated frequency. Rate of flash increased acceptance of the communication and decreased postcommunication production of counterarguments. Removal of the effect of counterarguing by covariance analysis eliminated the relationship between distraction and

  7. Distraction as an Alternative to Relaxation in Systematic Desensitization Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harold R.; And Others

    From 300 introductory psychology students, 40 female "snake phobics" were selected to test the hypothesis that distraction paired with fearful imagery is effective in alleviating the "phobia." Subjects were divided into three treatment groups and a control group: H+PI (fear hierarchy plus pleasant imagery as distraction), H+P (hierarchy plus…

  8. Interference by Process, Not Content, Determines Semantic Auditory Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic…

  9. Distracted walking: Cell phones increase injury risk for college pedestrians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Despina Stavrinos; Katherine W. Byington; David C. Schwebel

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionDistraction on cell phones jeopardizes motor-vehicle driver safety, but few studies examine distracted walking. At particular risk are college students, who walk frequently in and near traffic, have increased pedestrian injury rates compared to other age groups, and frequently use cell phones. Method: Using an interactive and immersive virtual environment, two experiments studied the effect of cell phone conversation on

  10. Three-Dimensional Eyeball and Orbit Volume Modification After LeFort III Midface Distraction.

    PubMed

    Smektala, Tomasz; Nysjö, Johan; Thor, Andreas; Homik, Aleksandra; Sporniak-Tutak, Katarzyna; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dowgierd, Krzysztof; Olszewski, Raphael

    2015-07-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate orbital volume modification with LeFort III midface distraction in patients with craniosynostosis and its influence on eyeball volume and axial diameter modification. Orbital volume was assessed by the semiautomatic segmentation method based on deformable surface models and on 3-dimensional (3D) interaction with haptics. The eyeball volumes and diameters were automatically calculated after manual segmentation of computed tomographic scans with 3D slicer software. The mean, minimal, and maximal differences as well as the standard deviation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for intraobserver and interobserver measurements reliability were calculated. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare measured values before and after surgery. P?segmentation of the eyeball volume were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively. The orbital volume increased significantly after surgery: 30.32% (mean, 5.96?mL) for the left orbit and 31.04% (mean, 6.31?mL) for the right orbit. The mean increase in eyeball volume was 12.3%. The mean increases in the eyeball axial dimensions were 7.3%, 9.3%, and 4.4% for the X-, Y-, and Z-axes, respectively. The Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that preoperative and postoperative eyeball volumes, as well as the diameters along the X- and Y-axes, were statistically significant. Midface distraction in patients with syndromic craniostenosis results in a significant increase (P?segmentation and manual 3D slicer segmentation) are reproducible techniques for orbit and eyeball volume measurements. PMID:26086925

  11. Maxillary sinus perforation by orthodontic anchor screws.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Sanuki-Suzuki, Rina; Uchida, Yasuki; Saiki, Akari; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate safe placement of orthodontic anchor screws (miniscrews), we investigated the frequency of maxillary sinus perforation after screw placement and the effect of sinus perforation on screw stability. Maxillary sinus perforations involving 82 miniscrews (diameter, 1.6 mm; length, 8 mm) were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography. All miniscrews were placed in maxillary alveolar bone between the second premolar and first molar for anchorage for anterior retraction in patients undergoing first premolar extraction. The placement torque and screw mobility of each implant were determined using a torque tester and a Periotest device, and variability in these values in relation to sinus perforation was evaluated. Eight of the 82 miniscrews perforated the maxillary sinus. There was no case of sinusitis in patients with miniscrew perforation and no significant difference in screw mobility or placement torque between perforating and non-perforating miniscrews. The sinus floor was significantly thinner in perforated cases than in non-perforated cases. A sinus floor thickness of 6.0 mm or more is recommended in order to avoid miniscrew perforation of the maxillary sinus. (J Oral Sci 57, 95-100, 2015). PMID:26062857

  12. Impacted maxillary incisors: diagnosis and predictive measurements

    PubMed Central

    Pavoni, Chiara; Mucedero, Manuela; Laganà, Giuseppina; Paoloni, Valeria; Cozza, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background When the incisors do not erupt at the expected time, it is crucial for the clinician to determine the etiology and formulate an appropriate treatment plan. Aim The aim of this report is to provide useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors using the interceptive treatment: removal of obstacles and rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Design An accurate diagnosis may be obtained with clinical and radiographic exam such as panoramic radiograph, computerized tomography (CT) and cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). It’s important to know the predictive measurements of eruption evaluated on panoramic radiograph: distance from the occlusal plane, maturity, angulation and vertical position of the unerupted incisors. Early diagnosis is important and interceptive orthodontic treatment, such as removal of obstacles and orthopedic rapid maxillary expansion (RME), may correct disturbances during the eruption through recovering space for the incisors and improving the intraosseus position of delayed teeth. Results RME treatment following the surgical removal of the obstacle to the eruption of maxillary incisors leads to an improvement of the intraosseus position of the tooth. Conclusions The angulation and the vertical position of the delayed tooth appear to be important in trying to predict eruption. The improvement of the intraosseus position of the unerupted incisor, obtained by removal of the odontoma and rapid maxillary expansion, permits a conservative surgery and the achievement of an excellent esthetics and periodontal result. PMID:23386930

  13. Maxillary Sinus Retention Cysts Protruding Into the Inferior Meatus

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyu-Sup; Roh, Hwan-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Although most of the maxillary sinus retention cysts are asymptomatic, a few of them increase in size and cause symptoms. However, they rarely erode bony walls nor protrude into the inferior meatus. I present 2 cases with maxillary sinus retention cysts protruding into the inferior meatus by making a large defect on the medial wall of the maxillary sinus. PMID:25177441

  14. Nonconcurrently presented auditory tones reduce distraction.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Stahl, Christoph

    2011-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that task-irrelevant stimuli presented simultaneously with a target-distractor stimulus reduce distraction and improve selective attention. In studies examining this reduced interference effect, visual selective attention tasks and concurrently presented task-irrelevant stimuli are used. We report first evidence for a similar effect in the auditory domain and with nonconcurrent stimuli (i.e., the task-irrelevant stimuli are presented before the target). The effect of nonconcurrently presented auditory tones on an auditory Stroop task developed by Leboe and Mondor (Psychological Research, 71, 568--575, 2007) was investigated. Stroop interference was reduced when task-irrelevant tones were presented before the Stroop stimulus. We conclude that task-irrelevant stimuli can improve selective attention not only when presented concurrently, but also when presented before the selective attention task. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that interference reduction is due to perceptual dilution caused by task-irrelevant stimuli. PMID:21264700

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of maxillary changes associated with facemask and rapid maxillary expansion compared with bone anchored maxillary protraction

    PubMed Central

    Hino, Claudia Toyama; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Nguyen, Tung T.; De Clerck, Hugo J.; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Our objectives in this study were to evaluate in 3 dimensions the growth and treatment effects on the midface and the maxillary dentition produced by facemask therapy in association with rapid maxillary expansion (RME/FM) compared with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP). Methods Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusion were treated with either RME/FM (n = 21) or BAMP (n = 25). Three-dimensional models generated from cone-beam computed tomographic scans, taken before and after approximately 1 year of treatment, were registered on the anterior cranial base and measured using color-coded maps and semitransparent overlays. Results The skeletal changes in the maxilla and the right and left zygomas were on average 2.6 mm in the RME/FM group and 3.7 mm in the BAMP group; these were different statistically. Seven RME/FM patients and 4 BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical displacement of the maxilla. The dental changes at the maxillary incisors were on average 3.2 mm in the RME/FM group and 4.3 mm in the BAMP group. Ten RME/FM patients had greater dental compensations than skeletal changes. Conclusions This 3-dimensional study shows that orthopedic changes can be obtained with both RME/FM and BAMP treatments, with protraction of the maxilla and the zygomas. Approximately half of the RME/FM patients had greater dental than skeletal changes, and a third of the RME/FM compared with 17% of the BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical maxillary displacement. PMID:24182587

  16. Primary malignant melanoma of maxillary gingiva.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sudhir Kumar; Jha, Somen; Singh, Sarabjeet; Yadav, Anubha

    2014-06-01

    Malignant melanoma of maxillary gingiva is a rare clinical entity. Mucosal melanoma is more aggressive than cutaneous form and carries comparatively poorer prognosis. High index of suspicion is required for diagnosing malignant melanoma of oral cavity. Any pigmented lesion in the oral cavity should be taken seriously by the clinician. PMID:25177127

  17. Testing Thayer's hypothesis: can camouflage work by distraction?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin; Graham, Julia; Winney, Isabel S; Cantor, Abi

    2008-12-23

    One of the oldest theories of animal camouflage predicts that apparently conspicuous markings enhance concealment. Such 'distraction' marks are hypothesized to work by drawing the viewer's attention away from salient features, such as the body outline, that would otherwise reveal the animal. If distraction marks enhance concealment, then they offer a route for animals to combine camouflage markings with conspicuous signalling strategies, such as warning signals. However, the theory has never been tested and remains controversial. By using camouflaged artificial prey presented to wild avian predators, we test whether distractive markings enhance concealment. In contrast to predictions, we find that markings, both circular and irregular shapes, increase predation compared with unmarked targets. Markings became increasingly costly as their contrast against the prey increased. Our experiments failed to find any empirical support for the hypothesis that distraction markings are an important aspect of camouflage in animals. PMID:18842567

  18. Individual differences in distractibility: An update and a model

    PubMed Central

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of background sound on visual-verbal task performance. A large body of evidence suggests that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) underpin individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction in most tasks and contexts. Specifically, high WMC is associated with a more steadfast locus of attention (thus overruling the call for attention that background noise may evoke) and a more constrained auditory-sensory gating (i.e., less processing of the background sound). The relation between WMC and distractibility is a general framework that may also explain distractibility differences between populations that differ along variables that covary with WMC (such as age, developmental disorders, and personality traits). A neurocognitive task-engagement/distraction trade-off (TEDTOFF) model that summarizes current knowledge is outlined and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:25632345

  19. Flux distraction effect on magnetoelectric laminate sensors and gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ying; Gao, Junqi; Wang, Yaojin; Hasanyan, Davresh; Finkel, Peter; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.

    2013-10-01

    A magnetic flux distraction effect caused by a nearby metallic material was investigated for Metglas/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 laminated magnetoelectric (ME) sensors. Using flux distraction, a ME sensor can perform an accurate search for metallic targets of different dimensions at various distances. Detection results and simulations were in good agreement. The findings demonstrate an effective means to employ stationary ME sensors and gradiometers for magnetic search applications.

  20. Memory load modulates graded changes in distracter filtering

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Andria; Woolrich, Mark W.; Mantini, Dante; Astle, Duncan E.

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to maintain small amounts of information in mind is critical for successful performance on a wide range of tasks. However, it remains unclear exactly how this maintenance is achieved. One possibility is that it is brought about using mechanisms that overlap with those used for attentional control. That is, the same mechanisms that we use to regulate and optimize our sensory processing may be recruited when we maintain information in visual short-term memory (VSTM). We aimed to test this hypothesis by exploring how distracter filtering is modified by concurrent VSTM load. We presented participants with sequences of target items, the order and location of which had to be maintained in VSTM. We also presented distracter items alongside the targets, and these distracters were graded such that they could be either very similar or dissimilar to the targets. We analyzed scalp potentials using a novel multiple regression approach, which enabled us to explore the neural mechanisms by which the participants accommodated these variable distracters on a trial-to-trial basis. Critically, the effect of distracter filtering interacted with VSTM load; the same graded changes in perceptual similarity exerted effects of a different magnitude depending upon how many items participants were already maintaining in VSTM. These data provide compelling evidence that maintaining information in VSTM recruits an overlapping set of attentional control mechanisms that are otherwise used for distracter filtering. PMID:25610387

  1. When Loading Working Memory Reduces Distraction: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence from an Auditory-Visual Distraction Paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iria Sanmiguel; María-josé Corral; Carles Escera

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of involuntary attention to top-down modulation was tested using an auditory-visual distraction task and a working memory (WM) load manipulation in subjects performing a simple visual classification task while ignoring contingent auditory stimulation. The sounds were repetitive standard tones (80%) and environmental novel sounds (20%). Distraction caused by the novel sounds was compared across a 1-back WM condition

  2. Infantile Maxillary Sinus Osteomyelitis Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Nagarajan; Ramamoorthy, Nathan; Panchanathan, Suresh; Balasundaram, Jothiramalingam S

    2014-01-01

    Periorbital soft tissue swelling may result due to primary orbital pathology or from adjacent facio-maxillary or sino-nasal inflammatory causes. Osteomyelitis of maxilla in the pediatric age group is a rare entity in this era of antibiotics. We present an 11-month-old female infant who was brought with peri-orbital selling and purulent nasal discharge. Computed Tomography showed erosions of the walls of maxillary sinus suggestive of osteomyelitis. Culture of sinus scraping showed Staphylococcus aureus growth and the child improved with intravenous cloxacillin therapy. This case is presented due to the rarity of its presentation in this age group and for awareness to consider this entity in children having fever and peri-orbital swelling. PMID:25191055

  3. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  4. Stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in maxillary advancement: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Costa, F; Robiony, M; Politi, M

    1999-01-01

    Stability of the skeletal segments repositioned during orthognathic surgery is still a concern in maxillofacial surgery. In an attempt to establish a consensus about one of the most frequently performed repositioning surgeries, the literature from 1985 to 1999 concerning stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in maxillary advancement was reviewed. There have been many problems in interpreting the results of the analysis because of differences in the design of the studies and the multifactorial nature of the disorder. For this reason each problem that emerged in the literature is analyzed and discussed. PMID:10686845

  5. A facial talon cusp on maxillary permanent central incisors

    PubMed Central

    Chinni, Suneelkumar; Nanneboyina, Mayuri; Ramachandran, Anilkumar; Chalapathikumar, Hanuman

    2012-01-01

    Talon cusp is a dental anomaly that occurs as an accessory cusp like structure, from the cingulum of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth. Lingual location is usually considered pathognomic. This case report discuss about the unusual appearance of talon cusp on the facial surface of the maxillary left permanent central incisor and a mild talon cusp on the facial surface of the maxillary right permanent central incisor. PMID:22368344

  6. [Naso-ethmoido-maxillary protrusion (NEMP): a specific dysmorphosis].

    PubMed

    Konopnicki, S; Nicot, R; Sauvé, C; Raoul, G; Ferri, J

    2014-04-01

    Naso-ethmoido-maxillary protrusion (NEMP) is a rare dental and facial dysmorphosis, with excessive growth of basicranium, ethmoid, maxillary, and nasal bones. The clinical presentation includes nasal and upper lip protrusion, telecanthus, a class 2 malocclusion with maxillary protrusion and exoclusion. The craniofacial field is increased in Delaire's analysis. Contrary to isolated maxillary protrusion secondary to membranous ossification dysfunction, NEMP is a constitutional anomaly resulting from an excessive primary growth of the chondrocranium. The therapeutic management of NEMP should take into account these specificities. PMID:24630318

  7. Effects of individual differences on the efficacy of different distracters during visual sexual stimulation in women.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Verena M; Prause, Nicole

    2012-02-01

    Distractions from sexual cues have been shown to decrease the sexual response, but it is unclear how distracters decrease sexual response. Individual differences may modulate the efficacy of distracters. Forty women viewed three sexual films while their labial temperature and continuous self-reported sexual arousal were monitored. One sexual film had simultaneous verbal distracters concerning dissatisfaction with one's physical appearance (higher salience distracter), a second had distracters concerning daily chores (lower salience distracter), and the third sexual film had no distracters. Participant's reporting greater relationship satisfaction and more communication with their partner about their own physical appearance were expected to decrease the efficacy (increased sexual arousal) of the distracters concerning physical appearance. Contrary to expectations, women who received less feedback about their body from their partners reported less sexual arousal during a sexual film with body distracters than a sexual film with general distracters or a sexual film with no distracters. All women exhibited lower labial temperature in Minutes 2 and 3 of the sexual film with body image distracters as compared to the other two sexual films. Possible explanations explored include self-verification theory and individual differences in the indicators that women consider when rating their sexual arousal. PMID:22083654

  8. The disruptive – and beneficial – effects of distraction on older adults’ cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Jennifer C.; Hasher, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Older adults’ decreased ability to inhibit irrelevant information makes them especially susceptible to the negative effects of simultaneously occurring distraction. For example, older adults are more likely than young adults to process distraction presented during a task, which can result in delayed response times, decreased reading comprehension, disrupted problem solving, and reduced memory for target information. However, there is also some evidence that the tendency to process distraction can actually facilitate older adults’ performance when the distraction is congruent with the target information. For example, congruent distraction can speed response times, increase reading comprehension, benefit problem solving, and reduce forgetting in older adults. We review data showing that incongruent distraction can harm older adults’ performance, as well as evidence suggesting that congruent distraction can play a supportive role for older adults by facilitating processing of target information. Potential applications of distraction processing are also discussed. PMID:24634662

  9. The Effect of Pulsed Ultrasound on Mandibular Distraction TAREK H. EL-BIALY,1

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    after distraction of the tibia in a rabbit model24 and after distraction of the callus in the metatarsus because masticatory muscle forces may lead to bending of the newly formed bony callus.2 Therefore, several

  10. Video surveillance for monitoring driver's fatigue and distraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Moreno, R.; Orjuela, S. A.; Van Hese, P.; Prieto, F. A.; Grisales, V. H.; Philips, W.

    2012-06-01

    Fatigue and distraction effects in drivers represent a great risk for road safety. For both types of driver behavior problems, image analysis of eyes, mouth and head movements gives valuable information. We present in this paper a system for monitoring fatigue and distraction in drivers by evaluating their performance using image processing. We extract visual features related to nod, yawn, eye closure and opening, and mouth movements to detect fatigue as well as to identify diversion of attention from the road. We achieve an average of 98.3% and 98.8% in terms of sensitivity and specificity for detection of driver's fatigue, and 97.3% and 99.2% for detection of driver's distraction when evaluating four video sequences with different drivers.

  11. Distracted driving and implications for injury prevention in adults.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Jane; Grell, Jennifer; Lohrman, Nicole; Stehly, Christy; Stoltzfus, Jill; Wainwright, Gail; Hoff, William S

    2013-01-01

    Distracted driving, a significant public safety issue, is typically categorized as cell phone use and texting. The increase of distracted driving behavior (DDB) has resulted in an increase in injury and death. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and perception of DDB in adults. A 7-question SurveyMonkey questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of adults. Standard demographics included age, gender, and highest levels of education. Primary outcome questions were related to frequency of DDB, and overall perceptions specific to distracted driving. Results were compared on the basis of demographics. Chi-square testing and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance were applied, with statistical significance defined as P ? .05. There were 1857 respondents to the survey: 1721 were aged 23-64 years (93%); 1511 were women (81%); 1461 had high school education or greater (79%). A total of 168 respondents (9%) reported being involved in a car accident while distracted. The highest reported frequency of DDB included cell phone use (69%), eating/drinking (67%), and reaching for an object in the care (49%). Younger age (18-34 years) and higher level of education (bachelor's degree or greater) were statistically associated with these DDB; gender demonstrated no statistical significance. Text messaging was reported by 538 respondents (29%), with a statistically significant association with age (18-34 years), higher education (bachelor's degree or greater), and gender (males). A total of 1143 respondents (63%) believed that they could drive safely while distracted. This study demonstrates that DDB in adults is not restricted to reading and sending text messages. Moreover, these results indicated that people fail to perceive the dangers inherent in distracted driving. Prevention and outreach education should not be limited to texting and cell phone use but should target all forms of DDB. The age group 18-34 years should be the primary target in the adult population. PMID:23459429

  12. Project Aura: Toward Distraction-Free Pervasive Computing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Garlan, David.

    2002-01-01

    In the April-June 2002 special issue of the IEEE Pervasive Computing journal, a team from Carnegie Mellon University contributed with a discussion of their Project Aura. The project's goal is to increase computing efficiency, particularly in wireless environments, so that "distractions such as poor performance and failures" are minimized. With greater system reliability and fewer distractions, users can make better use of their time and focus on the task at hand. This article describes the specifics of Project Aura, bringing together many areas that are being studied to accomplish the team's goals. The Aura home page gives further insights into research and additional papers.

  13. Distraction can enhance or reduce yielding to propaganda: Thought disruption versus effort justification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Petty; Gary L. Wells; Timothy C. Brock

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test competing accounts of the distraction-persuasion relationship, thought disruption and effort justification, and also to show that the relationship is not limited to counterattitudinal communication. Exp I, with 132 undergraduates, varied distraction and employed 2 discrepant messages differing in how easy they were to counterargue. In accord with the thought disruption account, increasing distraction enhanced

  14. Real-Time Detection of Driver Cognitive Distraction Using Support Vector Machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yulan Liang; Michelle L. Reyes; John D. Lee

    2007-01-01

    As use of in-vehicle information systems (IVISs) such as cell phones, navigation systems, and satellite radios has increased, driver distraction has become an important and growing safety concern. A promising way to overcome this problem is to detect driver distraction and adapt in-vehicle systems accordingly to mitigate such distractions. To realize this strategy, this paper applied support vector machines (SVMs),

  15. The Color-Word Interference Test and Its Relation to Performance Impairment under Auditory Distraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thackray, Richard I.; And Others

    The ability to resist distraction is an important requirement for air traffic controllers. The study examined the relationship between performance on the Stroop color-word interference test (a suggested measure of distraction susceptibility) and impairment under auditory distraction on a task requiring the subject to generate random sequences of…

  16. Increasing Neutral Distraction Inhibits Genital but not Subjective Sexual Arousal of Sexually Functional and Dysfunctional Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques J. D. M. van Lankveld; Marcel A. van den Hout

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effects of distraction and level of erotic stimulation on physiological and subjective sexual arousal, sexually dysfunctional (n = 23) and functional (n = 26) men were studied. It was hypothesized from previous investigations that men with erectile dysfunction would show a different genital response pattern to distraction during sexual stimulation when compared with sexually functional men. Distraction

  17. Pain catastrophizing influences the use and the effectiveness of distraction in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, K; Goubert, L; Jaaniste, T; Van Ryckeghem, D M L; Crombez, G

    2012-02-01

    Distraction is an intuitive way of coping with pain and is often used in children's pain treatment programs. However, empirical evidence concerning the effectiveness of distraction is equivocal. One potential explanation might be that distraction does not work for everyone in every situation. In the current series of studies, we examined the role of pain catastrophizing as an influencing factor of distraction effectiveness. In the first study, we investigated the use of pain coping strategies (including distraction) in schoolchildren (N?=?828, aged 8-18 years) by means of a questionnaire. Results indicated that children with higher levels of pain catastrophizing reported using less distraction strategies in daily life than children with lower levels of pain catastrophizing. In the second study, a subsample (N?=?81, aged 9-18 years) performed a painful cold pressor task (CPT) (12?°C). Participants were randomly assigned to a distraction group, in which an attention-demanding tone-detection task was performed during the CPT, or a control group, in which no distraction task was performed. Results showed that participants in the distraction group were engaged in the distraction task, and reported to have paid less attention to pain than participants in the control group. However, distraction was ineffective in reducing cold pressor pain, and even intensified the pain experience in high catastrophizing children. Caution may be warranted in using distraction as a 'one size fits all' method, especially in high catastrophizing children. PMID:22323378

  18. Mindfulness and Coping with Dysphoric Mood: Contrasts with Rumination and Distraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia C. Broderick

    2005-01-01

    Past research has shown that rumination exacerbates dysphoric mood whereas distraction attenuates it. This research examined whether the practice of mindfulness meditation could reduce dysphoric mood even more effectively than distraction. A dysphoric mood was induced in 139 female and 38 male participants who were then randomly assigned to a rumination, distraction, or meditation condition. As predicted, participants instructed to

  19. The effects of an oral distraction on cattle during a painful procedure

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Brooke L.; Stookey, Joseph M.; Noble, Scott; Watts, Jon; Finlay, Don

    2013-01-01

    An oral distraction was investigated as a way to reduce struggle and heart rate of beef cattle undergoing freeze branding. Oral distraction reduced the struggle of steers, regardless of branding treatment. No effect on heart rate was found. Distractions may provide a way to reduce struggle by animals during restraint. PMID:24155450

  20. Pain catastrophizing influences the use and the effectiveness of distraction in schoolchildren

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrien Verhoeven; Liesbet Goubert; Tiina Jaaniste; Dimitri M. L. Van Ryckeghem; Geert Crombez

    Distraction is an intuitive way of coping with pain and is often used in children’s pain treatment programs. However, empirical evidence concerning the effectiveness of distraction is equivocal. One potential explanation might be that distraction does not work for everyone in every situation. In the current series of studies, we examined the role of pain catastrophizing as an influencing factor

  1. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

  2. Autogenous bone grafts in the rabbit maxillary sinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyo Watanabe; Atsushi Niimi; Minoru Ueda

    1999-01-01

    Objective. This study involving rabbits was undertaken to establish an experimental model for the sinus lift procedure and to clarify the repair of autogenous grafted bone in the maxillary sinus. Study design. A corticocancellous bone block was grafted into the maxillary sinus of each of 18 rabbits. Each animal was killed at 2, 4, or 8 weeks after grafting and

  3. Maxillary sinus atelectasis in a wild born gibbon ( Hylobates moloch )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Koppe; Olav Röhrer-Ertl; Silvana Breier; Claus-Peter Wallner

    2006-01-01

    In a mixed sex sample of ten adult gibbon (Hylobates moloch) skulls, one cranium of a male with maxillary sinus atelectasis of the left side was identified. While external inspection revealed a slight drop of the left orbital floor, serial coronal computer tomography (CT) scans show characteristic changes of the left maxillary sinus and its surrounding structures. In addition to

  4. Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Inflammatory Maxillary Sinus Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Y. Busaba; David Kieff

    2002-01-01

    Objective\\/Hypothesis: The role of endoscopic si- nus surgery for treating chronic maxillary sinusitis is well established. The purpose of the study is to deter- mine the efficacy of endoscopic sinus surgery in the treatment of maxillary sinus inflammatory disease that includes mucoceles, retention cysts, and antro- choanal polyps. Study Design: This is a retrospective review of 32 consecutive patients who

  5. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  6. [Volumetric measurement of the maxillary sinus by coronal CT scan].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, A

    1996-08-01

    The volume of the maxillary sinus was estimated by coronal CT scan. The purpose of this study was to compare the estimated volume of the normal maxillary sinus with that of the inflamed maxillary sinus. Patients were classified following evaluation by CT scan of the paranasal sinuses into 3 categories. Group A: Patients suffered from headache, facial pain and epistaxis, but CT scans of their nasal cavity and paranasal sinus were within normal limits without inflammatory change; 102 patients (40 males and 62 females, aged 15-80 years, mean 49.1). Group B: Patients with bilateral chronic maxillary sinusitis, CT scans of whom showed inflammatory changes in both maxillary sinuses. All of the patients in this group underwent sinus surgery after coronal CT scans; 69 patients (38 males and 31 females, aged 15-68 years, mean 44.7) Group C: Patients with unilateral chronic maxillary sinusitis, CT scans of whom showed inflammatory change in unilateral maxillary sinuses; 14 patients (6 males and 8 females, aged 16-71 years, mean 43.2) CT scans of these patients were measured by Plannimeter to take the area of each image of the maxillary sinus. Consecutively imaged areas were summated by integral calculus to obtain an estimate of the sinus volume. Group A normal cases had a mean maxillary sinus volume of 20.5 +/- 9.2 ml (M +/- SD), and Group B bilateral maxillary sinusitis patients had a volume of 17.3 +/- 7.6 ml. The mean maxillary sinus volume in the bilateral chronic maxillary sinusitis patients (group B) was significantly smaller than that in the normal cases (group A) (p < 0.01, t-test). In both groups A and B, the mean of the maxillary sinus volume in males was significantly greater than in females (p < 0.01, t-test), and patients aged from 20 to 29 years old had the largest volume of all the age group. Group C patients with unilateral maxillary sinusitis had a mean maxillary affected sinus volume of 24.2 +/- 7.7 ml, and contralateral normal sinuses with a mean volume of 26.9 +/- 9.3ml. The mean maxillary sinus volume in the affected sinuses was significantly smaller than those in the contralateral normal sinuses (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon-test). The various volumes of the maxillary sinuses and the developmental cause were discussed. Comparison of groups A with B suggested three distinct patterns; 1. the maxillary sinus volume has decreased due to inflammatory changes in the bone; 2. the small sinuses have a tendency to develop chronic inflammatory change; 3. the aeration in the maxillary sinus may be decreased when anatomic variations that may obstruct the ethmoid infundibulum exist. PMID:8831237

  7. Deferoxamine enhances bone regeneration in mandibular distraction osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Farberg, Aaron S.; Sarhaddi, Deniz; Donneys, Alexis; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a powerful reconstructive technique for bone growth and repair. An angiogenic means to enhance the efficacy of this metabolically demanding procedure would be beneficial in expanding its therapeutic potential. We posit that the angiogenic effect of Deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator that has been shown to increase angiogenesis, will improve bone regeneration via augmentations in quality and quantity of bone and bone producing cells. Methods Two groups of rats (n=12) underwent surgical external fixation and subsequent distraction. During the distraction stage, the experimental DFO group (n=5) was treated with injections into the distraction gap. After 28 days of consolidation, mandibles were harvested and prepared for histological analysis. Results We found a proliferation of osteocytes in the DFO treated group when compared to the regenerate (RG) of the control group. DFO effected a significant increase in osteocytes, as well as increase in bone volume fraction with subsequent decreased osteoid volume fraction. The data also demonstrated no significant difference in empty lacunae. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of DFO treatment to enhance the number of osteocytes within the RG in a murine mandibular DO model. Maintenance of full lacunae supports our findings of a robust cellular response to DFO therapy. These results suggest that the angiogenic capabilities of DFO translate into an increase in number of bone forming cells in the RG. DFO may have utility in optimizing bone formation in DO and lead to superior reconstructive capabilities for craniofacial surgeons in the future. PMID:24572857

  8. Musical Distracters, Personality Type and Cognitive Performance in School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Stephenson, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the nature of the interaction between the affective value of musical distraction, personality type and performance on the cognitive tasks of reading comprehension, free recall, mental arithmetic and verbal reasoning in children aged 11-12 years. It was hypothesized that the cognitive performance of extraverts…

  9. Upper airway outcomes following midface distraction osteogenesis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B A; Brace, M; Hong, P

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to systematically review the airway outcomes following distraction osteogenesis of midface with the goal of (1) deriving clinically oriented insights and (2) identifying gaps in knowledge to stimulate future research. Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched and studies were included if subjects of any age had midface retrusion/hypoplasia and underwent midface distraction osteogenesis. Outcome measures of interest were any respiratory or airway associated measures, and reports of adverse events. A total of 368 abstracts were generated from the literature searches; 16 studies met the criteria for data extraction and analysis. All 16 studies were observational. Generally, midface distraction osteogenesis was reported to improve respiratory status and was well tolerated. Specifically, favorable outcomes in cephalometry (9 studies), polysomnography (9 studies), and decannulation rates (8 studies) were reported. In conclusion, upper airway status was improved in most patients who underwent midface distraction osteogenesis, yet long-term results and consistent objective measures are lacking. Studies reviewed were retrospective case series and details regarding patients who did not improve were deficient. A standardized prospective multicenter cohort trial with long-term patient follow up is required. PMID:24631233

  10. Driver distraction has come to the top of the transporta-

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    the distracted driving pan- demic in terms of "traffic safety culture" and offered thoughts on why driver can get in the way of changing traffic safety culture primar- ily because such a change isn are obstacles as well. It has been possible to change traffic safety culture, he said, such as in the case

  11. Do advertisements at the roadside distract the driver?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Kettwich; Karsten Klinger; Uli Lemmer

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment. More and more cars are on the road. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio and navigation system, the environment outside the car has also become more and more complex. Hoardings, advertising pillars, shop fronts and video screens are just a few examples. For

  12. THE EFFECT OF AGING ON DISTRACTION OSTEOGENESIS IN THE RAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of age on bone formation in the limb lengthening model of distraction osteogenesis (DO) was investigated in two studies using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats from two colonies at various ages (CAMM: 9 vs. 24 months, Harlan : 4 vs. 24 months). External fixators were placed on the right tibiae of...

  13. The use of mandibular body distraction in hemifacial microsomia

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Hideo; Ogata, Hisao; Kishi, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goals of treatment for hemifacial microsomia include horizontalization of occlusal plane and acquisition of facial symmetry. Although horizontalization of occlusal plane can be easily achieved, facial symmetry, particularly in relation to mandibular contour, can be difficult to attain. Soft tissue is generally reconstructed to correct facial asymmetry, and no studies have described correction of facial asymmetry through skeletal reconstruction. Case: A 12-year-old girl presented with grade IIb right-sided hemifacial microsomia. She was treated using Nakajima's angle-variable internal distraction (NAVID) system for mandibular body distraction. Results: Following treatment, appropriate facial symmetry was achieved, and the patient was extremely satisfied with the results. Conclusions: Thus, we successfully treated the present patient by our novel method involving distraction osteogenesis. This method was effective and useful for several reasons including; the changes were not accompanied by postoperative tissue absorption, donor sites were not involved, and the treatment outcome could be reevaluated by adjusting distraction while the patient's appearance was being remodeled. PMID:24205479

  14. Repressive coping: Distraction using pleasant thoughts and memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Boden; Roy F. Baumeister

    1997-01-01

    To avoid exposure to unpleasant or unwanted emotional material, some people may distract them- selves by summoning up pleasant thoughts such as happy memories. Manipulation of negative affect might therefore result in heightened accessibility of pleasant thoughts and memories, contrary to hypotheses of mood-congruent recall. In Experiment 1, repressors were faster to recall happy memo- ries after watching an unpleasant

  15. MODELING TOOLS FOR PREDICTING DRIVER DISTRACTION Dario D. Salvucci

    E-print Network

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    from in-vehicle interfaces as secondary tasks: hand-crafted modeling with the full-fledged ACT-R approaches to predicting distraction: one that uses the ACT-R architecture (Anderson et al., 2004 the advantages and disadvantages of each. MODELING TOOLS ACT-R + Driver Model The first (and original) approach

  16. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  17. The adaptation of perimuscular connective tissue during distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    De Deyne, P G; Meyer, R; Paley, D; Herzenberg, J E

    2000-10-01

    It is not known whether the decreased range of motion observed during distraction osteogenesis results from the lack of adaptation of muscle or from fibrosis in the perimysium. The adaptation of the perimysium in the tibialis anterior muscle in skeletally immature rabbits using two distraction regimens (0.7 and 1.4 mm/day with 15% lengthening) was characterized. The resulting data indicate that during distraction osteogenesis, the muscle adapts by reorganization of its connective tissue. At a lengthening rate of 1.4 mm/day, there is perimysial fibrosis without major cellular pathologic abnormalities in the muscle fibers. The increase in perimysial thickness is characterized by an increase of collagen Type I. In addition, collagen Type I is deposited around the endomysium. The increase in total collagen and its cross-linking are dependent on the lengthening rate. The faster lengthening rate also leads to a significant decreased passive plantar flexion. Supplemental growth of the tibia was not observed, and a lack of adaptation in the muscle (based on resting length) was not seen. Together, the data suggest that decreased range of motion during distraction osteogenesis may be a function of the adaptation of the perimysium rather than of the muscle fibers. PMID:11039815

  18. busso@utdallas.edu ASSESSMENT OF DRIVER'S DISTRACTION USING

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    response 4 #12;busso@utdallas.edu MSP - CRSS Metrics for Distraction · Eye glance behavior · Detailed eye-control metrics (e.g., within-fixation metrics, eye closure pattern, eye-off-the-road duration) · Coarse visual · Conversation with a Passenger · Second run ­ neutral driving (without tasks) 20 drivers Good Day light, dry

  19. Maxillary antral bone grafts for repair of orbital fractures.

    PubMed

    Copeland, M; Meisner, J

    1991-04-01

    Use of bone from the maxillary antrum to repair defects in the orbital floor was described more than 20 years ago but has not been reported for correction of orbital rim fractures. The method is appealing because the source is contiguous with the recipient site; enhanced exposure might allow better fracture reduction and evacuation of debris and hematoma from the maxillary sinus. The intraoral approach also avoids an external incision and scar, prevents such complications as pneumothorax or dural perforation, and reduces postoperative pain. In 60 cases of orbital and zygomatic complex fractures seen between 1985 and 1990, less than 8% required more extensive graft material than the maxillary antra could provide. To assess the potential advantages of local over extraanatomical bone grafts, we evaluated maxillary antral bone grafts obtained through buccal sulcus incisions in 14 patients for restoration following fractures of the orbit. Several of these patients are described. Bone union was complete in all patients and there was no morbidity related to infection, oroantral fistula formation, dehiscence, or disfigurement. Sufficient bone was available from the uninvolved contralateral side to repair even severely comminuted fractures. In zygomatic complex fractures, maxillary antral grafts appeared to provide additional strength in the region of the fractured maxillary buttress. The success of the procedure in our experience, coupled with the safety of bone harvesting from this source, and the avoidance of an external scar make maxillary antral bone well suited to reconstruction of all areas of the orbit. PMID:1807409

  20. Mindless feeding: Is maternal distraction during bottle-feeding associated with overfeeding?

    PubMed

    Golen, Rebecca B; Ventura, Alison K

    2015-08-01

    Mindless eating, or eating while distracted by surrounding stimuli, leads to overeating. The present study explored whether "mindless feeding," or maternal distraction during bottle-feeding, is associated with greater infant formula/milk intakes and lower maternal sensitivity to infant cues. Mothers and their ?24-week-old bottle-feeding infants (N?=?28) visited our laboratory for a video-recorded feeding observation. Infant intake was assessed by weighing bottles before and after the feedings. Maternal sensitivity to infant cues was objectively assessed by behavioral coding of video-records using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Maternal distraction was defined as looking away from the infant >75% of the feeding; using a mobile device; conversing with another adult; or sleeping. Twenty-nine percent (n?=?8) of mothers were distracted. While differences in intakes for infants of distracted vs. not distracted mothers did not reach significance (p?=?0.24), the association between distraction and infant intake was modified by two dimensions of temperament: orienting/regulation capacity (p?=?0.03) and surgency/extraversion (p?=?0.04). For infants with low orienting/regulation capacity, infants of distracted mothers consumed more (177.1?±?33.8?ml) than those of not distracted mothers (92.4?±?13.8?ml). Similar findings were noted for infants with low surgency/extraversion (distracted: 140.6?±?22.5?ml; not distracted: 78.4?±?14.3?ml). No association between distraction and intake was seen for infants with high orienting/regulation capacity or surgency/extraversion. A significantly greater proportion of distracted mothers showed low sensitivity to infant cues compared to not distracted mothers (p?=?0.04). In sum, mindless feeding may interact with infant characteristics to influence feeding outcomes; further experimental and longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:25953601

  1. Metastasis of mesothelioma to the maxillary gingiva.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Yuichi; Sugitatsu, Mitsuchika; Watanabe, Masahiro; Fujii, Tomoko; Kakudo, Kenji

    2014-09-01

    Malignant mesothelioma predominantly arises from the serosal surfaces of the pleural or peritoneal cavity. There is currently no effective standard treatment for mesothelioma and the prognosis for patients is poor; the majority of patients with malignant mesothelioma succumb between 12 and 17 months following diagnosis. The association of all forms of malignant mesothelioma with asbestos exposure has been well documented. However, metastasis to the oral gingiva is rare, as only four cases have previously been reported; two cases of metastasis to the tongue and four cases to the jaw bone. In the current report, the case of a 62-year-old male with metastatic mesothelioma is presented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the metastasis of this type of neoplasm to the maxillary gingiva. PMID:25120691

  2. Bilateral postoperative maxillary cysts after orthognathic surgery: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hye; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2014-12-01

    Postoperative maxillary cysts are locally aggressive lesions, usually developing as delayed complications many years after radical antral surgery. This report describes a case of bilateral postoperative maxillary cysts following orthognathic surgery performed approximately 21 years previously. The patient complained of stinging pain on her right cheek. Radiographic examination revealed low-attenuation lesions on both maxillary sinuses with discontinuously corticated margins without distinct expansion or bone destruction. The cysts were enucleated with the removal of metal plates and screws for pain relief. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of postoperative maxillary cysts lined by ciliated, pseudostratified columnar cells. The patient has remained asymptomatic thus far, and there was no evidence of local recurrence at 21 months of postoperative follow-up. PMID:25473641

  3. Esthetic removable partial denture design in replacing maxillary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Suk; Basho, Shveta

    2010-01-01

    Prosthodontic rehabilitation of missing maxillary anterior teeth requires special consideration to restore function and esthetics. This case report describes the prosthodontic management of a patient who lost three maxillary incisors due to a motor vehicle accident. A rotational path removable partial denture was constructed, for which a proximal undercut was created by means of a composite buildup to provide the retention for the prosthesis. PMID:21062709

  4. Selective attention to stressful distracters: effects of neuroticism and gender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisette C Osorio; Meredyth Cohen; Sandra E Escobar; Anya Salkowski-Bartlett; Rebecca J Compton

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the influence of trait neuroticism and gender on selective attention, under the hypothesis that neurotic individuals would be more likely to direct attention towards stress-related distracters. Eighty-seven undergraduates completed a dichotic listening task paired with visual probes in a dual-task paradigm. The task was to shadow neutral passages in the attended ear and respond to visual probes,

  5. Neural effects of auditory distraction on visual attention in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C; Eichman, Lindsay C; Tregellas, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    Sensory flooding, particularly during auditory stimulation, is a common problem for patients with schizophrenia. The functional consequences of this impairment during cross-modal attention tasks, however, are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how auditory distraction differentially affects task-associated response during visual attention in patients and healthy controls. To that end, 21 outpatients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy comparison subjects performed a visual attention task in the presence or absence of distracting, environmentally relevant "urban" noise while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The task had two conditions (difficult and easy); task-related neural activity was defined as difficult - easy. During task performance, a significant distraction (noise or silence) by group (patient or control) interaction was observed in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus, left temporoparietal junction, and right fusiform gyrus, with patients showing relative hypoactivation during noise compared to controls. In patients, the ability to recruit the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the task in noise was negatively correlated with the effect of noise on reaction time. Clinically, the ability to recruit the fusiform gyrus during the task in noise was negatively correlated with SANS affective flattening score, and hippocampal recruitment during the task in noise was positively correlated with global functioning. In conclusion, schizophrenia may be associated with abnormalities in neural response during visual attention tasks in the presence of cross-modal noise distraction. These response differences may predict global functioning in the illness, and may serve as a biomarker for therapeutic development. PMID:23560100

  6. Minimally invasive endoscopic middle meatal antrostomy for the prevention of maxillary sinusitis in association with dental implantation in the posterior maxilla--a proposal.

    PubMed

    Kunihiro, Takanobu; Araki, Yasutomo; Oba, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    Penetration of the maxillary sinus floor membrane during sinus lift occasionally induces maxillary sinusitis. However, maxillary sinusitis may still develop even when its floor membrane has been kept intact during such procedures. The decisive factor for the occurrence of maxillary sinusitis is not the integrity of the membrane; more important is the patency of the maxillary sinus natural ostium. The occlusion of the natural ostium presumably results from the expansive edema of the sinus membrane induced by surgical manipulations to the maxillary sinus floor. We propose a minimally invasive endoscopic sinus surgery which conceivably is useful to prevent potential occlusion of the natural ostium associated with maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedures. Although our technique is not a new concept, this is the first report to propose this kind of procedure as an adjunct to dental implantation. Our method is cost-effective and can be performed under topical anesthesia as a same-day surgery. In addition, it brings about no serious complications, such as orbital injuries or cerebrospinal fluid leakage. It aims to correct anatomical deviations, such as septal deviation, concha bullosa, hypertrophied uncinate process, and excessively pneumatized ethmoid bulla, all of which precipitate the occlusion of the natural ostium. Our method consists of a combination of resection of the uncinate process, widening of the natural ostium, and excision of the anterior and inferior edge of the middle turbinate. First, the anterior and inferoposterior segments of the uncinate process are resected with a curved rongeur, leaving the agger nasi cell intact (caution must be exercised to avoid injury to the nasolacrimal duct). This enables visualization of the maxillary natural ostium. The ostium is widened in all directions, using a forceps and/or a scalpel. The resultant widened ostium is bordered anteriorly by the nasolacrimal duct, inferiorly by the base of the inferior turbinate, posteriorly by the anterior surface of the ethmoid bulla, and superiorly by the medio-inferior angle of the orbit. Then the anterior and inferior edge of the middle turbinate is trimmed to prevent its adhesion to the lateral nasal wall or narrowing of the middle meatus. This surgery does not cause cerebrospinal fluid leakage and, at the same time, minimizes the risk for olfactory dysfunction. The antrostomy window thus formed is large enough to secure drainage and ventilation of the maxillary sinus. Moreover, the middle meatus, now deprived of the antero-inferior aspect of the middle turbinate, enables the patient to irrigate the maxillary sinus with a saline solution at home. Septal deviation can also be corrected simultaneously, if postoperative packing of bilateral nasal cavities is tolerable to the patient. Our experiences in treating over 100 patients are encouraging; although postoperative care such as irrigation of the maxillary sinus at home was mandatory and the start of dental implantation was delayed for 2-6 months, no patient who underwent surgery at our clinic developed maxillary sinusitis during the following course of dental implantation. We believe that collaboration between the otorhinolaryngologist and the dentist/oral surgeon is required to minimize the risk of maxillary sinusitis associated with dental implantation in the maxilla. PMID:25639025

  7. Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Emerson, Jamie L.; Yu, Lixi; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to quantify and compare performance of middle-aged and older drivers during a naturalistic distraction paradigm (visual search for roadside targets) and predict older driver performance given functioning in visual, motor, and cognitive domains. Background Distracted driving can imperil healthy adults and may disproportionally affect the safety of older drivers with visual, motor, and cognitive decline. Methods Two hundred and three drivers, 120 healthy older (61 men and 59 women, ages 65 years or greater) and 83 middle-aged drivers (38 men and 45 women, ages 40–64 years), participated in an on-road test in an instrumented vehicle. Outcome measures included performance in roadside target identification (traffic signs and restaurants) and concurrent driver safety. Differences in visual, motor, and cognitive functioning served as predictors. Results Older drivers identified fewer landmarks and drove slower but committed more safety errors than middle-aged drivers. Greater familiarity with local roads benefited performance of middle-aged but not older drivers. Visual cognition predicted both traffic sign identification and safety errors while executive function predicted traffic sign identification over and above vision. Conclusion Older adults are susceptible to driving safety errors while distracted by common secondary visual search tasks that are inherent to driving. The findings underscore that age-related cognitive decline affects older driver management of driving tasks at multiple levels, and can help inform the design of on-road tests and interventions for older drivers. PMID:23964422

  8. Supraliminal But Not Subliminal Distracters Bias Working Memory Recall

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Information of which observers are not consciously aware can nevertheless influence perceptual processes. Whether subliminal information might exert an influence on working memory (WM) representations is less clear, and relatively few studies have examined the interactions between subliminal and supraliminal information in WM. We present 3 experiments examining this issue. Experiments 1a and b replicated the finding that orientation stimuli can influence behavior subliminally in a visuomotor priming task. Experiments 2 and 3 used the same orientation stimuli, but participants had to remember a target orientation and report it back by adjusting a probe orientation after a memory delay. Before or after presentation of the target orientation, a subliminal or supraliminal distracter orientation was presented that was either irrelevant for task completion and never had to be reported (Experiment 2), or was relevant for task completion because it had to be reported on some trials (Experiment 3). In both experiments, presentation of a supraliminal distracter influenced WM recall of the target orientation. When the distracter was presented subliminally, however, there was no bias in orientation recall. These results suggest that information stored in WM is protected from influences of subliminal stimuli, while online information processing is modulated by subliminal information. PMID:25867502

  9. Effect of icariin on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit mandible

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wei; L. Zili; C. Yuanlu; Y. Biao; L. Cheng; W. Xiaoxia; L. Yang; W. Xing

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of icariin on bone formation during mandibular distraction. 40 Rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Mandibular distraction was performed 5 days after unilateral mandibular osteotomy using a custom-made external distractor at a rate of 0.5mm\\/12h for 10 days. From the first day of distraction, icariin (2.5mg\\/kg·day) was

  10. Potential Distractions and Unsafe Driving Behaviors Among Drivers of 1- to 12-year-old Children

    PubMed Central

    Macy, Michelle L.; Carter, Patrick M.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Driver distraction has been identified as a threat to individual drivers and public health. Motor vehicle collisions remain a leading cause of death for children yet little is known about distractions among drivers of children. This study sought to characterize potential distractions among drivers of children. Methods A two-site, cross-sectional, computerized survey of child passenger safety practices was conducted among adult drivers of 1- to 12-year-old children who presented for emergency care between October 2011-May 2012. Drivers indicated the frequency with which they engaged in ten potential distractions in the past month while driving with their child. Distractions were grouped in four categories: 1) non-driving, 2) cellular phone, 3) child, 4) directions. Information about other unsafe driving behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics was collected. Results Nearly 90% of eligible parents participated. Analysis included 570 (92.2%) drivers. Non-driving and cellular phone-related distractions were disclosed by >75% of participants. Fewer participants disclosed child (71.2%) and directions-related distractions (51.9%). Child age was associated with each distraction category. Cellular phone-related distractions were associated with the child riding daily in the family car, non-Hispanic white and other race/ethnicity, and higher education. Parents admitting to drowsy driving and being pulled over for speeding had over two-times higher odds of disclosing distractions from each category. Conclusions Distracted driving activities are common among drivers of child passengers and associated with other unsafe driving behaviors. Child passenger safety may be improved by preventing crash events through the reduction or elimination of distractions among drivers of child passengers. PMID:24767781

  11. Distracters” Do Not Always Distract: Visual Working Memory for Angry Faces is Enhanced by Incidental Emotional Words

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Linden, David E. J.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    We are often required to filter out distraction in order to focus on a primary task during which working memory (WM) is engaged. Previous research has shown that negative versus neutral distracters presented during a visual WM maintenance period significantly impair memory for neutral information. However, the contents of WM are often also emotional in nature. The question we address here is how incidental information might impact upon visual WM when both this and the memory items contain emotional information. We presented emotional versus neutral words during the maintenance interval of an emotional visual WM faces task. Participants encoded two angry or happy faces into WM, and several seconds into a 9?s maintenance period a negative, positive, or neutral word was flashed on the screen three times. A single neutral test face was presented for retrieval with a face identity that was either present or absent in the preceding study array. WM for angry face identities was significantly better when an emotional (negative or positive) versus neutral (or no) word was presented. In contrast, WM for happy face identities was not significantly affected by word valence. These findings suggest that the presence of emotion within an intervening stimulus boosts the emotional value of threat-related information maintained in visual WM and thus improves performance. In addition, we show that incidental events that are emotional in nature do not always distract from an ongoing WM task. PMID:23112782

  12. Neural signatures of the response to emotional distraction: a review of evidence from brain imaging investigations

    PubMed Central

    Iordan, A. D.; Dolcos, S.; Dolcos, F.

    2013-01-01

    Prompt responses to emotional, potentially threatening, stimuli are supported by neural mechanisms that allow for privileged access of emotional information to processing resources. The existence of these mechanisms can also make emotional stimuli potent distracters, particularly when task-irrelevant. The ability to deploy cognitive control in order to cope with emotional distraction is essential for adaptive behavior, while reduced control may lead to enhanced emotional distractibility, which is often a hallmark of affective disorders. Evidence suggests that increased susceptibility to emotional distraction is linked to changes in the processing of emotional information that affect both the basic response to and coping with emotional distraction, but the neural correlates of these phenomena are not clear. The present review discusses emerging evidence from brain imaging studies addressing these issues, and highlights the following three aspects. First, the response to emotional distraction is associated with opposing patterns of activity in a ventral “hot” affective system (HotEmo, showing increased activity) and a dorsal “cold” executive system (ColdEx, showing decreased activity). Second, coping with emotional distraction involves top–down control in order to counteract the bottom-up influence of emotional distraction, and involves interactions between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Third, both the response to and coping with emotional distraction are influenced by individual differences affecting emotional sensitivity and distractibility, which are linked to alterations of both HotEmo and ColdEx neural systems. Collectively, the available evidence identifies specific neural signatures of the response to emotional challenge, which are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of emotion-cognition interactions in healthy functioning, and the changes linked to individual variation in emotional distractibility and susceptibility to affective disorders. PMID:23761741

  13. Mandibular fracture patterns consistent with posterior maxillary fractures involving the posterior maxillary sinus, pterygoid plate or both: CT characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, S; Kanno, T; Fujita, G; Yamamoto, N; Furuki, Y; Michizawa, M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of posterior maxillary fractures involving the posterior maxillary sinus wall, pterygoid plate or both, unrelated to major midface fractures in patients with mandibular fractures, and to characterize associated fractures. Methods: A CT study was performed in patients with mandibular fractures to identify posterior maxillary fractures. Patients aged under 16 years, those with mandibular fractures involving only dentoalveolar components and those with concurrent major midfacial fractures were excluded. Results: 13 (6.7%) of 194 patients with mandibular fractures also had posterior maxillary fractures (case group). The injury pattern correlated with the external force directed to the lateral side of the mandible (p?maxillary fractures involved only the sinus. Conclusions: Mandibular fractures accompanied by posterior maxillary fractures are not rare. The finding of a unilateral posterior maxillary fracture on CT may aid the efficient radiological examination of the mandible based on possible patterns of associated fractures, as follows: in the ipsilateral posterior region as a direct fracture when the impact is a medially directed force, and in the symphysis/parasymphysis or contralateral condylar neck as an indirect fracture. PMID:24336313

  14. Virtual Reality as a Distraction Technique in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  15. Virtual reality as a distraction technique in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  16. Rumination and Distraction Among Chronic Depressives in Treatment: A Structural Equation Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Arnow; Diane Spangler; Daniel N. Klein; David D. Burns

    2004-01-01

    Response Styles Theory hypothesizes that rumination about one's symptoms amplifies and prolongs depressed mood, whereas distraction has the opposite effect. Response styles are also hypothesized to be trait-like dispositions. The generalizability of Response Styles Theory, as well as the linkages that may account for correlations between rumination, distraction, and depression, were explored with structural equation modeling in a sample of

  17. Regulating responses to anger: Effects of rumination and distraction on angry mood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl L. Rusting; Susan Nolen-Hoeksema

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has found that self-focused rumination maintains or increases depressed mood, whereas distraction decreases depressed mood (S. Nolen-Hoeksema & J. Morrow, 1993; S. Nolen- Hoeksema, J, Morrow, & B. L. Fredrickson, 1993). The present series of experiments examined these mood regulation strategies in the context of an angry mood. In Experiments 1 and 3, rumination increased anger, whereas distraction

  18. The role of angiogenesis in a murine tibial model of distraction osteogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S Carvalho; T. A Einhorn; W Lehmann; C Edgar; A Al-Yamani; A Apazidis; D Pacicca; T. L Clemens; L. C Gerstenfeld

    2004-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is one of the most dramatic in vivo applications of mechanical stimulation as a means of inducing bone regeneration. A simple and reproducible murine model of tibia distraction osteogenesis was developed using a monolateral fixator. Bone formation was assessed histologically over a 35-day time course. The steady state expression of a broad family of angiogenesis-associated genes was

  19. An Investigation of Driver Distraction Near the Tipping Point of Traffic Flow Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel M. Cooper; Ivana Vladisavljevic; Nathan Medeiros-Ward; Peter T. Martin; David L. Strayer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship between driver distraction and characteristics of driver behavior associated with reduced highway traffic efficiency. Background: Research on the three-phase traffic theory and on behavioral driving suggests that a number of characteristics associated with efficient traffic flow may be affected by driver distraction. Previous studies have been limited, however, by

  20. Distract-R: Rapid Prototyping and Evaluation of In-Vehicle Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    a lively business meeting, or dialing a cell phone while crossing the street. One domain that has received distraction and inattention is now the leading cause of vehicle crashes in the United States [4], motivatingDistract-R: Rapid Prototyping and Evaluation of In-Vehicle Interfaces Dario D. Salvucci, Mark Zuber

  1. Violating Interpersonal Distancing Expectations, Distraction and Reward on Source Attraction, Credibility and Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.; Burgoon, Judee K.

    The role of two nonverbal variables, conversational distance and physical self-presentation, were examined as potential sources of distraction and for their consequent effects on susceptibility to persuasion. The distraction literature was reviewed and synthesized into five propositions, which served as a starting point for predicting how…

  2. Object-Based Attention Overrides Perceptual Load to Modulate Visual Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to ignore task-irrelevant information and overcome distraction is central to our ability to efficiently carry out a number of tasks. One factor shown to strongly influence distraction is the perceptual load of the task being performed; as the perceptual load of task-relevant information processing increases, the likelihood that…

  3. The Use of Choice-Based Distraction to Decrease the Distress of Children at the Dentist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filcheck, Holly A.; Allen, Keith D.; Ogren, Hilary; Darby, James Brandt; Holstein, Brian; Hupp, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine whether choice-based distraction provides an effective means of reducing the distress of children undergoing routine dental treatment. Sixty children between the ages of 5-12 who required restorative dental treatment were assigned randomly to either a Control group or a Distraction group in which the…

  4. Selective Attention in Schizophrenic and Manic Psychoses: The Effect of Distraction on Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    1978-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the general level of cognitive processing that is especially vulnerable to distraction in schizophrenia. Attempts to determine at what level auditory distraction interferes with schizophrenics' performance, as opposed to normals, on simple recall tasks. (Editor/RK)

  5. Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julien T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N=27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders were trained along with their parents to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Distraction produced significant positive effects for observer-rated distress scores for the low hypnotizable children. Discusses…

  6. The influence of distraction on reading comprehension: a Big Five analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georganne Ylias; Patrick C. L Heaven

    2003-01-01

    This experiment is a partial replication of the Furnham, Gunter, and Peterson (1994) study of personality and television distraction effects on undergraduate reading comprehension performance. We examined the effects of television distraction on the reading comprehension of 178 undergraduates who were either relatively high or low on the five major personality domains: extraversion (E), neuroticism (N), agreeableness (A), conscientiousness (C),

  7. Maxillary necrosis by mucormycosis. a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Auluck, Ajit

    2007-09-01

    The maxilla rarely undergoes necrosis due to its rich vascularity. Maxillary necrosis can occur due to bacterial infections such as osteomyelitis, viral infections such as herpes zoster or fungal infections such as mucormycosis, aspergillosis etc. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fulminant fungal infection, which mainly infects immunocompromised patients. The infection begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses due to inhalation of fungal spores. The infection can spread to orbital and intracranial structures either by direct invasion or through the blood vessels. The fungus invades the arteries leading to thrombosis that subsequently causes necrosis of hard and soft tissues. We report a case of maxillary necrosis by mucormycosis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient to emphasize early diagnosis of this potentially fatal fungal infection. We briefly discuss different diseases which can lead to maxillary necrosis and review the current concepts in management of mucormycosis. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity of this lethal fungal infection. PMID:17767099

  8. Maxillary Chronic Osteomyelitis Caused by Domestic Violence: A Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tamyris Inácio; de Carli, Marina Lara; Ribeiro Junior, Noé Vital; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa; Tatakis, Dimitris N.; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary osteomyelitis is a rare condition defined as inflammation of the bone primarily caused by odontogenic bacteria, with trauma being the second leading cause. The present report documents a rare case of maxillary osteomyelitis in a 38-year-old female who was the victim of domestic violence approximately a year prior to presentation. Intraoral examination revealed a lesion appearing as exposed bony sequestrum, with significant destruction of gingiva and alveolar mucosa in the maxillary right quadrant, accompanied by significant pain, local edema, and continued purulence. Teeth numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 were mobile, not responsive to percussion, and nonvital. Treatment included antibiotic therapy for seven days followed by total enucleation of the necrotic bone tissue and extraction of the involved teeth. Microscopic findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis of chronic suppurative osteomyelitis. Six months postoperatively, the treated area presented complete healing and there was no sign of recurrence of the lesion. PMID:25610667

  9. Aberration in the palatal root of the maxillary first molar.

    PubMed

    Rajalbandi, Sandeep; Shingte, Sandhya Narayan; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for the endodontic therapy. Variations in the root and root canal morphology, especially in multirooted teeth, are a constant challenge for diagnosis and management. The dentist needs to be familiar with the various root canal configurations and their variations for successful endodontic therapy. There are rare variations in canal number and configuration in maxillary molars, which could affect treatment outcome. Two lingual root structures are occasionally found on human permanent maxillary molars. One of these is the normal lingual root, which is always present, the other is a supernumerary structure which can be located either mesiolingually (radix mesiolingualis) or distolingually (radix distolingualis). The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and to demonstrate a case report which describes the successful non-surgical endodontic management of an unusual maxillary first molar with four separate roots and four canals. PMID:23632609

  10. Post-traumatic impaction of maxillary incisors: diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paoloni, Valeria; Pavoni, Chiara; Mucedero, Manuela; Bollero, Patrizio; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim To provide clinicians with useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors due to trauma. Methods We present a case of post-traumatic impaction of a central right maxillary incisor in a young patient. The treatment plan consisted in the interceptive management (surgical and orthodontic), the valuation of the necessary space to move the impacted tooth in the normal position and the biomechanical approach for anchorage, avoiding prosthetic/implants replacement. Results The therapy of an impacted maxillary incisor due to trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach: orthodontic, surgical, endodontic and periodontal considerations are essential for successful treatment. Conclusions Surgical exposure and orthodontic traction is the treatment most often used in case of posttraumatic impacted incisor: this technique in fact can lead to suitable results at the periodontal, occlusal and esthetics levels at an early stage and more definitively than with other treatment options. PMID:23991268

  11. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Mouser, Pamela; Cole, Alex; Lin, Tsang Long

    2006-05-01

    To date, few tumors have been identified in prairie dogs, with odontoma being the most common. Osteosarcoma has been documented in a wide range of species, including a number of rodents. In this case, a locally invasive maxillary osteosarcoma was diagnosed in a prairie dog. Gross examination revealed a pale, tan, lobulated, sessile maxillary mass extending ventrally into the oral cavity from the hard palate and the gingiva surrounding the upper right cheek teeth. The mass invaded the right nasal cavity and retrobulbar space causing exophthalmia. Microscopically, the mass consisted of densely packed spindle-shaped cells with occasional multinucleated giant cells. Brightly eosinophilic osteoid was multifocally scattered in the tumor mass. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented report of maxillary osteosarcoma in a prairie dog. PMID:16789726

  12. Aplasia and hypoplasia of the maxillary sinus: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Jafari-Pozve, Nasim; Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Ataie-Khorasgani, Masoud; Jafari-Pozve, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary sinus aplasia and hypoplasia are rare conditions that can cause symptoms such as headaches and voice alteration. The majority of patients are asymptomatic, but these conditions must be noticed for importance of differential diagnosis such as infection and neoplasms. Conventional radiographs could not differentiate between inflammatory mucosal thickening, neoplasm, and hypoplasia of the sinus. Computed tomography (CT) and also cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are the proper modalities to detect these conditions. In the present study, CBCT findings of three cases with maxillary sinus hypoplasia and aplasia are reported. PMID:25426156

  13. Incidental treatment of maxillary dysesthesia with maxillary sinus lift procedure--a case report.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Clarkson, Earl

    2014-12-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of dysesthesia to the left palate with referred pain to the left infraorbital distribution after extraction of the left maxillary first and second premolars. The clinical and radiologic examination revealed an alveolar crestal bone dehiscence suggestive of an occult oral antral communication (OAC) that had spontaneously healed. Stimulation of the mucosa at this bony dehiscence consistently reproduced the dysesthesia. A sinus lift procedure was performed in this region for implant site development and also resulted in resolution of the dysesthesia. This case represents an instance in which surgical alteration of a trigger zone of neuropathic pain can result in its resolution. PMID:25454712

  14. Subjective responses to emotional stimuli during labeling, reappraisal, and distraction.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Matthew D; Inagaki, Tristen K; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Crockett, Molly J

    2011-06-01

    Although multiple neuroimaging studies suggest that affect labeling (i.e., putting feelings into words) can dampen affect-related responses in the amygdala, the consequences of affect labeling have not been examined in other channels of emotional responding. We conducted four studies examining the effect of affect labeling on self-reported emotional experience. In study one, self-reported distress was lower during affect labeling, compared to passive watching, of negative emotional pictures. Studies two and three added reappraisal and distraction conditions, respectively. Affect labeling showed similar effects on self-reported distress as both of these intentional emotion regulation strategies. In each of the first three studies, however, participant predictions about the effects of affect labeling suggest that unlike reappraisal and distraction, people do not believe affect labeling to be an effective emotion regulation strategy. Even after having the experience of affect labels leading to lower distress, participants still predicted that affect labeling would increase distress in the future. Thus, affect labeling is best described as an incidental emotion regulation process. Finally, study four employed positive emotional pictures and here, affect labeling was associated with diminished self-reported pleasure, relative to passive watching. This suggests that affect labeling tends to dampen affective responses in general, rather than specifically alleviating negative affect. PMID:21534661

  15. Distracting effect of TV watching on children's reactivity.

    PubMed

    Bellieni, Carlo V; Fontani, Giulio; Corradeschi, Franco; Iantorno, Lorenzo; Maffei, Marianna; Migliorini, Silvia; Perrone, Serafina; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2010-09-01

    The experiment, aimed to evaluate the distracting effect of television, was carried out on 122 children, divided into three groups. All groups performed the auditory vigilance test (AVT) to assess reaction time (RT) to an auditory stimulus and the number of errors in responding to the stimulus. Children in group 1 performed the AVT while in front of a blank TV set and listening to the soundtrack of a movie (SO test), then watching a black and white cartoon (BW test). Children in group 2 performed the AVT while in front of a blank TV set and listening to the soundtrack of a movie (SO test), then watching a color cartoon (CC test). Group 3 performed SO, BW, and CC tests consecutively. RT and the number and type of errors were measured. In each group, 30 days separated one session from the following. A significant increase of median RTs (more than 10%) and errors (twice and more) was observed both in the case of BW and CC tests with respect to SO test. RT increased throughout all tests. During SO test, errors are mainly "false reactions", but in BW and CC tests, errors are more numerous, and they are mainly "omissions". TV movies have a significant distracting and attention-capturing effect, which increases throughout the vision of the show. No advantage in decreasing this effect is offered by removing color from the movie. PMID:20229267

  16. Immediate implants in anterior maxillary arch

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, K.; Kumar, S. Senthil; Babu, M. R. Ramesh; Candamourty, Ramesh; Thirumurugan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the osseo-integration and soft tissue status of the endosseous implants placed in immediate extraction socket. Methodology: Seven patients (4 males and 3 females) aged 20-30 years were selected for the study. Nine implants were placed in seven patients in the maxillary arch. All the patients were clinically ?nd thoroughly examined. Under local anesthesia, the indicated tooth was extracted. The extracted socket was prepared using standard drills with palatal wall as guide. The longest and widest implants were placed (Hi-Tec Implants). All implants showed good primary stability. The implants used in the study were tapered design endosseous implants with Threaded implants (TI) unit plasma-sprayed surface. Surgical re-entry (secondary surgery) was performed to remove the healing cap after 6 months for supra crestal fabrication. All patients were reviewed periodically at 3rd and 6th month interval and the following clinical parameters including modified plaque index (mPlI), modified bleeding index (mBI), probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL), and distance between the implant shoulder and mucosal margin (DIM), distance between the implant shoulder and first bone-implant contact, and Clinical Mobility Index were recorded. The results were computed and subjected to statistical evaluation. Results: The mPlI, mBI, PD, AL, and DIM were evaluated around the implants at baseline, 3rd and 6th month intervals and analyzed statistically by Friedman T-test. The results of the above were shown to be statistically non-significant. The distance between the implant shoulder and first bone implant contact was evaluated around the implants at base line, 3rd and 6th month intervals. The results proved to be statistically significant (0.01) implying that there was a bone apposition around the implants. Conclusion: During the course of the study, soft tissue status around implants was found to be healthy. Osseointegration as assessed by clinical and radiographic findings was found to be sound. PMID:24678203

  17. Segmental neurofibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Galhotra, Virat; Sheikh, Soheyl; Jindal, Sanjeev; Singla, Anshu

    2014-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare disorder, characterized by neurofibromas or caf?-au-lait macules limited to one region of the body. Its occurrence on the face is extremely rare and only few cases of segmental neurofibromatosis over the face have been described so far. We present a case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the buccal mucosa, tongue, cheek, ear, and neck on the right side of the face. PMID:25565748

  18. Doppler segmentation

    E-print Network

    Yeh, Chih-Ping

    1983-01-01

    DOPPLER SEGMENTATION A Thesis by CHIH-PING YEH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering DOPPLER... SEGMENTATION A Thesis by CHIH-PING YEH Approved as to style and content by Norman . Griswo d Chairman of Commi tee) omas R. Fischer (Member) Char s A. smut (Member) M. B. Jones, Jr. (Head of Department) May 1983 ABSTRACT Doppler Segmentation...

  19. Inverted Impacted Primary Maxillary Incisors: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Seraj, B.; Ghadimi, S.; Mighani, G.; Zare, H.; Rabbani, M.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth impaction rarely occurs in primary dentition. Most of the primary teeth impactions are seen in second molars. The purpose of this article is to present a 4-year-old girl with bilateral impaction of inverted primary maxillary central incisors which trauma had displaced their tooth germ before erupting. PMID:23066483

  20. OD17-17/2 Page 1 MAXILLARY SINUS

    E-print Network

    of the alveolar process and problems with the dental occlusion. Although patients may have disturbances of the maxillary sinus, they frequently first seek professional dental service in the belief that the pain they experience is of dental origin. Waters' projection is the most useful conventional radiographic technique

  1. Bilateral maxillary fused second and third molars: a rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rui-Zhen; Wu, Jin-Tao; Wu, You-Nong; Smales, Roger J; Hu, Ming; Yu, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Guang-Dong

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the diagnosis and endodontic therapy of maxillary fused second and third molars, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 31-year-old Chinese male, with no contributory medical or family/social history, presented with throbbing pain in the maxillary right molar area following an unsuccessful attempted tooth extraction. Clinical examination revealed what appeared initially to be a damaged large extra cusp on the buccal aspect of the distobuccal cusp of the second molar. However, CBCT revealed that a third molar was fused to the second molar. Unexpectedly, the maxillary left third molar also was fused to the second molar, and the crown of an unerupted supernumerary fourth molar was possibly also fused to the apical root region of the second molar. Operative procedures should not be attempted without adequate radiographic investigation. CBCT allowed the precise location of the root canals of the right maxillary fused molar teeth to permit successful endodontic therapy, confirmed after 6 months. PMID:23222992

  2. Maxillary Antrolith: A Rare Cause of the Recurrent Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vijendra; Maller, Vijetha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. An antrolith is a calcified mass within the maxillary sinus. The origin of the nidus of calcification may be extrinsic (foreign body in sinus) or intrinsic (stagnant mucus and fungal ball). Most antroliths are small and asymptomatic. Larger ones may present as sinusitis with symptoms like pain and discharge. Case Report. We report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with heaviness on the left side of the face and loosening of the left 2nd molar tooth since two months. CT scan of the osteomeatal complex and paranasal sinuses showed an opacification of bilateral maxillary sinus and an amorphous area of bone density in the left maxillary sinus. Because of the size of the mass, benign neoplasms were considered in the differential diagnosis. During an endoscopic sinus surgery, it was found to be an antrolith, which was successfully managed by antrostomy and Caldwell-Luc Surgery. Discussion. Antrolith is a rare condition. Rhinoliths are known to invade into the maxillary antrum, but a localised lesion in the antrum is very unusual. A case of an isolated antrolith is presented for its rarity and for differential diagnosis of localised antral disease. Conclusion. Antrolith should be considered as differential diagnosis of unilateral radio-opaque paranasal sinus lesions. PMID:23476856

  3. Extraction of maxillary central incisors: an orthodontic-restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Zohreh; Zare, Maryam; Bahramnia, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Malformed central incisors with poor prognosis could be candidates for extraction especially in crowded dental arches. This case report refers to a 12-year-old boy who suffered from malformed upper central incisors associated with severe attrition. Upper lateral incisors were positioned palatally and canines were rotated and positioned in the high buccal area. The patient had class II malocclusion and space deficiency in both dental arches. Due to incisal wear and malformed short maxillary central incisors and the need for root canal therapy with a major crown build-up, these teeth were extracted. The maxillary lateral incisors were substituted. Thus the maxillary canines were substituted for lateral incisors and the first premolars were substituted for canines. In the lower dental arch the first bicuspids were extracted. Composite resin build-up was performed on the maxillary lateral incisors and canines. This allowed for the crowding and the malocclusion to be corrected. Subsequent gingivectomy improved the patient's gingival margins and smile esthetics one month after orthodontic therapy. PMID:25400954

  4. Radiographic features of vertically fractured, endodontically treated maxillary premolars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aviad Tamse; Zvi Fuss; Joseph Lustig; Yehuda Ganor; Israel Kaffe

    1999-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the most frequent radiographic appearance of bony lesions associated with vertically fractured roots of endodontically treated maxillary premolars. Study Design. The radiographic features of 102 endodontically treated teeth and their periradicular areas (51 with and 51 without vertically fractured roots) were evaluated and compared. Results. The predominant appearance of the periradicular

  5. The effect of human amniotic fluid on mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gokce, S M; Karacayli, U; Nalcaci, R; Avunduk, M C; Özgöçmen, M; Karasahin, E; Gokce, H S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local administration of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on newly formed bone obtained by mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) with histomorphometry. A unilateral mandibular osteotomy at the left corpus was performed in 32 adult male rabbits. After a 5-day latency period, the left mandibles were lengthened by mandibular DO over 5 days, at a rate of 1mm/day, via a custom-made distractor. After the distraction, the rabbits were divided randomly into four groups: 0.3 ml HAF was injected into the distraction gap followed by 21 (group 1) or 45 (group 2) days of consolidation; or 0.3 ml normal saline (NS) was administered followed by 21 (group 3) or 45 (group 4) days of consolidation. Mandibles were removed at the end of the consolidation period and investigated histomorphometrically. The newly formed bone area (NFBA) and number of fibroblasts increased significantly in the HAF groups compared to the NS groups (NFBA: group 1 vs. group 3, P<0.05; group 2 vs. group 4, P<0.01; fibroblasts: group 1 vs. group 3, and group 2 vs. group 4, P<0.05), and also in both 45-day consolidation groups compared to the 21-day consolidation groups (NFBA: group 1 vs. group 2, and group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.001; fibroblasts: group 1 vs. group 2, and group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.01). Additionally, the numbers of osteoblasts and capillaries were increased significantly at 45 days of consolidation compared to 21 days in both the HAF and NS groups (osteoblasts: group 1 vs. group 2, P<0.01; group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.05; capillaries: group 1 vs. group 2, and group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.01). Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that local HAF administration effectively accelerated bone formation. Thus, a HAF injection procedure could improve new bone formation around the bone in maxillofacial operations such as DO. PMID:25457823

  6. Investigating saccade programming in the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia using distracter interference paradigms.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the saccadic system in the mantis, I applied distracter interference paradigms. These involved presenting the mantis with a fixation target and one or several distracters supposed to affect saccades towards the target. When a single target was presented, a medium-sized target located in its lower visual field elicited higher rates of saccade response. This preference for target size and position was also observed when a target and a distracter were presented simultaneously. That is, the mantis chose and fixated the target rather than a distracter that was much smaller or larger than the target, or was located above the target. Furthermore, the mantis' preference was not affected by increasing the number of distracters. However, the presence of the distracter decreased the occurrence rate of saccade and increased the response time to saccade. I conclude that distracter interference paradigms are an effective way of investigating the visual processing underlying saccade generation in the mantis. Possible mechanisms of saccade generation in the mantis are discussed. PMID:16997321

  7. [Upper maxillary cysts: embryogenic and surgical considerations in our cases].

    PubMed

    Galletti, B; Bucolo, S; Abbate, G; Canton Bascuas, M; Romano, G; Fera, G; Freni, F

    2000-06-01

    Upper maxillary cysts are a chapter in otorhinolaryngological pathology which have been relatively neglected by the Literature. The reason for this most likely lies in the difficulty in producing a nosographic picture of these pathologies which border on other surgical fields (dentistry, maxillofacial surgery), and because they show significant clinical and etiopathogenic polymorphism. The elements that characterize upper maxillary cysts as a separate clinical entity are basically their cystic nature and origin within the upper maxillary bone, although they can expand widely within the medio-facial region (nasal vestibule, oral vestibule, nasolabial region, palate, maxillary sinus). After having reviewed the various classification schemes proposed over the years, and briefly examining the main clinical and etiopathogenic characteristics and principles for surgical treatment, the present work offers a surgical case study, together with the related iconography. Moreover this work does not neglect embryogenic considerations which are indispensable for the study of some of these pathologies. In this manner the results for 35 surgical procedures on upper maxillary cysts performed from 1989 to 1996 are presented and classified following the Cudennec classification module (1991). This study shows the variety of possible clinical manifestations for these pathologies. Such a variety makes correct diagnosis imperative--today facilitated by modern imaging techniques--and requires diversifying the surgical approach, conditioned not only by the site, extension and nature of the specific lesion, but also by the related symptoms. The significant progress in surgical techniques has made increasingly functional surgery possible and led to the abandonment of such conventional radical techniques as the Caldwell-Luc procedure. Moreover, CT and NMR have provided good image definition, specifying precisely the limits and extensions and, in most cases, facilitating diagnosis of the nature of the disorder with direct and indirect signs of the cystic nature of the lesions whenever the clinical data proves inadequate. PMID:11139876

  8. Distraction techniques for children undergoing procedures: a critical review of pediatric research.

    PubMed

    Koller, Donna; Goldman, Ran D

    2012-12-01

    Pediatric patients are often subjected to procedures that can cause pain and anxiety. Although pharmacologic interventions can be used, distraction is a simple and effective technique that directs children's attention away from noxious stimuli. However, there is a multitude of techniques and technologies associated with distraction. Given the range of distraction techniques, the purpose of this article was to provide a critical assessment of the evidence-based literature that can inform clinical practice and future research. Recommendations include greater attention to child preferences and temperament as a means of optimizing outcomes and heightening awareness around child participation in health care decision making. PMID:21925588

  9. Age-related changes in working memory and the ability to ignore distraction.

    PubMed

    McNab, Fiona; Zeidman, Peter; Rutledge, Robb B; Smittenaar, Peter; Brown, Harriet R; Adams, Rick A; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-05-19

    A weakened ability to effectively resist distraction is a potential basis for reduced working memory capacity (WMC) associated with healthy aging. Exploiting data from 29,631 users of a smartphone game, we show that, as age increases, working memory (WM) performance is compromised more by distractors presented during WM maintenance than distractors presented during encoding. However, with increasing age, the ability to exclude distraction at encoding is a better predictor of WMC in the absence of distraction. A significantly greater contribution of distractor filtering at encoding represents a potential compensation for reduced WMC in older age. PMID:25941369

  10. An Assessment of the Relationship between the Maxillary Sinus Floor and the Maxillary Posterior Teeth Root Tips Using Dental Cone-beam Computerized Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Cenk; Kamburoglu, Kivanc; Yuksel, Selcen Pehlivan; Ozen, Tuncer

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary posterior teeth root tips using dental cone-beam CT. Methods: A total of 87 right and 89 left maxillary sinus regions from 92 patients were examined using dental cone-beam CT. Images were analyzed by a specialist in oral and maxillofacial radiology. Perpendicular lines were drawn on the cross-sectional images between the deepest point of the maxillary sinus floor and the root tips of the maxillary first and second premolars and first, second and third molars, and the distances were measured using built-in measurement tools. Means, standard deviations and minimum and maximum values were calculated for all right and left premolars and molars. T-tests were used to compare measurements between left and right sides and between female and male patients. Results: The distance between sinus floor and root tip was longest for the first premolar root tip and shortest for the second molar buccodistal root tip for both right and left sides. No statistically significant differences were found between the right and left side measurements or between female and male patients (P>.05). Conclusions: Knowledge of the anatomical relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary posterior teeth root tips is important for the preoperative treatment planning of maxillary posterior teeth. PMID:20922167

  11. Effects of sound location on visual task performance and electrophysiological measures of distraction.

    PubMed

    Corral, Maria-Jose; Escera, Carles

    2008-10-01

    Novel sounds embedded in a repetitive stream of auditory stimuli impair performance of the visual task at hand. Parmentier et al. suggested that this distraction effect might be because of the shifting cost of moving attention from the task-irrelevant (auditory) to the task-relevant (visual) channel, or from their shifting of spatial locations. Here, the source location of the sounds in an audio-visual distraction paradigm was varied systematically (headphones and 0, -18, -72, 18, and 72 degrees), and the results revealed significant distracting effects of novel sounds occurring in the headphone and the right location conditions. This supports the assumption that in the behavioral cost observed in the audio-visual distraction paradigm a spatial shift of attention is involved. PMID:18797312

  12. De-Emphasis of Distracting Image Regions Using Texture Power Maps

    E-print Network

    Su, Sara L.

    We present a post-processing technique that selectively reduces the salience of distracting regions in an image. Computational models of attention predict that texture variation influences bottom-up attention mechanisms. ...

  13. BONE REGENERATION AND DOCKING SITE HEALING AFTER BONE TRANSPORT DISTRACTION OSTEOGENESIS IN THE CANINE MANDIBLE

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Lucy K; Newby, Michelle Rondon; Zakhary, Ibrahim E; Nagy, William W; Zapata, Uriel; Dechow, Paul C; Opperman, Lynne A; Elsalanty, Mohammed E

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Bone transport distraction osteogenesis (BTDO) provides a promising alternative to traditional grafting techniques. However, existing BTDO devices have many limitations. The purpose of this research was to test a new device, the mandibular bone transport reconstruction plate (BTRP), in an animal model with comparable mandible size to humans and to histologically and mechanically examine the regenerate bone. Materials and methods Eleven adult foxhound dogs were divided into an unreconstructed control group of 5 animals, and an experimental group of 6 animals. In each animal, a 34 mm segmental defect was created in the mandible. The defect was reconstructed with BTRP. Histological and biomechanical characteristics of the regenerate and un-repaired defect were analyzed and compared to bone on the contralateral side of the mandible after 4 weeks of consolidation. Results The reconstructed defect was bridged with new bone, with little bone in the control defect. Regenerate density and microhardness were 22.3% and 42.6% lower than the contralateral normal bone, respectively. Likewise, the anisotropy of the experimental group was statistically lower than in the contralateral bone. Half the experimental animals showed non-union at the docking site. Conclusion The device was very stable and easy to install and activate. After one month of consolidation, the defect has been bridged with new bone with evidence of active bone formation. Regenerate bone was less mature than the control bone. Studies are underway to identify when the regenerate properties compare to normal bone, and to identify methods to augment bone union at the docking site. PMID:21601342

  14. Parathyroid Hormone Therapy Mollifies Radiation-Induced Biomechanical Degradation in Murine Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sagar S.; Gallagher, Katherine K.; Donneys, Alexis; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Sarhaddi, Deniz; Nelson, Noah S.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Descriptions of mandibular distraction osteogenesis for tissue replacement after oncologic resection or for defects caused by osteoradionecrosis have been limited. Previous work demonstrated radiation decreases union formation, cellularity and mineral density in mandibular distraction osteogenesis. The authors posit that intermittent systemic administration of parathyroid hormone will serve as a stimulant to cellular function, reversing radiation-induced damage and enhancing bone regeneration. Methods Twenty male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 (radiation and distraction osteogenesis, n = 7) and group 2 (radiation, distraction osteogenesis, and parathyroid hormone, n = 5) received a human-equivalent dose of 35 Gy of radiation (human bioequivalent, 70 Gy) fractionated over 5 days. All groups, including group 3 (distraction osteogenesis, n = 8), underwent a left unilateral mandibular osteotomy with bilateral external fixator placement. Distraction osteogenesis was performed at a rate of 0.3 mm every 12 hours to reach a gap of 5.1 mm. Group 2 was injected with parathyroid hormone (60 ?g/kg) subcutaneously daily for 3 weeks after the start of distraction osteogenesis. On postoperative day 40, all left hemimandibles were harvested. Biomechanical response parameters were generated. Statistical significance was considered at p ? 0.05. Results Parathyroid hormone–treated mandibles had significantly higher failure load and higher yield than did untreated mandibles. However, these values were still significantly lower than those of nonirradiated mandibles. Conclusions The authors have successfully demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of parathyroid hormone to stimulate and enhance bone regeneration in their irradiated murine mandibular model of distraction osteogenesis. Anabolic regimens of parathyroid hormone, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved drug on formulary, significantly improve outcomes in a model of postoncologic craniofacial reconstruction. PMID:23806959

  15. Effects of Simulator Practice and Real-World Experience on Cell-Phone-Related Driver Distraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel M. Cooper; David L. Strayer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Our research examined the effects of practice on cell-phone—related driver distraction. Background: The driving literature is ambiguous as to whether practice can reduce driver distraction from concurrent cell phone conversation. Methods: Drivers reporting either high or low real-world cell phone usage were selected to participate in four 90-min simulated driving sessions on successive days. The research consisted of two

  16. Effects of mother reassurance versus distraction on children's reactions to injections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carlos Gonzalez

    1992-01-01

    The present study manipulated experimentally mothers' vocal behavior during a routine intramuscular injection in order to help clarify the role of nonprocedural talk (distraction) and parental reassurance on children's reaction to the injection. Forty-two child-mother dyads were recruited from a general pediatric primary care clinic and were randomly assigned to a parental reassurance, parental nonprocedural talk (distraction) or minimal-treatment control

  17. Age-Related Preservation of Top-Down Control Over Distraction in Visual Search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew C. Costello; David J. Madden; Anne M. Shepler; Stephen R. Mitroff; Andrew B. Leber

    2010-01-01

    Visual search studies have demonstrated that older adults can have preserved or even increased top-down control over distraction. However, the results are mixed as to the extent of this age-related preservation. The present experiment assesses group differences in younger and older adults during visual search, with a task featuring two conditions offering varying degrees of top-down control over distraction. After

  18. Is Timing Everything? Sequential Effects of Rumination and Distraction on Interpersonal Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Lira Yoon; Jutta Joormann

    Rumination has been closely linked to risk for depression, whereas distraction has been hypothesized to decrease sad mood\\u000a and to promote effective problem solving. This study investigates the hypothesis that it is not the use of specific strategies\\u000a but rather their timing that is critical. Following a negative mood induction, participants were assigned to either immediately\\u000a ruminate or distract followed

  19. Resisting emotional interference: Brain regions facilitating working memory performance during negative distraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Anticevic; Deanna M. Barch; Grega Repovs

    2010-01-01

    Survival-relevant information has privileged access to our awareness even during active cognitive engagement. Previous work\\u000a has demonstrated that during working memory (WM) negative emotional distraction disrupts activation in the lateral prefrontal\\u000a regions while also engaging the amygdala. Here, using slow eventrelated fMRI, we replicate and extend previous work examining\\u000a the effect of negative emotional distraction on WM: (1) We demonstrate

  20. The effects of high dose and highly fractionated radiation on distraction osteogenesis in the murine mandible.

    PubMed

    Monson, Laura A; Cavaliere, Christi M; Deshpande, Sagar S; Ayzengart, Alexander L; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    The ability of irradiated tissue to support bony growth remains poorly defined, although there are anecdotal cases reported showing mixed results for the use of mandibular distraction osteogenesis after radiation for head and neck cancer. Many of these reports lack objective measures that would allow adequate analysis of outcomes or efficacy. The purpose of this experiment was to utilize a rat model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis after high dose and highly fractionated radiation therapy and to evaluate and quantify distracted bone formation under these conditions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 12 fractions of external beam radiation (48 Gray) of the left mandible. Following a two week recovery period, an external frame distractor was applied and gradual distraction of the mandible was performed. Tissue was harvested after a twenty-eight day consolidation period. Gross, radiologic and histological evaluations were undertaken. Those animals subjected to pre-operative radiation showed severe attenuation of bone formation including bone atrophy, incomplete bridging of the distraction gap, and gross bony defects or non-union. Although physical lengthening was achieved, the irradiated bone consistently demonstrated marked damaging effects on the normal process of distraction osteogenesis. This murine model has provided reliable evidence of the injurious effects of high dose radiation on bone repair and regeneration in distraction osteogenesis utilizing accurate and reproducible metrics. These results can now be used to assist in the development of therapies directed at mitigating the adverse consequences of radiation on the regeneration of bone and to optimize distraction osteogenesis so it can be successfully applied to post-oncologic reconstruction. PMID:22958832

  1. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Joana S; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  2. Interruptions and distractions in the gynaecological operating theatre: irritating or dangerous?

    PubMed

    Yoong, Wai; Khin, Ayemon; Ramlal, Navin; Loabile, Bogadi; Forman, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Distractions and interference can include visual (e.g. staff obscuring monitors), audio (e.g. noise, irrelevant communication) and equipment problems. Level of distraction is usually defined as I: relatively inconsequential; II: > one member of the surgical team affected; III: the entire surgical team affected. The aim of this study was to observe the frequency and impact of distracting events and interruptions on elective gynaecology cases. Data from 35 cases were collected from 10 consecutive operating sessions. Mean number of interruptions was 26 episodes/case, while mean number of level II/III distractions was 17 episodes/case. Ninety per cent of interruptions occur in the first 30 minutes of the procedure and 80.9% lead to level II/III distraction. Although no complications were directly attributable to the observed distractions, the mean prolongation of operating time was 18.46 minutes/case. Understanding their effects on theatre environment enables appropriate measures to be taken so that theatre productivity and patient safety are optimised. PMID:25672986

  3. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Joana S.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  4. Visual distraction during word-list retrieval does not consistently disrupt memory

    PubMed Central

    Rae, Pamela J. L.; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Glenberg et al. (1998) reported that episodic memory is impaired by visual distraction and argued that this effect is consistent with a trade-off between internal and external attentional focus. However, their demonstration that visual distraction impairs memory for lists used 15 consecutive word-lists, with analysis only of mid-list items, and has never been replicated. Experiment 1 (N = 37) replicated their methodology and found the same pattern of impairment for mid-list recall, but found no evidence of impairment for other items on the lists. Experiment 2 (N = 64) explored whether this pattern arises because the mid-list items are poorly encoded (by manipulating presentation rate) or because of interference. Experiment 3 (N = 36) also looked at the role of interference whilst controlling for potential item effects. Neither study replicated the pattern seen in Experiment 1, despite reliable effects of presentation rate (Experiment 2) and interference (Experiments 2 and 3). Experiment 2 found no effect of distraction for mid-list items, but distraction did increase both correct and incorrect recall of all items suggestive of a shift in willingness to report. Experiment 3 found no effects of distraction whatsoever. Thus, there is no clear evidence that distraction consistently impairs retrieval of items from lists and therefore no consistent evidence to support the embodied cognition account used to explain the original finding. PMID:24795688

  5. Visual distraction during word-list retrieval does not consistently disrupt memory.

    PubMed

    Rae, Pamela J L; Perfect, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Glenberg et al. (1998) reported that episodic memory is impaired by visual distraction and argued that this effect is consistent with a trade-off between internal and external attentional focus. However, their demonstration that visual distraction impairs memory for lists used 15 consecutive word-lists, with analysis only of mid-list items, and has never been replicated. Experiment 1 (N = 37) replicated their methodology and found the same pattern of impairment for mid-list recall, but found no evidence of impairment for other items on the lists. Experiment 2 (N = 64) explored whether this pattern arises because the mid-list items are poorly encoded (by manipulating presentation rate) or because of interference. Experiment 3 (N = 36) also looked at the role of interference whilst controlling for potential item effects. Neither study replicated the pattern seen in Experiment 1, despite reliable effects of presentation rate (Experiment 2) and interference (Experiments 2 and 3). Experiment 2 found no effect of distraction for mid-list items, but distraction did increase both correct and incorrect recall of all items suggestive of a shift in willingness to report. Experiment 3 found no effects of distraction whatsoever. Thus, there is no clear evidence that distraction consistently impairs retrieval of items from lists and therefore no consistent evidence to support the embodied cognition account used to explain the original finding. PMID:24795688

  6. The congruency sequence effect emerges when the distracter precedes the target.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Daniel H; Egner, Tobias; Hawks, Zoë; Link, Jacqueline

    2015-03-01

    The congruency effect in distracter interference tasks is typically smaller when the previous trial was incongruent as compared to congruent, suggesting the operation of a control process that minimizes the influence of irrelevant stimuli on behavior. However, both the conditions under which this congruency sequence effect (CSE) can be most easily observed without the typical learning and memory confounds, and the control process underlying it, remain controversial. We therefore tested a recent hypothesis that the CSE is most easily observed without the typical confounds when the distracter is processed before the target. In line with this "distracter head start" hypothesis, in Experiments 1 and 2 the CSE was larger when the distracter appeared before, relative to with, the target. Further, in Experiment 3, we observed a negative congruency effect after incongruent trials when a long interval separated the distracter from the target, consistent with a modulation of the response engendered by the distracter but not with a shift of attention toward the target. These findings reveal an important determinant of CSE magnitude when the typical learning and memory confounds are absent and new insights into the nature of control processes that contribute to this phenomenon. PMID:25616120

  7. Trends in Fatalities From Distracted Driving in the United States, 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Stimpson, Jim P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined trends in distracted driving fatalities and their relation to cell phone use and texting volume. Methods. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) records data on all road fatalities that occurred on public roads in the United States from 1999 to 2008. We studied trends in distracted driving fatalities, driver and crash characteristics, and trends in cell phone use and texting volume. We used multivariate regression analysis to estimate the relation between state-level distracted driving fatalities and texting volumes. Results. After declining from 1999 to 2005, fatalities from distracted driving increased 28% after 2005, rising from 4572 fatalities to 5870 in 2008. Crashes increasingly involved male drivers driving alone in collisions with roadside obstructions in urban areas. By use of multivariate analyses, we predicted that increasing texting volumes resulted in more than 16 000 additional road fatalities from 2001 to 2007. Conclusions. Distracted driving is a growing public safety hazard. Specifically, the dramatic rise in texting volume since 2005 appeared to be contributing to an alarming rise in distracted driving fatalities. Legislation enacting texting bans should be paired with effective enforcement to deter drivers from using cell phones while driving. PMID:20864709

  8. Informational masking of speech in children: Effects of ipsilateral and contralateral distracters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    2005-11-01

    Using a closed-set speech recognition paradigm thought to be heavily influenced by informational masking, auditory selective attention was measured in 38 children (ages 4-16 years) and 8 adults (ages 20-30 years). The task required attention to a monaural target speech message that was presented with a time-synchronized distracter message in the same ear. In some conditions a second distracter message or a speech-shaped noise was presented to the other ear. Compared to adults, children required higher target/distracter ratios to reach comparable performance levels, reflecting more informational masking in these listeners. Informational masking in most conditions was confirmed by the fact that a large proportion of the errors made by the listeners were contained in the distracter message(s). There was a monotonic age effect, such that even the children in the oldest age group (13.6-16 years) demonstrated poorer performance than adults. For both children and adults, presentation of an additional distracter in the contralateral ear significantly reduced performance, even when the distracter messages were produced by a talker of different sex than the target talker. The results are consistent with earlier reports from pure-tone masking studies that informational masking effects are much larger in children than in adults.

  9. Correction of palatally displaced maxillary lateral incisors without brackets

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Yoonjung; Kim, Minji

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 25-year-old Korean female patient with anterior crowding, including palatally displaced lateral incisors. Her facial profile was satisfactory, but 3.5 mm of maxillary anterior crowding was observed. To correct this crowding, we decided to minimize the use of the conventional fixed orthodontic appliances and employed a less bulky and more aesthetic appliance for applying light continuous force. We determined the final positions of the maxillary teeth via a working model for diagnostic set up and achieved space gaining and alignment with simple Ni-Ti spring and stainless steel round tubes. Tooth alignment was achieved efficiently and aesthetically without the conventional brackets. PMID:24015390

  10. Correlation of maxillary anterior tooth width and outer intercanthal distance.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Ehsan; Zadparvar, Pantea; Ansari Lari, Homeira; Mirhadian, Amir Hosein; Sadr-Eshkevari, Romina

    2015-01-01

    The selection of the correct maxillary anterior teeth to establish proper mesiodistal width in a prosthesis is one of the most crucial phases of prosthodontic treatment. The ratio of facial measurements to natural tooth width could be considered a helpful scale. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between outer intercanthal distance (OICD) and the combined anterior width (CAW) of maxillary teeth. The CAW between the canine distal contacts and the OICD of 100 men and 100 women were measured. Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrated a positive correlation between OICD and CAW. There was no statistically significant difference between the sexes in mean difference between OICD and CAW. Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that the OICD can be used as a fairly reliable method to determine the CAW for edentulous patients. PMID:26147166

  11. Maxillary Sinus Septa and Anatomic Correlation With the Schneiderian Membrane.

    PubMed

    Rancitelli, Davide; Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Cicciù, Marco; Re, Dino; Rizza, Federica; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Maiorana, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Aim of this investigation is to evaluate prevalence, localization, and height of 114 maxillary sinus septa by using cone-beam computed tomography scans. The thickness of the mucosa has been measured together with the variations of the membrane in relation to those septa.A total of 228 maxillary sinuses have been considered. Septa were identified using "panorex" reconstructions and axial scans of cone-beam computed tomography using the software "eXamVision." The thickness of the mucosa has been evaluated in the paraxial scans and related to those septa where they were present.In the current study, the prevalence of sinus septa is 38.1%. Significant difference can be found in the height of primary and secondary septa. The mean height of primary septa was 5.5?mm (±1.19) and of secondary septa 3.4?mm (±1.6). Anterior and medium septa resulted significantly higher than posterior septa (P?=?0.003). The medium thickness of the mucosa was 0.85?mm (±0.58), whereas close to the septa it turned out to be 1.8?mm (±1.87). The difference is statistically relevant (P?=?0.003). There is no statistically significant proportional relation between dimensions of septa and thickness of mucosa (P?=?0.53).Underwood septa are frequent anatomic variations of the maxillary sinus. Their presence may result in a thickening of the sinus membrane. The systematic study of radiographic anatomy of maxillary sinus is necessary before the sinus lift surgery planning. PMID:26080204

  12. Restoration of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors using mini implants.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ron

    2013-11-01

    In this author's opinion, the advent of mini implants, or small diameter implants (SDIs) as they are more frequently being called, is becoming in many situations a viable alternative to the more traditional root form implants. They offer advantages of less cost, a more simplified placement technique, usually faster healing times, and generally less post-operative complications. A case presentation is given to demonstrate their usage for a narrow ridge application to restore congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:24428002

  13. Restoration of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors using mini implants.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ron

    2013-07-01

    In this author's opinion, the advent of mini implants, or small diameter implants (SDIs) as they are more frequently being called, are becoming in many situations a viable alternative to the more traditional root form implants. They offer advantages of less cost, a more simplified placement technique, usually faster healing times, and generally less post-operative complications. A case presentation is given to demonstrate their usage for a narrow ridge application to restore congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:24015452

  14. Attempted traction of impacted and ankylosed maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marlio Vinícius; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this article is to report the clinical orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with 2 impacted maxillary canines. Traction was applied to the impacted teeth; however, after 7 months, the teeth were found to be ankylosed and were extracted. The extraction spaces were closed by moving the posterior teeth mesially with mini-implant anchorage. The results were satisfactory, with the premolars in the functional position of the canines. PMID:22748996

  15. CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF MAXILLARY MOLARS: Clinical Observations of Canal Configurations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Stropko

    An examination of 1732 conventionally treated maxillary molars was made in an attempt to deter-mine the percentage of MB2 canals that could be located routinely. The teeth examined were 1096 first molars, 611 second molars, and 25 third mo-lars. The results were recorded on a modified computer program over an 8-yr period of time. An in-teresting trend was noted. The

  16. maxillary palps present maxillary palps absent forehead with spines forehead without spines

    E-print Network

    Bmcnrcd antenna" segmented I i head longer .han wide head no. longer .han "'ide abdomen densely covered with seue abdomen oval Lipeurw caponi. Cuclutogatter heterographu. Goniocote. hoiogOlter abdomen with sclcrotized markings abdomen without sclcrotized markings ~. Goniode. gigtU Goniode. di.,imili. MALLOPHAGA: PICTORIAL

  17. Survival rate of Astra Tech implants with maxillary sinus lift

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Wook-Jae; Jeong, Kyung-In; You, Jae-Seek; Oh, Ji-Su

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical survival rate of Astra Tech implants in the maxillary molar region performed with sinus lift and bone graft. Materials and Methods Ninety-nine Astra Tech implants (Osseospeed) placed in the maxillary molar region using sinus lift from September 2009 to February 2012 were selected with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year. The height of alveolar bone, sinus approach technique, bone material and implant survival rate were evaluated. Results Of the 99 implants, the survival rate was 90.9%; 8 implants failed within 1 year after implant placement, and 1 implant failed 1 year after implant loading. All failed implants were placed with sinus lift simultaneously. The average height of alveolar bone before implant placement was 6.9 mm, while the height of alveolar bone of failed implants was 2.1 mm, on average. Conclusion Astra Tech implants placed in the maxillary molar region had generally good survival rates, but the relationship between reduced pre-implant alveolar bone height and implant failure requires further attention. PMID:24627838

  18. A patient with severe maxillary gingival exposure treated with combined compression osteogenesis of the anterior alveolar bone and conventional Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Kohara, Haruka; Kawasaki, Takako; Fujimura, Yuji; Yoshida, Noriaki; Asahina, Izumi

    2013-11-01

    Excessive gingival exposure at the maxillary anterior region during not only smiling (a gummy face) but also at rest creates both functional and aesthetic problems for patients. We herein introduce a unique treatment procedure for mandibular retrognathia with a gummy face. This procedure combines conventional Le Fort I osteotomy and following corticotomy at the anterior region of the maxilla. Subsequently, the anterior segment is continuously compressed (compression osteogenesis) in a posterior-superior direction until it reaches an ideal position. This procedure appears to safely and adequately resolve both the aesthetic and functional complaints associated with patients with a gummy face. PMID:24220408

  19. Asymmetric transverse control of maxillary dentition with two midpalatal orthodontic miniscrews.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Young; Mah, Su-Jung; Kang, Yoon-Goo

    2015-05-01

    There have been several orthodontic modalities for maxillary transverse control with most addressing symmetric control. The asymmetric transverse control of maxillary dentition is challenging to orthodontists due to the lack of certain modalities and possible dental side effects. Skeletal anchorages provide biomechanics without orthodontic side effects, but reports of their utilization for transverse control of maxillary dentition are scarce. The purpose of this article is to introduce a novel method utilizing two midpalatal orthodontic miniscrews and a connecting wire system for the asymmetric transverse control of maxillary dentition. Records of two patients consecutively treated with this system are reported, and the related biomechanical considerations are presented. PMID:25112171

  20. Stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in maxillary inferior repositioning: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Costa, F; Robiony, M; Politi, M

    2000-01-01

    Inferior repositioning of the maxilla to correct vertical maxillary deficiency has been one of the more unstable orthognathic procedures performed. This kind of maxillary movement is the logical correction of short face syndrome due to maxillary vertical deficiency, but in spite of the esthetic improvement that it produces, a great tendency to relapse was observed. Unfortunately, the procedure is relatively rare, and this is reflected in the small sample of the studies. The literature concerning the stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in maxillary inferior repositioning was reviewed to analyze and discuss the stability of the surgical techniques proposed. PMID:11307199

  1. Esthetic improvement in the patient with one missing maxillary central incisor restored with porcelain laminate veneers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Jin; Yang, Jae-Ho; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2010-01-01

    This article describes esthetic improvement in a patient with a missing maxillary left central incisor. Space analysis of the anterior dentition showed that minor tooth rearrangement was needed. Optimal space distribution for restorations was attained by orthodontic treatment. Through transforming tooth shape with porcelain laminate veneers, the maxillary left lateral incisor was transformed into central incisor and the maxillary left canine into a lateral incisor. The maxillary right central incisor was also restored for esthetic improvement. In a case of changing a tooth shape with porcelain laminate veneers, pre-treatment evaluation, space analysis and diagnostic wax-up are important factors. PMID:21165273

  2. The development and pathologic processes that influence maxillary sinus pneumatization.

    PubMed

    Lawson, William; Patel, Zara M; Lin, Fred Y

    2008-11-01

    The maxillary sinus is universally described as a pyramidal-shaped cavity in the maxilla. Hypoplasia, which can occur unilaterally or bilaterally, is graded by the authors by the degree of failure of descent below the nasal floor in achieving its position adjacent to the posterior dentition in the adult. Unlike early studies using plain X-rays, which considered pneumatization into the zygomatic recess and dental alveolus as criteria, the authors have adopted the above-cited parameters based on computed tomography (CT) imaging, which reveals that even when smaller the sinus retains a pyramidal configuration, although truncated. Rarely, the sinus is excessively pneumatized in the nonpathologic state. Review of the literature failed to reveal a comprehensive study of the conditions that alter maxillary sinus volume and configuration. Based on a retrospective review of 6,000 high resolution CT scans of the paranasal sinuses, the types and relative incidences of these conditions have been determined, and a classification system proposed. The mixed-sex sample group (= 2,540) was comprised of nonpediatric (adolescent and adult) and was of a polyethnic composition. Results showed that enlargement of the sinus is uncommonly encountered, and is produced by air (pneumocele) and mucus (mucocele) entrapment, or by benign tumors which have arisen in the sinus or adjacent maxilla and have grown intracavitarily, with the sinus walls expanding and remodeling to accommodate them. Reduction in size and volume is more frequent. Heredo-familial syndromic conditions reduce sinus size by impaired facial growth centers, or obliteration by dense osteosclerosis. Irradiation for neoplastic disease in the pediatric population similarly, directly effect growth centers, or impairs pituitary function. Another iatrogenic cause, direct surgical intervention (Caldwell-Luc procedure) almost universally alters sinus volume and shape by osteoneogenesis. Midfacial fractures involving the sinus also produce distortion by sclerosis as well as by malpositioning of bone fragments. The principal systemic disorders, sickle cell anemia and osteopetrosis, which diffusely effect medullary bone, do so either through compensatory marrow proliferation or sclerotic new bone formation, thus serving to produce maxillary enlargement and sinus obliteration. The greatest source of maxillary sinus distortion and destruction are neoplasms. Malignant sinonasal and oral cavity tumors produce bony erosion of the sinus walls, whereas benign odontogenic cysts remain external to the sinuses and compress it as they enlarge. Most odontogenic tumors produce external compression and remodeling. Fibro-osseous disorders similarly produce size and shape distortions by external impingement. Although diverse developmental and pathological conditions influence maxillary sinus morphology, there is a limited range of biologic response. PMID:18951496

  3. Two-year follow-up of distraction osteogenesis: Its effect on mandibular ramus height in hemifacial microsomia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Malagoni Marquez; Leward C. Fish; John Paul Stella

    2000-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis has been used to lengthen the mandible in patients with hemifacial microsomia. Questions regarding soft tissue and skeletal growth after distraction osteogenesis have not been clearly elucidated in the literature. In this case report, a 2-year follow-up of distraction osteogenesis in a 7 year old boy is documented with lateral and posterior\\/anterior cephalometric analysis. The analysis was performed

  4. Intradiscal Pressure Changes during Manual Cervical Distraction: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Gudavalli, M. R.; Potluri, T.; Carandang, G.; Havey, R. M.; Voronov, L. I.; Cox, J. M.; Rowell, R. M.; Kruse, R. A.; Joachim, G. C.; Patwardhan, A. G.; Henderson, C. N. R.; Goertz, C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure intradiscal pressure (IDP) changes in the lower cervical spine during a manual cervical distraction (MCD) procedure. Incisions were made anteriorly, and pressure transducers were inserted into each nucleus at lower cervical discs. Four skilled doctors of chiropractic (DCs) performed MCD procedure on nine specimens in prone position with contacts at C5 or at C6 vertebrae with the headpiece in different positions. IDP changes, traction forces, and manually applied posterior-to-anterior forces were analyzed using descriptive statistics. IDP decreases were observed during MCD procedure at all lower cervical levels C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7. The mean IDP decreases were as high as 168.7 KPa. Mean traction forces were as high as 119.2 N. Posterior-to-anterior forces applied during manual traction were as high as 82.6 N. Intraclinician reliability for IDP decrease was high for all four DCs. While two DCs had high intraclinician reliability for applied traction force, the other two DCs demonstrated only moderate reliability. IDP decreases were greatest during moving flexion and traction. They were progressevely less pronouced with neutral traction, fixed flexion and traction, and generalized traction. PMID:24023587

  5. Biomechanics of the canine mandible during bone transport distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Uriel; Dechow, Paul C; Watanabe, Ikuya; Elsalanty, Mohammed E; Opperman, Lynne A

    2014-11-01

    This study compared biomechanical patterns between finite element models (FEMs) and a fresh dog mandible tested under molar and incisal physiological loads in order to clarify the effect of the bone transport distraction osteogenesis (BTDO) surgical process. Three FEMs of dog mandibles were built in order to evaluate the effects of BTDO. The first model evaluated the mandibular response under two physiological loads resembling bite processes. In the second model, a 5.0?cm bone defect was bridged with a bone transport reconstruction plate (BTRP). In the third model, new regenerated bony tissue was incorporated within the defect to mimic the surgical process without the presence of the device. Complementarily, a mandible of a male American foxhound dog was mechanically tested in the laboratory both in the presence and absence of a BTRP, and mechanical responses were measured by attaching rosettes to the bone surface of the mandible to validate the FEM predictions. The relationship between real and predicted values indicates that the stress patterns calculated using FEM are a valid predictor of the biomechanics of the BTDO procedures. The present study provides an interesting correlation between the stiffness of the device and the biomechanical response of the mandible affected for bone transport. PMID:25162918

  6. Five years follow-up of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation on a patient after mandibular ameloblastoma removal and ridge reconstruction by fibula graft and bone distraction

    PubMed Central

    Oteri, Giacomo; Ponte, Francesco Saverio De; Pisano, Michele; Cicciù, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This case report presents a combination of surgical and prosthetic solutions applied to a case of oral implant rehabilitation in post-oncologic reconstructed mandible. Bone resection due to surgical treatment of large mandibular neoplasm can cause long-span defects. Currently, mandibular fibula free flap graft is widely considered as a reliable technique for restoring this kind of defect. It restores the continuity of removed segment and re-establishes the contour of the lower jaw. However, the limited height of grafted fibula does not allow the insertion of regular length implants, therefore favouring vertical distraction osteogenesis as an important treatment choice. This report presents a patient affected by extensive mandibular ameloblastoma who underwent surgical reconstruction by fibula free flap because of partial mandibular resection. Guided distraction osteoneogenesis technique was applied to grafted bone, in order to obtain adequate bone height and to realize a prosthetically guided placement of 8 fixtures. After osseointegration, the patient was rehabilitated with a full arch, screw-retained prosthetic restoration. At five-years follow up, excellent integration of grafted tissue, steady levels of bone around the fixtures and healthy peri-implant tissues were reported. PMID:22623943

  7. Application of orthodontic mini-implants and ligation for absolute skeletal anchorage to the intraoral labiolingual appliance: midface distraction osteogenesis cases treated with the RED System.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Hak; Seo, Yu-Jin

    2011-03-01

    Patients with cleft and several craniofacial syndromes usually show skeletal class III malocclusion with midface hypoplasia. Although the Rigid External Distraction (RED) System (KLS Martin, LP, Jacksonville, FL) has been used widely, bowing of the external traction hooks (ETHs) and tooth-borne anchorage for the intraoral labiolingual appliance (ILA) can result in inappropriate change of force application level and vector control, eventually improper rotation of the osteotomized bony segment and unwanted dentoalveolar effect. Instead of the ETH and ILA, direct fixation of the skeletal plate on the maxilla can be another option. However, it also has some disadvantages including inflammation, fixation failure, and the need for a second surgery to remove the plates. These phenomena could be minimized by the addition of rigidity to the ETHs and fortification of absolute skeletal anchorage to the ILA. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to introduce application orthodontic mini-implants on the buccal attached gingiva and palate areas and ligation for absolute skeletal anchorage to the ILA in midface distraction osteogenesis cases treated with the RED System. In cases that need a large amount of advancement and bodily translation or clockwise rotation of the midface and that have oligodontia or anchorage problem for the ILA, application of the orthodontic mini-implants and ligation for absolute skeletal anchorage to the ILA can be a highly effective fixation approach to obtain more accurate vector control. PMID:21403527

  8. Combined micro computed tomography and histology study of bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgenstein, Bernd; Deyhle, Hans; Jaquiery, Claude; Kunz, Christoph; Stalder, Anja; Stübinger, Stefan; Jundt, Gernot; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert; Hieber, Simone E.

    2012-10-01

    Bone augmentation is a vital part of surgical interventions of the oral and maxillofacial area including dental implantology. Prior to implant placement, sufficient bone volume is needed to reduce the risk of peri-implantitis. While augmentation using harvested autologous bone is still considered as gold standard, many surgeons prefer bone substitutes to reduce operation time and to avoid donor site morbidity. To assess the osteogenic efficacy of commercially available augmentation materials we analyzed drill cores extracted before implant insertion. In younger patients, distraction osteogenesis is successfully applied to correct craniofacial deformities through targeted bone formation. To study the influence of mesenchymal stem cells on bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis, human mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the distraction gap of nude rat mandibles immediately after osteotomy. The distraction was performed over eleven days to reach a distraction gap of 6 mm. Both the rat mandibles and the drill cores were scanned using synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography. The three-dimensional data were manually registered and compared with corresponding two-dimensional histological sections to assess bone regeneration and its morphology. The analysis of the rat mandibles indicates that bone formation is enhanced by mesenchymal stem cells injected before distraction. The bone substitutes yielded a wide range of bone volume and degree of resorption. The volume fraction of the newly formed bone was determined to 34.4% in the computed tomography dataset for the augmentation material Geistlich Bio-Oss®. The combination of computed tomography and histology allowed a complementary assessment for both bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis.

  9. Effect of age and pop out distracter on attended field of view

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Raiju J.; Leat, Susan J.; Irving, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the functional field of view (FFOV) of younger and older individuals using the attended field of view (AFOV), a method which allows for eye and head movement. The impact of a pop out distracter and a dual task on the FFOV measure was also investigated. Methods Nine young adult (25 ± 6 years) and 9 older participants (72 ± 4 years) took part in the experiment. The AFOV test involved the binocular detection and localization of a white target (Landolt-C) in a field of 24 white rings (distracters). The further AFOV tests were modified to include the presence of a pop out distracter, a dual task condition, and a combination of the two. Results Older observers had lower viewing efficiency (log [1/presentation time]) in all conditions (pooled mean across conditions: older: 0.05 ± 0.02; younger: 0.48 ± 0.04) than the younger group. The addition of dual or a pop out distracter did not affect the older group (mean difference ?104 ± 150 ms and ?124 ± 122 ms respectively) but the additional pop out distracter reduced the efficiency of the younger group for targets near fixation (mean difference ?68 ± 35 ms). Conclusion Better viewing efficiency was observed in younger individuals compared to older individuals. Difficulty in disregarding irrelevant stimuli and thereby resorting to inefficient search strategy is proposed as the reason for the differences. The finding that both older and younger individuals are not affected significantly by the presence of the irrelevant pop out distracter has implications in situations such as driving or hazard avoidance. In such scenarios, search performance is likely not impaired beyond what is found with distracters (visual clutter) in the environment. PMID:25323645

  10. Achieving the prediction results by visualized treatment objective following anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, V; Kumar, K A Jeevan; Mohan, A P; Kumar, B Pavan; Kunusoth, Ramesh; Kumar, M Pavan

    2013-06-01

    This study used the manual visualized treatment objectives (VTO) as a tool to evaluate the predictive value of the computer-assisted VTO. Presurgical cephalometric tracing predictions generated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons and computer-assisted VTOs were compared with the postsurgical outcome as seen on lateral cephalometric tracings. Ten measurements of the predicted and actual postsurgical hard tissue landmarks were compared statistically. A paired Student's t test showed that in nine of ten measurements, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean values of manual VTO (MVTO). Statistically significant differences were found in one of the four linear measurements (cant of upper lip P - 0.0001). For computer assisted (CAVTO) Student's t test showed that in nine of ten measurements, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean values. Statistically significant differences were found in one of the four linear measurements (nasolabial angle, P  - 0.0001). From these data, it appears that both VTOs demonstrated good predictive comparative outcome, and are equally predictive, but CAVTO is precise. PMID:24431838

  11. Auditory distraction transmitted by a cochlear implant alters allocation of attentional resources

    PubMed Central

    Finke, Mareike; Sandmann, Pascale; Kopp, Bruno; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses which restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The successful adaptation of auditory cognition to the CI input depends to a substantial degree on individual factors. We pursued an electrophysiological approach toward an analysis of cortical responses that reflect perceptual processing stages and higher-level responses to CI input. Performance and event-related potentials on two cross-modal discrimination-following-distraction (DFD) tasks from CI users and normal-hearing (NH) individuals were compared. The visual-auditory distraction task combined visual distraction with following auditory discrimination performance. Here, we observed similar cortical responses to visual distractors (Novelty-N2) and slowed, less accurate auditory discrimination performance in CI users when compared to NH individuals. Conversely, the auditory-visual distraction task was used to combine auditory distraction with visual discrimination performance. In this task we found attenuated cortical responses to auditory distractors (Novelty-P3), slowed visual discrimination performance, and attenuated cortical P3-responses to visual targets in CI users compared to NH individuals. These results suggest that CI users process auditory distractors differently than NH individuals and that the presence of auditory CI input has an adverse effect on the processing of visual targets and the visual discrimination ability in implanted individuals. We propose that this attenuation of the visual modality occurs through the allocation of neural resources to the CI input. PMID:25798083

  12. Improving dental experiences by using virtual reality distraction: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Pahl, Sabine; White, Mathew P; Andrade, Jackie; Qian, Cheng; Bruce, Malcolm; May, Jon; Moles, David R

    2014-01-01

    Dental anxiety creates significant problems for both patients and the dental profession. Some distraction interventions are already used by healthcare professionals to help patients cope with unpleasant procedures. The present study is novel because it a) builds on evidence that natural scenery is beneficial for patients, and b) uses a Virtual Reality (VR) representation of nature to distract participants. Extending previous work that has investigated pain and anxiety during treatment, c) we also consider the longer term effects in terms of more positive memories of the treatment, building on a cognitive theory of memory (Elaborated Intrusions). Participants (n?=?69) took part in a simulated dental experience and were randomly assigned to one of three VR conditions (active vs. passive vs. control). In addition, participants were distinguished into high and low dentally anxious according to a median split resulting in a 3×2 between-subjects design. VR distraction in a simulated dental context affected memories a week later. The VR distraction had effects not only on concurrent experiences, such as perceived control, but longitudinally upon the vividness of memories after the dental experience had ended. Participants with higher dental anxiety (for whom the dental procedures were presumably more aversive) showed a greater reduction in memory vividness than lower dental-anxiety participants. This study thus suggests that VR distractions can be considered as a relevant intervention for cycles of care in which people's previous experiences affect their behaviour for future events. PMID:24621518

  13. Early detection and late cognitive control of emotional distraction by the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    García-Pacios, Javier; Garcés, Pilar; Del Río, David; Maestú, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Unpleasant emotional distraction can impair the retention of non-emotional information in working memory (WM). Research links the prefrontal cortex with the successful control of such biologically relevant distractors, although the temporal changes in this brain mechanism remain unexplored. We use magnetoencephalography to investigate the temporal dynamics of the cognitive control of both unpleasant and pleasant distraction, in the millisecond (ms) scale. Behavioral results demonstrate that pleasant events do not affect WM maintenance more than neutral ones. Neuroimaging results show that prefrontal cortices are recruited for the rapid detection of emotional distraction, at early latencies of the processing (70-130?ms). Later in the processing (360-450?ms), the dorsolateral, the medial and the orbital sections of the prefrontal cortex mediate the effective control of emotional distraction. In accordance with the behavioral performance, pleasant distractors do not require higher prefrontal activity than neutral ones. These findings extend our knowledge about the brain mechanisms of coping with emotional distraction in WM. In particular, they show for the first time that overriding the attentional capture triggered by emotional distractors, while maintaining task-relevant elements in mind, is based on the early detection of such linked-to-survival information and on its later cognitive control by the prefrontal cortex. PMID:26067780

  14. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kean J; Babeva, Kalina N; Feng, Michelle C; Hummer, Justin F; Davison, Gerald C

    2014-01-01

    Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses), yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor). Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., "uh" or "umm") and filler words (e.g., "like" or "you know"). Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods. PMID:24904488

  15. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kean J.; Babeva, Kalina N.; Feng, Michelle C.; Hummer, Justin F.; Davison, Gerald C.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses), yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor). Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., “uh” or “umm”) and filler words (e.g., “like” or “you know”). Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods. PMID:24904488

  16. Psychological factors for driver distraction and inattention in the Australian and New Zealand rail industry.

    PubMed

    Naweed, Anjum

    2013-11-01

    A signal passed at danger (SPAD) event occurs when a train moves past a stop signal into a section of unauthorised track. SPAD events are frequently attributed to driver distraction and inattention, but few studies have explored the failure mode from the perspective of task demand and the ability of the driver to self-regulate in response to competing activities. This study aimed to provide a more informed understanding of distraction, inattention and SPAD-risk in the passenger rail task. The research approach combined focus groups with a generative task designed to stimulate situational insight. Twenty-eight train drivers participated from 8 different rail operators in Australia and New Zealand. Data were analysed thematically and revealed several moderating factors for driver distraction. Time-keeping pressure and certain aspects of the driver-controller dynamic were considered to distort performance, and distractions from station dwelling and novel events increased SPAD-risk. The results are conceptualised in a succinct model of distraction linking multiple factors with mechanisms that induced the attentional shift. The commonalities and inter-dynamics of the factors revealed insight into driving anxiety in the passenger rail mode, and suggested that SPAD-risk was intensified when three or more factors converged. The paper discusses these issues in the context of misappropriated attention, taxonomic implications, and directions for future research. PMID:24076301

  17. Early detection and late cognitive control of emotional distraction by the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    García-Pacios, Javier; Garcés, Pilar; Del Río, David; Maestú, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Unpleasant emotional distraction can impair the retention of non-emotional information in working memory (WM). Research links the prefrontal cortex with the successful control of such biologically relevant distractors, although the temporal changes in this brain mechanism remain unexplored. We use magnetoencephalography to investigate the temporal dynamics of the cognitive control of both unpleasant and pleasant distraction, in the millisecond (ms) scale. Behavioral results demonstrate that pleasant events do not affect WM maintenance more than neutral ones. Neuroimaging results show that prefrontal cortices are recruited for the rapid detection of emotional distraction, at early latencies of the processing (70-130?ms). Later in the processing (360-450?ms), the dorsolateral, the medial and the orbital sections of the prefrontal cortex mediate the effective control of emotional distraction. In accordance with the behavioral performance, pleasant distractors do not require higher prefrontal activity than neutral ones. These findings extend our knowledge about the brain mechanisms of coping with emotional distraction in WM. In particular, they show for the first time that overriding the attentional capture triggered by emotional distractors, while maintaining task-relevant elements in mind, is based on the early detection of such linked-to-survival information and on its later cognitive control by the prefrontal cortex. PMID:26067780

  18. Structural and functional differences in medial prefrontal cortex underlies distractibility and suppression deficits in aging

    PubMed Central

    Chadick, James Z.; Zanto, Theodore P.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Older adults experience deficits in working memory (WM) that are acutely exacerbated by the presence of distracting information. Human neurophysiological studies have revealed that these changes are accompanied by a diminished ability to suppress visual cortical activity associated with task-irrelevant information. Although this is often attributed to deficits in top-down control from a prefrontal cortical source, this has not yet been directly demonstrated. Here we evaluate the neural basis of distraction’s negative impact on WM and the impairment in neural suppression in older adults by performing structural and functional MRIs while older participants engage in tasks that require remembering relevant visual stimuli in the context of overlapping irrelevant stimuli. Analysis supports both an age-related distraction effect and neural suppression deficit, and extends our understanding by revealing an alteration in functional connectivity between visual cortices and a region in the default network, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Moreover, within the older population, the magnitude of WM distractibility and neural suppression are both associated with individual differences in cortical volume and activity of the mPFC, as well as its associated white-matter tracts. PMID:24979364

  19. Dancing to distraction: mediating 'docile bodies' in 'Philippine Thriller video'.

    PubMed

    Mangaoang, Áine

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the conditions behind the 'Philippine Prison Thriller' video, a YouTube spectacle featuring the 1,500 inmates of Cebu Provincial Detention and Rehabilitation Centre (CPDRC) dancing to Michael Jackson's hit song 'Thriller'. The video achieved viral status after it was uploaded onto the video-sharing platform in 2007, and sparked online debates as to whether this video, containing recorded moving images of allegedly forced dancing, was a form of cruel and inhumane punishment or a novel approach to rehabilitation. The immense popularity of the video inspired creative responses from viewers, and this international popularity caused the CPDRC to host a monthly live dance show held in the prison yard, now in its seventh year. The essay explores how seemingly innocuous products of user-generated-content are imbued with ideologies that obscure or reduce relations of race, agency, power and control. By contextualising the video's origins, I highlight current Philippine prison conditions and introduce how video-maker/programme inventor/prison warden Byron Garcia sought to distance his facility from the Philippine prison majority. I then investigate the 'mediation' of 'Thriller' through three main issues. One, I examine the commodification and transformation from viral video to a thana-tourist destination; two, the global appeal of 'Thriller' is founded on public penal intrigue and essentialist Filipino tropes, mixed with a certain novelty factor widely suffused in YouTube formats; three, how dance performance and its mediation here are conducive to creating Foucault's docile bodies, which operate as a tool of distraction for the masses and ultimately serve the interests of the state far more than it rehabilitates(unconvicted and therefore innocent) inmates. PMID:24480892

  20. Radiographic Investigation of Location and Angulation of Curvatures in Human Maxillary Incisors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brita Willershausen; Adrian Kasaj; Haki Tekyatan; Bernd Roehrig; Benjamin Briseno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this radiographic study was to evaluate the degree and location of root canal curvatures of human maxillary incisors. A total of 286 extracted human maxillary incisors (145 central and 141 lateral incisors) were included in this investigation. Exclusion criteria were teeth with extensive carious lesions, restorations, and root canal treatment. For this in vitro study, the teeth

  1. Maxillary Midline diastema closure after replacement of primary teeth with implant prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Al-Saqabi, Farah Y; Fenlon, Michael R; Bavisha, Kalpesh A

    2015-05-01

    This case shows an excellent esthetic treatment outcome using implant-retained crowns replacing maxillary laterals and canines in hypodontia patient with unusual incidence of spontaneous diastema closure after the placement of implants. To our knowledge, this is the first case report showing maxillary midline diastema closure after implant placement. PMID:25984308

  2. Rapid maxillary expansion in the deciduous and mixed dentition evaluated through posteroanterior cephalometric analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho; Luciana Andrade do Prado Montes; Luiz Flores Torelly

    1995-01-01

    There is an agreement among orthodontists that a posterior crossbite relationship should be treated early. The Haas expansion appliance is frequently chosen whenever a maxillary skeletal constriction exists in the deciduous, mixed, or permanent dentition. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of rapid maxillary expansion for 32 children between 5 and 11 years of age, by inspection of anteroposterior

  3. Sinus lift approach for the retrieval of root fragments from the maxillary sinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Uckan; D Buchbinder

    2003-01-01

    A new application of a well-known technique; lateral wall sinus approach, to remove a root fragment from the maxillary sinus with minimal damage to the epithelial lining and anterior face of maxilla is described. The technique presented in this article helps eliminate some of the complications associated with Caldwell Luc procedure while preserving the epithelial lining of the maxillary sinus

  4. Maxillary sinus function after sinus lifts for the insertion of dental implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolaas M Timmenga; Gerry M Raghoebar; Geert Boering; Ranny van Weissenbruch

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of bone augmentation of the floor of the maxillary sinus for the insertion of dental implants on sinus function has not been well investigated. In this study, the influence of the sinus lift on the development of maxillary sinus pathology was evaluated using generally accepted diagnostic criteria.Material and Methods:A group of 45 patients in whom a sinus

  5. Second mesiobuccal canal detection in maxillary first molars using microscopy and ultrasonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tayfun Alaçam; Ali Cemal Tinaz; Özgür Genç; Guven Kayaoglu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of operating micro- scope in combination with ultrasonics increased the rate of second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal detection in permanent maxillary first molar teeth. A hundred extracted human maxillary first molars were assessed. After location of the main canals, the MB2 canal was sought in all teeth first without microscopy,

  6. Regenerative therapy in the treatment of maxillary molar Class II furcations: case reports.

    PubMed

    Rosen, P S; Marks, M H; Bowers, G M

    1997-12-01

    This report demonstrates the use of regenerative therapy in the treatment of maxillary molar Class II furcations. The predominant therapy provided was open debridement in combination with DFDBA, e-PTFE membranes, and citric acid root conditioning. Case reports of consecutively treated patients that include radiographs and reentry photographs demonstrate that maxillary molar furcations can be successfully treated with predictability. PMID:9497738

  7. Carotid cavernous fistula after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with a bone anchored appliance.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, J T; Paschoal, E H A; Carreira, A S D; Real, R P V

    2013-03-01

    Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) is an effective and stable method for treating severe maxillary transverse discrepancies in skeletally mature individuals, but it has potential complications. The authors report the case of a 34-year-old woman who developed carotid cavernous fistula after undergoing SARME with a bone anchored appliance and discuss the possible etiological basis of this condition. PMID:23153788

  8. Maxillary sinus augmentation with deproteinated bovine bone and platelet rich plasma with simultaneous insertion of endosseous implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlene Rodriguez; George E. Anastassov; Ho Lee; Daniel Buchbinder; Hope Wettan

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical applicability of using deproteinated bovine bone mixed with autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in human maxillary sinus augmentations in severely resorbed posterior maxillary alveolar processes with simultaneous insertion of endosseous dental implants. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with less than 5 mm of residual alveolar bone height in the posterior maxillary alveolus underwent a total

  9. Learning static object segmentation from motion segmentation

    E-print Network

    Ross, Michael G. (Michael Gregory), 1975-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the SANE (Segmentation According to Natural Examples) algorithm for learning to segment objects in static images from video data. SANE uses background subtraction to find the segmentation of moving ...

  10. Pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery following mandibular condylar fracture

    PubMed Central

    Katakol, Basavaraj; Govindaraj, E.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery is a rare occurrence. A well-organized pulsatile mass that develops after a traumatic event indicates a pseudoaneurysm. Such lesions are commonly misdiagnosed for an abscess or a hematoma. Pulsations and audible bruit are diagnostic features of an aneurysm. Rupture of such false aneurysms cause significant morbidity. Management is either surgical resection or embolization. Endovascular embolization is indicated in deep seated lesions or lesions with high morbidity. Though surgical resection is an invasive procedure, it is considered to be an alternative to embolization. PMID:25593875

  11. Primary sinonasal tuberculosis confined to the unilateral maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Yeon; Bae, Jung Ho; Park, Jee Soo; Lee, Seung-Sin

    2014-01-01

    Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is not rare and occurs mainly in the head and neck region. Cervical tuberculous lymphadenopathy is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Sinonasal tuberculosis is known to occur very rarely due to the protective functions of sinonasal mucosa. Although some signs of sinonasal tuberculosis may be present, such as associated facial abscesses, the symptoms and signs are usually nonspecific. Clinical suspicion is important for timely diagnosis and proper management of sinonasal tuberculosis due to its rarity and nonspecific clinical presentation. We report a case of tuberculosis confined to the unilateral maxillary sinus that was first misdiagnosed as recurrent rhinosinusitis after endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:24551309

  12. Progressive immediate loading of a perforated maxillary sinus dental implant: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2015-01-01

    The displacement of a dental implant into the maxillary sinus may lead to implant failure due to exposure of the apical third or the tip of the implant beyond the bone, resulting in soft tissue growth. This case report discusses dental implant placement in the upper first molar area with maxillary sinus involvement of approximately 2 mm. A new technique for progressive implant loading was used, involving immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus perforation and low primary stability. Follow-up was performed with resonance frequency analysis and compared with an implant placed adjacent in the upper second premolar area using a conventional delayed loading protocol. Implants with maxillary sinus involvement showed increasing stability during the healing period. We found that progressive implant loading may be a safe technique for the placement of immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus involvement. PMID:25678816

  13. Eye closure reduces the cross-modal memory impairment caused by auditory distraction.

    PubMed

    Perfect, Timothy J; Andrade, Jackie; Eagan, Irene

    2011-07-01

    Eyewitnesses instructed to close their eyes during retrieval recall more correct and fewer incorrect visual and auditory details. This study tested whether eye closure causes these effects through a reduction in environmental distraction. Sixty participants watched a staged event before verbally answering questions about it in the presence of auditory distraction or in a quiet control condition. Participants were instructed to close or not close their eyes during recall. Auditory distraction did not affect correct recall, but it increased erroneous recall of visual and auditory details. Instructed eye closure reduced this effect equally for both modalities. The findings support the view that eye closure removes the general resource load of monitoring the environment rather than reducing competition for modality-specific resources. PMID:21417514

  14. Differential impact of affective and cognitive attributes on preference under deliberation and distraction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zuo-Jun; Chan, Kai-Qin; Chen, Jiao-Jiao; Chen, Ai; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that affective information looms relatively larger than cognitive information when individuals are distracted for a period of time compared to when they engage in deliberative thinking. In two studies, participants were presented with information about 4 decision alternatives: An affective alternative that scored high on affective attributes but low on cognitive attributes, a cognitive alternative with the opposite trade-off, and two fillers. They were then asked to indicate their attitudes toward each of four decision alternatives either immediately, after a period of deliberation, or after a period of distraction. The results of both experiments demonstrated that participants significantly preferred the affective alternative to the cognitive alternative after distraction, but not after deliberation. The implications for understanding when and how unconscious thought may lead to better decisions are being discussed. PMID:25983714

  15. Differential impact of affective and cognitive attributes on preference under deliberation and distraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuo-Jun; Chan, Kai-Qin; Chen, Jiao-Jiao; Chen, Ai; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that affective information looms relatively larger than cognitive information when individuals are distracted for a period of time compared to when they engage in deliberative thinking. In two studies, participants were presented with information about 4 decision alternatives: An affective alternative that scored high on affective attributes but low on cognitive attributes, a cognitive alternative with the opposite trade-off, and two fillers. They were then asked to indicate their attitudes toward each of four decision alternatives either immediately, after a period of deliberation, or after a period of distraction. The results of both experiments demonstrated that participants significantly preferred the affective alternative to the cognitive alternative after distraction, but not after deliberation. The implications for understanding when and how unconscious thought may lead to better decisions are being discussed. PMID:25983714

  16. Effect of External Irrelevant Distracters on a Visual Search Test in School-Age Children: Computerized Assessment.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, M A; Santacreu, J; López-Cavada, C; Capote, E; Morillo, D

    2013-08-21

    Objective: This study aimed to test the effect of an irrelevant external distracter included in a computer-administered visual search test. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) If the distracter affects performance, attention efficiency will be lowered; (b) if children do not habituate to the distracter, performance will be lower for every item of the test. Method: Distraction was induced changing the screen color unexpectedly several times in each trial-450 children (225 girls and 225 boys) from second to sixth course were tested. This group was compared with a group of 423 children from the same age range who were tested with the same test without distraction. Results: Induced distraction reduced attention efficiency for all ages and for every trial in the treatment group (test with distraction). Speed was lower, but number of errors did not increase. Conclusion: School-age children cope with an irrelevant external distracter by reducing speed, not accuracy. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) X-XX). PMID:23966352

  17. This was printed from Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal Add iPods to things that distract

    E-print Network

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    : Technology In the wake of a federal agency urging a ban on any cell phone use while driving comes a study player's effects. "Knowing how distracting cell phones can be, it may not be surprising that using an iPod while driving can also be distracting. More surprising is the size of the effect," he wrote. Salvucci

  18. Mitigating the effects of in-vehicle distractions through use of the Psychological Refractory Period paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Daryl L; Jamson, Samantha L; Carsten, Oliver M J

    2013-01-01

    Modern driving involves frequent and potentially detrimental interactions with distracting in-vehicle tasks. Distraction has been shown to slow brake reaction time and decrease lateral and longitudinal vehicle control. It is likely that these negative effects will become more prevalent in the future as advances are made in the functionality, availability, and number of in-vehicle systems. This paper addresses this problem by considering ways to manage in-vehicle task presentation to mitigate their distracting effects. A driving simulator experiment using 48 participants was performed to investigate the existence of the Psychological Refractory Period in the driving context and its effect on braking performance. Drivers were exposed to lead vehicle braking events in isolation (single-task) and with a preceding surrogate in-vehicle task (dual-task). In dual-task scenarios, the time interval between the in-vehicle and braking tasks was manipulated. Brake reaction time increased when drivers were distracted. The in-vehicle task interfered with the performance of the braking task in a manner that was dependent on the interval between the two tasks, with slower reactions following a shorter inter-task interval. This is the Psychological Refractory Period effect. These results have implications for driver safety during in-vehicle distraction. The findings are used to develop recommendations regarding the timing of in-vehicle task presentation so as to reduce their potentially damaging effects on braking performance. In future, these guidelines could be incorporated into a driver workload management system to minimise the opportunity for a driver to be distracted from the ongoing driving task. PMID:22999382

  19. Changing skeletal pattern by means of osteogenesis distraction: a new therapeutic approach to patients with dysmorphism.

    PubMed

    Robiony, Massimo; Tenani, Giulia; Bocchino, Tecla; Cengarle, Marianna

    2010-09-01

    The correction of class II high-angle open-bite in patients is difficult to achieve by traditional and conventional techniques in occlusal stability and function. The authors propose a new approach to a patient with dysmorphism (class II, short ramus, and open bite) using distraction osteogenesis to change the skeletal pattern of patients with high-angle class II to low-angle class III before undergoing traditional orthognathic surgery. This new approach is based on osteogenesis distraction, emphasizing planning and surgical procedures. PMID:20818251

  20. Clinical use of virtual reality distraction system to reduce anxiety and pain in dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Mark D; Gao, Kenneth; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2014-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been used by clinicians to manage pain in clinical populations. This study examines the use of VR as a form of distraction for dental patients using both subjective and objective measures to determine how a VR system affects patients' reported anxiety level, pain level, and physiological factors. As predicted, results of self-evaluation questionnaires showed that patients experienced less anxiety and pain after undergoing VR treatment. Physiological data reported similar trends in decreased anxiety. Overall, the favorable subjective and objective responses suggest that VR distraction systems can reduce discomfort and pain for patients with mild to moderate fear and anxiety. PMID:24892198

  1. Clinical Use of Virtual Reality Distraction System to Reduce Anxiety and Pain in Dental Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kenneth; Wiederhold, Brenda K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Virtual reality (VR) has been used by clinicians to manage pain in clinical populations. This study examines the use of VR as a form of distraction for dental patients using both subjective and objective measures to determine how a VR system affects patients' reported anxiety level, pain level, and physiological factors. As predicted, results of self-evaluation questionnaires showed that patients experienced less anxiety and pain after undergoing VR treatment. Physiological data reported similar trends in decreased anxiety. Overall, the favorable subjective and objective responses suggest that VR distraction systems can reduce discomfort and pain for patients with mild to moderate fear and anxiety. PMID:24892198

  2. Endoscopic lift of the maxillary sinus floor in Beagles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, JiSi; Zhang, ShanYong; Lu, ErYi; Yang, Chi; Zhang, WenJie; Zhao, JingYang

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a modified endoscopic lift of the floor of the maxillary sinus in Beagles. Twelve operations (bilateral and randomly chosen) were done in 6 Beagles each in the test group (modified endoscopic operation), and the control group, in which the operation was done with an osteotome. All operations were evaluated by two indices of safety (perforation of the sinus membrane and nasal bleeding) and 3 effective indices (the intraoperative height after lifting, volume of bone grafts, and dislocation of the sinus grafts). The sinus membrane was not perforated and there were no nasal bleeds in either group. The intraoperative height after lifting was 13.7 (0.8) mm in the test group and 9.1 (0.5) mm in the control group, so it was significantly higher in the test group than the control group (p=0.0001). Similarly, the volume of bone graft was 0.9 (0.04) ml in the test group and 0.5 (0.02) ml in the control group (p=0.0001). The volume of the anterior and posterior bone grafts in the implant cavity in the test group did not differ significantly (p=0.102), while there were significant differences in the control group (p=0.002). Endoscopic lifting of the floor of the maxillary sinus is a safe and effective approach based on direct observation in Beagles. PMID:25174319

  3. Maxillary brown tumor in secondary hyperparathyroidism requiring urgent parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Morrone, L F; Ettorre, G C; Passavanti, G; Tampoia, M; Schiavone, P; Coratelli, P

    2001-01-01

    Brown tumors are unusual but serious complications of renal osteodystrophy, and can be successfully treated by parathyroidectomy or by pharmacological treatment of hyperparathyroidism. Brown tumors in patients with severe hyperparathyroidism (HPT) secondary to renal failure have been increasingly reported. We describe an unusual case of brown tumors at the maxillary bone and the seventh right rib, in a 57-year old man with a long history of hemodialysis. The maxillary lesion caused serious local discomfort due to its rapid growth. In this setting, surgical total parathyroidectomy was chosen as the most adequate therapeutic approach, given the previous unsatisfactory response to calcitriol. After successful parathyroidectomy, rapid healing was achieved with sclerosis of both brown tumors, as documented by serial computerized tomograms. In conclusion, although vitamin D therapy has been beneficial in several cases of secondary hyperparathyroidism complicated by brown tumors, we propose that whenever regression of the tumor bulk is urgently needed, as in our case, parathyroidectomy should be the first treatment choice. PMID:11730277

  4. Segmented testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The fraction of faults detected for a digital network is frequently high for the first few input combinations applied out of a set of test vectors. When the particular ordering of test patterns does not appreciably change the shape of the coverage curve, there appears to be an advantage to splitting the test into segments which are applied at different times. It is shown that the expected time to error detection and the probability of an undetected double error can be reduced. The amount of reduction is dependent on the shape of the fault coverage curve. It is conjectured that such a reduction can be obtained for VLSI networks.

  5. Anticipating Distracted Addressees: How Speakers' Expectations and Addressees' Feedback Influence Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlen, Anna K.; Brennan, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent are speakers' utterances shaped by their expectations of addressees' behavior, and to what extent are they shaped by the feedback they receive from addressees? In 39 pairs (32 men and 46 women), speakers told addressees 2 jokes. Addressees were either attentive or else distracted by a second task, and speakers expected addressees to…

  6. Expression of vascular antigens by bone cells during bone regeneration in a membranous bone distraction system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dina Lewinson; Gila Maor; Nimrod Rozen; Iaron Rabinovich; Shay Stahl; Adi Rachmiel

    2001-01-01

    An in vivo system of membranous bone formation during distraction has been investigated in order to follow cells that express vascular markers with the objective of understanding the neovascularization process. Concomitantly, sustained proliferation of preskeletal cells was achieved through the application of mechanical force. New capillaries and leading edges that arose by angiogenesis from the periosteal and mucosal surfaces and

  7. Distraction Control Processes in Free Recall: Benefits and Costs to Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Sörqvist, Patrik; Hodgetts, Helen M.; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    How is semantic memory influenced by individual differences under conditions of distraction? This question was addressed by observing how participants recalled visual target words-drawn from a single category-while ignoring spoken distractor words that were members of either the same or a different (single) category. Working memory capacity (WMC)…

  8. Driver Distraction Caused by Mobile Devices: Studying and Reducing Safety Risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Chittaro; Luca De Marco

    In this paper, we survey the different topics and issues related to the study and prevention of risks associated to the in-car usage of mobile devices (such as cellular phones) and complex interfaces (such as Advanced Traveller Information Systems or ATIS). More specifically, we will first give a classification of the types of driver distraction, addressing some of its specific

  9. Subclinical checking compulsions are related to impaired prospective memory independently of depression, anxiety and distractibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carrie Cuttler; Peter Graf

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether relationships between checking compulsions and prospective memory are a result of the increased levels of distractibility, depression, state and trait anxiety associated with checking compulsions. Students (N=126) completed a prospective memory task and questionnaires which assess the frequency of experiencing prospective memory failures. Checking compulsions were associated with failing the prospective memory task and

  10. Dial D for Distraction: The Making and Breaking of Cell Phone Policies in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Michael J.; Westfall, Aubrey

    2015-01-01

    Cell phones are nearly ubiquitous in the college classroom. This study asks two primary questions regarding the making and breaking of in-class cell phone policies. In what manner are students using their phones and how can faculty members minimize the potential for phone-related distractions? To answer these questions we analyze original survey…

  11. An Experimental Investigation of Mode of Presentation and Verbally-Induced Distraction on Communication Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.

    A study investigated the impact of a one-time persuasive message presented to subjects across two media--audio and audiovisual. A second variable, distraction, was also examined for its induced impact on conferring resistance to the message. Subjects were 170 college undergraduates, 46 of whom were assigned to a control group that did not see or…

  12. Coping when pain is a potential threat: the efficacy of acceptance versus cognitive distraction.

    PubMed

    Jackson, T; Yang, Z; Li, X; Chen, H; Huang, X; Meng, J

    2012-03-01

    This experiment investigated the impact of brief training in acceptance versus distraction-based pain management on experimental pain tolerance in conditions of lower and higher potential threats. One hundred fifty-one pain-free Chinese adults (93 women, 58 men) randomly assigned to acceptance, distraction or pain education control conditions engaged in a cold pressor test (CPT) after reading validated orienting information designed to prime either the safety of the CPT (lower threat) or symptoms and damaging effects of exposure to extreme cold (higher threat). A 2 (threat level)?×?3 (training strategy) analysis of covariance, controlling for pre-intervention pain tolerance and education, indicated the acceptance group was more pain tolerant than other training groups. This main effect was qualified by an interaction with threat level: in the lower threat condition, acceptance group participants were more pain tolerant than peers in the distraction or pain education groups while no training group differences were found in the higher threat condition. Supplementary analyses identified catastrophizing as a partial mediator of training group differences in pain tolerance. In summary, findings suggested acceptance-based coping is superior to distraction as a means of managing experimental pain, particularly when pain sensations are viewed as comparatively low in potential threat. PMID:22337145

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF TENSILE STRENGTH DURING DISTRACTION OSTEOGENESIS IN A RAT MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    These studies were designed to determine the reliability of in vitro tensile testing to measure the temporal development of regenerate bone strength in rats during limb lengthening (distraction osteogenesis, DO). External fixators were placed on the right tibiae of 36 virus-free, 400-450 g male Spr...

  14. Intracranial fixation pin migration: a complication of external Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis in Apert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ming; Shen, Guofang; Wang, Xudong; Fang, Bing

    2010-09-01

    External distraction osteogenesis has long been used in treatment of congenital midface hypoplasia. Distraction osteogenesis is associated with lower relapse rate and less complications compared with standard Le Fort III osteotomy. General complications in using rigid external distraction include localized infection, loosening of pins, and pin displacement. A 24-year-old female patient with Apert syndrome who underwent Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis is reported. Standard Le Fort III osteotomy was performed, and external distractor was placed. After 7-day latency period, the distractor was activated at the rate of 1 mm/d and finished after 20 days. A mild localized infection was recognized at the eighth week of consolidation period, and debridement was carried out at the left side of pin fixation. Obvious displacement of distractor occurred 1 week later while the patient was sleeping, and emergency operation was performed to remove the distractor and depress the left temporal skull bone fracture after clinical evaluation. The patient was asymptomatic clinically, and the advancement of the midface was stable. Le Fort I osteotomy was performed 3 years later to obtain a normal occlusion, and the patient was satisfied with the final outcome. We concluded that an unwanted trauma might cause severe complications such as skull bone fracture secondary to related local infection, and close follow-up and management are necessary for those cases. PMID:20856048

  15. Examining the impact of distraction on tic suppression in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W

    2008-11-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by motor and/or vocal tics. Tics are thought to be temporarily suppressible, and it is believed that suppression requires significant attentional resources. The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of an attention-demanding distraction task on tic suppression. A secondary aim was to examine whether performance on that task decreased during concomitant periods of suppression. Nine children with TS, ages 9-15, participated in the study. An alternating treatment design was used to compare three conditions, free-to-tic baseline (BL), reinforced tic suppression (SUP) and reinforced tic suppression plus a distraction task (SUP+DIS). Tic frequencies were significantly higher during BL conditions than both SUP and SUP+DIS conditions, and tic frequencies during SUP and SUP+DIS did not differ. Accuracy on the distraction task decreased during SUP+DIS as compared to BL. Results suggest that contextual distractions may not negatively impact tic frequencies. In addition, accuracy on an attention-demanding task may be impacted if a child is simultaneously suppressing. PMID:18774126

  16. Evaluation of Vibrotactile Alert Systems for Supporting Hazard Awareness and Safety of Distracted Pedestrians 

    E-print Network

    Marsalia, Angela

    2013-11-20

    recognition and safety of distracted pedestrians. As vibrotactile alert systems, a helmet and suspenders were compared and tested on 27 college students and faculty from Texas A&M University in College Station, TX. Eight C-2 Tactors† by Engineering Acoustics...

  17. You've been distracted from your You had a setback and it affected

    E-print Network

    money...it's controlling you! Come pick up some new tips and skills and get back on the road the very issues which have been a great distraction to your studies. Who We Are About Us For 45 years, and workshops designed to increase retention and graduation rates. Contact Us Phone: (415) 338-1085 Email: eop

  18. Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien T. Smith; Arreed Barabasz; Marianne Barabasz

    1996-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N = 27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders and their parents were trained to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Measures of pain and anxiety were obtained from the children and their parents. Independent raters also judged participants' video-taped distress responses. Data were collected during

  19. Sensory Focusing Versus Distraction and Pain: Moderating Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity in Males and Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Thompson; Edmund Keogh; Christopher C. French

    2011-01-01

    Although previous research has examined whether the relative effects of distraction and sensory focusing on pain are dependent upon anxiety sensitivity, such research has concentrated primarily on females. Given the increasing emergence of sex differences in pain processing, the current study aimed to examine whether any influence of anxiety sensitivity on coping effectiveness differs for males and females. The sample

  20. Integrating Research and Practice: Distractions, Controversies, and Options for Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Integrating practice and research is vital in all helping professions in order to offer the most ethical, evidence-informed interventions to clients. This article describes some avoidable distractions that hinder integration, discusses controversies related to integration, and describes options for moving forward, including making wasted resources…

  1. Speech Perception by 6- to 8-Month-Olds in the Presence of Distracting Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polka, Linda; Rvachew, Susan; Molnar, Monika

    2008-01-01

    The role of selective attention in infant phonetic perception was examined using a distraction masker paradigm. We compared perception of /bu/ versus /gu/ in 6- to 8-month-olds using a visual fixation procedure. Infants were habituated to multiple natural productions of 1 syllable type and then presented 4 test trials (old-new-old-new). Perception…

  2. Why Are Auditory Novels Distracting? Contrasting the Roles of Novelty, Violation of Expectation and Stimulus Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Elsley, Jane V.; Andres, Pilar; Barcelo, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Past studies show that novel auditory stimuli, presented in the context of an otherwise repeated sound, capture participants' attention away from a focal task, resulting in measurable behavioral distraction. Novel sounds are traditionally defined as rare and unexpected but past studies have not sought to disentangle these concepts directly. Using…

  3. Effects of Teacher Experience and Selected Temperament Variables on Coping Strategies Used with Distractible Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obsborne, Susan

    1985-01-01

    University students representing two levels of teaching experience were compared while interacting with one of two child conferates displaying distractible behavior. Each adult completed the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey. Results suggested that experienced teachers took a more "task oriented" approach providing more instruction and…

  4. Endodontic Management of Maxillary First Molar with Type I Canal Configuration– A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Niranjan; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya; Mittal, Priya; Patil, Gururaj

    2015-01-01

    Thorough knowledge about the root canal variations is essential for the predictable endodontic treatment outcome. The root and root canal anatomy of maxillary first molar varies greatly. A Pub-med literature search about single rooted single canalled maxillary first molar was done to know its details such as incidence, diagnostic method used, age, sex and ethnic background of patient. This article presented report of a single rooted single canalled maxillary first molar in a 27-year-old healthy Asian female. PMID:26023655

  5. An unusual case of total maxillary sequestration in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Akinmoladun, V I; Akadiri, O A; Adeleye, J O; Lasisi, O A

    2008-12-01

    Osteomyelitis of the jaw is of relatively low incidence. Maxillary Osteomyelitis is however rare compared with mandibular osteomyelitis. The extensive blood supply and the strut-like bones of the maxilla make it less prone to chronic infections. Systemic conditions that alter the host's resistance such as diabetes mellitus, autoimmune disorders, agranulocytosis, anaemia, especially sickle cell anaemia are predisposing factors for the development of this condition. An unusual case of chronic maxillary osteomyelitis induced by trauma in a diabetic, with subsequent atypical necrotising ulceration of palatal mucosa resulting in total maxillary sequestration is presented. PMID:19301719

  6. Endodontic management of maxillary first molar with type I canal configuration- a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Desai, Niranjan; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya; Mittal, Priya; Patil, Gururaj

    2015-04-01

    Thorough knowledge about the root canal variations is essential for the predictable endodontic treatment outcome. The root and root canal anatomy of maxillary first molar varies greatly. A Pub-med literature search about single rooted single canalled maxillary first molar was done to know its details such as incidence, diagnostic method used, age, sex and ethnic background of patient. This article presented report of a single rooted single canalled maxillary first molar in a 27-year-old healthy Asian female. PMID:26023655

  7. Dehiscence of the infraorbital canal with the maxillary antral empyema: a new cause of facial pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ki; Yang, Seong Kyeong; Shin, Dan Bi; Nam, Jung Gwon

    2015-05-01

    The infraorbital nerve is the largest cutaneous branch of the maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve. It may produce a bony ridge on the antral roof but usually goes through within the maxillary bone as a discrete canal. Rarely, it could be partially or completely dehiscent, lying submucosally on the antral roof as in this case.We describe a case of longstanding facial pain because of dehiscence of the infraorbital canal associated with the maxillary antral empyema. Endoscopic sinus surgery was successful in relieving the symptom. PMID:25974820

  8. Osteogenesis and mineralization in a rabbit mandibular distraction osteogenesis model is promoted by the human LMP-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaowen; Chen, Yanzhe; Fan, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Hao; Kun, Lu

    2015-04-01

    To observe the effects of LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) on bone regeneration in the distraction zone based on gene transduction, 36 New Zealand white rabbits underwent mandibular lengthening with a distraction rate of 2?mm/day. The animals were then randomly divided into group A and group B (n?=?18, each). At the end of the distraction, Ad5-EGFP viruses and Ad5-LMP-1/EGFP viruses were injected into the distraction gaps in groups A and B, respectively. Seven days later, five randomly selected animals from each group were sacrificed to evaluate the survival of the virus. Four and 8 weeks after distraction osteogenesis (DO), six samples randomly selected from each group underwent CT scanning and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry detection. Eight weeks after DO, the rabbits were sacrificed, and the distracted mandibles were harvested. Six animals from each group processed for radiography, micro-CT, histology, and the rest samples were taken three-point bend testing. Using this model, better bone formation and mineralization in the distracted callus were observed in group B when compared with those in group A. The results suggest local transduction with LMP-1 gene promotes osteogenesis and mineralization in DO. PMID:25641592

  9. Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Platelet-Rich Plasma Accelerate Distraction Osteogenesis in A Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Motallebizadeh, Nader; Ashrafi Halan, Javad; Tagiyar, Leila; Soroori, Sarang; Nikmahzar, Agbibi; Pedram, Mirsepehr; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Kazemi Mehrjerdi, Hossein; Izadi, Sadra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical procedure used to generate large volumes of new bone for limb lengthening. Materials and Methods In this animal experimental study, a 30% lengthening of the left tibia (mean distraction distance: 60.8 mm) was performed in ten adult male dogs by callus distraction after osteotomy and application of an Ilizarov fixator. Distraction was started on postoperative day seven with a distraction rate of 0.5 mm twice per day and carried out at a rate of 1.5 mm per day until the end of the study. Autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as the treatment group (n=5) or PRP alone (control group, n=5) were injected into the distracted callus at the middle and end of the distraction period. At the end of the consolidation period, the dogs were sacrificed after which computerized tomography (CT) and histomorphometric evaluations were performed. Results Radiographic evaluationsrevealed that the amount and quality of callus formations were significantly higher in the treatment group (P<0.05). As measured by CT scan, the healing parametersin dogs of the treatment group were significantly greater (P<0.05). New bone formation in the treatment group was significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion The present study showed that the transplantation of BM-MSCs positively affects early bony consolidation in DO. The use of MSCs might allow a shortened period of consolidation and therefore permit earlier device removal. PMID:26199903

  10. Effects of flexion-distraction manipulation therapy on pain and disability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jioun; Lee, Sangyong; Jeon, Chunbae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of flexion-distraction manipulation therapy on pain and disability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. [Subjects] Thirty patients with lumbar spinal stenosis were divided into two groups: a conservative treatment group (n=15) and a flexion-distraction manipulation group (n=15). [Methods] The conservative treatment group received conservative physical therapy, and the flexion-distraction group received both conservative physical therapy and flexion-distraction manipulation therapy. Both groups received treatment 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain intensity, and the Oswestry Disability Index was used to evaluate the level of disability caused by the pain. [Results] The Visual Analog Scale scores for pain were significantly decreased in both groups. In the between-group comparison, the decrease in pain was more significant in the flexion-distraction group. According to the Oswestry Disability Index, the level of disability was significantly decreased in both groups, but the decrease was more significant in the flexion-distraction group. [Conclusion] Flexion-distraction manipulation appears to be an effective intervention for pain and disability among patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:26180352

  11. Assessment of distraction callus in rabbits by monitoring of the electrical impedance of bone

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Evaluation of distraction callus is important for determination of the optimal time for removal of external fixation. We attempted to determine whether there might be a relationship between the electrical impedance of bone and callus maturation, with a view to using impedance as a way of knowing when to remove a fixator. Methods We applied an external lengthener to the right tibia of 24 rabbits and performed distraction at 1 mm/day for 10 days. Radiographs were taken and measurement of overall impedance between fixation pins was performed weekly after distraction. At weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 after distraction (n = 6 each), resistivity of the bone to electrical conductivity was measured before killing. Cross-sectional area of the conduction pathway in callus and maximum bending stress were measured after excision of the tibia. Results The overall impedance increased statistically significantly from 1 to 6 weeks after completion of distraction. The resistivity of bone decreased over 4 weeks and the cross-sectional area of callus decreased significantly over 6 weeks, while the maximum bending stress increased significantly over the same time. We observed a negative correlation between the cross-sectional area of callus and maximum bending stress. Interpretation The impedance values, which are related to changes in electrical conductivity and the conduction pathway, increased due to the changes in the cross-sectional area of callus, despite the reduction in bone resistivity. Since the cross-sectional area of callus was correlated with maximum bending stress and the impedance values increased with the callus-remodeling process, we suggest that temporal increases in overall impedance reflect callus maturation. PMID:20860454

  12. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rohan; Parveen, Shahista; Ansari, Tariq Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus™ fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus™ FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable. PMID:26097371

  13. Bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia, or agenesis of six or more teeth, excluding third molars, which involves canine agenesis is rare, and restorative management can be challenging. Bilateral agenesis of a permanent canine in the general population often indicates a several missing adult teeth. The most common sign of it is the primary canine retention beyond its exfoliation age. The multistage restorative management includes the early diagnosis, excluding associated medical problems as well as assessment of patient's malocclusion and facial skeletal pattern, life span of deciduous teeth, possibility of premolar substitution, minimum required number of prosthetic units, patient's preferences, and the cost of treatment. A 10-year-old boy with bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is described. Some thoughts on the multidisciplinary restorative management of this case are discussed. PMID:25657989

  14. Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma on the Left Maxillary Alveolus: A Unique Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Geethika, V.; Rao, Nageswara; Smitha, B.; Kiran, Ch. Sai

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs) are a group of soft-tissue malignant tumours. They derive from primitive skeletal muscle tissue with head and neck as its principle location. These tumours are extremely rare in adults and it is believed to have a different natural course, treatment response, and prognosis. The invasiveness of tumour, metastasis, lymph node involvement, and the age at diagnosis is a predictor of outcome in patients with RMC. Hence early recognition and histological sub-typing is of critical importance in the therapy of the disease. We report a rare case of RMC in a 50-year-old female patient involving the left maxillary alveolus with a detailed clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:25859531

  15. Treatment of extreme maxillary atrophy with Zygoma implants.

    PubMed

    Bertolai, R; Aversa, A; Catelani, C; Rossi, A; Giannini, D

    2015-10-01

    The implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of severe maxillary atrophy often requires difficult bone grafting techniques or microvascularized flaps with long healing time and severe discomfort for the patients. An alternative is represented by the use of particular thick bone areas like "zygomatic buttresses" that are away from the alveolar ridge but they are good for anchoring implants. From 2008, 31 patients, aged between 52 and 82 years, with severe maxillary atrophy, have been rehabilitated using zygomatic implant (Zygoma Brånemark System®) and conventional implants (4 mm of diameter and a length of 13 to 15 mm); a total of 152 implants were inserted, 78 Zygoma implants and 74 conventional implants in the premaxilla. As dictated by our protocol, all of them were followed by immediate prosthetic loading. Follow-up ranges from 20 months to 5 years. Two Zygoma implants failed out of 78 fixtures inserted with a success rate of around 98%. No failure of conventional implants. Two patients developed a postoperative sinusitis; one case healed only after endoscopically guided medium meatal antrostomy. In one case the removal and reinsertion of one Zygoma implant was necessary. We observed two cases of temporary zygomatic hypoesthesia, two cases of persistent oedema for three weeks and one case of facial postoperative haematoma; all of them spontaneously solved after a few weeks. Our results are in agreement with the Literature and lead to the conclusion that the use of Zygoma implants is a reproducible and predictable alternative to bone grafts, with the advantage of a considerable saving of time. PMID:26094898

  16. Orthodontic tooth movement through the maxillary sinus in an adult with multiple missing teeth.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heesoo; Herchold, Kiri; Hannon, Stephanie; Heetland, Kelly; Ashraf, Golnaz; Nguyen, Vince; Cho, Heon Jae

    2014-10-01

    This case report describes the successful orthodontic tooth movement through the maxillary sinus in an adult patient. A 41-year-old Asian woman had severe lip protrusion and multiple missing posterior teeth. Her orthodontic treatment included the extraction of 2 teeth, maximum retraction of the incisors using the extraction spaces and the existing spaces from the missing molars, and closure of all remaining spaces. Even though the treatment time was extended because of the anatomic and biologic challenges associated with moving posterior teeth over a long distance through the maxillary sinus, a successful outcome was obtained, with significant bone modeling of the maxillary sinus. The results demonstrate that a carefully selected force system can overcome the anatomic limitations of moving tooth against the cortical bone of the maxillary sinus wall in adult patients. PMID:25263152

  17. Ecogeographic Patterns of Maxillary Sinus Variation Among Homo sapiens: Environmental Adaptation or Architectural By-product? 

    E-print Network

    Butaric, Lauren Nicole

    2013-04-30

    Ecogeographic patterns of modern human craniofacial diversity suggest external nasal structures reflect climatic adaptations for respiratory and thermoregulatory functions. Regarding internal structures, the maxillary sinus supposedly varies as a...

  18. Maxillary sinus lift with a collagenic equine heterologous bone substitute. Histomorphometric analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Di Stefano; M. Andreasi Bassi; M. Ludovichetti; S. Pagnutti

    ObjectivesIn this article, the authors describe their use of a heterologous equine collagen bone substitute for a maxillary sinus lift, and they assess the efficacy of this biomaterial when utilized with autologous bone.

  19. Maxillary protraction using skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics in Skeletal Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    A?larc?, Cahide; Albayrak, Gayem Ero?lu; F?nd?k, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathia using skeletal anchorage devices and intermaxillary elastics. Miniplates were inserted between the mandibular lateral incisor and canine teeth on both sides in a male patient aged 14 years 5 months. Self-drilling mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were installed between the maxillary second premolar and molar teeth, and Class III elastics were used between the miniplates and miniscrews. On treatment completion, an increase in the projection of the maxilla relative to the cranial base (2.7 mm) and significant improvement of the facial profile were observed. Slight maxillary counterclockwise (1°) and mandibular clockwise (3.3°) rotations were also observed. Maxillary protraction with skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics was effective in correcting a case of Skeletal Class III malocclusion without dentoalveolar side effects. PMID:25798416

  20. Direct Restorative Treatment of Missing Maxillary Laterals with Composite Laminate Veneer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bagis, Bora; Aydo?an, Elif; Bagis, Yildirim H.

    2008-01-01

    This clinical report describes a direct composite laminate veneer restoration of the maxillary anterior teeth in one chair time to produce a better esthetic appearance in a patient with diastemata and missing laterals. PMID:19088889

  1. A Maxillary Alveolar Ridge Swelling in a Patient with Hematuria: Beware of Metastatic Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhavan P. Rai; P. J. Brown; M. Shakeel; Charles Achuda; Satchi Swami; G. Nabi

    2008-01-01

    Maxillary metastasis from a primary bladder transitional cell carcinoma is extremely rare. In this study we present such a case and results of immunohistochemical examination are also reported. Local radiotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy may be an acceptable treatment option.

  2. Investigation on the utility of permanent maxillary molar cusp areas for sex estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. James Macaluso Jr

    2011-01-01

    Digital photogrammetric methods were employed to assess the level of sexual dimorphism present in permanent maxillary molar\\u000a cusp areas of black South Africans (130 males, 105 females). Odontometric standards were then developed for diagnosing sex,\\u000a based on the cusp area data derived for these teeth. Results demonstrated that all cusp area measurements of both the first\\u000a and second maxillary molars

  3. Multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of horizontal root-fractured maxillary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Celikten, Berkan; Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Demirel, Gulbike; Sevimay, Semra

    2014-01-01

    Dental trauma can lead to a wide range of injuries of which crown and root fractures are examples. Crown-root fractures often need complex treatment planning. This case report describes the use of MTA in the multidisciplinary management of a patient with a horizontally fractured central incisor and luxation in a different central incisor. A 42-year-old female patient presented within 1?h of receiving direct trauma to her maxillary area. Clinical examination revealed that the right and left maxillary central incisors presented mobility and sensitivity to percussion and palpation but no sensitivity to thermal stimulations. Occlusal displacement with extrusion in the left maxillary central incisor and luxation in the right maxillary central incisor was observed. Radiographic examination revealed horizontal root fracture at the apical third of the left maxillary central incisor. Root fracture in the right maxillary incisor was not observed. Endodontic and aesthetic restorative treatments were completed. MTA showed a good long-term outcome when used in root-fractured and luxated teeth. In addition, composite resin restoration provided satisfactory aesthetic results even after 15 months. PMID:25485158

  4. Multidisciplinary Approach for the Treatment of Horizontal Root-Fractured Maxillary Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Demirel, Gulbike; Sevimay, Semra

    2014-01-01

    Dental trauma can lead to a wide range of injuries of which crown and root fractures are examples. Crown-root fractures often need complex treatment planning. This case report describes the use of MTA in the multidisciplinary management of a patient with a horizontally fractured central incisor and luxation in a different central incisor. A 42-year-old female patient presented within 1?h of receiving direct trauma to her maxillary area. Clinical examination revealed that the right and left maxillary central incisors presented mobility and sensitivity to percussion and palpation but no sensitivity to thermal stimulations. Occlusal displacement with extrusion in the left maxillary central incisor and luxation in the right maxillary central incisor was observed. Radiographic examination revealed horizontal root fracture at the apical third of the left maxillary central incisor. Root fracture in the right maxillary incisor was not observed. Endodontic and aesthetic restorative treatments were completed. MTA showed a good long-term outcome when used in root-fractured and luxated teeth. In addition, composite resin restoration provided satisfactory aesthetic results even after 15 months. PMID:25485158

  5. DOES EXPOSURE TO DISTRACTION IN AN EXPERIMENTAL SETTING IMPACT DRIVER PERCEPTION OF CELL PHONE EASE OF USE AND SAFETY?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Garabet; William J. Horrey; Mary F. Lesch

    Summary: We examined drivers' perception of the ease and safety of cell phone use while driving before and after exposure to distraction in an experimental setting. During the study, each driver reflected on driving and task performance while engaged in conversation-like and arithmetic distraction tasks on a hands- free and hand-held cell phone. Hands-free phones were consistently rated easier to

  6. Distraction from chronic pain during a pain-inducing activity is associated with greater post-activity pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liesbet Goubert; Geert Crombez; Christopher Eccleston; Jacques Devulder

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of distraction from pain during and after a pain-inducing lifting task in a sample of chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Fifty-two CLBP patients (25 males, 27 females; mean age=46.30 years) performed a pain-inducing lifting task twice, once alone and once with a simultaneous cognitive distraction task. The results revealed

  7. Histologic Comparison of Regenerate Bone Produced from Dentate Versus Edentulous Transport Discs in Bone Transport Distraction Osteogenesis 

    E-print Network

    Sevilla Gaitan, Carlos

    2013-12-10

    resorption and the actual formation of new bone; 3) resistance of the flaps to infection and the detrimental effects of radiation; and 4) excellent long-term aesthetic and functional outcomes (Berggren, Weiland et al. 1982; Klein, Stevenson et al. 1991...-guided distraction device,” in which a reconstruction plate is placed to bridge the mandibular continuity defect. All patients achieved both hard and soft tissue formation with this device. Herford emphasized that distraction osteogenesis around a curve presents...

  8. Osteoactivin attenuates skeletal muscle fibrosis after distraction osteogenesis by promoting extracellular matrix degradation/remodeling.

    PubMed

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Yukata, Kiminori; Sato, Ryosuke; Nikawa, Takeshi; Yasui, Natsuo; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether osteoactivin attenuated skeletal muscle fibrosis caused by distraction osteogenesis. Tibial osteotomies were performed on wild-type and osteoactivin-transgenic (OA-Tg) mice, and tibiae were distracted for 2 weeks. Ankle plantar flexion torque and the gastrocnemius muscles were analyzed. The amount and area of collagenous tissue and the passive torque were reduced in the OA-Tg group at 8 weeks after osteotomy. Transcript levels of matrix metalloprotease (mmp)-3 and MMP-9 were upregulated, and MMP-3 and MMP-9 proteins were increased in the OA-Tg group. Osteoactivin-mediated increase in MMPs may attenuate skeletal muscle fibrosis. PMID:25405936

  9. Prevalence of driving distractions among high school student drivers in three Canadian cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Oda; A Macpherson; T Middaugh-Bonney; M Brussoni; S Piedt; I Pike

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionMotor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and hospitalisation for Canadian youth. Graduated Drivers Licensing have been implemented in several Canadian provinces.PurposeTo assess the prevalence of compliance with rules and driving distractions among high school students in three Canadian cities (Halifax, Barrie and Vancouver) representing different geographic, socioeconomic and jurisdictional settings.MethodsObservations were made at schools in the three

  10. Association between energy intake and viewing television, distractibility, and memory for advertisements12345

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K; Coulon, Sandra M; Markward, Nathan; Greenway, Frank L; Anton, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Background: The effect of television viewing (TVV) with and without advertisements (ads) on energy intake is unclear. Objective: The objectives were to test 1) the effect of TVV, with and without ads, on energy intake compared with a control and reading condition and 2) the association of distractibility and memory for ads with energy intake and body weight. Design: Forty-eight (26 female) adults (age: 19–54 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 20–35 completed this laboratory-based study. All participants completed 4 buffet-style meals in random order in the following conditions: 1) control, 2) while reading, 3) while watching TV with food and nonfood ads (TV-ads), and 4) while watching TV with no ads (TV-no ads). Energy intake was quantified by weighing foods. Distractibility and memory for ads in the TV-ads condition were quantified with a norm-referenced test and recognition task, respectively. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that energy and macronutrient intake did not differ significantly among the 4 conditions (P > 0.65). Controlling for sex, memory for ads was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) and energy intake but only when viewing TV (r = 0.39, P < 0.05 during the TV-no ads condition, and r = 0.29, P = 0.06 during the TV-ads condition). Controlling for sex, distractibility was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) but not energy intake. Distractibility, however, accounted for 13% of the variance in men's energy intake (P = 0.11). Conclusions: TVV did not affect energy intake, but individual characteristics (memory for ads) were associated with body weight and energy intake in certain conditions. These characteristics should be considered in food intake and intervention studies. PMID:19056603

  11. Ectopic orthodenticle expression alters segment polarity gene expression but not head segment identity in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Gallitano-Mendel, A; Finkelstein, R

    1998-07-01

    The cephalic gap genes specify anterior head development in the Drosophila embryo. However, the mechanisms of action of these genes remain poorly understood. Here, we focused on the cephalic gap gene orthodenticle (otd), which establishes a specific region of the anterior head. It has been proposed that otd acts in a combinatorial fashion with the cephalic gap genes empty spiracles (ems) and buttonhead (btd) to assign segmental identities in this region. To test this model, we used a heat-inducible transgene to generate pulses of ubiquitous otd expression during embryonic development. Ectopic otd expression caused significant defects in head formation, including the duplication of sensory structures derived from otd-dependent segments. However, these defects do not appear to result from the transformation of head segment identities predicted by the combinatorial model. Instead, they correlate with specific regulatory effects of otd on the expression of the segment polarity genes engrailed (en) and wingless (wg). Ectopic otd expression also caused the loss of head structures derived from the maxillary segment, which lies posterior to the otd domain. We show that this effect is associated with otd repression of the homeotic selector gene Deformed (Dfd). PMID:9676197

  12. Effect of distracting faces on visual selective attention in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Landman, Rogier; Sharma, Jitendra; Sur, Mriganka; Desimone, Robert

    2014-12-16

    In primates, visual stimuli with social and emotional content tend to attract attention. Attention might be captured through rapid, automatic, subcortical processing or guided by slower, more voluntary cortical processing. Here we examined whether irrelevant faces with varied emotional expressions interfere with a covert attention task in macaque monkeys. In the task, the monkeys monitored a target grating in the periphery for a subtle color change while ignoring distracters that included faces appearing elsewhere on the screen. The onset time of distracter faces before the target change, as well as their spatial proximity to the target, was varied from trial to trial. The presence of faces, especially faces with emotional expressions interfered with the task, indicating a competition for attentional resources between the task and the face stimuli. However, this interference was significant only when faces were presented for greater than 200 ms. Emotional faces also affected saccade velocity and reduced pupillary reflex. Our results indicate that the attraction of attention by emotional faces in the monkey takes a considerable amount of processing time, possibly involving cortical-subcortical interactions. Intranasal application of the hormone oxytocin ameliorated the interfering effects of faces. Together these results provide evidence for slow modulation of attention by emotional distracters, which likely involves oxytocinergic brain circuits. PMID:25472846

  13. Increased gamma oscillations evoked by physically salient distracters are associated with schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Kornmayer, Laura; Leicht, Gregor; Mulert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in aberrant salience as a precursor of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. The present study investigates the neurophysiology of attentional capture by salient stimuli in the visual modality. Evoked oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range (40 Hz) was assessed during visual processing of physically salient distracters and evaluated in relation to schizotypy and its positive, negative and disorganized dimension. The early evoked visual gamma-band response (GBR) was assessed for 24 healthy participants using EEG time-frequency analysis. Physical salience was constituted by colored stimuli diverting from an ongoing baseline condition. schizotypal personality traits were measured by the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ; Raine in Schizophr Bull 17:555-564, 1991). The early evoked visual GBR was significantly pronounced in the physically salient distracter condition. GBR signal power was significantly correlated with positive schizotypal personality traits (r = 0.588; p = 0.024*). Our results indicate that the early evoked GBR in visual processing of physically salient distracters is associated with schizotypy. These findings refer to the phenomenology of aberrant salience by bridging the gap to neurophysiological research on early sensory selection and attentional capture in the schizophrenia spectrum. PMID:25421170

  14. The distracting impact of repeated visible and invisible onsets on focused attention.

    PubMed

    Pascucci, David; Turatto, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    A sudden peripheral onset is a powerful attentional attractor. However, in real life potentially distracting events do not always occur as a single event, but rather they can occur in a repetitive fashion. Hence, one of the aims of the present study was to investigate how the attentional system reacts to multiple consecutive onsets within the same trial. The results, quite surprisingly, showed that repeated peripheral onsets do not have a negative impact on visual performance, while they confirmed that a single peripheral onset captures focused attention. We hypothesize the existence of a short-term habituation mechanism that prevents visual attention from being continuously distracted by the same task-irrelevant event when this is rapidly repeated. A further aim of the study was to test the proposal according to which subliminal visual transients can bypass the conscious inhibitory control, thus resulting more distracting than supraliminal transients. We did not find in any of the 8 experiments that we conducted that subliminal onsets, either single or repeated, can grab attention when fully focused at fixation. Hence, in the case of sudden onsets, the general claim that task-irrelevant invisible stimuli can be more disturbing than visible ones does not seem to be fully justified. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867506

  15. Young driver distraction: state of the evidence and directions for behavior change programs.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L; Sheehan, Mary

    2014-05-01

    Adolescent drivers are overrepresented in distraction-related motor vehicle crashes. A number of potential reasons for such an elevated risk include driving inexperience, high adoption of communication technology, increased peer involvement, and tendency to take risks, which render young drivers particularly vulnerable. Major legislative efforts in Graduated Licensing Systems that include passenger restrictions have shown positive effects. Restrictions on cell phone use are also being introduced; however, it is challenging to enforce such regulations. This article argues that such contextual, legislative interventions are an essential prevention strategy, but there is an unfilled need to introduce behavior change programs that may target adolescents, parents, and friends. A theoretical framework is applied in which risk and protective factors are identified from research within the contexts of community and jurisdiction. In the literature on distraction, social context and normative influences are key elements used to inform program design for adolescent drivers, with parental monitoring informing interventions targeting parents. Following from this assessment of the message content assessment, the design of strategies to deliver the messages is reviewed. In the current literature, school-based programs, simulations, and Web-delivered programs have been evaluated with supplementary strategies delivered by physicians and parents. Such developments are still at an early stage of development, and ultimately will need controlled implementation and evaluation studies. Of course, there is no likely single approach to prevent adolescent driver distraction. Complementary approaches such as the further development of technological interventions to manage phone use are needed. PMID:24759436

  16. Effect of distracting faces on visual selective attention in the monkey

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Rogier; Sharma, Jitendra; Sur, Mriganka; Desimone, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In primates, visual stimuli with social and emotional content tend to attract attention. Attention might be captured through rapid, automatic, subcortical processing or guided by slower, more voluntary cortical processing. Here we examined whether irrelevant faces with varied emotional expressions interfere with a covert attention task in macaque monkeys. In the task, the monkeys monitored a target grating in the periphery for a subtle color change while ignoring distracters that included faces appearing elsewhere on the screen. The onset time of distracter faces before the target change, as well as their spatial proximity to the target, was varied from trial to trial. The presence of faces, especially faces with emotional expressions interfered with the task, indicating a competition for attentional resources between the task and the face stimuli. However, this interference was significant only when faces were presented for greater than 200 ms. Emotional faces also affected saccade velocity and reduced pupillary reflex. Our results indicate that the attraction of attention by emotional faces in the monkey takes a considerable amount of processing time, possibly involving cortical–subcortical interactions. Intranasal application of the hormone oxytocin ameliorated the interfering effects of faces. Together these results provide evidence for slow modulation of attention by emotional distracters, which likely involves oxytocinergic brain circuits. PMID:25472846

  17. Anthropogenic noise affects risk assessment and attention: the distracted prey hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Alvin Aaden Yim-Hol; Giraldo-Perez, Paulina; Smith, Sonja; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the effects of anthropogenic noise on animal communication, but only a few have looked at its effect on other behavioural systems. We designed a playback experiment to test the effect of noise on predation risk assessment. We found that in response to boat motor playback, Caribbean hermit crabs (Coenobita clypeatus) allowed a simulated predator to approach closer before they hid. Two hypotheses may explain how boat noise affected risk assessment: it masked an approaching predator's sound; and/or it reallocated some of the crabs' finite attention, effectively distracting them, and thus preventing them from responding to an approaching threat. We found no support for the first hypothesis: a silent looming object still got closer during boat motor playbacks than during silence. However, we found support for the attentional hypothesis: when we added flashing lights to the boat motor noise to further distract the hermit crabs, we were able to approach the crabs more closely than with the noise alone. Anthropogenic sounds may thus distract prey and make them more vulnerable to predation. PMID:20164080

  18. Changes in nasal air flow and school grades after rapid maxillary expansion in oral breathing children

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the changes in nasal air flow and school grades after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in oral breathing children with maxillary constriction. Material and Methods: Forty-four oral breathing children (mean age 10.57 y) underwent orthodontic RME with a Hyrax screw. Forty-four age-matched children (mean age 10.64 y) with nasal physiological breathing and adequate transverse maxillary dimensions served as the control group. The maxillary widths, nasal air flow assessed via peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF), and school grades were recorded at baseline, and 6 months and one year following RME. Results: After RME, there were significant increases in all the maxillary widths in the study group. PNIF was reduced in the study group (60.91 ± 13.13 l/min) compared to the control group (94.50 ± 9.89 l/min) (P < 0.000) at the beginning of the study. Six months after RME, a significant improvement of PNIF was observed in the study group (36.43 ± 22.61). School grades were lower in the study group (85.52 ± 5.74) than in the control group (89.77 ± 4.44) (P < 0.05) at the baseline, but it increased six months after RME (2.77 ± 3.90) (P < 0.001) and one year later (5.02 ± 15.23) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Nasal air flow improved in oral breathing children six months and one year after RME. School grades also improved, but not high enough to be academically significant. Key words:Maxillary constriction, oral breathing, nasal air flow, rapid maxillary expansion, school grades. PMID:22322516

  19. Algorithms for Fuzzy Segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno M. Carvalho; C. Joe Gau; Gabor T. Herman; T. Yung Kong

    1999-01-01

    Fuzzy segmentation is an effective way of segmenting out objects in pictures containing both random noise and shading. This is illustrated both on mathematically created pictures and on some obtained from medical imaging. A theory of fuzzy segmentation is presented. To perform fuzzy segmentation, a 'connectedness map' needs to be produced. It is demonstrated that greedy algorithms for creating such

  20. Observation of orthopedic force distribution produced by maxillary orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Chaconas, S J; Caputo, A A

    1982-12-01

    A three-dimensional anatomic model was duplicated from a human skull, using different birefringent materials to simulate the various craniofacial structures. Individual bones of the midface were fabricated separately and then articulated in their correct sutural relation. One removable and four fixed maxillary appliances were used. The fixed appliances included the Haas, Minne-expander, Hyrax, and quad helix devices. The removable appliance incorporated an expansion screw in a full acrylic palate with appropriate retentive clasps. After the insertion of each appliance, intraoral forces were produced by incremental activation. The model was examined and photographed in the field of a transmission polariscope. Each appliance used produced a different range of load-activation characteristics. This was reflected by the differences in the stresses transmitted through the bones of the craniofacial complex and the effect on the various sutures. Stresses produced by the fixed appliances were concentrated in the anterior region of the palate, progressing posteriorly toward the palatine bone. The Haas, Minne-expander, and Hyrax appliances produced stresses that radiated superiorly along the perpendicular plates of the palatine bone to deeper anatomic structures, such as the lacrimal, nasal, and malar bones, as well as the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid. Similar stress characteristics were seen with the removable appliance. However, increased activation decreased retention of the appliance, thereby lessening the stress. The quad helix appliance proved to be the least effective orthopedic device. Although the effects of palate separation were seen with increased activation, this appliance primarily affected the posterior teeth. PMID:6760725

  1. Stability of skeletal Class III malocclusion after combined maxillary and mandibular procedures.

    PubMed

    Costa, F; Robiony, M; Sembronio, S; Polini, F; Politi, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the skeletal stability and time course of postoperative changes after surgical correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion. Combined maxillary and mandibular procedures were performed in 40 consecutive patients. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy stabilized with wire osteosynthesis for mandibular setback and low-level Le Fort I osteotomy stabilized with plates and screws for maxillary advancement were performed. Maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) was in place for 6 weeks. Lateral cephalograms were taken before surgery, immediately postoperatively, 8 weeks after surgery, and 1 year postoperatively. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to vertical maxillary movement at surgery: a maxilla-up group with upward movement of the posterior nasal spine of 2 mm or more (group 1, n = 22), and a minimal vertical change group with less than 2 mm of vertical repositioning (group 2, n = 18). The results indicate that surgical correction of Class III malocclusion with combined maxillary and mandibular osteotomies appears to be fairly stable. One year postsurgery, maxillary stability was excellent, with a mean horizontal relapse at point A that represented 10.7% of maxillary advancement in group 1 and 13.4% in group 2. In the vertical plane, maxillary stability was also excellent, with a mean of 0.18 mm of superior repositioning at point A for group 1 and 1.19 mm for group 2. The mandible relapsed a mean of 2.97 mm horizontally at pogonion in group 1 (62% of mandibular setback) and 3.41 mm (49.7% of setback) in group 2. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with wire osteosynthesis and MMF was not as stable as maxillary advancement and accounted for most of the total horizontal relapse (almost 85%) observed. A trend to relapse was observed for maxillary advancement greater than 6 mm, while the single variable accounting for mandibular relapse in group 1 was the amount of surgical setback. Clockwise rotation of the ascending ramus at surgery was not correlated with mandibular relapse in relation to the type of fixation performed and therefore does not seem to be responsible for relapse. PMID:12387609

  2. Experimental study on penetration of dental implants into the maxillary sinus in different depths

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, Weijian; CHEN, Binke; LIANG, Xin; MA, Guowu

    2013-01-01

    The exposing of dental implant into the maxillary sinus combined with membrane perforation might increase risks of implant failure and sinus complications. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the dental implant penetration into the maxillary sinus cavity in different depths on osseointegration and sinus health in a dog model. Material and Methods Sixteen titanium implants were placed in the bilateral maxillary molar areas of eight adult mongrel dogs, which were randomly divided into four groups according to the different penetrating extents of implants into the sinus cavities (group A: 0 mm; group B: 1 mm; group C: 2 mm; group D: 3 mm). The block biopsies were harvested five months after surgery and evaluated by radiographic observation and histological analysis. Results No signs of inflammatory reactions were observed in any maxillary sinus of the eight dogs. The tips of the implants with penetrating depth of 1 mm and 2 mm were found to be fully covered with newly formed membrane and partially with new bone. The tips of the implants with penetrating depth over 3 mm were exposed in the sinus cavity and showed no membrane or bone coverage. No significant differences were found among groups regarding implant stability, bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area in the implant threads (BA). Conclusions Despite the protrusion extents, penetration of dental implant into the maxillary sinus with membrane perforation does not compromise the sinus health and the implant osseointegration in canine. PMID:24473723

  3. Corticotomy-assisted rapid maxillary expansion: A novel approach with a 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Echchadi, Mohamed Elmehdi; Benchikh, Basma; Bellamine, Meriem; Kim, Seong-Hun

    2015-07-01

    This case report introduces a new approach of corticotomy-assisted rapid maxillary expansion for treating a severe maxillary transverse discrepancy in a skeletally mature patient. This approach uses piezo-bone perforation in conjunction with a fixed appliance and an expander. This report describes the treatment of a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary transverse discrepancy. She had a straight profile, severe maxillary crowding, a maxillomandibular transverse differential index of 9 mm, and a Class I skeletal relationship. The treatment protocol consisted of surgical intervention with piezo-bone perforation and active orthodontic therapy. Immediately after the piezo-bone perforation on the lateral buccal side of the maxilla, active orthodontic therapy was started with activation of an expander. The expander was reactivated weekly. Treatment duration was 5 months 2 weeks. Proper overbite and overjet, facial balance, and occlusion were achieved. The treatment outcome was stable at the 3-year follow up. This treatment approach considerably reduced the treatment time and gained bony volume. Additionally, it transformed the periodontal biotype in contrast to conventional therapy. This approach is a good alternative for treating a severe maxillary transverse discrepancy in a skeletally mature patient, especially for a patient who does not want surgical rapid palatal expansion. PMID:26124037

  4. The innate osteogenic potential of the maxillary sinus (Schneiderian) membrane: an ectopic tissue transplant model simulating sinus lifting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Srouji; D. Ben-David; R. Lotan; M. Riminucci; E. Livne; P. Bianco

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary sinus membrane lifting is a common procedure aimed at increasing the volume of the maxillary sinus osseous floor prior to inserting dental implants. Clinical observations of bone formation in sinus lifting procedures without grafting bone substitutes were observed, but the biological nature of bone regeneration in sinus lifting procedures is unclear. This study tested whether this osteogenic activity relies

  5. Analysis of stress in the periodontium of the maxillary first molar with a three-dimensional finite element model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. Jeon; Patrick K. Turley; Hong B. Moon; Kang Ting

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simulate the stress response in the periodontium of the maxillary first molar to different moment to force ratios, and to determine the moment to force ratio for translational movement of the tooth by means of the finite element method. The three-dimensional finite element model of the maxillary first molar consisted of 3097 nodes

  6. Maxillary Arch Dimensions and Spectral Characteristics of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate Who Produce Middorsum Palatal Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Cevidanes, Lucia; Shah, Sonam; Haley, Katarina L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine maxillary arch dimensions of children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP) who produced middorsum palatal stops and (b) to describe some spectral characteristics of middorsum palatal stops. Method: Maxillary arch width, length, and height dimensions and first spectral moments of…

  7. Solitary median maxillary central incisor: A case report of a rare dental anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Deepak; Yezdani, Arif; Tajir, Faizal; Saravanan, B.; Rajasekar, L.

    2015-01-01

    The solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome is a rare dental anomaly and has an incidence of 1:50,000 live births. In SMMCI, there is only one central incisor present, and it develops exactly at the midline. SMMCI occurrence has been described with growth hormone deficiency or other structural anomalies in the midline of the body. In this case, the 8-year-old female patient reported a single median maxillary central incisor with missing maxillary and mandibular frena, with apparently no other abnormalities. Early diagnosis and recognition of SMMCI are important for all practicing Orthodontists, as it may be a sign of other severe congenital or developmental abnormalities. PMID:26015739

  8. Prosthetic rehabilitation of acquired maxillary defects secondary to mucormycosis: clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rupal J; Katyayan, Manish Khan; Katyayan, Preeti Agarwal; Chauhan, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary necrosis can occur due to bacterial infections such as osteomyelitis, viral infections, such as herpes zoster or fungal infections, such as mucormycosis, aspergillosis etc. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection, which mainly infects immunocompromised patients. Once the maxilla is involved, surgical resection and debridement of the necrosed areas can result in extensive maxillary defects. The clinician is to face many a challenge in order to replace not only the missing teeth, but also the lost soft tissues and bone, including hard palate and alveolar ridges. The prosthesis (Obturator) lacks a bony base and the lost structures of the posterior palatal seal area compromise retention of the prosthesis. Furthermore, the post surgical soft tissues are scarred and tense, which exert strong dislodging forces. The present article describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of maxillary necrosis secondary to mucormycosis in two cases, one completely edentulous and the other partially edentulous. PMID:25095851

  9. Hematogenous osteomyelitis of the hand skeleton in adults after dental maxillary infections.

    PubMed

    Germann, G; Petracic, A; Wittemann, M; Raff, T

    1996-07-01

    Hematogenous ostemyelitis is infrequently seen in adults and primary involvement of the hand skeleton is extremely rare. Little has been reported about the foci of hematogenously spread infections. Two cases of hematogenous osteomyelitis of the hand originating from dental maxillary infections were reported. The first patient suffered an acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the wrist join, spreading from dental granulomas and massive periodontitis. Despite early radical debridement, attempts to salvage the wrist joint and the extensor tendons failed, so that a wrist fusion had to be performed. The functional outcome was poor. The second patient demonstrated a chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis of the fourth and fifth metacarpals originating from chronic maxillary sinusitis. Radical debridement and use of "spare parts" of the fifth metacarpal prevented an amputation of the fourth ray. The functional outcome was excellent. These cases emphasize the importance of including an examination of the dental maxillary area when searching for a primary focus of hematogenous osteomyelitis. PMID:8826600

  10. Maxillary sinus perforation with presence of an antral pseudocyst, repaired with platelet rich fibrin.

    PubMed

    Baykul, Timuçin; F?nd?k, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    The maxillary sinus lifting procedure is an important preprosthetic surgical procedure for the creation of adequate bone volume in the edentulous posterior maxilla for the placement of dental implants. The presence of a maxillary sinus cyst has been considered a contraindication for this operation. Perforation of the membrane and hence the elongation of the healing time for implant placement is the most common complication in this type of procedure. The purpose of the case is to show the safely repair of the large sinus perforation during the sinus lifting with presence of the antral pseudocyst. In this case, we present a patient who had a maxillary sinus lifting procedure in the presence of antral pseudocysts. No complications were seen during follow-up periods and all implants are functioning successfully. Platelet-rich fibrin may be used safely when large perforation occurs during the sinus lifting with the presence of an antral pseudocyst. PMID:25593876

  11. Segment alignment control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.

    1988-01-01

    The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

  12. Identification of common features of vehicle motion under drowsy/distracted driving: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijun; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhong, Ming; Lyu, Nengchao; Huang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Drowsy/distracted driving has become one of the leading causes of traffic crash. Only certain particular drowsy/distracted driving behaviors have been studied by previous studies, which are mainly based on dedicated sensor devices such as bio and visual sensors. The objective of this study is to extract the common features for identifying drowsy/distracted driving through a set of common vehicle motion parameters. An intelligent vehicle was used to collect vehicle motion parameters. Fifty licensed drivers (37 males and 13 females, M=32.5 years, SD=6.2) were recruited to carry out road experiments in Wuhan, China and collecting vehicle motion data under four driving scenarios including talking, watching roadside, drinking and under the influence of drowsiness. For the first scenario, the drivers were exposed to a set of questions and asked to repeat a few sentences that had been proved valid in inducing driving distraction. Watching roadside, drinking and driving under drowsiness were assessed by an observer and self-reporting from the drivers. The common features of vehicle motions under four types of drowsy/distracted driving were analyzed using descriptive statistics and then Wilcoxon rank sum test. The results indicated that there was a significant difference of lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration between "normal driving" and drowsy/distracted driving. Study results also shown that, under drowsy/distracted driving, the lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration were significantly larger from the normal driving. The lateral acceleration rates were shown to suddenly increase or decrease by more than 2.0m/s(3) and the yaw rate acceleration by more than 2.5°/s(2). The standard deviation of acceleration rate (SDA) and standard deviation of yaw rate acceleration (SDY) were identified to as the common features of vehicle motion for distinguishing the drowsy/distracted driving from the normal driving. In order to identify a time window for effectively extracting the two common features, a double-window method was used and the optimized "Parent Window" and "Child Window" were found to be 55s and 6s, respectively. The study results can be used to develop a driving assistant system, which can warn drivers when any one of the four types of drowsy/distracted driving is detected. PMID:25846494

  13. Effect of visual distraction and auditory feedback on patient effort during robot-assisted movement training after stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Practicing arm and gait movements with robotic assistance after neurologic injury can help patients improve their movement ability, but patients sometimes reduce their effort during training in response to the assistance. Reduced effort has been hypothesized to diminish clinical outcomes of robotic training. To better understand patient slacking, we studied the role of visual distraction and auditory feedback in modulating patient effort during a common robot-assisted tracking task. Methods Fourteen participants with chronic left hemiparesis from stroke, five control participants with chronic right hemiparesis and fourteen non-impaired healthy control participants, tracked a visual target with their arms while receiving adaptive assistance from a robotic arm exoskeleton. We compared four practice conditions: the baseline tracking task alone; tracking while also performing a visual distracter task; tracking with the visual distracter and sound feedback; and tracking with sound feedback. For the distracter task, symbols were randomly displayed in the corners of the computer screen, and the participants were instructed to click a mouse button when a target symbol appeared. The sound feedback consisted of a repeating beep, with the frequency of repetition made to increase with increasing tracking error. Results Participants with stroke halved their effort and doubled their tracking error when performing the visual distracter task with their left hemiparetic arm. With sound feedback, however, these participants increased their effort and decreased their tracking error close to their baseline levels, while also performing the distracter task successfully. These effects were significantly smaller for the participants who used their non-paretic arm and for the participants without stroke. Conclusions Visual distraction decreased participants effort during a standard robot-assisted movement training task. This effect was greater for the hemiparetic arm, suggesting that the increased demands associated with controlling an affected arm make the motor system more prone to slack when distracted. Providing an alternate sensory channel for feedback, i.e., auditory feedback of tracking error, enabled the participants to simultaneously perform the tracking task and distracter task effectively. Thus, incorporating real-time auditory feedback of performance errors might improve clinical outcomes of robotic therapy systems. PMID:21513561

  14. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Patients with Maxillary Defects in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Omo, JO; Sede, MA; Enabulele, JE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maxillary defects are managed by prosthodontic rehabilitation using obturators. This rehabilitation goes through various stages, which invariably affects the quality-of-life of the patients. Aim: This study aims to analyze the types and design of obturators used in the rehabilitation of maxillary defects at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all patients with maxillary defects treated at a tertiary institution between the period of October 2010 and May 2013. The data of interest collected from the patient's register and case notes include age, gender, type of defects, design of obturators and conditions for which treatment was offered. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0 (Chicago, Illinois, 2010) and result presented in frequencies and tables. Results: A total of 19 case notes were retrieved. The age range was 5-73 years with the mean age of 46.37 ± 19.02 and peak age incidence at 41-60 years. The male: female ratio was 1:1.4. Surgical defects were the most common type of maxillary defects seen; accounting for 89.5% (17/19) of the cases, which were mostly associated with malignant tumors. Immediate surgical obturators were provided for 63.2% (12/19) of the subjects. Majority 70.6% (12/17) of those with surgical defects received immediate surgical obturators while all those with congenital defect were given feeding plate. There was a statistically significant association between the type of maxillary defect and type of obturator provided (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that majority of the obturators fabricated for patients with maxillary defect at the Tertiary health institution in Nigeria were immediate surgical obturators. Pre-surgical patient education and follow-up care is advocated. PMID:25221718

  15. Divergent requirements for fibroblast growth factor signaling in zebrafish maxillary barbel and caudal fin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Duszynski, Robert J; Topczewski, Jacek; LeClair, Elizabeth E

    2013-02-01

    The zebrafish maxillary barbel is an integumentary organ containing skin, glands, pigment cells, taste buds, nerves, and endothelial vessels. The maxillary barbel can regenerate (LeClair & Topczewski 2010); however, little is known about its molecular regulation. We have studied fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway molecules during barbel regeneration, comparing this system to a well-known regenerating appendage, the zebrafish caudal fin. Multiple FGF ligands (fgf20a, fgf24), receptors (fgfr1-4) and downstream targets (pea3, il17d) are expressed in normal and regenerating barbel tissue, confirming FGF activation. To test if specific FGF pathways were required for barbel regeneration, we performed simultaneous barbel and caudal fin amputations in two temperature-dependent zebrafish lines. Zebrafish homozygous for a point mutation in fgf20a, a factor essential for caudal fin blastema formation, regrew maxillary barbels normally, indicating that the requirement for this ligand is appendage-specific. Global overexpression of a dominant negative FGF receptor, Tg(hsp70l:dn-fgfr1:EGFP)(pd1) completely blocked fin outgrowth but only partially inhibited barbel outgrowth, suggesting reduced requirements for FGFs in barbel tissue. Maxillary barbels expressing dn-fgfr1 regenerated peripheral nerves, dermal connective tissue, endothelial tubes, and a glandular epithelium; in contrast to a recent report in which dn-fgfr1 overexpression blocks pharyngeal taste bud formation in zebrafish larvae (Kapsimali et al. 2011), we observed robust formation of calretinin-positive tastebuds. These are the first experiments to explore the molecular mechanisms of maxillary barbel regeneration. Our results suggest heterogeneous requirements for FGF signaling in the regeneration of different zebrafish appendages (caudal fin versus maxillary barbel) and taste buds of different embryonic origin (pharyngeal endoderm versus barbel ectoderm). PMID:23350700

  16. Management of intrusive luxation of maxillary incisors with dens in dente: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patil, Anand C; Patil, Rajesh R

    2010-10-01

    Intrusive luxation is one of the most severe types of dental traumatic injuries. The risk of occurrence of pulpal necrosis and inflammatory or replacement resorption is high. In an attempt to prevent or delay the appearance of such lesions, endodontic intervention is required soon after the occurrence of trauma. A 17-year-old boy reported to the Department of Conservative dentistry and Endodontics, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, 2 days after a fall from a bicycle. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed an intrusive luxation of the left maxillary central incisor and lateral incisor. There were complicated crown fracture with the right maxillary central incisor and uncomplicated crown fracture with the left maxillary central incisor. Also, all the incisors showed the presence of Oelhers type II Dens-in-dente. The management was hence challenging. Immediate surgical repositioning was performed and the teeth were stabilized with a composite resin splint. Endodontic therapy was initiated with the right maxillary central incisor, and the canal was sealed with calcium hydroxide dressing. After 3 weeks, pulp sensitivity was repeated with the maxillary left central and lateral incisors. The result was negative. Considering the incidence of pulp necrosis and root resorption in intruded teeth with complete root formation, they also were dealt in a similar manner as the maxillary right central incisor. The splint was removed after 1 month. After 6 months of calcium hydroxide therapy, there was a satisfactory apical and periodontal healing. At this stage, the teeth were obturated and the fractures were restored with composite resin. A 1-year follow up revealed a satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcome. PMID:20636362

  17. Comparison of obturator design for acquired maxillary defect in completely edentulous patients.

    PubMed

    Ahila, S C; Anitha, K V; Thulasingam, C

    2011-01-01

    The most challenging and appreciated area in the field of Prosthodontics is the rehabilitation of maxillary defects. Tumors of the head and neck are the common cause for acquired maxillofacial defects. Surgical consequences predispose the patient to hypernasal speech, fluid leakage into nasal cavity, impaired masticatory function, and cosmetic deformity. The Prosthodontists play a significant role in the intervention and improve the quality of life of such patients. The current article describes two clinical case reports of completely edentulous patients with acquired maxillary defects. PMID:21525697

  18. Non Syndromic Bilateral Microdontia of Maxillary Second Molars: A Very Rare Finding

    PubMed Central

    Chander, Subhash; Ahluwalia, Amrit Singh; Chinna, Harleen

    2015-01-01

    Dental anomalies are the formative defects caused by genetic disturbances or environmental factors during tooth morphogenesis. The term microdontia is defined as the condition of having abnormally small teeth. Clinically, microdontia in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, is found in 0.8-8.4% of the population. One of the commonest forms of localized microdontia is that which affects the maxillary lateral incisor, a condition called Peg laterals. The next tooth which can be affected is the third molars. Few cases of microdontia in canines have been reported. Localised microdontia of maxillary second molar has never been reported in literature before. PMID:26023663

  19. E.coli Associated Extensive Bilateral Maxillary Osteomyelitis: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Padhiary, Subrat Kumar; Srivastava, Gunjan; Panda, Swagatika; Subudhi, Santosh; Lenka, Sthitaprajna

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of broad spectrum antibiotics, chronic osteomyelitis of jaw, especially of maxilla, has become a rare lesion. Osteomyelitis of jaw is associated with a complex microbiota, the most common oral microorganism being, Staphylococcus sp. Reported cases of jaw osteomyelitis caused by enteric bacteria are very few in literature. Hereby, we are reporting a case of E.coli associated osteomyelitis in a diabetic individual who had presented with very aggressive bilateral maxillary necrosis. After extensive literature search, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of maxillary osteomyelitis associated with E.coli which we have come across. PMID:24298536

  20. Surgical correction of excessive gingival display in class I vertical maxillary excess: Mucosal strip technique.

    PubMed

    Jananni, M; Sivaramakrishnan, M; Libby, Thomas J

    2014-07-01

    There are several conditions that results in excessive gingival display. In case of class I vertical maxillary excess the reason for this excessive display is the hypermobile lip. Though orthodontic treatment is the choice of treatment, surgical repositioning along with the orthodontics gives more predictable and stable results. This case report discusses cosmetic surgical management of case with class I vertical maxillary excess with excessive gingival display. The technique involves removal of strip of mucosal tissue from the labial vestibule thereby limiting the retraction of elevator muscles. PMID:25097447

  1. Non syndromic bilateral microdontia of maxillary second molars: a very rare finding.

    PubMed

    Hans, Manoj Kumar; Chander, Subhash; Ahluwalia, Amrit Singh; Chinna, Harleen

    2015-04-01

    Dental anomalies are the formative defects caused by genetic disturbances or environmental factors during tooth morphogenesis. The term microdontia is defined as the condition of having abnormally small teeth. Clinically, microdontia in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, is found in 0.8-8.4% of the population. One of the commonest forms of localized microdontia is that which affects the maxillary lateral incisor, a condition called Peg laterals. The next tooth which can be affected is the third molars. Few cases of microdontia in canines have been reported. Localised microdontia of maxillary second molar has never been reported in literature before. PMID:26023663

  2. Hemangioma of the Maxillary Sinus Presenting as a Mass: CT and MR Features

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won Sang; Yoo, Chang Young; Park, Yong-Jin; Ihn, Yon Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Hemangiomas of the sinonasal tract are rare, and because these lesions lack the typical signs or symptoms, they can be confused with other malignant conditions. We report a case of cavernous hemangioma of the maxillary sinus in a 68-year-old man that was completely resected by endoscopic sinus surgery. Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed several enhancing areas within the tumor, the substantial bone erosion and remodeling made it difficult to differentiate this cavernous hemangioma from other expansile maxillary sinus lesions. We present the CT and MR findings of this lesion and discuss the differential diagnoses and potential therapeutic approaches. PMID:25901262

  3. Surgical correction of excessive gingival display in class I vertical maxillary excess: Mucosal strip technique

    PubMed Central

    Jananni, M.; Sivaramakrishnan, M.; Libby, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    There are several conditions that results in excessive gingival display. In case of class I vertical maxillary excess the reason for this excessive display is the hypermobile lip. Though orthodontic treatment is the choice of treatment, surgical repositioning along with the orthodontics gives more predictable and stable results. This case report discusses cosmetic surgical management of case with class I vertical maxillary excess with excessive gingival display. The technique involves removal of strip of mucosal tissue from the labial vestibule thereby limiting the retraction of elevator muscles. PMID:25097447

  4. Maxillary first molar with 8 root canals detected by CBCT scanning: a case report.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gustavo; Machado, Ricardo; Sanches Cunha, Rodrigo; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary molars are prone to exhibit some of the most complex root canal configurations in endodontics. These complexities can result in diagnostic dilemmas, as well as management challenges. This case report illustrates how a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan confirmed an unusual maxillary first molar with 3 root canals each in the mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots and 2 canals in the palatal root. This article illustrates how CBCT scanning and a dental operating microscope can facilitate a better understanding of complex root canal anatomies, ultimately allowing the dentist to clean, shape, and obturate root canal systems more efficiently. PMID:25734290

  5. Segmental abdominal zoster paresis.

    PubMed

    Jandolo, B; Biolcati, G; Montanari, U; Pietrangeli, A; Fazio, M

    1987-01-01

    A case of uncommon feature of herpes zoster, a segmental abdominal paresis, is described. The importance of searching a motor defect in the thoracoabdominal segments and the utility of the electromyographic examination are stressed. PMID:2961042

  6. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  7. Distraction: an assessment of smartphone usage in health care work settings

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Preetinder S; Kamath, Ashwini; Gill, Tejkaran S

    2012-01-01

    Smartphone use in health care work settings presents both opportunities and challenges. The benefits could be severely undermined if abuse and overuse are not kept in check. This practice-focused research paper examines the current panorama of health software applications. Findings from existing research are consolidated to elucidate the level and effects of distraction in health care work settings due to smartphone use. A conceptual framework for crafting guidelines to regulate the use of smartphones in health care work settings is then presented. Finally, specific guidelines are delineated to assist in creating policies for the use of smartphones in a health care workplace. PMID:22969308

  8. Congenital segmental giant megaureter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Ramaswamy; V Bhatnagar; D. K Mitra; A. K Gupta

    1995-01-01

    A case of congenital segmental giant megaureter is reported. The patient presented with an asymptomatic abdominal mass resulting from the megaureter. A mildly hydronephrotic ipsilateral kidney was palpable as a separate mass. The ureter proximal and distal to the dilated segment showed normal peristaltic activity. Treatment consisted of excision of the dilated segment, with end-to-end ureteric anastomosis.

  9. Segmentation of Color Textures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majid Mirmehdi; Maria Petrou

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to perceptual segmentation of color image textures. A multiscale representation of the texture image, generated by a multiband smoothing algorithm based on human psychophysical measurements of color appearance is used as the input. Initial segmentation is achieved by applying a clustering algorithm to the image at the coarsest level of smoothing. The segmented clusters are

  10. Management of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome secondary to temporomandibular joint ankylosis by mandibular elongation using distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Hemavathy, O R

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with repetitive nocturnal upper airway obstruction leading to daytime sleepiness, cardiovascular derangements, and can be a debilitating, even life-threatening condition. The most favorable treatment for patients with OSAS is multidisciplinary care by a team that represents various dental and medical disciplines. Prescribed therapies might include weight loss, behavior modification, oral appliances, soft tissue surgery, skeletal surgery, or some combination of approaches. Osteogenesis by mandibular distraction has proved effective in children in the treatment of obstructive apnea syndrome associated with congenital malformations. In the adult, the possibility of using distraction osteogenesis in the management of OSAS remains to be defined. We report a case of an adult patient treated for OSAS secondary to temporomandibular joint ankylosis by mandibular distraction followed by interpositional arthroplasty. PMID:22557901

  11. Installing an original sleeve for rod unaccessible pain from a distraction device in a hemifacial microsomia patient

    PubMed Central

    Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Nishiyama, Akiyoshi; Yoshioka, Norie; Sasaki, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lengthening of the mandible by distraction osteogenesis using an internal device is the preferred method for the treatment of hemifacial microsomia. Despite its advantages, this technique can lead to various complications after the surgery. Presentation of case We report the case of an 8-yr-old Japanese girl whose case presented practical difficulties in device activation because of rod unaccessible pain after the initial mandibular distraction with an internal device, and this complication was addressed with the installation of an original sleeve. Discussion In the present patient, the region of the bend rod was located at the inferior border of the right mandible, causing rod unaccessible pain by contacting the surrounding tissue including a sensory nerve. Careful vertical ramus distractor position planning and tools to resolve complications are the key factors for accomplishing the scheduled elongation. Conclusion Alternative techniques using a sleeve for safer and gentle distraction for rod unaccessible pain on activation should be considered. PMID:26073915

  12. The Effects of Maxillary Protraction with or without Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Age Factors in Treating Class III Malocclusion: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Qu, Hong-Chen; Yu, Mo; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 12 studies to examine whether maxillary protraction face mask associated with rapid maxillary expansion (FM/RME) could be an effective treatment for Class III malocclusion and to evaluate the effect of timing on treatment response. Patients with a maxillary deficiency who were treated with FM with or without RME were compared with those who had an untreated Class III malocclusion. In both treatment groups, forward displacement of the maxilla and skeletal changes were found to be statistically significant. In addition, posterior rotation of the mandible and increased facial height were more evident in the FM group compared with the control group. However, no significant differences were observed between the early treatment groups and late treatment groups. The results indicated that both FM/RME and FM therapy produced favorable skeletal changes for correcting anterior crossbite, and the curative time was not affected by the presence of deciduous teeth, early mixed dentition or late mixed dentition in the patient. PMID:26068221

  13. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: evidence from EEG and MEG data

    PubMed Central

    Ruhnau, Philipp; Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Brauer, Jens; Friederici, Angela D.; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-01

    When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9–10 years) and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times (RTs) in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts toward complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation. PMID:24155730

  14. Evaluation of traction stirrup distraction technique to increase the joint space of the shoulder joint in the dog: A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Devesa, V; Rovesti, G L; Urrutia, P G; Sanroman, F; Rodriguez-Quiros, J

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate technical feasibility and efficacy of a joint distraction technique by traction stirrup to facilitate shoulder arthroscopy and assess potential soft tissue damage. Twenty shoulders were evaluated radiographically before distraction. Distraction was applied with loads from 40?N up to 200?N, in 40?N increments, and the joint space was recorded at each step by radiographic images. The effects of joint flexion and intra-articular air injection at maximum load were evaluated. Radiographic evaluation was performed after distraction to evaluate ensuing joint laxity. Joint distraction by traction stirrup technique produces a significant increase in the joint space; an increase in joint laxity could not be inferred by standard and stress radiographs. However, further clinical studies are required to evaluate potential neurovascular complications. A wider joint space may be useful to facilitate arthroscopy, reducing the likelihood for iatrogenic damage to intra-articular structures. PMID:25910692

  15. Federal crash records note that distracted driving is a factor in nearly 80 percent of all crashes, contributing to more than 1.6 million crashes in the U.S. each year.

    E-print Network

    a growing number of studies showing that most drivers recognize that using a cell phone behind the wheel all forms of distraction, but is focusing primarily on distractions caused by new technologies and flashing lights that come with them, can cause drivers to be distracted. TTI's role in the NHTSA project

  16. What is a segment?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Animals have been described as segmented for more than 2,000 years, yet a precise definition of segmentation remains elusive. Here we give the history of the definition of segmentation, followed by a discussion on current controversies in defining a segment. While there is a general consensus that segmentation involves the repetition of units along the anterior-posterior (a-p) axis, long-running debates exist over whether a segment can be composed of only one tissue layer, whether the most anterior region of the arthropod head is considered segmented, and whether and how the vertebrate head is segmented. Additionally, we discuss whether a segment can be composed of a single cell in a column of cells, or a single row of cells within a grid of cells. We suggest that ‘segmentation’ be used in its more general sense, the repetition of units with a-p polarity along the a-p axis, to prevent artificial classification of animals. We further suggest that this general definition be combined with an exact description of what is being studied, as well as a clearly stated hypothesis concerning the specific nature of the potential homology of structures. These suggestions should facilitate dialogue among scientists who study vastly differing segmental structures. PMID:24345042

  17. Roentgenographic In Vitro Investigation of Frequency and Location of Curvatures in Human Maxillary Premolars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brita Willershausen; Haki Tekyatan; Adrian Kasaj; Benjamin Briseño Marroquín

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the location of the root canal curvature and measure the distance from the CEJ to the first curvature using in vitro methods. Extracted maxillary premolars (n = 358) were fixed and digitally radiographed using the parallel technique. Excluded from further analysis were teeth with root caries, artificial crowns, extensive fillings, or endodontic

  18. Postoperative perforation of the Schneiderian membrane in maxillary sinus augmentation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kyu-Hong; Yoon, Kyu-Ho; Cheong, Jeong-Kwon; Jeon, In-Seong

    2014-07-01

    Perforation of the Schneiderian membrane constitutes a major intraoperative complication of maxillary sinus floor elevation with graft materials, but postoperative perforation of the sinus membrane is very rare. This case report demonstrates that conservative treatment involving drainage and the administration of systemic antibiotics can be used to successfully treat postoperative sinus membrane perforation with infection of the graft material. PMID:25020219

  19. Effect of Maxillary Sinus Augmentation on the Survival of Endosseous Dental Implants. A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen S. Wallace; Stuart J. Froum

    2003-01-01

    Background: Grafting the floor of the maxillary sinus has become the most common surgical intervention for increasing alveolar bone height prior to the placement of endosseous dental implants in the posterior maxilla. Outcomes of this procedure may be affected by specific surgical techniques, simultaneous versus delayed implant placement, use of barrier membranes over the lateral window, selection of graft material,

  20. Transposition of maxillary canine to central incisor site: aetiology, treatment options and case report.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zohaib; Jaisinghani, Aneel C; Waring, David; Malik, Ovais

    2014-09-01

    Dental transposition is relatively infrequent anomaly of the developing dentition. This article focuses on canine transposition and explores the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of this challenging anomaly. Specifically, the management of a case of canine transposition involving an unerupted maxillary central incisor is described. PMID:24521750

  1. Facial approach to stabilization of mobile maxillary anterior teeth with steep vertical overlap and occlusal trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stavros I. Vitsentzos; Petros T. Koidis

    1997-01-01

    The necessity for splinting and the advantages of some types of permanent, semipermanent, and temporary splinting are given. Specific step-by-step instructions are given for a special purpose splint that can be used for stabilizing mobile maxillary teeth when the patient has thin teeth faciolingually and a steep vertical overlap. This can be the treatment of choice for such patients. (J

  2. Subluxation injuries of maxillary primary. anterior teeth: epidemiology and prognos s of 207 traumatized teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin Fried; Stephane Schwartz; Kathleen Keenan

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the epidemiology, sequelae, and prognosis of subluxation injuries to the maxillary primary anterior dentition. Data were collected from dental records at the Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal, Canada, of patients sustaining trauma between 1982 and 1993. The study group consisted of 207 teeth in 134 patients, 81 males and 53females. The age of the patients ranged from 0.8

  3. The Effects of Surgical Rapid Maxillary Expansion (SRME) on Vowel Formants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Emel; Kilic, Mehmet Akif

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surgical rapid maxillary expansion (SRME) on vowel production. The subjects included 12 patients, whose speech were considered perceptually normal, that had undergone surgical RME for expansion of a narrow maxilla. They uttered the following Turkish vowels, ([a], [[epsilon

  4. TripleX syndrome accompanied by a single maxillary central incisor: case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari Miura; Hiroshi Kojima; Haruhisa Oguchi

    1993-01-01

    Facial, oral, and dental findings of an 11-year-old girl with XXX syndrome are reported. Clinical examination reveals midfacial hypoplasia, congenital absence of teeth, and solitary maxillary central incisors both in primary and permanent dentitions. (Pediatr Dent 15:214-17, 1993 )

  5. The maxillary palp of aedes aegypti, a model of multisensory integration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, are obligate blood-feeders and vectors of the pathogens that cause dengue fever, yellow fever and Chikungunya. This feeding behavior concludes a series of multisensory events guiding the mosquito to its host from a distance. The antennae and maxillary...

  6. Fabrication of a Maxillary Implant Retained Overdenture Using an Existing Subperiostal Implant: A Clinical Report

    PubMed Central

    Barrero, Carlos; Border, Michael B.; Bencharit, Sompop

    2011-01-01

    Subperiosteal implants used to be prescribed to partially and fully edentulous patients to restore occlusion and esthetics prior to the emergence of the more successful endosseous implants that are used today. Because subperiosteal implants had a high incidence of failure, difficulty of placement, and post-operative complications, the use of subperiosteal implants declined significantly. However, some subperiostal implants placed 20-30 years ago still survive. Little information is available in the literature on how to treat patients whose subperiosteal implants still remain. This clinical case report thereby describes a treatment for a patient with a maxillary subperiosteal implant placed 23 years ago. The patient was offered a treatment option that included surgical implant removal, bone grafting and placement of endosseous implants to support a new maxillary overdenture. This treatment plan was not feasible due to the financial constraints of the patient and the complexity of the treatment. The patient chose a more conservative treatment plan, preserving the existing implant. The existing maxillary subperiosteal implant was restored with MICRO ERA attachments and a maxillary implant-retained overdenture was fabricated. The patient was satisfied with the esthetics and functional aspects of the treatment. No further peri-implant bone loss or other complications were found after a six-month recall. This clinical report suggests an alternative treatment plan for patients with existing subperiosteal implants that wish to avoid complex surgical procedures. PMID:21804901

  7. Skeletal and Dental Effects of Maxillary Protraction in Patients with Angle Class III Malocclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Jäger; Bert Braumann; Christian Kim; Susanne Wahner

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was a quantitative review of the published results concerning the treatment effects of maxillary protraction in patients with Angle Class III using the meta-analysis method. 85 articles published between 1966 and 1998 were reviewed under strict, pre-defined criteria. Of these, 12 studies presenting results of cephalometric measurements were selected for further analysis. The results of

  8. Distinct mechanisms for the impact of distraction and interruption on working memory in aging

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Wesley C; Gazzaley, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Interference is known to negatively impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM), an effect that is exacerbated with aging. Here, we explore how distinct sources of interference, i.e., distraction (stimuli to-be-ignored) and interruption (stimuli requiring attention), differentially influence WM in younger and older adults. EEG was recorded while participants engaged in three versions of a delayed-recognition task: no interference, a distracting stimulus, and an interrupting stimulus presented during WM maintenance. Behaviorally, both types of interference negatively impacted WM accuracy in older adults significantly more than younger adults (with a larger deficit for interruptions). N170 latency measures revealed that the degree of processing both distractors and interruptors predicted WM accuracy in both populations. However, while WM impairments could be explained by excessive attention to distractors by older adults (a suppression deficit), impairment induced by interruption were not clearly mediated by age-related increases in attention to interruptors. These results suggest that distinct underlying mechanisms mediate the impact of different types of external interference on WM in normal aging. PMID:20144492

  9. Distraction, the desire to eat and food intake. Towards an expanded model of mindless eating.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Coop, Nicola; Cousins, Charlotte; Crump, Rebecca; Field, Laura; Hughes, Sarah; Woodger, Nigel

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the impact of different forms of distraction on eating behaviour with a focus on the mechanisms behind this association and the link between the amount consumed and changes in the desire to eat. Participants (n=81) were randomly allocated to four conditions: driving, television viewing, social interaction or being alone in which they took part in a taste test. Measures of the desire to eat (i.e. Hunger, fullness, motivation to eat) were assessed before and after the intervention. The results showed that those watching television consumed more than the social or driving conditions. Food intake was associated with a decreased desire to eat for those eating alone, but was unrelated to changes in the desire to eat for those driving. Watching television also created a decrease in the desire to eat commensurate with food intake whereas social eating resulted in the reverse relationship. The results are discussed in terms an expanded model of mindless eating and it is argued that eating more requires not only distraction away from the symptom of hunger but also sufficient cognitive capacity left to attend to the process of eating. PMID:23219989

  10. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Mandibular Bone Regenerated By Bone Transport Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kontogiorgos, Elias; Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Zapata, Uriel; Zakhary, Ibrahim; Nagy, William W.; Dechow, Paul C.; Opperman, Lynne A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structure and material properties of native mandibular bone and those of early regenerate bone, produced by bone transport distraction osteogenesis. Ten adult foxhounds were divided into two groups of five animals each. In all animals, a 3- to 4-cm defect was created on one side of the mandible. A bone transport reconstruction plate, consisting of a reconstruction plate with an attached intraoral transport unit, was utilized to stabilize the mandible and regenerate bone at a rate of 1 mm/day. After the distraction period was finished, the animals were killed at 6 and 12 weeks of consolidation. Micro-computed tomography was used to assess the morphometric and structural indices of regenerate bone and matching bone from the unoperated contralateral side. Significant new bone was formed within the defect in the 6- and 12-week groups. Significant differences (P ? 0.05) between mandibular regenerated and native bone were found in regard to bone volume fraction, mineral density, bone surface ratio, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and connectivity density, which increased from 12 to 18 weeks of consolidation. We showed that regenerated bone is still mineralizing and that native bone appears denser because of a thick outer layer of cortical bone that is not yet formed in the regenerate. However, the regenerate showed a significantly higher number of thicker trabeculae. PMID:21556698

  11. Driving skills of young adults with developmental coordination disorder: regulating speed and coping with distraction.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita F; Wann, John P

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we used an automatic car simulator to examine the steering control, speed regulation and response to hazards of young adults with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and limited driving experience. In Experiment 1 participants either used the accelerator pedal to regulate their speed, or used the brake pedal when they needed to slow down from a pre-set speed. In Experiment 2, we introduced an auditory distraction condition that shared similarities with maintaining a conversation. Overall, the DCD group produced a larger variance in heading and needed more steering adjustments on straight roads, compared to age-matched controls. When turning bends, the DCD group showed greater difficulty in controlling steering while regulating their speed with the accelerator pedal but this was less problematic when using the brake. The DCD group also responded slower than the control group to pedestrians who walked towards their path. The auditory distraction in Experiment 2 had no visible effects on steering control but increased the reaction times to pedestrians in both groups. We discuss the results in terms of the visuomotor control in steering and the learning of optimal mappings between optic flow and vehicle control. PMID:21242057

  12. Diagnostic CBCT in Dentigerous Cyst with Ectopic Third Molar in the Maxillary Sinus–A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; J K, Savitha; Bhai, Pankaja

    2014-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst is the second most common odontogenic cyst after radicular cyst. This report describes a case of a dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted maxillary third molar. Patient presented with foul smelling discharge through nose and oral cavity. Cone beam computed tomography revealed maxillary third molar displaced to lateral wall of the nose and a unilocular radiolucency obliterating the entire maxillary sinus. A provisional diagnosis of infected dentigerous cyst was made. The cyst was enucleated along with removal of third molar. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of dentigerous cyst. The patient recovery was uneventful. PMID:25121067

  13. Retreatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with two separate root canals confirmed with cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Seda; Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Sinanoglu, Alper; Ozel, Emre

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a maxillary lateral incisor exhibiting two separate root canals confirmed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 65-year-old female patient with an esthetic complaint regarding her maxillary left lateral incisor was referred to our clinic. During a radiographical examination, an endodontically treated root canal and an extra root canal with an apical lesion were observed. The retreatment was performed. CBCT findings confirmed the root canal mophology of the maxillary left lateral with two distinct canals. We conclude that the CBCT imaging is an adjunctive tool for better assessment of complex root canal systems. PMID:26015823

  14. Retreatment of a Maxillary Lateral Incisor With Two Separate Root Canals Confirmed With Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Seda; Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Sinanoglu, Alper; Ozel, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a maxillary lateral incisor exhibiting two separate root canals confirmed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 65-year-old female patient with an esthetic complaint regarding her maxillary left lateral incisor was referred to our clinic. During a radiographical examination, an endodontically treated root canal and an extra root canal with an apical lesion were observed. The retreatment was performed. CBCT findings confirmed the root canal mophology of the maxillary left lateral with two distinct canals. We conclude that the CBCT imaging is an adjunctive tool for better assessment of complex root canal systems. PMID:26015823

  15. Segmentation with Area Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Niethammer, Marc; Zach, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation approaches typically incorporate weak regularity conditions such as boundary length or curvature terms, or use shape information. High-level information such as a desired area or volume, or a particular topology are only implicitly specified. In this paper we develop a segmentation method with explicit bounds on the segmented area. Area constraints allow for the soft selection of meaningful solutions, and can counteract the shrinking bias of length-based regularization. We analyze the intrinsic problems of convex relaxations proposed in the literature for segmentation with size constraints. Hence, we formulate the area-constrained segmentation task as a mixed integer program, propose a branch and bound method for exact minimization, and use convex relaxations to obtain the required lower energy bounds on candidate solutions. We also provide a numerical scheme to solve the convex subproblems. We demonstrate the method for segmentations of vesicles from electron tomography images. PMID:23084504

  16. Effects of Induced Rumination and Distraction on Mood and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, R. J.; Goodyer, I. M.; Teasdale, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In adults there is evidence that the affective-cognitive processes of rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory retrieval may play a part in maintaining depression. This study investigated the effects of induced rumination as compared to distraction on mood and categoric overgeneral memory in adolescents with first episode…

  17. THE RIB DEFORMITY IN ADOLESCENT IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS A PROSPECTIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE CHANGES AFTER HARRINGTON DISTRACTION AND POSTERIOR FUSION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. WEATHERLEY; V. DRAYCOTF; J. F. O'BRIEN; D. R. BENSON; K. C. GOPALAKRISHNAN; J. H. EVANS

    curvature in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is reported. The operative freatment for 47 patients was by a Harrington distraction rod and posterior fusion. Before operation and at follow-up, measurements of the Cobb angle, of vertebral rotation, and of the rib deformity were taken. Despite operative correction of the lateral curve, there was a progression of the rib deformity in 64% of

  18. Tips for presenting your poster Don't distract the audience with your own appearance -be neatly neutral

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    Tips for presenting your poster Appearance Don't distract the audience with your own appearance - be neatly neutral Attitude The audience's interest will reflect your own - both your interest in your poster, and your interest in having them visit your poster. Engage the viewer If they come over and look

  19. Retrieval analysis and in vitro assessment of strength, durability, and distraction of a modular total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Nganbe, Michel; Louati, Hakim; Khan, Usman; Speirs, Andrew; Beaulé, Paul E

    2010-12-01

    We investigated a commercial Co-Cr-alloy head--Ti6Al4V alloy neck and Ti6Al4V stem modular total hip replacement. We assessed the distraction forces after in vitro cycling in bovine serum, fatigue durability, fretting corrosion damage, and load bearing capacity of new implants using fatigue-corrosion, pull-off, scanning electron microscopy, fatigue and compression investigations. In addition, we studied corrosion, fretting damage, and distraction forces on retrievals. For both retrievals and in vitro test samples, the neck-stem interface required the higher distraction force as compared with the head-neck interface. One of 12 retrievals showed strong fretting corrosion at the neck-stem interface which resulted in a high disassembly force of about 16 kN. For in vitro test samples, the neck-stem pull-off force initially increased during cycling and showed a maximum value of 5.704 kN at ?100,000 cycles, which is equivalent to gait cycles performed in approximately 36 days. Overall, assembly force, initial component settling, and interface corrosion primarily determine the force required to distract the modular components. One million cycles fatigue failure of the neck can be expected at a maximum compression load of -6.5 kN. No component failure was observed during quasistatic compression; rather the neck deformed plastically and the ultimate compression load-bearing capacity was -13 kN. PMID:20737432

  20. Reading news from a pocket computer in a distracting environment: effects of the tempo of background music

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari Kallinen

    2002-01-01

    Pocket computers are often used in environments were the user becomes exposed to distracting factors, such as background noise and moving objects. In this study, I examined the effects of background music on reading business news in a crowded cafeteria environment. Measures were taken regarding three reading conditions: (1) no background music, (2) fast music and (3) slow music. The

  1. Two Models for an Inspection Time Paradigm: Processing Distraction and Processing Speed versus Processing Speed and Asymptotic Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiken, Scott R.

    1993-01-01

    Two studies involving 333 military recruits investigate individual differences in time-accuracy functions of inspection time (IT) in terms of psychological models. Two alternative interpretations of IT time-accuracy functions (processing-distraction and processing-speed, and pure processing-speed "cascade" models) are considered in detail…

  2. The Role of Sensory Modality in Age-Related Distraction: A Critical Review and a Renewed View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerreiro, Maria J. S.; Murphy, Dana R.; Van Gerven, Pascal W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Selective attention requires the ability to focus on relevant information and to ignore irrelevant information. The ability to inhibit irrelevant information has been proposed to be the main source of age-related cognitive change (e.g., Hasher & Zacks, 1988). Although age-related distraction by irrelevant information has been extensively…

  3. Segmented Trough Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szmyd, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    Segmented troughlike reflector for solar cells approach concentration effectiveness of true parabolic reflector yet simpler and less expensive. Walls of segmented reflector composed of reflective aluminized membrane. Lengthwise guide wire applies tension to each wall, thereby dividing each into two separate planes. Planes tend to focus Sunlight on solar cells at center of trough between walls. Segmented walls provide higher Sunlight concentration ratios than do simple walls.

  4. A GENERAL THEORY OF IMAGE SEGMENTATION: LEVEL SET SEGMENTATION

    E-print Network

    Ciesielski, Krzysztof Chris

    A GENERAL THEORY OF IMAGE SEGMENTATION: LEVEL SET SEGMENTATION IN THE FUZZY CONNECTEDNESS FRAMEWORK;A general theory of image segmentation: level set segmentation in the fuzzy connectedness framework algorithm satisfy have to be acknowledged as acceptable? What does it mean that a digital image segmentation

  5. Clear cell calcifying epithelial odontogenic (Pindborg) tumor involving the maxillary sinus: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Priya; Nayak, Meghanand T; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Jayanti

    2012-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws, accounting for less than 3% of all odontogenic tumors. It rarely extends into the maxillary sinus. Till date, six cases involving maxillary sinus have been reported. In this paper, we report the seventh case of a 52-year-old male with CEOT in maxilla extending from distal surface of the right maxillary canine to retromolar area and involving maxillary sinus with no association with impacted teeth. The diagnosis was confirmed by aspiration cytology and histologically, the tumor was composed of sheets of epithelial cells, with areas of clear cell changes. The presence of clear cells in the histological sections, accounts for the aggressive nature of the tumor simulating the clinical appearance. Prevention of recurrence can be achieved by radical resection. PMID:23248488

  6. Clear cell calcifying epithelial odontogenic (Pindborg) tumor involving the maxillary sinus: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Priya; Nayak, Meghanand T; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Jayanti

    2012-09-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws, accounting for less than 3% of all odontogenic tumors. It rarely extends into the maxillary sinus. Till date, six cases involving maxillary sinus have been reported. In this paper, we report the seventh case of a 52-year-old male with CEOT in maxilla extending from distal surface of the right maxillary canine to retromolar area and involving maxillary sinus with no association with impacted teeth. The diagnosis was confirmed by aspiration cytology and histologically, the tumor was composed of sheets of epithelial cells, with areas of clear cell changes. The presence of clear cells in the histological sections, accounts for the aggressive nature of the tumor simulating the clinical appearance. Prevention of recurrence can be achieved by radical resection. PMID:23248488

  7. Quantitative Three-Dimensional Analysis of Root Canal Curvature in Maxillary First Molars Using Micro-Computed Tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Ki Lee; Byung-Hyun Ha; Jeong-Ho Choi; Seok-Mo Heo; Hiran Perinpanayagam

    2006-01-01

    In endodontic therapy, access and instrumentation are strongly affected by root canal curvature. However, the few studies that have actually measured curvature are mostly from two-dimensional radiographs. The purpose of this study was to measure the three-dimensional (3D) canal curvature in maxillary first molars using micro-computed tomography (microCT) and mathematical modeling. Extracted maxillary first molars (46) were scanned by microCT

  8. Quantitative Three-Dimensional Analysis of Root Canal Curvature in Maxillary First Molars Using Micro-Computed Tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Ki Lee; Byung-Hyun Ha; Jeong-Ho Choi; Seok-Mo Heo; Hiran Perinpanayagam

    In endodontic therapy, access and instrumentation are strongly affected by root canal curvature. However, the few studies that have actually measured curvature are mostly from two-dimensional radiographs. The purpose of this study was to measure the three-dimensional (3D) canal curvature in maxillary first molars using micro-computed tomography (microCT) and mathemat- ical modeling. Extracted maxillary first molars (46) were scanned by

  9. Endodontic Treatment of a Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Two Roots; A Case Report with 6 Months Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Atefeh; Abbaszadegan, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary lateral incisors are widely known to be single rooted with one root canal. Although rare cases with root canal variations are being reported in many populations, the reports regarding Iranian population is extremely limited. In this report, we are presenting the endodontic treatment of a double rooted maxillary lateral incisor. These rare root-canal variations should be considered in pretreatment evaluations by clinicians who perform endodontic treatments. PMID:25469361

  10. A new approach for evaluation of canine dento alveolar distraction using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Chandrasekaran; Kannan, M. S.; Sukumar, M. R.; Rajesekar, L.; Datta, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate and plan the canine dento alveolar distractions (DADs) with the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: 5 patients are requiring 10 canine DADs were selected for the study. A custom-made DAD distractor was fabricated for the study. CBCT scans were taken prior to and post thedistraction. DAD parameters such as Canine retraction, canine and molar rotation, molar anchor loss and level of the osteotomy cut above the canine was evaluated. Results: Average canine retraction was 7.5 mm in 17 days, molar anchor loss was 0.5 mm, canine and molar rotations were 8° and 0.40° and thedistance of the osteotomy cut to the canine was1.93 mm. Conclusion: The CBCT can be used to accurately evaluate the canine DADtechnique. PMID:26015689

  11. Vigilance impossible: Diligence, distraction, and daydreaming all lead to failures in a practical monitoring task.

    PubMed

    Casner, Stephen M; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2015-09-01

    In laboratory studies of vigilance, participants watch for unusual events in a "sit and stare" fashion as their performance typically declines over time. But watch keepers in practical settings seldom approach monitoring in such simplistic ways and controlled environments. We observed airline pilots performing routine monitoring duties in the cockpit. Unlike laboratory studies, pilots' monitoring did not deteriorate amidst prolonged vigils. Monitoring was frequently interrupted by other pop-up tasks and misses followed. However, when free from these distractions, pilots reported copious mind wandering. Pilots often confined their mind wandering to times in which their monitoring performance would not conspicuously suffer. But when no convenient times were available, pilots mind wandered anyway and misses ensued. Real-world monitors may be caught between a continuous vigilance approach that is doomed to fail, a dynamic environment that cannot be fully controlled, and what may be an irresistible urge to let one's thoughts drift. PMID:25966369

  12. [Morpho-functional characteristic of dog spinal ganglion neurons in post-distraction period].

    PubMed

    Safonova, G D; Kovalenko, A P

    2005-01-01

    The object of this work was to study the morpho-functional state of spinal ganglion neurons and to conduct the comparative quantitative analysis of the changes of neuronglial relations after hindlimb elongation in mongrel dogs by 14-16% of its initial length using different elongation rates. The longitudinal 5 microm thick serial sections of L(VI), L(VII) and S(I) ganglia stained with Nissl's thionine and cresyl violet and Einarssons's gallocyanin-chrome alume were studied. By days 45-48 of an experiment the reversible changes in the structure of some part of neurons were demonstrated, which included cytoplasmic and nuclear hyperchromatism, peripheral chromatolysis, nuclear and nucleolar dislocation, increase in the number of peri- and interneuronal gliocytes. The changes were most marked in the ganglia ipsilateral to the lengthening side with distraction rate of 3 mm per day; they were minimal contralaterally with the lengthening rate of 1 mm per day. PMID:16201332

  13. [Reading poems to oneself affects emotional state and level of distraction].

    PubMed

    Morita, Haruka; Sugamura, Genji

    2014-12-01

    Bibliotherapy has occasionally been used as a counseling technique. However, most reports are basically single-case studies and the psychological effect of this approach remains unclear. Two experiments using 96 healthy college volunteers were conducted to determine how the reading of emotionally positive, negative, or neutral passages affect one's mood and level of distraction. Study 1 revealed that participants felt more relaxed after reading positive poems with either personal or social content than after reading negativie ones, and they felt least refreshed and calm after reading negative poems with personal content. Study 2 showed that participants reported less depressed feelings, both after reading an excerpt from an explanatory leaflet and after a controlled rest period. These results were discussed in terms of the mood congruence effect. Future research may evaluate the effects of reading novels, manga, and life teachings on self-narratives and views of life in normal and clinical populations. PMID:25639026

  14. Distalization of maxillary arch and correction of Class II with mini-implants: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Tekale, Pawankumar Dnyandeo; Vakil, Ketan K; Vakil, Jeegar K; Gore, Ketan A

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the successful use of mini-screws in the maxilla to treat two patients of age 21-year and 17-year-old girls. Both the patients had a skeletal Class II malocclusion with protrusive maxillary teeth and angels Class II mal-occlusion. Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) in the posterior dental region between maxillary second premolar and maxillary first molar teeth on both sides were used as anchorage for the retraction and intrusion of her maxillary anterior teeth. Those appliances, combined with a compensatory curved maxillary archwire, eliminated spacing, deep bite, forwardly placed and proclined upper front teeth and the protrusive profile, corrected the molar relationship from Class II to Class I. With no extra TADs in the anterior region for intrusion, the treatment was workable and simple. The patient received a satisfactory occlusion and an attractive smile. This technique requires minimal compliance and is particularly useful for correcting Class II patients with protrusive maxillary front teeth and dental deep bite. PMID:26097360

  15. Distalization of maxillary arch and correction of Class II with mini-implants: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Tekale, Pawankumar Dnyandeo; Vakil, Ketan K.; Vakil, Jeegar K.; Gore, Ketan A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the successful use of mini-screws in the maxilla to treat two patients of age 21-year and 17-year-old girls. Both the patients had a skeletal Class II malocclusion with protrusive maxillary teeth and angels Class II mal-occlusion. Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) in the posterior dental region between maxillary second premolar and maxillary first molar teeth on both sides were used as anchorage for the retraction and intrusion of her maxillary anterior teeth. Those appliances, combined with a compensatory curved maxillary archwire, eliminated spacing, deep bite, forwardly placed and proclined upper front teeth and the protrusive profile, corrected the molar relationship from Class II to Class I. With no extra TADs in the anterior region for intrusion, the treatment was workable and simple. The patient received a satisfactory occlusion and an attractive smile. This technique requires minimal compliance and is particularly useful for correcting Class II patients with protrusive maxillary front teeth and dental deep bite. PMID:26097360

  16. What Determines Auditory Distraction? On the Roles of Local Auditory Changes and Expectation Violations

    PubMed Central

    Röer, Jan P.; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Both the acoustic variability of a distractor sequence and the degree to which it violates expectations are important determinants of auditory distraction. In four experiments we examined the relative contribution of local auditory changes on the one hand and expectation violations on the other hand in the disruption of serial recall by irrelevant sound. We present evidence for a greater disruption by auditory sequences ending in unexpected steady state distractor repetitions compared to auditory sequences with expected changing state endings even though the former contained fewer local changes. This effect was demonstrated with piano melodies (Experiment 1) and speech distractors (Experiment 2). Furthermore, it was replicated when the expectation violation occurred after the encoding of the target items (Experiment 3), indicating that the items' maintenance in short-term memory was disrupted by attentional capture and not their encoding. This seems to be primarily due to the violation of a model of the specific auditory distractor sequences because the effect vanishes and even reverses when the experiment provides no opportunity to build up a specific neural model about the distractor sequence (Experiment 4). Nevertheless, the violation of abstract long-term knowledge about auditory regularities seems to cause a small and transient capture effect: Disruption decreased markedly over the course of the experiments indicating that participants habituated to the unexpected distractor repetitions across trials. The overall pattern of results adds to the growing literature that the degree to which auditory distractors violate situation-specific expectations is a more important determinant of auditory distraction than the degree to which a distractor sequence contains local auditory changes. PMID:24400081

  17. Distraction during learning with hypermedia: difficult tasks help to keep task goals on track

    PubMed Central

    Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Heise, Elke

    2014-01-01

    In educational hypermedia environments, students are often confronted with potential sources of distraction arising from additional information that, albeit interesting, is unrelated to their current task goal. The paper investigates the conditions under which distraction occurs and hampers performance. Based on theories of volitional action control it was hypothesized that interesting information, especially if related to a pending goal, would interfere with task performance only when working on easy, but not on difficult tasks. In Experiment 1, 66 students learned about probability theory using worked examples and solved corresponding test problems, whose task difficulty was manipulated. As a second factor, the presence of interesting information unrelated to the primary task was varied. Results showed that students solved more easy than difficult probability problems correctly. However, the presence of interesting, but task-irrelevant information did not interfere with performance. In Experiment 2, 68 students again engaged in example-based learning and problem solving in the presence of task-irrelevant information. Problem-solving difficulty was varied as a first factor. Additionally, the presence of a pending goal related to the task-irrelevant information was manipulated. As expected, problem-solving performance declined when a pending goal was present during working on easy problems, whereas no interference was observed for difficult problems. Moreover, the presence of a pending goal reduced the time on task-relevant information and increased the time on task-irrelevant information while working on easy tasks. However, as revealed by mediation analyses these changes in overt information processing behavior did not explain the decline in problem-solving performance. As an alternative explanation it is suggested that goal conflicts resulting from pending goals claim cognitive resources, which are then no longer available for learning and problem solving. PMID:24723907

  18. Deferoxamine administration delivers translational optimization of distraction osteogenesis in the irradiated mandible

    PubMed Central

    Felice, Peter A.; Ahsan, Salman; Donneys, Alexis; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Nelson, Noah S.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that Deferoxamine (DFO) promotes angiogenesis and bone repair in the setting of radiation therapy (XRT) coupled with Distraction Osteogenesis (DO). However, clinically relevant effects of deferoxamine administration on union rate, micro-Computed Tomography (?CT) and biomechanical parameters are unknown. We posit that administration of deferoxamine will increase union rate, mineralization, and strength of the regenerate in an irradiated DO model. Materials and Methods Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into three groups; DO-Control, DO-XRT, and DO-XRT-DFO. All animals underwent an osteotomy and DO across a 5.1mm distraction gap. Irradiated animals received 35Gy human-equivalent XRT 2 weeks prior to surgery and deferoxamine was injected postoperatively in the regenerate site of treatment animals. Animals were sacrificed at postoperative day 40 and mandibles harvested to determine rates of bony union as well as ?CT and biomechanical parameters. Results Compared to irradiated mandibles, deferoxamine-treated mandibles exhibited higher union rate (11% vs. 92%, respectively). Across ?CT and biomechanical parameters, we observed significant diminutions with administration of XRT while deferoxamine therapy resulted in significant restorations to levels of controls, with select metrics exhibiting significant increases even beyond controls. Conclusion Our data confirm that deferoxamine restores clinically relevant metrics of bony union and ?CT and biomechanical parameters in a model of irradiated DO in the murine mandible. Our findings support a potential use for deferoxamine in treatment protocols to allow predictable and reliable use of DO as a viable reconstructive option in patients with head and neck cancer. Level of Evidence Animal study, not gradable for level of evidence. PMID:24076701

  19. Digital video segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun Hampapur; Terry E. Weymouth; Ramesh Jain

    1994-01-01

    The data driven, bottom up approach to video segmentation has ignored the inherent structure that exists in video. This work uses the model driven approach to digital video segmentation. Mathematical models of video based on video production techniques are formulated. These models are used to classify the edit effects used in video and film production. The classes and models are

  20. Segmentally Constructed Prestressed Concrete

    E-print Network

    is the technique of segmental construc- tion in which the benefits of both precasting and post-tensioning canSegmentally Constructed Prestressed Concrete Hyperboloid Cooling Tower Saml H. Rizkalla Assistant concrete natural draft cooling towers is expensive and time-consuming. The cost of the structure

  1. Segmentation and simulated annealing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rod Cook; Ian McConnell; David Stewart; Christopher J. Oliver

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present a new algorithm for segmenting SAR images. A common problem with segmentation algorithms for SAR imagery is the poor placement of the edges of regions and hence of the regions themselves. This usually arises because the algorithm considers only a limited number of placements for regions. The new algorithm circumvents this shortcoming, and produces an

  2. Segmentation by Grouping Junctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Ishikawa; Davi Geiger

    1998-01-01

    We propose a method for segmenting gray-value images. By segmentation, we mean a map from the set of pixels to a small set of levels such that each connected component of the set of pixels with the same level forms a relatively large and \\

  3. Segmentation of Plane Curves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Pavlidis; S. L. Horowitz

    1974-01-01

    Piecewise approximation is described as a way of feature extraction, data compaction, and noise filtering of boundaries of regions of pictures and waveforms. A new fast algorithm is proposed which allows for a variable number of segments. After an arbitrary initial choice, segments are split or merged in order to drive the error norm under a prespecified bound. Results of

  4. Experimental Stream Segment

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    One of six experimental stream segments used to study the dispersal of free embryo sturgeon at the Columbia Environmental Research Center.  The stream segment is 5 meters long and 0.5 meters wide, and is filled with cobble-sized rock to a depth of 12 centimeters.  Streams are covered durin...

  5. Infected dentigerous cyst of maxillary sinus arising from an ectopic third molar.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Chauhan, Dinesh Singh; Kura, Umashankar

    2013-01-01

    A dentigerous cyst or follicular cyst is a form of odontogenic cyst. It is believed that it forms during the development of the tooth and is associated with pressure exerted by the crown of an unerupted (or partially erupted) tooth on the fluid within the follicular space. Typically, dentigerous cysts are painless and discovered during routine radiographic examination. However, they may be large and result in a palpable mass. Additionally, as they grow they displace adjacent teeth. They almost exclusively occur in permanent dentition. The cyst is lined by stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium. About 70% of dentigerous cysts occur in the mandible and 30% in the maxilla. Dentigerous cysts associated with ectopic teeth within the maxillary sinus are very rare. We report radiologic and pathologic features in a rare case of infected dentigerous cyst of maxillary sinus arising from an ectopic third molar in a 21-year-old female patient. PMID:24516770

  6. A three-dimensional finite-element stress analysis of an endodontically prepared maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Ricks-Williamson, L J; Fotos, P G; Goel, V K; Spivey, J D; Rivera, E M; Khera, S C

    1995-07-01

    This study is an application of a three-dimensional Finite-Element Method to investigate the changes in stress characteristics of a prepared maxillary central incisor. The purpose of this study was to analyze stress distributions in this tooth after simulated canal preparation and static loading. A maxillary central incisor was embedded in acrylic, sectioned, photographed, and digitized. A three-dimensional finite-element model was generated by a computer and appropriately modified to simulate canal preparation. Data identified the highest stress magnitudes to be located between the middle and coronal thirds of the root; an area clinically observed to be prone to fracture during treatment. In addition, the magnitude of generated stresses was directly correlated with the simulated prepared canal diameter. The development of a validated three-dimensional finite-element method could identify areas that may predispose a tooth to structural failure during condensation loads. PMID:7499976

  7. Furcation canals of the maxillary fourth premolar and the mandibular first molar teeth in cats.

    PubMed

    Negro, Viviana B; Hernández, Sabás Z; Maresca, Beatriz M; Lorenzo, Cesar E

    2004-03-01

    The furcation region morphology was evaluated in 103 mature feline carnassial teeth (54 maxillary fourth premolar and 49 mandibular first molar teeth). Patent furcation canals were present in 27.2% of teeth. No significant difference (p = 0.88) in distribution of this anatomical variation was found between maxillary fourth premolar and mandibular first molar teeth. The mean width of these furcation canals was 104.0 microns with two-thirds of the canals having a buccal orientation. The presence of furcation canals could be a factor in the etiopathogenesis of feline dental resorptive lesions, as well as a characteristic to be considered in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of endodontic or periodontic-endodontic lesions in cat teeth. PMID:15108397

  8. Ultrasonic bone cutting for surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) under local anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Robiony, M; Polini, F; Costa, F; Zerman, N; Politi, M

    2007-03-01

    Ultrasonic bone-cutting surgery has been recently introduced as a feasible alternative to the conventional tools of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery, due to its technical characteristics of precision and safety. The device used is unique in that the cutting action occurs when the tool is employed on mineralized tissues, but stops on soft tissues. This technical note illustrates the use of Piezosurgery for all osteotomies of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). The procedure, including pterygo-maxillary detachment, can be completed under local anaesthesia. Other advantages include minimal risk of jeopardizing critical anatomic structures (e.g. palatine artery), minimal intraoperative bleeding and postoperative swelling, and minimal thermal damage to bone surfaces. Narrow and rectilinear osteotomies can be easily performed with varying vibrating scalpels, at the cost of a longer operative time. PMID:17112705

  9. Surgical treatment of Aspergillus mycetomas of the maxillary sinus: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabio; Polini, Francesco; Zerman, Nicoletta; Robiony, Massimo; Toro, Corrado; Politi, Massimo

    2007-06-01

    The present study reviews the literature concerning the surgical treatment of Aspergillus mycetoma (AM) in the last 20 years to identify a gold standard surgical technique. Aspergillus mycetoma of the maxillary sinus, or mycetoma (fungus ball), is a noninvasive or extramucosal mycotic infection. Surgical removal of the sinus fungal masses to ensure drainage and aeration is performed using the traditional Caldwell-Luc (CL) procedure or endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Results of this review suggest that the gold standard surgical technique for AM is ESS with middle meatal antrostomy. General or local antifungal drugs are not indicated. Combined approach with an intraoral surgical access from the anterolateral wall of the maxillary sinus has to be reserved for selected cases in which ESS doesn't permit complete extraction of all fungal concretions or foreign bodies. The CL procedure should be avoided, because it has detrimental consequences for sinus physiology. PMID:17449289

  10. Avoidance of implicit hazards: the realignment of maxillary and mandibular arches in comminuted and facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Hönig, J F; Merten, H A; Wiltfang, J

    1998-11-01

    The authors introduce an attempt to elevate the problem of proper realignment of the maxillary and mandibular arches to achieve an exact transversal width of the lower third of the face with an index of the sum of the maxillary and mandibular central incisors, together with a new Artex-Callotte System (Karl Storz GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany). This allows individual and anatomically correct restoration of the dental arches. This is especially helpful if either a large number of teeth or portions of dental alveolar processes have been lost in comminuted panfacial fractures. In addition, a sequential, step-management concept of comminuted panfacial fractures is described and illustrated. The goals of treatment with this method are to reestablish the midfacial height and projection and the occlusion, and reestablish the integrity of the nose, the orbit, and the transversal dimension of the lower jaw. This simple method is not yet well appreciated. PMID:10029763

  11. Changes in computed tomography findings according to the chronicity of maxillary sinus gossypiboma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Soo

    2014-07-01

    The present report describes a case of gossypiboma in the maxillary sinus after treatment for the fracture of the orbital floor with review of the literatures on this interesting disease entity. The suspicion of gossypiboma should be raised when a patient with a history of previous sinonasal surgery, especially Caldwell-Luc approach, presents with chronic recurrent or refractory sinusitis. Because of the rarity of reported cases, typical computed tomography findings of gossypiboma in the sinonasal area have not been established. In the present case, because the gauze was retained for 25 years in the maxillary sinus, computed tomography findings revealed nonspecific findings. Because a foreign body left behind after operation may lead to a serious medicolegal issue, it is worth reemphasizing that the best general approach to retained surgical foreign body is to prevent its occurrence. PMID:24978684

  12. Assessment of the relationship between maxillary rotation and nasal morphology in males

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, Rajarshi; Kumar, Santosh; Chauhan, Arun K.; Mohan, Stuti; Shekhar, Manish; Narnoly, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nasal features are important in treatment planning for orthodontic treatment. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between maxillary inclination and nasal morphology in males. Materials and Methods: Forty-five samples were selected for the study between the age group of 18 and 30 years. Selected individuals were subjected to cephalometric radiography. These lateral cephalograms were traced and divided into three groups on the basis of the angle given by Schwarz for rotation of the maxilla. The nasal features of these groups were evaluated and compared using mean, standard deviation, Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Results: The results suggest that there was statistically significant difference in nasal height, nasal bone length (NBL), nasal depth, nasolabial angle (NLA), nasal tip angle and upper lip inclination angle in different maxillary inclination group. Conclusion: The nasal height, NBL, NLA and nasal tip angle had a maximum value in retro inclination group. PMID:25821364

  13. A Diagnosis of Maxillary Sinus Fracture with Cone-Beam CT: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Selmi Yardimci; Misirlioglu, Melda; Adisen, Mehmet Zahit

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the case of maxillofacial trauma patient with maxillary sinus fracture diagnosed with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to explore the applications of this technique in evaluating the maxillofacial region. A 23-year-old male patient attempted to our clinic who had an injury at midface with complaints of swelling, numbness. The patient was examined before in emergency center but any diagnosis was made about the maxillofacial trauma. The patient re-examined clinically and radiographically. A fracture on the frontal wall of maxillary sinus is determined with the aid of CBCT. The patient consulted with the department of maxillofacial surgery and it is decided that any surgical treatment was not necessary. The emerging technique CBCT would not be the primary choice of imaging maxillofacial trauma. Nevertheless, when advantages considered this imaging procedure could be the modality of choice according to the case. PMID:25045417

  14. Orthodontic treatment of gummy smile by maxillary total intrusion with a midpalatal absolute anchorage system

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Min; Heo, Jung-Min; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 31-year-old Korean female patient with gummy smile and crowding. The patient showed excessive gingival display in both the anterior and posterior areas and a large difference in gingival heights between the anterior and posterior teeth in the maxilla. To correct the gummy smile, we elected to intrude the entire maxillary dentition instead of focusing only on the maxillary anterior teeth. Alignment and leveling were performed, and a midpalatal absolute anchorage system as well as a modified lingual arch was designed to achieve posterosuperior movement of the entire upper dentition. The active treatment period was 18 months. The gummy smile and crowding were corrected, and the results were stable at 21 months post-treatment. PMID:23814710

  15. An Inflammatory Pseudotumor Arising from Pterygopalatine Fossa with Invasion to the Maxillary Sinus and Orbital Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Hidenori; Yazawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Yuma; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Masachika; Ohkura, Yasuo; Kohno, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient who had an inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) that invaded to the maxillary sinus and orbital cavity, with the left pterygopalatine fossa as the principal site; this is a very rare case. The patient was an 83-year-old woman who suddenly became aware of impairment in the eyesight and visual field of the left eye. CT images showed a neoplastic lesion that invaded to the maxillary sinus and orbital cavity, with the left pterygopalatine fossa as the principal site, and also showed contrast effects. To obtain a definitive diagnosis from histopathological analysis, the lesion was biopsied, and she was diagnosed as the inflammatory pseudotumor with the immunohistochemical study and multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based clonality assays. The patient had a lymphoid-predominant lesion that responded to radiotherapy but corticosteroids were not effective. It is important to scrutinize the pathology to avoid unnecessary and mutilating surgery.

  16. Multiple myeloma presenting with a maxillary lesion as the first sign

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Vajendra; Thayi, Shilpa Ravishankar; Sathyanarayana, Pathalapate; Patil, Prashant; Ahmed, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a clonal neoplastic proliferation of terminally differentiated B-lymphocytes involving the skeletal system in a multifocal fashion. Its oral manifestations are less common in the maxilla than in the mandible due to the lower amount of hemopoietic bone marrow in the maxilla. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who presented with a mass in the left maxillary alveolar region with tooth mobility. The mass had become enlarged after the teeth were extracted 15 days previously. Radiographs demonstrated multiple punched-out radiolucent lesions in the skull and pelvic region. Computed tomography images showed a soft tissue density mass in the left maxilla, eroding the floor and walls of the maxillary sinus. Although several analytical techniques were used to characterize the lesion, it was finally confirmed as multiple myeloma through immunohistochemistry. PMID:25793184

  17. Accessory Central Cusp in the Maxillary Second Primary Molars: A Rare Entity among the Rare

    PubMed Central

    Das, Monalisa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Central accessory cusp in primary molars is an extremely rare condition which is due to abnormal proliferation and folding of inner enamel epithelium during morphodifferentiation stage of tooth development. The extension of the pulp in the cuspal area is often the reason for early involvement of pulp by the caries process. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment planning is necessary to maintain the integrity of primary dental arch. This article reports such a case of central accessory cusps involving maxillary second primary molars. How to cite this article: Chandra B, Das M. Accessory Central Cusp in the Maxillary Second Primary Molars: A Rare Entity among the Rare. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):202-205. PMID:25709302

  18. Fixed functional space maintainer: novel aesthetic approach for missing maxillary primary anterior teeth

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Vikram; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand

    2013-01-01

    The first-line treatment of non-restorable traumatically injured or carious deciduous teeth is extraction which may be a curse for the future dentition as well as social activity of a child. Various therapeutic modalities from removable partial dentures to fixed space maintainer can be used for replacement of such lost teeth. Two types of fixed aesthetic space maintainers for replacing premature loss of maxillary deciduous incisors in 4-year-old children are discussed. PMID:23737580

  19. Class III bilateral posterior crossbite with three horizontally impacted maxillary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Howard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    What's in a pretty face? In our world, unfortunately, too much. As orthodontists our goal should be to provide our patients with a stable, functional occlusion. Consider, however, the importance of changing our patients' future by significantly improving their facial esthetics. The combination of a very narrow maxillary arch, three absent upper left incisors, and a protrusive lower jaw provide a platform for dramatic improvement in our patients' facial esthetics. PMID:22533024

  20. Primary orbital Ewing's sarcoma presenting with local recurrence to maxillary sinus shortly after tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Sendul, Selam Yekta; Ucgul, Cemile; Kabukcuoglu, Fevziye; Dirim, Burcu; Guven, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a malignant, small-round-cell neoplasm that normally affects the long bones of the limbs or the pelvis. Primary orbital ES of the skull has been considered extremely rare. We describe the case of a 19-year-old female patient with primary ES originating from the inferior orbital rime and, shortly after tumor resection, local recurrence to the maxillary sinus. PMID:26136562

  1. Innovative biomechanics for orthodontic correction of torsiversion of maxillary central incisor caused by twin mesiodens.

    PubMed

    Monga, Nitika; Kharbanda, Om Prakash; Duggal, Ritu

    2014-04-01

    Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth found in the premaxilla between the two central incisors. Early and proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan is critical in eluding the extent of treatment needed. This case report presents the successful orthodontic and esthetic management of an unusual case of Indian origin with twin mesiodens in the maxillary arch causing torsiversion and attrition of mandibular incisors due to occlusal trauma. PMID:24963264

  2. Primary orbital Ewing's sarcoma presenting with local recurrence to maxillary sinus shortly after tumor resection

    PubMed Central

    Sendul, Selam Yekta; Ucgul, Cemile; Kabukcuoglu, Fevziye; Dirim, Burcu; Guven, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a malignant, small-round-cell neoplasm that normally affects the long bones of the limbs or the pelvis. Primary orbital ES of the skull has been considered extremely rare. We describe the case of a 19-year-old female patient with primary ES originating from the inferior orbital rime and, shortly after tumor resection, local recurrence to the maxillary sinus.

  3. Maxillary cement retained implant supported monolithic zirconia prosthesis in a full mouth rehabilitation: a clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Perng-Ru; Aponte-Wesson, Ruth; O'Neal, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    This clinical report presents the reconstruction of a maxillary arch with a cement retained implant supported fixed prosthesis using a monolithic zirconia generated by CAD/CAM system on eight osseointegrated implants. The prosthesis was copy milled from an interim prosthesis minimizing occlusal adjustments on the definitive prosthesis at the time of delivery. Monolithic zirconia provides high esthetics and reduces the number of metal alloys used in the oral cavity. PMID:23755349

  4. Surgical management of iatrogenic perforation in maxillary central incisor using mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Rajni; Manuja, Naveen; Pandit, I K; Rallan, Mandeep

    2013-01-01

    Root perforations are undesired complications of endodontic treatment. The repair of root perforation can be accomplished using different materials and techniques. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is widely used to seal perforations because of its biocompatibility and sealability. This article describes a case report where an iatrogenic root perforation was repaired successfully with MTA in maxillary right central incisor of a 13-year-old boy. PMID:23845686

  5. Evaluation of Palatal Plate Thickness of Maxillary Prosthesis on Phonation- A Comparative Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    B, Sreedevi; Anne, Gopinadh; Manne, Prakash; Bindu O, Swetha Hima; Atla, Jyothi; Deepthi, Sneha; Chaitanya A, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prosthodontic treatment involves clinical procedures which influence speech performance directly or indirectly. Prosthetic rehabilitation of missing teeth with partial or complete maxillary removable dentures influences the individual voice characteristics like Phonation, resonance etc. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Acrylic palatal plate thickness (1mm-3mm) of maxillary prosthesis on phonation. Materials and Methods: Twelve subjects were selected randomly between the age group of 20-25 years who have full complement of teeth and have no speech problems. Speech evaluation was done under four experimental conditions i.e. Without any experimental acrylic palatal plate (control), with experimental acrylic palatal plates of thickness 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm respectively. The speech material for phonation test consisted of Vowels sounds /a/, /i/, and /o/. Speech analysis to assess phonation was done using digital acoustic analysis (PRAAT software). The obtained results were statistically analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple post-hoc for comparison of four experimental conditions with respect to different vowel sounds. Results: Mean harmonics to noise ratio (HNR) values obtained for all the Experimental conditions did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, an increase in the thickness of the acrylic palatal plate of maxillary prosthesis for about 1 mm - 3mm in complete or partial maxillary removable dentures resulted in no significant effect on phonation of vowel sounds /a/, /i/ and /o/. Conclusion: Increasing the thickness of the palatal plate from 1 mm to 3 mm has not shown any significant effect on the phonation. PMID:24959508

  6. LeFort I segmented osteotomy experience with piezosurgery in orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Olate, Sergio; Pozzer, Leandro; Unibazo, Alejandro; Huentequeo-Molina, Claudio; Martinez, Felipe; de Moraes, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present the LeFort I segmented osteotomy in consecutive patients using the piezoelectric system. A descriptive study was designed for patients operated on between November 2012 and January 2014. All the patients presented some type of skeletal anomaly and underwent orthognatic surgery via piezoelectric osteotomies. Each maxillary surgery was developed with that system and those patients who also received osteotomies with a reciprocating saw were excluded. Surgical time and complications were analyzed. 19 patients underwent surgery consecutively with an osteotomy average time of 45 minutes. The patients operated on at the beginning were longer surgeries, whereas the final cases were 40 minutes. No type of laceration of vascular elements or laceration of palatal tissue was observed. The protocol was fully implemented, incorporating all the advantages of piezoelectric systems. It is concluded that the LeFort I segmented osteotomy can be performed with low risk of injuring soft tissues and in a time probably less than 50 minutes for the maxillary osteotomy. PMID:25232392

  7. Evaluation of root canal morphology of maxillary molars using cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Alrahabi, Mothanna; Sohail Zafar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The success of endodontic treatment is based on cleaning and shaping of the root canals. The root canals have complex morphology and wide individual variations. The objective of this study was to analyze root canals morphology and existence of extra canals in maxillary molars in Saudi subpopulation. Methods: Freshly extracted maxillary first molars (n=100) were included in this study. All teeth were examined for morphology of roots, root canals and apical foramen by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). The root canals configuration was classified using Vertucci’s classification. Results: The majority of maxillary first molars (94%) were having three distinctly separated roots and 6% had four roots. Palatal and distobuccal roots were observed to contain one root canal (100%) and Vertucci’s type I configuration. The mesiobuccal root had one (29.4%; type I) or two canals (70.6%; type II, III or IV). Conclusions: The occurrence of second canal in the mesiobuccal root of upper first molar is very much likely (>70%). The mesiobuccal roots are more likely to have Vertucci’s type I or II configuration (>76%). The palatal and distobuccal roots always have a Vertucci’s type I canal configuration.

  8. Vertical maxillary growth after two different surgical protocols in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    PubMed

    Bakri, Sherif; Rizell, Sara; Lilja, Jan; Mark, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Objective : The aim of the present study was to compare vertical maxillofacial growth in patients born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) who were treated using two different surgical protocols. Design : A retrospective cohort study. Subjects : We studied 92 patients with complete UCLP (61 male and 31 female) treated at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden: 46 consecutive patients born between 1965 and 1974 who underwent surgical treatment according to the Wardill-Kilner (W-K) protocol and 46 consecutive patients born between 1982 and 1989 who underwent surgical treatment according to the Gothenburg delayed hard palate closure (DHPC) protocol. Methods : We analyzed lateral cephalograms obtained at 10 years of age. Results : Patients treated according to the Gothenburg DHPC protocol had significantly greater anterior upper facial height, anterior maxillary height, overbite, and inclination of the maxilla than those treated with the W-K protocol. Both techniques led to similar posterior upper facial height. Conclusion : The Gothenburg DHPC protocol in patients with complete UCLP results in more normal anterior maxillary vertical growth and overbite and therefore increased maxillary inclination at 10 years of age. PMID:24144162

  9. Clinical evaluation of guided tissue regeneration in the treatment of maxillary class II molar furcation invasions.

    PubMed

    Metzler, D G; Seamons, B C; Mellonig, J T; Gher, M E; Gray, J L

    1991-06-01

    This investigation assessed and compared the clinical efficacy of combined open flap debridement/occlusive membrane therapy versus open flap debridement therapy alone, in the treatment of maxillary periodontal furcation defects. Seventeen patients presenting with advanced adult periodontitis, including at least one pair of Class II maxillary furcal defects, comprised the study group. Following completion of a hygienic phase of treatment, measurements were made with calibrated periodontal probes to determine soft tissue recession, probing pocket depths, and attachment levels. Each pair of furcation defects was surgically exposed and hard tissue measurements obtained. Defects were treated with either open flap debridement and a polytetrafluoroethylene periodontal membrane or open flap debridement alone. Membranes were removed at 4 to 6 weeks. Six months postsurgery, soft tissue measurements were repeated and all sites were surgically re-entered to obtain hard tissue measurements. No statistically significant differences were found in recession, probing depth reductions, clinical attachment gains, or resorption of alveolar crest height between test and control groups. Results for these parameters were inconsistent and unpredictable. Statistically significant improvements were found, however, in horizontal open probing attachment (HOPA) and vertical open probing attachment (VOPA) between experimental and control sites. The GTR procedure as used in this study likely has limited application as a therapeutic modality for Class II furcations of maxillary molars. Modifications or improvements in the procedure may result in more predictable healing of these lesions. PMID:1870064

  10. Effects of implantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, disc distraction and combined therapy on reversing degeneration of the intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Hee, H T; Ismail, H D; Lim, C T; Goh, J C H; Wong, H K

    2010-05-01

    Although success has been achieved with implantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) in degenerative discs, its full potential may not be achieved if the harsh environment of the degenerative disc remains. Axial distraction has been shown to increase hydration and nutrition. Combining both therapies may have a synergistic effect in reversing degenerative disc disease. In order to evaluate the effect of bMSC implantation, axial distraction and combination therapy in stimulating regeneration and retarding degeneration in degenerative discs, we first induced disc degeneration by axial loading in a rabbit model. The rabbits in the intervention groups performed better with respect to disc height, morphological grading, histological scoring and average dead cell count. The groups with distraction performed better than those without on all criteria except the average dead cell count. Our findings suggest that bMSC implantation and distraction stimulate regenerative changes in degenerative discs in a rabbit model. PMID:20436013

  11. Distraction, not hunger, is associated with lower mood and lower perceived work performance on fast compared to non-fast days during intermittent fasting.

    PubMed

    Appleton, Katherine M; Baker, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    Using a repeated measures design, 16 females recorded hunger, distraction, mood and perceived work performance on two consecutive fast days, on two earlier and on two subsequent consecutive non-fast days, during intermittent fasting. Using regression analyses, low positive mood was associated with higher distraction (??=?-0.38, p?distraction (??=?-0.50, p?distraction but not hunger mirror those found in traditional dieting and suggest no benefit for attention from intermittent fasting-type regimes. PMID:26032787

  12. Study of deflections in maxillary major connectors: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Bhojaraju, Nandakishore; Srilakshmi, J; Vishwanath, G

    2014-03-01

    The Major connector is the major component of the cast partial denture to which all other parts are directly or indirectly attached. It also provides cross arch stability to help resist displacement by functional stresses. The major connector should be rigid. A flexible major connector causes an unequal distribution of forces with changes in their intensity and may cause damage to the supporting structures. Thus rigidity is of paramount to resist flexing and torquing forces. The commonly used major connectors for the maxillary arch are Anteroposterior strap, palatal strap and complete palatal plate. Application of load on the prosthesis will result in deflection. The magnitude and direction of the deflection that the prosthesis undergoes depends on the rigidity of the major connector. (1) To determine the deflection seen in maxillary removable partial denture frameworks under simulated occlusal load. (2) To compare the rigidity and deflection characteristics of different maxillary major connectors used in maxillary Kennedy's class I, class II, class III and class IV situations. A CT scan of human edentulous maxilla was taken and each section from the incisive foramen to the hamular notch was projected on the graph paper and three dimensional volumes were created from the connected successive profiles to define the final solid geometry of bone. Six framework models with different Maxillary major connectors such as Anteroposterior straps and complete palatal plate for Kennedy's class I, class II, class III and class IV situations were created. Three Dimensional Finite Element Models corresponding to the geometric model were created using ANSYS 9.0 version. The model was assigned the material properties. A vertical biting force of 20 N was applied. The results showed maximum displacements were observed at the posterior edge of the saddle for all the frameworks. Anteroposterior palatal strap in class III and class IV situation showed the least deflection when compared to class I and class II (distal extension situation) Anteroposterior palatal strap is more rigid connector than the full palatal plate, single palatal strap, and U-shaped palatal strap and can be used in all situations. PMID:24604998

  13. Experienced surgeons can do more than one thing at a time: effect of distraction on performance of a simple laparoscopic and cognitive task by experienced and novice surgeons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Hsu; F.-Y. Man; R. A. Gizicki; L. S. Feldman; G. M. Fried

    2008-01-01

    Background  While operating, surgeons are required to make cognitive decisions and often are interrupted to attend to questions from other\\u000a members of the health care team. Technical automatization may be achieved by experienced surgeons such that these distractions\\u000a have little effect on performance of either the surgical or the cognitive task. This study assessed the effect of adding a\\u000a distracting cognitive

  14. Fatalities of Pedestrians, Bicycle Riders, and Motorists Due to Distracted Driving Motor Vehicle Crashes in the U.S., 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Fernando A.; Muelleman, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving is an increasingly deadly threat to road safety. This study documents trends in and characteristics of pedestrian, bicycle rider, and other victim deaths caused by distracted drivers on U.S. public roads. Methods We obtained data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System database from 2005 to 2010 on every crash that resulted in at least one fatality within 30 days occurring on public roads in the U.S. Following the definition used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, we identified distracted driving based on whether police investigators determined that a driver had been using a technological device, including a cell phone, onboard navigation system, computer, fax machine, two-way radio, or head-up display, or had been engaged in inattentive or careless activities. Results The rate of fatalities per 10 billion vehicle miles traveled increased from 116.1 in 2005 to 168.6 in 2010 for pedestrians and from 18.7 in 2005 to 24.6 in 2010 for bicyclists. Pedestrian victims of distracted driving crashes were disproportionately male, 25–64 years of age, and non-Hispanic white. They were also more likely to die at nighttime, be struck by a distracted driver outside of a marked crosswalk, and be in a metro location. Bicycling victims of distracted crashes were disproportionately male, non-Hispanic white, and struck by a distracted driver outside of a crosswalk. Compared with pedestrians, bicyclists were less likely to be hit in early morning. Conclusions Distracted drivers are the cause of an increasing share of fatalities found among pedestrians and bicycle riders. Policies are needed to protect pedestrians and bicycle riders as they cross intersections or travel on roadways. PMID:24179255

  15. Processing of Emotional Distraction is both Automatic and Modulated by Attention: Evidence from an Event-Related fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, A.T.; Matveychuk, D.; Penney, T.; O’Hare, A.J.; Stokes, J.; Dolcos, F.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, emotional stimuli have been thought to be automatically processed via a bottom-up automatic “capture of attention” mechanism. Recently, this view has been challenged by evidence that emotion processing depends on the availability of attentional resources. Although these two views are not mutually exclusive, direct evidence reconciling them is lacking. One limitation of previous investigations supporting the traditional or competing views is that they have not systematically investigated the impact of emotional charge of task-irrelevant distraction in conjunction with manipulations of attentional demands. Using event-related fMRI, we investigated the nature of emotion-cognition interactions in a perceptual discrimination task with emotional distraction, by manipulating both the emotional charge of the distracting information and the demands of the main task. Findings suggest that emotion processing is both automatic and modulated by attention, but emotion and attention were only found to interact when finer assessments of emotional charge (comparison of most vs. least emotional conditions) were considered along with an effective manipulation of processing load (high vs. low). The study also identified brain regions reflecting the detrimental impact of emotional distraction on performance as well as regions involved in helping with such distraction. Activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventrolateral PFC was linked to a detrimental impact of emotional distraction, whereas the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and lateral occiptal cortex were involved in helping with emotional distraction. These findings demonstrate that task-irrelevant emotion processing is subjective to both the emotional content of distraction and the level of attentional demand. PMID:22332805

  16. Real-time force feedback during flexion-distraction procedure for low back pain: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Gudavalli, Maruti Ram; Cox, James M.

    2014-01-01

    A form of chiropractic procedure known as Cox flexion-distraction is used by chiropractors to treat low back pain. Patient lies face down on a specially designed table having a stationery thoracic support and a moveable caudal support for the legs. The Doctor of Chiropractic (DC) holds a manual contact applying forces over the posterior lumbar spine and press down on the moving leg support to create traction effects in the lumbar spine. This paper reports on the development of real-time feedback on the applied forces during the application of the flexion-distraction procedure. In this pilot study we measured the forces applied by experienced DCs as well as novice DCs in using this procedure. After a brief training with real-time feedback novice DCs have improved on the magnitude of the applied forces. This real-time feedback technology is promising to do systematic studies in training DCs during the application of this procedure. PMID:24932023

  17. Text Segmentation by Topic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay M. Ponte; W. Bruce Croft

    1997-01-01

    . We investigate the problem of text segmentation by topic.Applications for this task include topic tracking of broadcast speech dataand topic identification in full-text databases. Researchers have tackledsimilar problems before but with different goals. This study focuses ondata with relatively small segment sizes and for which within-segmentsentences have relatively few words in common making the problem challenging.We present a method

  18. Segmented pyroelector detector

    DOEpatents

    Stotlar, S.C.; McLellan, E.J.

    1981-01-21

    A pyroelectric detector is described which has increased voltage output and improved responsivity over equivalent size detectors. The device comprises a plurality of edge-type pyroelectric detectors which have a length which is much greater than the width of the segments between the edge-type electrodes. External circuitry connects the pyroelectric detector segments in parallel to provide a single output which maintains 50 ohm impedance characteristics.

  19. Effect of visual distraction and auditory feedback on patient effort during robot-assisted movement training after stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Secoli; Marie-Helene Milot; Giulio Rosati; David J Reinkensmeyer

    2011-01-01

    Background  Practicing arm and gait movements with robotic assistance after neurologic injury can help patients improve their movement\\u000a ability, but patients sometimes reduce their effort during training in response to the assistance. Reduced effort has been\\u000a hypothesized to diminish clinical outcomes of robotic training. To better understand patient slacking, we studied the role\\u000a of visual distraction and auditory feedback in modulating

  20. The Impact of Anxiety-Inducing Distraction on Cognitive Performance: A Combined Brain Imaging and Personality Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekaterina Denkova; Gloria Wong; Sanda Dolcos; Keen Sung; Lihong Wang; Nicholas Coupland; Florin Dolcos; Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPrevious investigations revealed that the impact of task-irrelevant emotional distraction on ongoing goal-oriented cognitive processing is linked to opposite patterns of activation in emotional and perceptual vs. cognitive control\\/executive brain regions. However, little is known about the role of individual variations in these responses. The present study investigated the effect of trait anxiety on the neural responses mediating the impact

  1. The Impact of Distraction on the Driving Performance of Adolescents with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A.; Brassell, Anne A.; Saxby, Dyani; Antonini, Tanya N.; O'Brien, Kathleen M.; Tamm, Leanne; Matthews, Gerald; Epstein, Jeffery N.

    2013-01-01

    Importance This study extends the literature regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) related driving impairments to a newly-licensed, adolescent population. Objective To investigate the combined risks of adolescence, ADHD, and distracted driving (cell phone conversation and text messaging) on driving performance. Design Adolescents with and without ADHD engaged in a simulated drive under three conditions (no distraction, cell phone conversation, texting). During each condition, one unexpected event (e.g., car suddenly merging into driver's lane) was introduced. Setting Driving simulator. Participants Adolescents aged 16–17 with ADHD (n=28) and controls (n=33). Interventions/Main Exposures Cell phone conversation, texting, and no distraction while driving. Outcome Measures Self-report of driving history; Average speed, standard deviation of speed, standard deviation of lateral position, braking reaction time during driving simulation. Results Adolescents with ADHD reported fewer months of driving experience and a higher proportion of driving violations than controls. After controlling for months of driving history, adolescents with ADHD demonstrated more variability in speed and lane position than controls. There were no group differences for braking reaction time. Further, texting negatively impacted the driving performance of all participants as evidenced by increased variability in speed and lane position. Conclusions This study, one of the first to investigate distracted driving in adolescents with ADHD, adds to a growing body of literature documenting that individuals with ADHD are at increased risk for negative driving outcomes. Furthermore, texting significantly impairs the driving performance of all adolescents and increases existing driving-related impairment in adolescents with ADHD, highlighting the need for education and enforcement of regulations against texting for this age group. PMID:23939758

  2. Technical note: Resolution of spontaneous electromyographic discharge following disk-space distraction during lateral transpsoas interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Woodall, Michael Neil; Shakir, Basheer; Smitherman, Adam; Choudhri, Haroon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) is an increasingly popular minimally invasive technique for lumbar interbody fusion. Although a posterior approach to the lumbar spine has traditionally been favored for the treatment of canal stenosis and neural foraminal stenosis, a growing body of evidence suggests that indirect decompression of the spinal canal and neural foramen can be achieved using a lateral transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine. We present 2 cases that may suggest a role for spontaneous electromyography (s-EMG) monitoring in assessing the adequacy of decompression during LTIF. Methods The 2 cases presented in this technical note illustrate resolution of s-EMG firing during LTIF, following distraction across the disk space. Removal of the distracting device produced the return of s-EMG firing. Both of these cases were operated at the L2-3 level. Results In the first case, s-EMG firing was noted in the bilateral tibialis anterior leads. Resolution of EMG firing may suggest indirect decompression of the canal via ligamentotaxis as the L5 root traverses the L2-3 disk space. In the second case, s-EMG firing was noted in the left abductor hallucis and resolved with distraction of the L2-3 disk space. Again, this may be explained by canal decompression via ligamentotaxis as the S1 root traverses the L2-3 disk space. Conclusion In both cases, distraction across the disk space resulted in resolution of s-EMG discharges—this correlated with an improvement in symptoms. These findings may suggest a role for s-EMG as a marker for adequacy of decompression in a select subset of patients undergoing LTIF. Further study is needed to determine if resolution of s-EMG is a useful measure of indirect decompression during LTIF. PMID:25694902

  3. A randomized clinical trial and subgroup analysis to compare flexion–distraction with active exercise for chronic low back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maruti Ram Gudavalli; Jerrilyn A. Cambron; Marion McGregor; James Jedlicka; Michael Keenum; Alexander J. Ghanayem; Avinash G. Patwardhan

    2006-01-01

    Many clinical trials on chiropractic management of low back pain have neglected to include specific forms of care. This study compared two well-defined treatment protocols. The objective was to compare the outcome of flexion–distraction (FD) procedures performed by chiropractors with an active trunk exercise protocol (ATEP) performed by physical therapists. A randomized clinical trial study design was used. Subjects, 18 years

  4. Occipitocervical fusion with relief of odontoid invagination: atlantoaxial distraction method using cylindrical titanium cage for basilar invagination--case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, Tetsuya; Murata, Hidetoshi; Ikenishi, Yuriko; Sato, Mitsuru; Takase, Hajime; Tateishi, Kensuke; Nakanowatari, Satoshi; Suenaga, Jun; Kawahara, Nobutaka

    2014-07-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with basilar invagination manifesting as neck pain, dysesthesia around the lips, and truncal ataxia. The radiological findings demonstrated invagination of the odontoid process into the medulla oblongata and vertical atlantoaxial subluxation with C1 assimilation. The clivo-axial angle was 88° and the cervicomedullary angle was 115°, indicating severe basilar invagination. We planned occipitocervical fusion with atlantoaxial distraction using a cylindrical titanium cage. C2 pedicle screws were inserted, and the atlantoaxial joint was opened to translocate the odontoid process downward. A cylindrical titanium cage packed with local bone graft was inserted into the opened facet joint space. Occipital-C2 fusion was completed by fastening the occipital bone plates with pedicle screws using titanium rods. Postoperatively, the apex of the odontoid process descended by 7 mm, and the clivo-axial and cervicomedullary angles opened to 112° and 125°, respectively. Invagination of the odontoid process into the medulla oblongata was relieved. The preoperative symptoms improved, and she remained symptom-free without requiring anterior decompression over 2 years. Bone fusion of the atlantoaxial joints was completed with sustained facet distraction 12 months after the surgery, and adequate relief of the basilar invagination was maintained. The atlantoaxial distraction method using a cylindrical titanium cage can be a useful option in posterior fusion surgery for basilar invagination. PMID:24553815

  5. MRI segmentation: Methods and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Clarke; R. P. Velthuizen; M. A. Camacho; J. J. Heine; M. Vaidyanathan; L. O. Hall; R. W. Thatcher; M. L. Silbiger

    1995-01-01

    The current literature on MRI segmentation methods is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the relative merits of single image versus multispectral segmentation, and supervised versus unsupervised segmentation methods. Image pre-processing and registration are discussed, as well as methods of validation. The application of MRI segmentation for tumor volume measurements during the course of therapy is presented here as an

  6. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy versus distraction osteogenesis of the mandible: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Baas, E M; Bierenbroodspot, F; de Lange, J

    2015-02-01

    A randomized clinical trial was performed to evaluate differences in postoperative neurosensory disturbance (NSD) between two methods of mandibular advancement surgery. A total of 66 non-syndromal class II patients with mandibular hypoplasia were randomized for either distraction osteogenesis (DO) or bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). Twenty-nine patients in the BSSO group and 34 patients in the DO group were available for evaluation. Objective assessment was performed by Semmes-Weinstein (SW) monofilament testing preoperatively and at least 1 year after surgery. Six of the 34 patients (17.6%) in the DO group experienced objective NSD, compared to 5/29 patients (17.2%) in the BSSO group. In the evaluation of nerve function by individual nerves, 8/68 nerves (11.8%) revealed objective NSD in the DO group, compared to 7/58 nerves (12.1%) in the BSSO group. A subjective NSD was reported in 11/34 patients (32.4%) in the DO group, compared to 9/29 patients (31.0%) in the BSSO group. In the evaluation of nerve function by individual nerves, a subjective NSD was reported for 13/68 nerves (19.1%) in the DO group, compared to 13/58 nerves (22.4%) in the BSSO group. None of the differences was significant. No differences in neurosensory disturbance could be found between the two study groups. Objective WS monofilament testing appeared to underestimate NSD compared to subjective patient report. PMID:25457820

  7. The color of anxiety: neurobehavioral evidence for distraction by perceptually salient stimuli in anxiety.

    PubMed

    Moran, Tim P; Moser, Jason S

    2015-03-01

    Anxiety is reliably associated with an attentional bias favoring threatening information which is thought to be a key mechanism in the etiology and maintenance of anxious pathology. However, whether and how anxiety is related to attentional capture at a more basic level (i.e., in the absence of threat) is less well understood. To address this gap in the literature, we examined the association between anxiety and attentional capture in the context of visually salient, yet affectively neutral, stimuli. Specifically, we used a visual search task in which participants were required to locate a target while ignoring a salient distractor stimulus. A total of 122 undergraduates-half of whom were assigned to a state-anxiety induction-completed this task while event-related potentials were recorded and also completed self-report measures of trait and state anxiety. The results revealed that trait anxiety, but not state anxiety, was associated with impaired attentional control in the presence of a salient distractor. That is, behavioral slowing and the N2pc event-related potential-a neural measure of attentional selection-were enhanced for trait-anxious participants when the distractor was proximate to the target and required controlled attention in order to inhibit it. These findings extend previous work by providing evidence from multiple levels of analysis that attentional aberrations in anxiety reflect broad deficits in inhibiting distracting stimuli and are not limited to threat-relevant contexts. PMID:25084754

  8. Attentional effects of lesions to the anterior cingulate cortex: how prior reinforcement influences distractibility

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lori A.; McGaughy, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Morphological changes in the anterior cingulate cortex are found in subjects with schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These changes are hypothesized to underlie the impairments these individuals show on tasks that require cognitive control. The anterior cingulate cortex has previously been shown to be active in situations involving high conflict, presentation of salient, distracting stimuli, and error processing, i.e. situations that occur when a shift in attention or responding is required. However, there is some uncertainty as to what specific role the anterior cingulate cortex plays in these situations. The current study used converging evidence from two behavioral paradigms to determine the effects of excitotoxic lesions in the anterior cingulate cortex on executive control. The first assay tests reversal learning, attentional set formation and shifting. The second assesses sustained attention with and without distractors. Animals with anterior cingulate cortex lesions were impaired during reinforcement reversals, discriminations that required subjects to disregard previously relevant stimulus attributes and showed a more rapid decline in attentional ability than Sham-Lx subjects when maintaining sustained attention for extended periods of time. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the anterior cingulate cortex is involved in attending to stimulus attributes that currently predict reinforcement in the presence of previously relevant, salient distractors and maintaining sustained attention over prolonged time on task. PMID:21480690

  9. [The freedom from distraction factor in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a short model].

    PubMed

    López Villalobos, José Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) usually presents a profile in which the freedom from distraction factor of the WISC-R (FDF) is affected to a greater extent than the verbal comprehension factor (VCF) and the perceptual organisation factor (POF). The formulation FDF< (VCF + POF)/2 has good sensitivity for ADHD. The aim of this study was to reduce the number of tests needed for the formulation FDF< (VCF + POF)/2, maintaining the sensitivity for ADHD and concordance with the complete formulation. A clinical sample of 167 children with ADHD is analysed (6-16 years). The cases of ADHD were defined according to DSM-IV criteria and they were assessed with WISC-R, Child Symptom Inventory and Social and Occupational Activity Assessment Scale. Lineal regression method was used to reduce the number of tests. The results showed that the short formulation reduces the number of tests by half and it has 83% sensitivity for ADHD. This formulation presents a good concordance with the complete version. The FDF is significantly lower than the VCF, POF and intellectual quotient in cases of ADHD. Comorbidity, social or school activity do not have a significant influence on the probability that FDF< (VCF + POF)/2. PMID:18940074

  10. Rabbit maxillary sinus augmentation model with simultaneous implant placement: differential responses to the graft materials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Sung; Kim, Su-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Jhin, Min-Ju; Kim, Won-Kyung; Lee, Young-Kyoo; Seol, Yang-Jo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to establish an experimental rabbit model for single-stage maxillary sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement. Methods Twelve mature New Zealand white rabbits were used for the experiments. The rabbit maxillary sinuses were divided into 3 groups according to sinus augmentation materials: blood clot (BC), autogenous bone (AB), and bovine-derived hydroxyapatite (BHA). Small titanium implants were simultaneously placed in the animals during the sinus augmentation procedure. The rabbits were sacrificed 4 and 8 weeks after surgery and were observed histologically. Histomorphometric analyses using image analysis software were also performed to evaluate the parameters related to bone regeneration and implant-bone integration. Results The BC group showed an evident collapse of the sinus membrane and limited new bone formation around the original sinus floor at 4 and 8 weeks. In the AB group, the sinus membrane was well retained above the implant apex, and new bone formation was significant at both examination periods. The BHA group also showed retention of the elevated sinus membrane above the screw apex and evident new bone formation at both points in time. The total area of the mineral component (TMA) in the area of interest and the bone-to-implant contact did not show any significant differences among all the groups. In the AB group, the TMA had significantly decreased from 4 to 8 weeks. Conclusions Within the limits of this study, the rabbit sinus model showed satisfactory results in the comparison of different grafting conditions in single-stage sinus floor elevation with simultaneous implant placement. We found that the rabbit model was useful for maxillary sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement. PMID:23346463

  11. Wilson maxillary curve analyzed by cbct. a study on normocclusion and malocclusion individuals

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, José M.; Espinar, Eduardo; Sáenz-Ramírez, Carlos; Paredes, Vanesa; Pérez-Varela, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    The anatomy of dental compensation curve in the frontal plane described by George H. Wilson is one of the occlusal determinants of orthodontic treatment. However, there is few published comparing malocclusion and normocclusion individuals. Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the curve of Wilson at first and second maxillary molars, normocclusion pattern and malocclusion pattern, with and without bilateral posterior crossbite, using angular references in CBCT studies. Material and Methods: We analyzed 10 cases of malocclusion with bilateral posterior crossbite, 10 cases of malocclusion without bilateral posterior crossbite and 10 cases with non orthodontic normocclusion (patients who underwent cone beam study for other reasons than orthodontic). All of them were adults, more than 19 years. Angular variables from left and right axis (line connecting the occlusal and furcation groove) of first and second molars towards a perpendicular to the frontal palate were measured. There was carried out an Anova test, Bonferroni analysis and Levene´s statistics. Results: The descriptive analysis of the results shows an average values of total maxillary curve of Wilson for first molars (sum of left and right angle) of 8.1° for normocclusion group, 0.4° for the malocclusion pattern with bilateral posterior crossbite and 16.9° for the malocclusion pattern without this alteration. The mean differences was statistical significant (P<0,042) between between malocclusion pattern groups with and without crossbite . Conclusion: The curve of Wilson, measured at maxillary first molars in patients with bilateral posterior crossbite is more concave than the other groups, suggesting no dentoalveolar compensations. Key words:Wilson curve, CBCT, buccal posterior occlusion, posterior crossbite. PMID:23385502

  12. Edentulous maxillary arch fixed implant rehabilitation using a hybrid prosthesis made of micro-ceramic-composite: case report.

    PubMed

    Geckili, Onur; Bilhan, Hakan; Ceylan, Gulsum; Cilingir, Altug

    2013-02-01

    The prosthetic treatment of patients with an edentulous maxilla opposing mandibular natural teeth is one of the most challenging endeavors that face clinicians. Occlusal forces from the opposing natural teeth may cause fractures in the maxillary prosthesis and also result in advanced bone loss of the edentulous maxilla. With the presence of extreme gagging reflex, the treatment may become more complicated. This article describes and illustrates the 2-stage surgical and prosthetic treatment of a patient with an edentulous maxilla opposing natural teeth. In the beginning, the patient was treated with 4 implants and a maxillary implant-supported overdenture. The extreme gagging reflex and the occlusal forces from the mandibular natural teeth obligated the team a second stage surgical and prosthetic treatment, which included increasing the number of implants after bilateral sinus lifting in the posterior maxilla and fabricating a maxillary fixed hybrid prosthesis made of micro-ceramic composite that yielded a satisfactory result. PMID:20932120

  13. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance. In contrast, it is open whether transient detection—which does not rely on predictive coding mechanisms—can trigger behavioral distraction, too. In the present study, the effect of rare auditory changes on visual task performance is tested in an auditory-visual cross-modal distraction paradigm. The rare changes are either embedded within a continuous standard stimulation (triggering deviance detection) or are presented within an otherwise silent situation (triggering transient detection). In the event-related brain potentials, deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN) while transients elicited an enhanced N1 component, mirroring pre-attentive change detection in both conditions but on the basis of different neuro-cognitive processes. These sensory components are followed by attention related ERP components including the P3a and the reorienting negativity (RON). This demonstrates that both types of changes trigger switches of attention. Finally, distraction of task performance is observable, too, but the impact of deviants is higher compared to transients. These findings suggest different routes of distraction allowing for the automatic processing of a wide range of potentially relevant changes in the environment as a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior. PMID:23874278

  14. A novel design solution to the fraenal notch of maxillary dentures.

    PubMed

    White, J A P; Bond, I P; Jagger, D C

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates a novel design feature for the fraenal notch of maxillary dentures, using computational and experimental methods, and shows that its use could significantly increase the longevity of the prosthesis. A two-step process can be used to create the design feature with current denture base materials, but would be highly dependent on the individual skill of the dental technician. Therefore, an alternative form of manufacture, multi-material additive layer manufacture (or '3D printing'), has been proposed as a future method for the direct production of complete dentures with multi-material design features. PMID:24261104

  15. Metal reinforcement of a complete maxillary denture without a palate: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshihito; Mizuno, Yoko; Gonda, Tomoya; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    This preliminary study examined laboratory-simulated differences between maxillary complete dentures with and without a palate (palateless) as well as the effect of reinforcement of the latter design. Five types of experimental dentures and three types of reinforcements were made. Strain gauges were attached, and a vertical load was applied. The strain was statistically compared using analysis of variance (P = .05). Strain recordings on the palatal side of palateless dentures without reinforcement were significantly higher than in complete dentures and palateless dentures with reinforcement (P < .05). These preliminary observations suggest that such reinforcement with a palatal bar or metal-based palate may reduce the risk of fracture and deformation. PMID:25822307

  16. Surgical and Orthodontic Management of Fused Maxillary Central and Lateral Incisors in Early Mixed Dentition Stage

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Suresh; Satish, Ramaswamy; Priya, Kalidass

    2014-01-01

    Fusion is one of the developmental dental anomalies in which two adjacent teeth are joined at the crown level forming a single tooth with an enlarged crown. Fusion causes some clinical problems such as unaesthetic appearance, pain, caries, and malocclusion. The management of fusion often needs multidisciplinary approach to give best possible esthetic and functional outcome. This paper reports a case of 9-year-old boy with fused maxillary left central and lateral incisors who was treated with 2 × 4 fixed orthodontic appliances after surgical separation of fused teeth. PMID:25371828

  17. Septo-optic Dysplasia Complex with Omphalocele, Pre-maxillary Agenesis and Encephalocele.

    PubMed

    Kavarodi, Abdul Majeed; Zharani, Khalid; Ali, El-Sayed; Sharahili, Hussain

    2015-03-01

    Septo-optic dysplasia complex (SODC) is a rare congenital anomaly, characterized with absence of septum pellucidum, optic nerve hypoplasia with or without pituitary dysfunction. Various midline defects are also associated with SODC in addition to its classical findings. We report, for the first time a rare presentation of SODC which is associated with pre-maxillary agenesis along with sphenoidal encephalocele and omphalocele. The case showed resulting median cleft lip and palate along with other multiple congenital defects including hydrocele, inguinal hernia, micropenis and a wide mediastinum. PMID:25848158

  18. Hard palate necrosis after bilateral internal maxillary artery embolization for epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Guss, Joel; Cohen, Marc A; Mirza, Natasha

    2007-09-01

    Superselective embolization is an effective method of treating epistaxis that is refractory to conservative treatment. Soft tissue necrosis is a rare complication owing to the extensive collateral blood supply of the head and neck. We describe the case of a patient who developed unilateral necrosis of the mucosa overlying the hard palate after undergoing bilateral internal maxillary artery embolization. The presence of a nasopharyngeal balloon and bilateral nasal packs for 2 days after embolization may have compressed collateral vessels in the soft palate and nose and contributed to this complication. Packing should be removed as soon as possible after embolization. PMID:17667134

  19. Sinus floor augmentation at the time of maxillary molar extraction: technique and report of preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    1999-01-01

    A technique is described for accomplishing both localized sinus augmentation and guided bone regeneration at the time of maxillary molar extraction. One hundred nine sites were treated in 92 patients. Of these, 102 procedures (94.0%) were successful and 7 (6.0%) were partially successful. Success was defined as the ability to ideally position an implant at least 10 mm in length and 4.8 mm in width without perforating the floor of the sinus or generating an implant fenestration or dehiscence. Partially successful procedures required an additional osteotome sinus lift at the time of implant placement. PMID:10453669

  20. Pathology Case Study: Maxillary Cyst in a 36-Year-Old Male

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schubert, Eric

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 36-year-old man has a maxillary cyst. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

  1. Maxillary keratocystic odontogenic tumor with calcifications: A review and case report

    PubMed Central

    Naveen, Farzan; Tippu, Shoaib R; Girish, KL; Kalra, Manpreet; Desai, Vela

    2011-01-01

    Calcifications or hard tissue deposits in the wall of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) are rare and uncommon. Three types of calcifications have been reported in the literature: dystrophic, cartilagenous, dentinoid. A case of maxillary KCOT with calcification is reported with a review on prevalence and pathogenesis of these calcifications. The calcifications associated with the connective tissue of keratocystic odontogenic tumor were studied using special stains. These calcifications were positive for collagen stains, Van Gieson, Masson trichrome, and negative for congo red and mallory suggesting that these irregularly shaped, diffuse calcifications which form on a collagenous matrix are dysplastic dentin. PMID:22144832

  2. Effects of three-dimensional bimetric maxillary distalizing arches and cervical headgear on dentofacial structures.

    PubMed

    Altug-Atac, Ayse T; Erdem, Dilek

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dentofacial effects of an intraoral technique, the three-dimensional bimetric maxillary distalizing arch (3D-BMDA), with an extraoral technique, cervical headgear (CH), in subjects requiring maxillary molar distalization. Twenty-one patients (12 females, 9 males; mean age at the start of treatment: 14.7 years) were treated with 3D-BMDA and 18 subjects (11 females, 7 males; mean age at the start of treatment: 13.3 years) with CH. Since the treatment period was longer in the CH group, the results for this group were also compared with a separate 'untreated' control group of 17 subjects (12 females, 5 males; mean age at the start of observation: 13.1 years). The measurements were carried out on lateral cephalometric radiographs which were taken at two time points (T(1): start of treatment/control, T(2): end of molar distalization/control). Paired t-tests were performed within, and analysis of variance to determine the differences between the groups. The total amount of distalization for the 3D-BMDA and CH was similar (3.55 and 4.56 mm, respectively). However, there were statistically significant differences in the total treatment period (3.4 and 10.2 months, respectively) and the monthly amount of distalization (1.11 and 0.55 mm, respectively). The 3D-BMDA system did not have a significant effect on mandibular rotation (an increase of 0.01 degrees), while the CH group showed a mean posterior rotation of the mandible of 1.08 degrees. The most significant differences between the two maxillary first molar distalization techniques were observed in the mandibular dental arches. Moderate anchorage loss in the mandibular dental arch was observed in the 3D-BMDA group. While the 3D-BMDA and CH techniques are both effective in distalizing maxillary molar teeth, the distalization time and rate of molar movement were significantly shorter with the 3D-BMDA than the CH. PMID:16923782

  3. Improved digital transfer of the maxillary cast to a virtual articulator.

    PubMed

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Otegi, Jose Ramon; Mínguez, Rikardo; Etxaniz, Olatz

    2014-10-01

    The clinical procedure described provides a quantifiable, repeatable, and reliable method of transferring the location of the maxillary dental arch from the patient directly to a virtual articulator (virtual facebow transfer) by means of reverse engineering devices to design a customized dental restoration. This procedure allows the dentist and the dental laboratory technician to work in a fully digital environment without having to mount stone casts on a mechanical articulator. In addition, specific suggestions are provided for designing the transfer device to enhance patient comfort during the data transfer process and reduce deviation. PMID:24836282

  4. Multidisciplinary treatment approach to restore deep horizontally fractured maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pravinkumar G; Nimbalkar-Patil, Smita P; Karandikar, Aamod B

    2014-01-01

    This case report demonstrates sequential periodontic, orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment modalities to save and restore deep horizontally fractured maxillary central incisor. The location of fracture was deep in the mucosa which reveals less than 2 mm of tooth structure to receive the crown. The procedures like surgical crown lengthening, endodontic post placement, orthodontic forced eruption, core build-up and metal-ceramic crown restoration were sequentially performed to conserve the fractured tooth. Forced eruption is preferred to surgical removal of supporting alveolar bone, since forced eruption preserves the biologic width, maintains esthetics, and at the same time exposes sound tooth structure for the placement of restorative margins. PMID:24939276

  5. Phasing a segmented telescope.

    PubMed

    Paykin, Irina; Yacobi, Lee; Adler, Joan; Ribak, Erez N

    2015-02-01

    A crucial part of segmented or multiple-aperture systems is control of the optical path difference between the segments or subapertures. In order to achieve optimal performance we have to phase subapertures to within a fraction of the wavelength, and this requires high accuracy of positioning for each subaperture. We present simulations and hardware realization of a simulated annealing algorithm in an active optical system with sparse segments. In order to align the optical system we applied the optimization algorithm to the image itself. The main advantage of this method over traditional correction methods is that wave-front-sensing hardware and software are no longer required, making the optical and mechanical system much simpler. The results of simulations and laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of this optimization algorithm to correct both piston and tip-tilt errors. PMID:25768631

  6. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Assessment of the Maxillary Incisive Canal and Foramen: Considerations of Anatomical Variations When Placing Immediate Implants

    PubMed Central

    Al-Amery, Samah M.; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Jamaludin, Marhazlinda; John, Jacob; Ngeow, Wei Cheong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The maxillary incisive canal connects the roof of the oral cavity with the floor of nasal cavity and has the incisive and nasal foramina respectively at its two opposite ends. Its close proximity with the anterior incisors affects one’s ability to place immediate implants in ideal position. Objective To avoid causing complication, variations in their dimensions were studied. Material and Methods Images of ninety Mongoloids patients examined with i-CAT Cone Beam Computed Tomography were included. The sizes of the nasopalatine foramen, the incisive canal and foramen, and anterior maxillary bone thickness were measured. The direction and course of the canals were assessed. Results The mean labiopalatal and mesiodistal measurements of the incisive foramen were 2.80mm and 3.49 mm respectively, while the labiopalatal width of the nasal foramen was 6.06mm. The incisive canal was 16.33mm long and 3.85 mm wide. The anterior maxillary bone has an average thickness of 7.63 mm. The dimensions of the incisive foramen and incisive canal, and anterior maxillary bone thickness demonstrated gender differences with males showing greater values. The anterior maxillary bone thickness was affected by age but this difference was not observed in canal dimensions. The majority of subjects have a funnel shape-like incisive canal with the broader opening located at its superior. They seem to have a longer slanted-curve canal with one channel at its middle portion and a narrower incisive foramen opening than those reported elsewhere. Conclusions This study found that gender is an important factor that affected the characteristics of the IC and the amount of bone anterior to it. Male generally had bigger IC and thicker anterior bone. In addition, the anterior maxillary bone thickness was affected by aging, where it becomes thinner with increased age even though the subjects were fully dentate. PMID:25679505

  7. Gender Determination Using Diagonal Measurements of Maxillary Molar and Canine Teeth in Davangere Population

    PubMed Central

    Tarigoppula, Ratna Kumari V. N.; Kulkarni, Pavan G; BS, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements of the teeth have been the traditional means of determining gender which sometimes are difficult to measure. Aims and Objectives: To assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in upper permanent canines and first molars using diagonal diameters and to evaluate the applicability of diagonal measurements in sex determination. Materials and Methods: Mesiobuccal-distolingual (MBDL) and distobuccal-mesiolingual (DBML) measurements of the crown and cervix of maxillary canine and maxillary molar were taken using digital vernier callipers in 100 upper dental casts obtained from 50 males and 50 females of the age group of 17-25 y. Results: With step wise discriminant function analysis, results were statistically significant with males showing higher diagonal measurement values. The classification accuracy for males was 69% and in females was 73% with overall accuracy of 71%. Results showed that canines exhibited highest accuracy with cervical measurements being more dimorphic. MBDL measurements were found to be more reliable. Most dimorphicmeasurements included right molar cervical MBDL, left molar cervical MBDL followed by right and left molar crown MBDL. Conclusion: In cases of tooth rotations, crowding, certain fillings and attritions where traditional mesio-distal and bucco-lingual measurements are not applicable, diagonal measurements could be of help in predicting gender. PMID:25584308

  8. A Chromosomal Region on ECA13 Is Associated with Maxillary Prognathism in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Signer-Hasler, Heidi; Neuditschko, Markus; Koch, Christoph; Froidevaux, Sylvie; Flury, Christine; Burger, Dominik; Leeb, Tosso; Rieder, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary variations in head morphology and head malformations are known in many species. The most common variation encountered in horses is maxillary prognathism. Prognathism and brachygnathism are syndromes of the upper and lower jaw, respectively. The resulting malocclusion can negatively affect teeth wear, and is considered a non-desirable trait in breeding programs. We performed a case-control analysis for maxillary prognathism in horses using 96 cases and 763 controls. All horses had been previously genotyped with a commercially available 50 k SNP array. We analyzed the data with a mixed-model considering the genomic relationships in order to account for population stratification. Two SNPs within a region on the distal end of chromosome ECA 13 reached the Bonferroni corrected genome-wide significance level. There is no known prognathism candidate gene located within this region. Therefore, our findings in the horse offer the possibility of identifying a novel gene involved in the complex genetics of prognathism that might also be relevant for humans and other livestock species. PMID:24466169

  9. Anomalous middle turbinate with choanal obstruction and maxillary sinusitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although several anatomical anomalies in the middle turbinate have been reported, they usually remain asymptomatic. However, complicated aberrant middle turbinate extending through the choana to the contralateral nasopharynx has not been reported. Case presentation A 23-year-old Korean woman presented with a 6-month history of nasal obstruction and postnasal discharge refractory to medical treatment. An endoscopic examination revealed an abnormal middle turbinate, and a pedunculated nasal mass covered with normal mucosa that originated from the right lateral nasal wall filled most of the right posterior choana and extended to the left nasopharynx across the posterior free edge of the nasal septum. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinus showed abnormal bony trabeculation from the posterior bony attachment of the right middle turbinate to the left posterior nasopharyngeal wall. In addition, right maxillary sinusitis was observed. From these findings, the lesion was suspected to be an abnormal configuration of the right middle turbinate with secondary maxillary sinusitis and was successfully treated by resection of the malformed middle turbinate and middle meatal antrostomy. Conclusions Although this case illustrates a very rare developmental anomaly of the middle turbinate, thorough knowledge of the development of and anatomical anomalies associated with the middle turbinate is of utmost importance to perform proper sinus surgery and avoid complications. Therefore, these findings should be considered by otolaryngologists, and careful examination of the nasal cavity is necessary to determine the existence of this rare anomaly. PMID:24134810

  10. Identification of possible factors impacting dental students' ability to locate MB2 canals in maxillary molars.

    PubMed

    Park, Ellen; Chehroudi, Babak; Coil, Jeffrey M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effect of the access size and straight-line path of access on third-year dental students' ability to locate a second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal in maxillary first and second molars. One hundred and six third-year dental students at one Faculty of Dentistry performed simulated root canal treatment with the aid of 2x magnification loupes on extracted teeth. A postgraduate endodontic student subsequently made a reasonable search for an untreated MB2 canal with the aid of a dental operating microscope. The mesiobuccal roots were then sectioned horizontally for determination of the canal configuration. The dental students were able to treat an MB2 canal in 15.8 percent of the teeth, but this was not associated with satisfactory access criteria. The postgraduate endodontic student identified an MB2 canal in 54.7 percent of the remaining tooth samples excluding those where the MB2 canal was found by the dental students; this represented 94.3 percent of those teeth confirmed by horizontal sectioning of the root to have an MB2 canal. The postgraduate student troughed, on average, 2.6 mm before negotiating the MB2 canal. As satisfactory access criteria and straight-line path of access did not correlate with the dental students' ability to find a second mesiobuccal canal, this result has important implications for educational goals with respect to endodontic treatment of maxillary molar teeth. PMID:24789839

  11. Cusp Fracture Resistance of Maxillary Premolars Restored with the Bonded Amalgam Technique Using Various Luting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Marchan, Shivaughn M.; Coldero, Larry; White, Daniel; Smith, William A. J.; Rafeek, Reisha N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. This in vitro study uses measurements of fracture resistance to compare maxillary premolars restored with the bonded amalgam technique using a new resin luting cement, glass ionomer, and resin-modified glass ionomer as the bonding agents. Materials. Eighty-five sound maxillary premolars were selected and randomly assigned to one of five test groups of 17 teeth each. One group of intact teeth served as the control. The remaining groups were prepared to a standard cavity form relative to the dimensions of the overall tooth and restored with amalgam alone or a bonded amalgam using one of three luting agents: RelyX Arc (a new resin luting cement), RelyX luting (a resin-modified glass ionomer), or Ketac-Cem ? (a glass ionomer) as the bonding agents. Each tooth was then subjected to compressive testing until catastrophic failure occurred. The mean loads at failure of each group were statistically compared using ANOVA with a post hoc Bonferroni test. Results. It was found that regardless of the luting cement used for the amalgam bonding technique, there was little effect on the fracture resistance of teeth. Conclusion. Cusp fracture resistance of premolars prepared with conservative MOD cavity preparations is not improved by using an amalgam-bonding technique compared to similar cavities restored with amalgam alone. PMID:20339450

  12. Optimizing Maxillary Aesthetics of a Severe Compromised Tooth through Orthodontic Movement and Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza-Filho, Leopoldino; Borelli Barros, Luiz Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of severe compromised tooth in the maxillary anterior area still poses great challenge to the clinicians. Several treatment modalities have been proposed to restore the function and aesthetics in teeth with advanced periodontal disease. The present study aims to report a case of traumatic injury of a left-maxillary central incisor with ridge preservation, orthodontic movement, and implant therapy. A 45-year-old woman underwent the proposed treatment for her left central incisor: basic periodontal therapy, xenogenous bone graft, and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Six months after the graft procedure, orthodontic movement by means of alignment and leveling was made and a coronal displacement of the gingival margin and vertical bone apposition could be observed after 13 months of active movement. Afterwards, a dental implant was placed followed by a connective tissue graft and immediate provisionalization of the crown. In conclusion, orthodontic movement was effective to improve the gingival tissue and alveolar bone prior to implant placement favoring the aesthetic results. Six years postoperatively, the results revealed height and width alveolar bone gain indicating that the treatment proposed was able to restore all the functional and aesthetic parameters. PMID:24523969

  13. Comparative Effects of Clonidine and Adrenaline with Lignocaine during Maxillary Infiltration Anaesthesia for Dental Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Ranjani, Sree S; Lenka, Sthithaprajna; Jimson, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lignocaine is a commonly used local anaesthetic in dental practice. Many practitioners use adrenaline (epinephrine) as additive with lignocaine, and some have used clonidine, instead of adrenaline. Both having benefits and limitations. Aims Hence a study was undertaken in our department to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using (plain lidocaine local anaesthetic) versus (lidocaine with adrenaline as additive) versus (lidocaine with clonidine as additive). Study Design Randomised, prospective, double blind study. Materials and Methods Seventy five patients requiring extraction of maxillary molar teeth who fall under ASA I category were included and randomly divided into group – I (n=25) (Lignocaine), group – II (n=25) (Lignocaine ± Adrenaline) and group – III (n=25) (Lignocaine ± Clonidine). The observations recorded were, time of onset of anaesthesia, hemodynamic parameters, blood loss during procedure and duration of post operative analgesia. Statistical Analysis The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 16 software. Results A statistically significant difference was seen in blood loss, being higher in group I and duration of anaesthesia, being shortest in group I. There was no statistical difference between the three groups amongst other parameters. Conclusion Adrenaline at 10 ?g/ml and clonidine at 15 ?g/ml can be safely used as additives with lignocaine, in maxillary infiltration anaesthesia for dental extraction; with addition of either of these two drugs, having an equal advantage over use of plain lignocaine; in terms of lower blood loss and longer duration of anaesthesia; but, with no difference in the onset of anaesthesia and with no significant hemodynamic changes.

  14. Long-term periodontal response to orthodontic treatment of palatally impacted maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    Caprioglio, Alberto; Vanni, Arianna; Bolamperti, Laura

    2013-06-01

    One of the most important aspects to take into consideration when evaluating the outcome of treatment of impacted maxillary canines is the final periodontal status. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term periodontal response of palatally impacted maxillary canines aligned using a codified procedure and the 'Easy Cuspid' compared with contralateral spontaneously erupted teeth. The periodontal conditions of the adjacent teeth were also considered. From an initial sample of 124 patients, 33 patients (24 females and 9 males) were selected. All patients who had undergone surgical orthodontic treatment conducted in accordance with a standardized protocol were recalled for follow-up at an average of 4.6 years after the end of treatment. The average treatment time was 29 months and the mean eruption time of the previously impacted tooth was 3.1 months. The average probing depth values showed no significant clinical differences. Probing depths recorded at the vestibular surface of the lateral incisor (P < 0.05) and at the midpalatal/midlingual aspect of the first premolar were statistically significant in comparison with the control elements. Student's t-test was used to compare the test and control group values. Coefficient of reliability was set at P < 0.05. The use of a closed-flap surgical technique in association with a codified orthodontic traction system (Easy Cuspid) allowed alignment of palatally impacted canines without damage to the periodontium. PMID:22531665

  15. Dopamine transporter genotype is associated with a lateralized resistance to distraction during attention selection.

    PubMed

    Newman, Daniel P; Cummins, Tarrant D R; Tong, Janette H S; Johnson, Beth P; Pickering, Hayley; Fanning, Peter; Wagner, Joseph; Goodrich, Jack T T; Hawi, Ziarih; Chambers, Christopher D; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2014-11-19

    Although lateral asymmetries in orienting behavior are evident across species and have been linked to interhemispheric asymmetries in dopamine signaling, the relative contribution of attentional versus motoric processes remains unclear. Here we took a cognitive genetic approach to adjudicate between roles for dopamine in attentional versus response selection. A sample of nonclinical adult humans (N = 518) performed three cognitive tasks (spatial attentional competition, spatial cueing, and flanker tasks) that varied in the degree to which they required participants to resolve attentional or response competition. All participants were genotyped for two putatively functional tandem repeat polymorphisms of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1; SLC6A3), which are argued to influence the level of available synaptic dopamine and confer risk to disorders of inattention. DAT1 genotype modulated the task-specific effects of the various task-irrelevant stimuli across both the spatial competition and spatial cueing but not flanker tasks. Specifically, compared with individuals carrying one or two copies of the 10-repeat DAT1 allele, individuals without this allele demonstrated an immunity to distraction, such that response times were unaffected by increases in the number of distractor stimuli, particularly when these were presented predominantly in the left hemifield. All three genotype groups exhibited uniform costs of resolving leftward response selection in a standard flanker task. None of these significant effects could be explained by speed-accuracy trade-offs, suggesting that participants without the 10-repeat allele of the DAT1 tandem repeat polymorphism possess an enhanced attentional ability to suppress task-irrelevant stimuli in the left hemifield. PMID:25411502

  16. Sex Differences in Itch Perception and Modulation by Distraction – an fMRI Pilot Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Astrid; Burgmer, Markus; Schneider, Gudrun; Heuft, Gereon; Schmelz, Martin; Phan, Ngoc Quan; Ständer, Sonja; Pfleiderer, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Background Even though itch is a common syndrome of many diseases there is only little knowledge about sex and gender differences in pruritus, especially in central itch perception and modulation. To our knowledge, this is the first fMRI study examining sex differences in perception and its modulation by distraction. Methods Experimental itch was induced by application of histamine (0.1 mM) via microdialysis fibers twice at the left forearm and twice at the left lower leg in 33 healthy volunteers (17 females, 16 males). The brain activation patterns were assessed by fMRI during itch without and with distraction (Stroop task). Between the various conditions, subjects were asked to rate itch intensity, desire to scratch and pain intensity. In a second experiment in 10 of the 33 volunteers histamine was replaced by saline solution to serve as control for the ‘Stroop’ condition. Results Women generally presented higher itch intensities compared to men during itch over the course of the experiment. A more specific analysis revealed higher itch intensities and desire to scratch in women during experimental induced itch that can be reduced by distraction at the lower legs when itch is followed by ‘Stroop’. In contrast, men depicted significant reduction of ‘itch’ by ‘Stroop’ at the forearms. Women depicted higher brain activation of structures responsible for integration of sensory, affective information and motor integration/planning during ‘itch’ and ‘Stroop’ condition when compared to men. No sex differences were seen in the saline control condition. Conclusion Women and men exhibited localisation dependent differences in their itch perception with women presenting higher itch intensities and desire to scratch. Our findings parallel clinical observations of women reporting higher itch intensities depending on itch localisation and suffering more from itch as compared to men. PMID:24260163

  17. Segmented bimorph mirrors for adaptive optics: segment design and experiment.

    PubMed

    Bastaits, Renaud; Alaluf, David; Horodinca, Mihaita; Romanescu, Iulian; Burda, Ioan; Martic, Grégory; Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Preumont, André

    2014-10-10

    We discuss the concept of lightweight segmented bimorph mirrors for adaptive optics. The segment consists of a monocrystal silicon substrate actuated by an array of in-plane piezoceramic (PZT) actuators with honeycomb electrodes. We focus on technological aspects of the segment design that are critical for space applications and describe a single segment demonstrator. The morphing capability of the segment is evaluated experimentally. We also discuss the local deformations (dimples) associated with the shape of the electrodes acting on the PZT array. PMID:25322364

  18. Towards Unified Chinese Segmentation Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu Lee Wang; Xiaotie Deng; Feng Zou

    As Chinese is an ideographic character-based language, the words in the texts are not delimited by spaces. Indexing of Chinese documents is impossible without a proper segmentation algorithm. Many Chinese segmentation algorithms have been proposed in the past. Traditional segmentation algorithms cannot operate without a large dictionary or a large corpus of training data. Nowadays, the Web has become the

  19. The significance of cone beam computed tomography for the visualization of anatomical variations and lesions in the maxillary sinus for patients hoping to have dental implant-supported maxillary restorations in a private dental office in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the significance of cone bean computed tomography (CBCT) for patients hoping to undergo implant-supported restorations of the maxilla. Therefore, two studies were planned. One was to compare the prevalence of anatomic variations and lesions in the maxillary sinus on CBCT of patients hoping to undergo implant-supported restorations of the maxilla with that in patients with other chief complaints in a private dental office in Japan. The other study was to elucidate the limitations of panoramic radiographs in the detection of anatomic variations and lesions in the maxillary sinus. Study design Sixty-one pairs of panoramic radiographs and CBCT were retrospectively analyzed in two groups of patients, those who hoped to undergo implant-supported restorations in the maxilla (Implant group) and those who did not (Non-implant group). The presence of anatomic variations and lesions in the maxillary sinus were analyzed. Results The detection rate of mucosal thickening was significantly higher in the Implant group than in the Non-implant group. The detection rates for the features analyzed were significantly lower on panoramic radiographs. In particular, the detection rates of internal and anterior locations of some features were noticeably lower on panoramic radiographs. A significant relationship was found between the change in the detection rate on panoramic radiographs and the widths of mucosal thickening or the lengths of the major axis of SOLs in the maxillary sinus. If the width of mucosal thickening or the length of the major axis of SOLs was <3 mm or <4 mm, respectively, the detection rate on panoramic radiographs was significantly decreased. Conclusion CBCT is important for patients hoping to undergo implant-supported restorations of the maxilla because of the mucosal thickening in the maxillary sinus in such patients and their lower detection rates on panoramic radiographs. PMID:24884983

  20. Application of cultured dermal substitute for amelioration of maxillary bone growth suppression after cleft palate operation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Norifumi; Ueda, Koichi; Tsuji, Motomu; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2008-01-01

    The growth and development of maxillary bone and dentition is often impaired in patients who have undergone the cleft palate operation (push back method). Wound contraction exerts adverse effects on maxillary bone growth. The present study investigates the ability of cultured dermal substitute (CDS) to ameliorate maxillary bone growth suppression in experimental animals. We prepared CDS by incorporating rat fibroblasts into a matrix comprising a spongy hyaluronic acid (HA) sheet combined with collagen gel. The number of fibroblasts in the CDS was adjusted to 1.0 x 10(5) cells/cm(2). Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: I, control (no operation); II, surgically exposed bone without matrix or CDS; III, surgery with matrix; IV, surgery with CDS. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, about 2 x 4 mm of the mucosa and periosteum was surgically removed from the left half of the palate. A silicone sheet was placed on the matrix or CDS and affixed with superglue. The palatal width was measured 9 weeks later in skull preparations as the distance between the cheek side cusps of the second molar. The palates in group IV were significantly wider than those in groups II and III, and did not significantly differ from that in the control group. These findings indicated that CDS has the ability to promote wound healing and reduce scar formation through the synergic effects of fibroblasts and the matrix, and thereby to ameliorate indirectly the growth of maxillary bone. PMID:19184287

  1. Skeletal effects of early treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary expansion and face-mask therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiziano Baccetti; Jean S. McGill; Lorenzo Franchi; James A. McNamara; Isabella Tollaro

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of maxillary expansion and face-mask therapy in children with Class III malocclusion was studied in a sample of 46 subjects in mixed dentition and compared with a control sample of 32 subjects with untreated Class III malocclusion. Treated and untreated samples were divided into early and late mixed-dentition groups to aid identification of the optimum timing of the

  2. Treatment of a maxillary molar in a patient presenting with florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tonioli, Matthew B; Schindler, William G

    2004-09-01

    A case report of a 49-year-old black woman with florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is presented. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary first molar and a general review of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia are presented. Treatment considerations including diagnosis, difficulty in radiographic interpretation, working length determination, and postoperative concerns are discussed. PMID:15329574

  3. Root and canal morphology of maxillary first premolar teeth in north Indian population using clearing technique: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shraddha; Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Gowhar, Owais; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Singh, Narendra Nath; Gupta, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the root form and canal configuration in maxillary first premolars. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 extracted human adult maxillary first premolar teeth from North Indian population were collected. Access cavities were prepared and the coronal pulp tissue was extirpated. The samples were stored in 5% nitric acid solution for 5 days. They were then rinsed, dried, and dehydrated using increasing concentrations of ethanol (70, 80, and 95%) successively for 1 day. Teeth were rendered transparent by immersing in methyl salicylate. India ink was then injected. The root canal morphology was examined under stereomicroscope. Result: 53.6% were single rooted followed by fused root form followed by two root form. 0.4% had three rooted maxillary first premolar. Variable root canal configurations were also found. Type IV configuration was most prevalent (33.2%). Two teeth showed an additional configuration. Lateral canals were present in 34.8% of the samples and intercanal communications in 16%. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that in North Indian population, there was an increased propensity for types IV, I, II, and III canal morphologies in maxillary first premolars. Single root form was most common. PMID:26069411

  4. Maxillary sinus lift without grafting, and simultaneous implant placement: a prospective clinical study with a 51-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bassi, A P F; Pioto, R; Faverani, L P; Canestraro, D; Fontão, F G K

    2015-07-01

    A prospective clinical study of maxillary sinus lift procedures in the posterior region of the maxilla, using only blood clot as filling material, was conducted. Seventeen patients underwent a maxillary sinus lift procedure; 20 maxillary sinus regions were operated on and a total of 25 implants were placed. The sinus mucosa was lifted together with the anterior wall of the osteotomized maxilla and supported by the implants placed. Computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained immediately postoperative (Tinitial) and at 3 (T1) and 51 (T2) months postoperative for the measurement of linear bone height and bone density (by grey tones). Only one implant was lost in the first stage (96% success). After dental prosthesis placement and during up to 51 months of follow-up, no implant was lost (100% success, second stage). The difference in mean bone height between Tinitial (5.94mm) and T1 (13.14mm), and between Tinitial and T2 (11.57mm), was statistically significant (both P<0.001); comparison between T1 and T2 also presented a statistical difference (P<0.001). Bone density had increased at the end of the period analyzed, but this was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Thus, the maxillary sinus lift technique with immediate implant placement, filling with blood clot only, may be performed with a high success rate. PMID:25896082

  5. Maxillary sinus floor augmentation using autogenous bone grafts and platelet-enriched fibrin glue with simultaneous implant placement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyeon-Jung Lee; Jae-Hyung Jung; Shi-Jiang Zhu; Seoung-Ho Lee; Jin-Young Huh

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of autogenous bone in combination with platelet-enriched fibrin glue as a grafting material for maxillary sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement in dogs. Study design. The mucous membranes of 12 sinuses in 6 dogs were elevated bilaterally. In the right sinus, autogenous bone mixed with platelet-enriched fibrin glue was

  6. Fixation tack penetration into the maxillary sinus: A case report of a guided bone regeneration procedure complication

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Kevin; Iskandar, Irma; Chien, Hua-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is an established and predictable procedure used to obtain adequate alveolar bone for the placement of dental implants. Anatomical challenges, such as the proximity of the maxillary sinus, may lead to complications during a GBR procedure. The purpose of this report is to present a unique and hitherto unreported complication of a GBR procedure, i.e., the penetration of a titanium fixation tack into the maxillary sinus. Case Report: A unique GBR is presented, where a titanium tack penetrated the maxillary sinus with subsequent migration and loss. Attempts to locate the tack visually during the procedure were unsuccessful. The GBR procedure was aborted and dental radiographs were immediately obtained. The patient was completely asymptomatic during the healing period. Eight weeks later a cone beam computed tomography revealed a non-inflamed sinus with no pathology evident. However, the tack could not be visualized. An otolaryngology consultation was requested and the ensuing sinus endoscopy did not reveal any evidence of the penetrated tack. It is thought that the loose tack migrated completely out of the sinus through the nasal passage. Conclusions: The use of a pre-operative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) would have allowed the clinician to assess the exact thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus and better determine the ideal placement location and/or the feasibility of using a fixation tack in the posterior upper jaw. PMID:23569561

  7. Development and Regeneration of the Zebrafish Maxillary Barbel: A Novel Study System for Vertebrate Tissue Growth and Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth E. Leclair; Jacek Topczewski; Bruce Riley

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundBarbels are integumentary sense organs found in fishes, reptiles and amphibians. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, develops paired nasal and maxillary barbels approximately one month post fertilization. Small in diameter and optically clear, these adult appendages offer a window on the development, maintenance and function of multiple cell types including skin cells, neural-crest derived pigment cells, circulatory vessels, taste buds and

  8. Functional characterization of the octenol receptor neuron on the maxillary palps of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1-Octen-3-ol (octenol) is a common attractant released by vertebrates which in combination with carbon dioxide attracts haematophagous arthropods including mosquitoes. A receptor neuron contained within basiconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of adult mosquitoes responds selectively to 1-octen-3-o...

  9. Near-infrared imaging of the sinuses: preliminary evaluation of a new technology for diagnosing maxillary sinusitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Usama; Cerussi, Albert; Dehdari, Reza; Nguyen, Quoc; Kelley, Timothy; Tromberg, Bruce; Wong, Brian

    2010-05-01

    Diagnosing sinusitis remains a challenge for primary care physicians. There is a need for a simple, office-based technique to aid in the diagnosis of sinusitis without the cost and radiation risk of conventional radiologic imaging. We designed a low-cost near-infrared (NIR) device to transilluminate the maxillary sinuses. The use of NIR light allows for greater interrogation of deep-tissue structures as compared to visible light. NIR imaging of 21 patients was performed and compared with computed tomography (CT) scans. Individual maxillary sinuses were scored on a scale from 0 to 2 based on their degree of aeration present on CT and similarly based on the NIR signal penetration into the maxilla on NIR images. Our results showed that air-filled and fluid/tissue-filled spaces can be reasonably distinguished by their differing NIR signal penetration patterns, with average NIR imaging scores for fluid-filled maxillary sinuses (0.93+/-0.78, n=29) significantly lower than those for normal maxillary sinuses (1.62+/-0.57, n=13) (p=0.003). NIR imaging of the sinuses is a simple, safe, and cost-effective modality that can potentially aid in the diagnosis of sinusitis. Long-term, significant device refinement and large clinical trials will be needed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of this technique.

  10. Salvucci, D. D. (2002). Modeling driver distraction from cognitive tasks. To appear in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    E-print Network

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    2002-01-01

    of the 24th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesSalvucci, D. D. (2002). Modeling driver distraction from cognitive tasks. To appear in Proceedings. Modeling Driver Distraction from Cognitive Tasks Dario D. Salvucci (salvucci@mcs.drexel.edu) Department

  11. 8.G Congruent Segments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Line segments AB and CD have the same length. Describe a sequence of reflections that exhibits a congruence between them....

  12. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed statistical differences. However, no palatal alveolar bone widths showed any statistical differences. The width reduction of alveolar bone was 1.2, 1.6, and 2.7 mm at the deep, middle, and shallow layers, respectively. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides of T both showed statistical differences, which was 1.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively. PMID:25471836

  13. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed statistical differences. However, no palatal alveolar bone widths showed any statistical differences. The width reduction of alveolar bone was 1.2, 1.6, and 2.7 mm at the deep, middle, and shallow layers, respectively. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides of T both showed statistical differences, which was 1.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively. PMID:25471836

  14. Guided tissue regeneration in the treatment of degree II furcations in maxillary molars.

    PubMed

    Pontoriero, R; Lindhe, J

    1995-10-01

    he present clinical trial was designed to evaluate the clinical effect of GTR in the treatment of degree II furcation defects in maxillary molars. 28 patients, 21 to 59 years of age, referred for treatment of advanced periodontal disease were included. They presented with similar periodontal lesions in the right and the left maxillary molar regions, but had only one surface which exhibited furcation involvement. A total of 28 pairs of contralateral furcation defects of degree II including 18 interproximal pairs (10 mesial, 8 distal) and 10 buccal pairs, were available for the study. After the completion of basic therapy, the furcation involved molars in the right and left quadrants in each patient were randomly assigned to either a test or a control treatment procedure. Following flap elevation, scaling, root planing and granulation tissue removal, an e-PTFE membrane at the test site was adjusted to cover the entrance to the furcation defect and adjacent bone and was retained in this position with sling sutures. The mucoperiostal flaps were subsequently adjusted and positioned to cover the entire surface of the membrane and were secured in this position. An identical surgical procedure was performed in the control tooth regions with the exception of the placement of a teflon membrane. No periodontal dressing was used. Starting the day before surgery and continuing for 7 days, the patients received 1 + 1 g of Amoxicillin per day; morning and evening. The sutures were removed after 10 days. At the test sites, the membranes were removed after 6 weeks of healing. The treated sites were examined and re-entry procedures performed 6 months after reconstructive surgery. Open flap debridement at maxillary furcations of degree II resulted in some gingival recession and probing depth reduction, but no change occurred in parameters describing probing attachment or bone levels. The addition of GTR at buccal furcations enhanced the treatment result by promoting probing attachment and bone gain and reduced the amount of soft tissue recession above what was accomplished by flap debridement alone. No such benefit of membrane therapy was observed at mesial and distal furcations. PMID:8682922

  15. Analgesic effects of maxillary and inferior alveolar nerve blocks in cats undergoing dental extractions.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Joana; Chebroux, Alexandre; Martinez-Taboada, Fernando; Leece, Elizabeth A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of maxillary and/or inferior alveolar nerve blocks with lidocaine and bupivacaine in cats undergoing dental extractions. Twenty-nine cats were enrolled. Using an adapted composite pain scale, cats were pain scored before the dental procedure and 30 mins, and 1, 2 and 4 h after isoflurane disconnection. Cats were sedated with buprenorphine (20 µg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and acepromazine (20 µg/kg) intramuscularly. Anaesthesia was induced using alfaxalone (1-2 mg/kg) intravenously and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Each cat was randomly assigned to receive maxillary and/or inferior alveolar nerve blocks or no nerve blocks prior to dental extractions. Each nerve block was performed using lidocaine (0.25 mg/kg) and bupivacaine (0.25 mg/kg). Heart rate, systolic arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, end tidal carbon dioxide and isoflurane vaporiser settings were recorded 5 mins before and after the dental extractions, and the difference calculated. Group mean differences (mean ± SD) for heart rate (-9.7 ± 10.6 vs 7.6 ± 9.5 beats/min [nerve block vs control group, respectively], P <0.0001), systolic arterial blood pressure (-10.33 ± 18.44 vs 5.21 ± 15.23 mmHg, P = 0.02) and vaporiser settings (-0.2 ± 0.2 vs 0.1 ± 0.4, P = 0.023) were significantly different between groups. The control group had higher postoperative pain scores (median [interquartile range]) at 2 h (3 [1.75-4.00] vs 1 [0-2], P = 0.008) and 4 h (4 [2-6] vs 2 [1-2], P = 0.006) after the dental extractions. Maxillary and inferior alveolar nerve blocks with lidocaine and bupivacaine administered prior to dental extractions resulted in a reduction in heart rate and blood pressure while allowing for a reduction in isoflurane. Cats receiving nerve blocks had lower postoperative pain scores than the group without nerve blocks. PMID:24820999

  16. Weighted entropy for segmentation evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Jesmin F.; Bhuiyan, Sharif M.

    2014-04-01

    In many image, video and computer vision systems the image segmentation is an essential part. Significant research has been done in image segmentation and a number of quantitative evaluation methods have already been proposed in the literature. However, often the segmentation evaluation is subjective that means it has been done visually or qualitatively. A segmentation evaluation method based on entropy is proposed in this work which is objective and simple to implement. A weighted self and mutual entropy are proposed to measure the dissimilarity of the pixels among the segmented regions and the similarity within a region. This evaluation technique gives a score that can be used to compare different segmentation algorithms for the same image, or to compare the segmentation results of a given algorithm with different images, or to find the best suited values of the parameters of a segmentation algorithm for a given image. The simulation results show that the proposed method can identify over-segmentation, under-segmentation, and the good segmentation.

  17. Framework for Comparing Segmentation Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sithole, G.; Majola, L.

    2015-05-01

    The notion of a `Best' segmentation does not exist. A segmentation algorithm is chosen based on the features it yields, the properties of the segments (point sets) it generates, and the complexity of its algorithm. The segmentation is then assessed based on a variety of metrics such as homogeneity, heterogeneity, fragmentation, etc. Even after an algorithm is chosen its performance is still uncertain because the landscape/scenarios represented in a point cloud have a strong influence on the eventual segmentation. Thus selecting an appropriate segmentation algorithm is a process of trial and error. Automating the selection of segmentation algorithms and their parameters first requires methods to evaluate segmentations. Three common approaches for evaluating segmentation algorithms are `goodness methods', `discrepancy methods' and `benchmarks'. Benchmarks are considered the most comprehensive method of evaluation. This paper shortcomings in current benchmark methods are identified and a framework is proposed that permits both a visual and numerical evaluation of segmentations for different algorithms, algorithm parameters and evaluation metrics. The concept of the framework is demonstrated on a real point cloud. Current results are promising and suggest that it can be used to predict the performance of segmentation algorithms.

  18. [Image segmentation in tongue characterization].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhong; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Yuanjie; Wang, Yiqin

    2005-12-01

    Tongue diagnosis is one of the essential methods of traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The accuracy of tongue diagnosis can be improved by tongue characterization. Tongue area segmentation and homogeneous regions segmentation in tongue are important contents of preprocess of tongue image. An algorithm based on edge detection and Gradient vector flow (GVF) active contour for tongue area segmentation and another algorithm based on unsupervised segmentation of color-texture for homogeneous regions segmentation in tongue were presented. Totally about 1500 tongue images were collected. Results of tongue area segmentation achieved accuracy rate of 94.3% and results of homogeneous regions segmentation in tongue were approved by traditional Chinese medical experts. The experiments results show robustness of the algorithms. This work establishes solid foundation for feature selecting of Tongue diagnosis. PMID:16422082

  19. Palatogingival Groove: Recognizing and Managing the Hidden Tract in a Maxillary Incisor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sarang; Deepak, Passi; Vivek, Sharma; Ranjan Dutta, Shubha

    2015-06-01

    Palatogingival grooves are developmental malformations quite notorious for precipitating endodontic - periodontal lesions. Owing to their inconspicuous occurrence, funnel-shaped morphology and variable extent on tooth root, they promote adherence of plaque and bacteria to levels significant for the development of pathology. Several treatment approaches have been recognized in literature for the management of this anomaly. Here in this report, a 25-year-old patient reported with the complaint of pain and swelling in maxillary right lateral incisor. Clinical examination confirmed an endodontic - periodontal lesion in relation to palatogingival groove. Endodontic treatment was instituted, followed by odontoplasty of the groove and restoration with newer calcium silicate cement, Biodentine. Combined endodontic - periodontal approach was successful in resolving the pathology with complete healing seen both clinically and radiographically. Timely diagnosis, prevention and management are highly recommended to prevent tooth loss due to complications arising secondary to their presence. PMID:26124612

  20. Penetrating maxillary sinus injury caused by a construction nail passing through the orbital cavity.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Tekin; Demir, Bulent; Yosma, Engin; Keles, Musa K; Abdullayev, Asef

    2014-03-01

    Because of its anatomic position, the orbit is frequently subject to trauma, leading to functional and cosmetic problems. After blunt trauma, orbital fractures can cause functional problems by trapping the periocular tissues without affecting the anatomic integrity of the globe. In comparison, high-energy penetrating injuries can cause serious consequences such as disrupting the lacrimal drainage system and causing loss of vision. In rare cases, however, penetration of the orbit by a foreign body can result in a treatable injury that causes no functional or cosmetic problems.This article presents a patient in whom a nail penetrated the orbit from the inferomedial margin and reached the maxillary sinus without damaging the globe, extraocular muscles, or lacrimal duct system. Reports of similar injuries are reviewed, focusing on the anatomic structures that might be traumatized, to guide the readers in considering the diagnosis and treatment of such injuries. PMID:24469378

  1. A Forgotten Technique for Replacement of Maxillary Anteriors and an associated Bony Defect: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Manoaharan, P S; Ali, S A Mohamed; Selvarangam, Suganya; Balaji, J; Ibthigar, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Fixed replacement of maxillary anterior teeth with an associated bony defect has challenged the restoring dentist with problems like weight of the prosthesis thereby leading to weakening of abutment teeth, difficulty in establishing smile line and mechanical stability. This article describes the management of a patient with such defect with a forgotten prosthesis - the Andrew bridge system, which has a fixed and a removable prosthetic component with retentive clips, which anchors on to a bar spanning the edentulous space. Andrew's bridge system has definite indications and offers immense advantages over the other prosthesis for rehabilitation of cases of such scenario. It addresses the problems aforementioned and provides the optimal retention, mechanical stability, esthetics and comfort to the patient. PMID:26028906

  2. Ultrasonic scaling of maxillary teeth causing tinnitus and temporary hearing shifts.

    PubMed

    Möller, P; Grevstad, A O; Kristoffersen, T

    1976-05-01

    The possible effects of ultrasonic scaling of all maxillary teeth for a total of 5 min on the inner ears of 20 healthy young adults, 22-36 years of age, were investigated by means of pure tone audiometry. Audiograms were obtained just before and immediatley after scaling. Temporary shifts in hearing threshold (TTS) of 10-20 dB, mostly at 7--8 kHz, ersisting for up to 30 min, were recorded in eight of the individuals. Three patients reported high-pitched tinnitus lasting for 20-30 min after ultrasonic scaling. When audiograms were obtained 3--5 weeks later in the same 20 individuals before and immediatley after they had kept their mouths open for 5 min, but with no scaling performed, TTS was recorded in three of the individuals. TTS after opening only was less pronounced than TTS after ultrasonic scaling, both with regard to severity and duration. PMID:777050

  3. DentaScan: a new diagnostic method for evaluating mandibular and maxillary pathology.

    PubMed

    King, J M; Caldarelli, D D; Petasnick, J P

    1992-04-01

    Although computerized tomography (CT) is valuable for evaluating head and neck pathology, it can be suboptimal when evaluating the presence or extent of mandibular and maxillary involvement by tumor, infection, or other pathology. The presence of dental restoration artifact, CT gantry positioning problems, and the inability to obtain cross-sectional images will diminish the accuracy of standard CT images. A program, termed either DentaScan or multiplanar reformation (CT/MPR), eliminates these problems by processing axial CT scan information to obtain true cross-sectional images and panoramic views of the mandible and maxilla. In this study, DentaScan imagery was used in 26 patients whose mandibles or maxillas were affected by tumor, osteomyelitis, or other pathology. CT scanning with multiplanar reformation proved useful in the precise location, assessment, monitoring, and treatment of various pathologies of the mandible and maxilla. Selected case studies illustrate the therapeutic implications and advantages of this new imaging technique. PMID:1556886

  4. A modified bone lid for osteoplastic surgery of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Katauczek, F; Nkenke, E; Wagner, F; Seemann, R

    2015-07-01

    Major problems associated with the use of a bone lid for osteoplastic surgery of the maxillary sinus, as first described by Lindorf, are the possibility of postoperative dislocation of the bony fragment into the sinus (floating bone), as well as inflammatory resorption or fracture of the very thin removed trap door fragment. We describe a technique that prevents dislocation of the bone lid and allows for very good visualization of the entire sinus by a simple extended design and the use of resorbable pins. With the use of this extended bone lid, the removal of severely dislocated teeth, implants, sinus pathologies, or foreign bodies can be performed easily. Furthermore, this is an advantageous approach for large orbital fractures, especially those of the posterior half. PMID:25702587

  5. A Review of Early Displaced Maxillary Canines: Etiology, Diagnosis and Interceptive Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George; Acar, Ahu

    2011-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem the treatment of which usually requires an interdisciplinary approach. Surgical exposure of the impacted tooth and the complex orthodontic mechanisms that are applied to align the tooth into the arch may lead to varying amounts of damage to the supporting structures of the tooth, not to mention the long treatment duration and the financial burden to the patient. Hence, it seems worthwhile to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, theories related with the etiology of impacted canines and predictive variables of canine impaction in the mixed dentition are reviewed with an insight into current interceptive treatment modalities. PMID:21566691

  6. Prosthetic management of an extensive maxillary alveolar defect with an implant-supported restoration.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Fariborz; Mosharraf, Ramin

    2013-05-01

    Despite the recent developments in peri-implant surgical regenerative procedures, re-establishing the hard and soft tissue contour is still a challenge in cases with severe ridge deficiency. It becomes more difficult when incorrectly placed implants cause screw connections to come out onto the labial surfaces of the teeth. A two-part maxillary implant supported fixed restoration was constructed. The first part was consisted of a screw retained sub-structure that replaced gingival portions of the deficient maxilla and the second part was a cement retained super-structure that reconstructed the anatomical crowns of the lost teeth. In this way awkwardly placed implants did not interfere with the desired esthetic result. Another great advantage was that the alterations or repairs on cemented crowns can easily be carried out without compromising the entire construction. PMID:25512753

  7. Mini-implant-borne Pendulum B appliance for maxillary molar distalisation: design and clinical procedure.

    PubMed

    Wilmes, Benedict; Katyal, Vandana; Drescher, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    A treatment objective of upper molar distalisation may often be required during the correction of a malocclusion. Distalisation is not only indicated for the management of Class II patients, but also for Class III surgery patients who require decompensation in the upper arch if upper incisor retrusion is needed. Unfortunately, most conventional intra-oral devices for non-compliance maxillary molar distalisation experience anchorage loss. A Pendulum type of appliance and a mini-implant-borne distalisation mechanism have been designed which can be inserted at chair-side, without a prior laboratory procedure and immediately after mini-implant placement. For re-activation purposes, a distal screw may be added to the Pendulum B appliance. PMID:25549527

  8. Maxillary first molar with seven root canals diagnosed with cone-beam computed tomography scanning.

    PubMed

    Munavalli, Anil; Kambale, Sharnappa; Bandekar, Siddhesh; Ajgaonkar, Nishant

    2015-01-01

    Nonsurgical endodontic therapy of a right maxillary first molar with three roots and seven root canals. This unusual morphology was diagnosed using a dental operating microscope (DOM) and confirmed with the help of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. CBCT axial images showed that both the palatal and distobuccal root have a Vertucci type II canal pattern, whereas the mesiobuccal root showed a Sert and Bayirli type XVIII canal configuration. The use of a DOM and CBCT imaging in endodontically challenging cases can facilitate a better understanding of the complex root canal anatomy, which ultimately enables the clinician to explore the root canal system and clean, shape, and obturate it more efficiently. PMID:25961622

  9. Brown tumor of the maxillary sinus in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Brown tumors are rare focal giant-cell lesions that arise as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs, and pelvic bones. Therefore, diagnosis requires a systemic investigation for lesion differentiation. Case presentation We present a 42-year-old Greek woman, with a rare case of brown tumor of the maxillary sinus due to primary hyperparathyroidism. Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by a solitary adenoma in 80% of cases and by glandular hyperplasia in 20%. Conclusions Differential diagnosis is important for the right treatment choice. It should exclude other giant cell lesions that affect the maxillae. PMID:19830212

  10. Corono-radicular biological restoration of maxillary central incisors by direct method

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sonia; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Pandharkar, Kartik

    2014-01-01

    This case report refers to the esthetic and functional restorations of extensively damaged maxillary central incisors with dental caries in a 32-year-old woman, with the use of posts and crowns made from natural extracted teeth. Proper restoration of such teeth with the use of natural teeth fragments are known as “biological restoration.” Biological restorations can be done by using the fragments of the patients own tooth and if that is not available, tooth fragment can be obtained from an extracted tooth. These biological posts and crowns present a low cost option and an alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged teeth. There are limitations with the use of natural extracted teeth (homogenous bonding) for restoration such as the difficulty of finding teeth with a similar color and shape as that of the destroyed element, or patient may refuse to accept a tooth fragment from another patient, which prevents execution of the restoration. PMID:25540666

  11. Prosthetic Management of an Extensive Maxillary Alveolar Defect with an Implant-Supported Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Fariborz; Mosharraf, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent developments in peri-implant surgical regenerative procedures, re-establishing the hard and soft tissue contour is still a challenge in cases with severe ridge deficiency. It becomes more difficult when incorrectly placed implants cause screw connections to come out onto the labial surfaces of the teeth. A two-part maxillary implant supported fixed restoration was constructed. The first part was consisted of a screw retained sub-structure that replaced gingival portions of the deficient maxilla and the second part was a cement retained super-structure that reconstructed the anatomical crowns of the lost teeth. In this way awkwardly placed implants did not interfere with the desired esthetic result. Another great advantage was that the alterations or repairs on cemented crowns can easily be carried out without compromising the entire construction. PMID:25512753

  12. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus type II: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shadmehr, Elham; Kiaani, Sima; Mahdavian, Parinaz

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental anomaly of teeth with complex root canal system morphology. The present case describes a peg shape maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus (Oehlers type II), necrotic pulp, and an associated large periradicular lesion. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed with the aim of removing the blind sac with diamond bur under the use of operating surgical microscope. The root canal system was obturated with thermoplastic technique. Final restoration was done using composite. The 20-months clinical and radiological follow up revealed an asymptomatic tooth with healing of the periapical pathology; however, for complete healed periradicular lesion more follow up is needed. This case illustrated that a dens invaginatus malformed teeth with a large periradicular lesion can be managed successfully with nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT). PMID:25878686

  13. Effect of non-surgical maxillary expansion on the nasal septum deviation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Tehnia; Ansari, Kal; Lagravere, Manuel O; Major, Michael P; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Nasal breathing is a requirement for proper growth and development of the craniofacial complex. Inadequacy of the nasal airway from obstruction such as from nasal septal deviation (NSD) can affect craniofacial development. Further investigation of the possibility of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) correcting NSD would be valuable, considering the undesirable sequelae of NSD on nasal breathing, which can consequently affect craniofacial development. A systematic review of the effect of RME treatment on NSD was conducted. Electronic database searches were conducted until April 2015 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCTR), Cochrane Methodology Register (CMR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), American College of Physicians Journal Club (ACP Journal Club), Health Technology Assessments (HTA), and NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED). MeSH terms used in database searches were 'nasal septum,' 'palatal expansion,' and 'maxillary expansion,' 'orthodontic device,' and 'palatal expansion technique.' The methodological quality of studies was reviewed using methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS). Only two studies were finally selected and reviewed. Both studies had significant methodological limitations. One study reported a significant straightening of the nasal septum in the middle and the inferior third of nasal cavity from RME in children aged 5 to 9 years. The other study reported no positional change in the nasal septum from RME in adolescent orthodontic patients. Thus far, the limited available (moderate risk of bias) evidence suggests a potentially positive effect on the nasal septum asymmetry during childhood, but no significant change in adolescence from RME in patients with NSD. The clinical significance of reported changes could be considered questionable. PMID:26061988

  14. A comparative study of different intrusion methods and their effect on maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Prachi; Tandon, Ragni; Agrawal, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate and compare the rate of intrusion and root resorption of maxillary incisors by three different intrusion techniques: Rickett's utility arch, Kalra's Simultaneous Intrusion & Retraction arch and arch with Reverse Curve of Spee. Methods The study was conducted over 30 patients aged between 14 and 25 yrs with deep bite requiring at least 2–4 mm intrusion of maxillary incisors. These patients were equally divided into three groups based on intrusion technique used, Rickets utility arch (Group I), K-SIR arch (Group II) and RCS arch (Group III). For each patient, amount of intrusion and root resorption occurring during intrusion was measured. Seven angular and six linear cephalometric measurements were made to evaluate skeletal and dental changes before and after incisor intrusion. Results The mean true incisor intrusion achieved with utility arch was 1.6 mm, with K-SIR, 1.25 mm and with RCS, 0.70 mm respectively. The rate of intrusion of utility arch was 0.44 mm/month, K-SIR – 0.33 mm/month, RCS – 0.35 mm/month, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.451). Utility arch had significantly higher mean root resorption of 1.56 mm as compared to K-SIR of 1.08 mm and RCS of 0.96 mm. Conclusion Both the intrusion rate and root resorption is more by utility arch while with K-SIR arch, though the rate of intrusion is almost same; the root resorption is much less. PMID:25737942

  15. NOTE: Reducing the number of segments in unidirectional MLC segmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellado, X.; Cruz, S.; Artacho, J. M.; Canellas, M.

    2010-02-01

    In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), fluence matrices obtained from a treatment planning system are usually delivered by a linear accelerator equipped with a multileaf collimator (MLC). A segmentation method is needed for decomposing these fluence matrices into segments suitable for the MLC, and the number of segments used is an important factor for treatment time. In this work, an algorithm for reduction of the number of segments (NS) is presented for unidirectional segmentations, where there is no backtracking of the MLC leaves. It uses a geometrical representation of the segmentation output for searching the key values in a fluence matrix that complicate its decomposition. The NS reduction is achieved by performing minor modifications in these values, under the conditions of avoiding substantial modifications of the dose-volume histogram, and does not increase in average the total number of monitor units delivered. The proposed method was tested using two clinical cases planned with the PCRT 3D® treatment planning system.

  16. DIFFRACTION IN OWL: EFFECTS OF SEGMENTATION AND SEGMENTS EDGE MISFIGURE

    E-print Network

    Liske, Jochen

    of brightness to their parent star of ~10-9 . Moreover, while for a 1.5m flat-to-flat hexagonal segment and a wavelength of 0.5µm the first peak occurs at 0.08 from the central peak, Earth-like planets are expected, which for hexagonal segments is 23 2 d . A flat-to-flat width d of an ideal segment coincides

  17. Segmentation of Unstructured Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Smitha

    1996-01-01

    Datasets generated by computer simulations and experiments in Computational Fluid Dynamics tend to be extremely large and complex. It is difficult to visualize these datasets using standard techniques like Volume Rendering and Ray Casting. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This thesis explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and from Finite Element Analysis.

  18. Processing Spatial-Temporal Information in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia: The Study of Short-Term Memory and Its Susceptibility to Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cellard, Caroline; Tremblay, Sebastien; Lehoux, Catherine; Roy, Marc-Andre

    2007-01-01

    Memory impairment is a core feature in schizophrenia (SZ). The aim of this study was to investigate short-term memory (STM) and its sensitivity to distraction with visual-spatial material. This study comprised 23 recent-onset SZ patients and 23 healthy controls. The degree of disruption upon recall from interleaving irrelevant items within a…

  19. Post-surgical lumbar spine pain treated with Cox flexion-distraction manipulation: A retrospective chart review in a private practice setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Kruse; Jerrilyn A. Cambron

    Objective: Although chiropractic manipulation is commonly utilized for low back pain, applying this procedure to the post lumbar spine surgery patient has not been adequately studied. The purpose of this retrospective chart review is to report on the results of chiropractic management (including Cox flexion distraction technique) of patients with post-surgical lumbar spine pain to determine the change in reported

  20. D-amphetamine depresses visual responses in the rat superior colliculus: a possible mechanism for amphetamine-induced decreases in distractibility.

    PubMed

    Gowan, J D; Coizet, V; Devonshire, I M; Overton, P G

    2008-01-01

    Amphetamines can enhance sustained attention, and reduce distractibility, in normal subjects and patients with attentional-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Their mechanism of action in this regard is unknown, however one possibility is that the drugs affect the superior colliculus (SC), a structure with a clearly defined role in distractibility. The aim of the present studies was to explore the effect of systemically and locally administered d-amphetamine on visual responses in the superficial layers of the SC to wholefield light flashes in the rat, using local field potential and multi-unit recording. Systemic and intra-collicular d-amphetamine both produced a dose-related depression of visual activity, which sometimes progressed to inactivation of the multi-unit response at the highest dose. As a consequence, it is possible that amphetamines enhance sustained attention, and reduce distractibility, via an action on the colliculus. A corollary of this is that collicular dysfunction may underlie enhanced distractibility in ADHD. PMID:18301956