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1

Segmental maxillary distraction with a novel device for closure of a wide alveolar cleft.  

PubMed

Treatment of a wide alveolar cleft with initial application of segmental distraction osteogenesis is reported, in order to minimise cleft size prior to secondary alveolar bone grafting. The lesser maxillary segment was mobilised with osteotomy at Le Fort I level and, a novel distractor, facilitated horizontal movement of the dental/alveolar segment along the curvature of the maxillary dental arch. Following a latency period of 4 days distraction was applied for 7 days at a rate of 0.5 mm twice daily. Radiographic, ultrasonographic and clinical assessment revealed new bone and soft tissue formation 8 weeks after completion of the distraction phase. Overall the maxillary segment did move minimising the width of the cleft, which allowed successful closure with a secondary alveolar bone graft. PMID:24987601

Bousdras, Vasilios A; Liyanage, Chandra; Mars, Michael; Ayliffe, Peter R

2014-01-01

2

Five years experience with a new intraoral maxillary distraction device (RID).  

PubMed

Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is well established for the treatment of severe retromaxilla. We report our experience since 2004 of the treatment of 19 patients using a new intraoral maxillary distraction device. Maxillary advancement was successful in all patients with mean advancement of 9.6mm (range 4-17) measured at a point in lateral cephalograms. The new device limited surgical exposure and the amount of materials implanted, and improved control in every phase of the distraction. It was psychologically accepted by patients and was more comfortable than existing devices. PMID:21145630

Picard, Arnaud; Diner, Patrick A; Galliani, Eva; Tomat, Catherine; Vazquez, Ma rie Paule; Carls, Friedrich P

2011-10-01

3

Three-dimensional evaluation of nasal and pharyngeal airway after Le Fort I maxillary distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate volumetric changes in the nasal cavity (NC) and pharyngeal airway space (PAS) after Le Fort I maxillary distraction osteogenesis (MDO) using a three-dimensional (3D) simulation program, and to determine the effects of MDO on respiratory function during sleep with polysomnography (PSG). 3D computed tomography images were obtained and analyzed before surgery (T0) and at a mean 8.2±1.2 months postsurgery (T1) (SimPlant-OMS software) for 11 male patients (mean age 25.3±5.9 years) with severe skeletal class III anomalies related to maxillary retrognathia. The simulation of osteotomies and placement of distractors were performed on stereolithographic 3D models. NC and PAS were segmented separately on these models for comparison of changes between T0 and T1. PSG including the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), sleep efficiency, sleep stages (weakness, stages 1-4, and rapid eye movement (REM)), and mean lowest arterial O2 saturation were obtained at T0 and T1 to investigate changes in respiratory function during sleep. MDO was successful in all cases as planned on the models; the average forward movement at A point was 10.2mm. Increases in NC and PAS volume after MDO were statistically significant. These increases resulted in significant improvement in sleep quality. PSG parameters changed after MDO; AHI and sleep stages weakness, 1, and 2 decreased, whereas REM, stages 3 and 4, sleep efficiency, and mean O2 saturation increased. PMID:25475850

Gokce, S M; Gorgulu, S; Karacayli, U; Gokce, H S; Battal, B

2015-04-01

4

Biomechanical comparison of two intraoperative mobilization techniques for maxillary distraction osteogenesis: Down-fracture versus non-down-fracture  

PubMed Central

Purposes: The purpose of this study was to compare the distraction forces and the biomechanical effects between two different intraoperative surgical procedures (down-fracture [DF] and non-DF [NDF]) for maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Materials and Methods: Eight patients were assigned into two groups according to the surgical procedure: DF, n = 6 versus NDF, n = 2. Lateral cephalograms taken preoperatively (T1), immediately after removal of the distraction device (T2), and after at least a 6 months follow-up period (T3) were analyzed. Assessment of distraction forces was performed during the distraction period. The Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare the difference in the amount of advancement, the maximum distraction force and the amount of relapse. Results: Although a significantly greater amount of maxillary movement was observed in the DF group (median 9.5 mm; minimum-maximum 7.9-14.1 mm) than in the NDF group (median 5.9 mm; minimum-maximum 4.4-7.6 mm), significantly lower maximum distraction forces were observed in the DF (median 16.4 N; minimum-maximum 15.1-24.6 N) than in the NDF (median 32.9 N; minimum-maximum 27.6-38.2 N) group. A significantly greater amount of dental anchorage loss was observed in the NDF group. Moreover, the amount of relapse observed in the NDF group was approximately 3.5 times greater than in the DF group. Conclusions: In this study, it seemed that, the use of the NDF procedure resulted in lower levels of maxillary mobility at the time of the maxillary distraction, consequently requiring greater amounts of force to advance the maxillary bone. Moreover, it also resulted in a reduced amount of maxillary movement, a greater amount of dental anchorage loss and poor treatment stability. PMID:25593865

Yang, Lili; Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Suzuki, Boonsiva

2014-01-01

5

Complications in maxillary distraction using the RED II device: a retrospective analysis of 21 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rigid external distraction osteogenesis (DO) in the treatment of midface hypoplasia has been shown to be effective and safe, but there have been several case reports on complications. Here is presented an overview of the complications in a series of 21 patients with various craniofacial anomalies. All patients were treated using the rigid external distraction II (RED II) device after

E. Nout; E. B. Wolvius; L. N. A. van Adrichem; E. M. Ongkosuwito; K. G. H. van der Wal

2006-01-01

6

Complications in maxillary distraction using the RED II device: a retrospective analysis of 21 patients.  

PubMed

Rigid external distraction osteogenesis (DO) in the treatment of midface hypoplasia has been shown to be effective and safe, but there have been several case reports on complications. Here is presented an overview of the complications in a series of 21 patients with various craniofacial anomalies. All patients were treated using the rigid external distraction II (RED II) device after Le Fort I or III osteotomy. Distraction started 1 week postoperatively and continued until Class I occlusion was achieved; it was then continued to include a 15% overcorrection. All data were collected and categorized retrospectively from the patients' files. After a mean period of distraction of 34 days, 42 complications were reported in six different categories. Pin loosening (42.9%) and frame migrations (28.6%) were the most common complications. Of the frame migrations 25% were traumatic. Intracranial penetration of one fixation pin occurred during removal of the RED II device in one patient. From these results it can be deduced that application of the RED II device is associated with a substantial number of specific complications that mainly concern the pins of the halo-frame. The stability of the device is discussed as the distraction distance achieved was less than expected. PMID:17008053

Nout, E; Wolvius, E B; van Adrichem, L N A; Ongkosuwito, E M; van der Wal, K G H

2006-10-01

7

Combined use of alveolar distraction osteogenesis and segmental osteotomy in anterior vertical ridge augmentation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vertical defects of the anterioral veolar ridge are challenging cases in implant dentistry. Various techniques, such as onlay bone grafting, segmental osteotomy (SO) oral veolar distraction osteogenesis (ADO), have been suggested to manage those situations. ADO has an advantage of being capable of enhancing both hard and soft tissue simultaneously. Presentation of case One of the possible complications of ADO is rotation ortilting the transport segment (TS). In this report, we present a 30-year old woman who had a severe anterior vertical deficiency. ADO was started to manage the case, but advancement of the TS lagged on the left side and the segment rotated. A SO was planned and the lagged side was corrected. Two years after the surgery, hard and soft tissue gains were found to be preserved. Discussion Vertical alveolar bone deficiencies are challenging cases for dental implantology. Alveolar DO promotes soft tissue along with hard tissue, and the bone regeneration process and shows lower infection rates and greater stability over the long term. However, the technique has some disadvantages and can lead to complications, such as breaking of the distraction device, nerve injury or paresthesia, fracture of transport bone, hematoma, wound dehiscence, severe bleeding, and even jaw fractures. Deviation of the TS from the distraction path is another undesired situation. The rigidity of the device, the width of the mucosa, the volume of the transport and anchor segments, and the amount of augmentation can affect vector deviation. Conclusion We suggest that SO can be used in similar cases in which TS could not be distracted on a straight vector line. PMID:25661636

Öncü, Elif; Isik, Kubilay; Alaaddino?lu, E. Emine; Uçkan, Sina

2015-01-01

8

Growth factor modulation of distraction osteogenesis in a segmental defect model.  

PubMed

A model was established in 39 dogs to investigate the growth factor modulation of regenerate bone in distraction osteogenesis. A segment of the diaphysis of the radius was resected unilaterally. An osteotomy was made proximal to the segmental defect to create a transport segment. A monolateral external fixator was applied. After a latency period, the segment was transported across the defect. One week after the transport assembly contacted the distal pin clamp, an ipsilateral osteotomy of the proximal ulna was performed. In 20 dogs, transforming growth factor-beta was injected into the regenerate bone halfway through the transport period. Four dogs were sacrificed before docking, when the regenerate bone was still immature. In specimens harvested halfway through the transport period, evidence was found of intramembranous ossification during distraction. In specimens harvested after the transport assembly contacted the distal pin clamp, evidence was found that the mature regenerate formed by endochondral ossification. Therefore, a combined mechanism of ossification is proposed for this segmental defect model that includes mechanical stimulus for bone differentiation. The one-time administration of transforming growth factor-beta retarded the formation of a stable, united regenerate. It is concluded that transforming growth factor-beta caused an effect opposite to that which was desired. PMID:11127665

Sciadini, M F; Dawson, J M; Banit, D; Juliao, S F; Johnson, K D; Lennington, W J; Schwartz, H S

2000-12-01

9

Segmental mandibular reconstruction by microincremental automatic distraction osteogenesis: an animal study.  

PubMed

We investigated the reconstruction of a surgically created critical size mandibular defect in sheep using a newly developed automatic distraction device. The device has an implantable component, which is fixed to the mandible to allow the transfer of the transport disc across the created defect, and an external component which is mounted on the activation pump and secured away from the site of bone distraction. Compression of the bellows in the external component causes fluid to be forced through the connecting tube into the distraction component. Distraction at a rate of 1 mm over 24 h was achieved in six sheep. New bone generated at the site of the created defects both anterior (compression side) and posterior (tension side) to the transport disc and had similar radiodensity to the adjacent mandibular bone eight weeks after the completion of distraction. PMID:11601816

Ayoub, A F; Richardson, W; Koppel, D; Thompson, H; Lucas, M; Schwarz, T; Smith, L; Boyd, J

2001-10-01

10

Adult patient with hemifacial microsomia treated with combined orthodontics and distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis is an alternative treatment option for patients with facial asymmetry and mandibular hypoplasia. New bone is formed between bone segment surfaces that are gradually separated by incremental traction. The purpose of this article is to report the treatment of a 22-year-old man with hemifacial microsomia, facial asymmetry, and a skeletal Class II profile. The patient's left mandibular ramus was lengthened with distraction osteogenesis, and miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion was used to correct the maxillary transverse deficiency. Postoperative orthodontic treatment achieved tooth alignment and closure of the posterior open bite. The total treatment period was 27 months. These therapeutic treatments improved the patient's facial appearance. PMID:24373657

Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Da-Young; Hwang, Chung-Ju

2014-01-01

11

Premaxillary Distraction Osteogenesis Using an Intraoral Appliance for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: Case Report.  

PubMed

Objective :? Premaxillary distraction osteogenesis was introduced using intraoral devices to correct maxillary hypoplasia and lengthen the alveolar bone horizontally in a patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Methods :? For premaxillary distraction osteogenesis, Le Fort I osteotomy was performed. Vertical osteotomy lines were located distally of the upper right canine and left first premolar to separate the anterior segment of the maxilla. After a 7-day latency period, distraction was allowed to continue for 20 days at a rate of 0.5 mm/day, followed by a 3-month consolidation period. After consolidation, orthodontic treatment and bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy were performed for the mandibular setback. The implant and prosthodontic treatments were applied to the alveolar ridge area created by the distraction osteogenesis. Results :? The A-point moved 8.0 mm forward during the distraction osteogenesis period, and the recurrence rate was 25% after the retention period. The transverse dimension of the upper arch was expanded during orthodontic treatment. The quality of the alveolar bone created by distraction osteogenesis was acceptable for the prosthodontic implant. Conclusions :? Premaxillary distraction osteogenesis and arch expansion is an effective treatment strategy, improving function, aesthetics, and stability for cleft patients with multiple missing teeth. PMID:25275540

Terbish, Munkhdulam; Choi, Hye-Young; Park, Young-Chel; Yi, Choong Kook; Cha, Jung-Yul

2014-10-01

12

Adjacent segment degeneration after single-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion: Disc space distraction and its impact on clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to find whether excessive distraction of the disc space for cage insertion was a risk factor for adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). One hundred and sixteen consecutive patients who underwent ACDF for single-level cervical disc herniation between June 2006 and November 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative, postoperative and final follow-up disc height (DH), sagittal segmental alignment (SSA), and sagittal alignment of the cervical spine (SACS) were measured and compared between the ASD group and non-ASD group. In 116 patients, ASD was radiographically proven in 28 (24.1%) patients. The clinical outcomes were significantly improved compared to the preoperative scores in both groups. However, the postoperative and final follow-up DH of the ASD group were significantly higher than in the non-ASD group (p<0.05). In addition, the postoperative DH was significantly correlated with the postoperative or final follow-up SSA (p<0.05). However, postoperative DH was not found to significantly correlate with postoperative or final follow-up SACS (p=0.072 and p=0.096, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that postoperative DH was the most significant risk factor for ASD. The clinical outcomes of ACDF for single-level degenerative cervical disc disease were satisfactory. Postoperative DH (the distracted distance) had the greatest impact on the incidence of ASD. Excessive disc space distraction is a considerable risk factor for the development of radiographic ASD. PMID:25487176

Li, Jia; Li, Yongqian; Kong, Fanlong; Zhang, Di; Zhang, Yingze; Shen, Yong

2015-03-01

13

[Bone distraction osteogenesis].  

PubMed

Bone osteogenesis has been used by many surgeons to compensate dissymmetry due to congenital malformations, diseases or traumas. Bone distraction is the process of generating new bone in a gap between two bone segments in response to the application of graduated tensile stress across the bone gap. Different types of distraction are actually proposed to be an alternative to facial osteotomies or bone grafting techniques. Distraction can be unilateral, bilateral and correct the deficiencies in one, two or three dimensions. The advantages of the distraction osteogenesis are the possibilities to obtain bone lengthening together with simultaneous expansion of the functional soft tissue matrix including skin, muscles, nerves, cartilage, blood vessels and periosteum. Distractors are internal or external devices made of pins or miniplates fixed on the bone and connected by lengthening--screw--systems allowing elongation. PMID:12649984

Malevez, Ch; Dujardin, Th; Glorieux, V; Swennen, G; Schutyser, F; Van Cleynenbreugel, J

2002-01-01

14

Improvement in chronic low back pain in an aviation crash survivor with adjacent segment disease following flexion distraction therapy: a case study  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case study is to describe the chiropractic management of chronic low back pain in a patient with adjacent segment disease. Clinical Features The patient was a 30-year-old man with a 3-year history of chronic nonspecific low back pain following a lumbar disk herniation. Two years before this incident, he had severe lumbar fractures and cauda equina injury due to an aviation accident that required multilevel lumbar fusion surgery, vertebrectomy, and cage reconstruction. Intervention and Outcome The patient received chiropractic management using Cox Flexion Distraction over a 4-week period. A complete reduction of symptoms to 0/10 on a verbal numerical rating scale was achieved within 4 weeks. At 3 months, the patient was able to work 8 to 9 hours per day in his dental practice with no pain. At 9 months, the patient continued to report a complete reduction of symptoms. Conclusions This report describes the successful management of a patient with chronic low back pain associated with adjacent segment disease using Cox Flexion Distraction protocols. PMID:23843764

Greenwood, Dean M.

2012-01-01

15

Distracted Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... Some activities—such as texting—take the driver’s attention away from driving more frequently and for longer periods than other distractions. 4 Younger, inexperienced drivers under the age of 20 may be at increased risk; they have the highest proportion of distraction- ...

16

Distraction Arthroplasty  

MedlinePLUS

Injections and other Procedures Treatments of the Ankle Treatments of the Big Toe Treatments of the Heel Treatments of the Midfoot Treatments of the Smaller Toes AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Distraction Arthroplasty ...

17

Deadly distractions.  

PubMed

In 2011, the National Transportation Safety Board urged all states to ban the use of portable electronic devices while driving, including hand-held and hands-free devices. Texting while driving concerns several Texas legislators, who have filed bills, backed by the Texas Medical Association, to ban the practice. TMA physicians recognize that the use of hand-held and hands-free devices and other factors associated with distracted driving affect their patients' safety. PMID:23546834

Zuzek, Crystal

2013-04-01

18

What Is distracted driving?  

MedlinePLUS

... distractions endanger driver, passenger, and bystander safety. These types of distractions include: Texting Using a cell phone or smartphone Eating and drinking Talking to passengers Grooming Reading, ...

19

Distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

James Sidman, MD, and Sherard A. Tatum, MD, address the following questions for discussion and debate. Is neonatal distraction osteogenesis (DO) better than lip-tongue adhesion or tracheotomy for micrognathic airway compromise? What role does DO have in adult orthognathic surgery situations? In monobloc and Le Fort III procedures, are internal or external devices preferable? What role does DO play in craniofacial microsomia? Is endoscopic DO better than open procedures for synostosis management? How has your technique changed or evolved over the past 5 years and what has doing this technique taught you? PMID:24290998

Sidman, James; Tatum, Sherard Austin

2014-02-01

20

Distraction osteogenesis and orthognathic surgery for a patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate.  

PubMed

Maxillary deficiency is a common feature in patients with repaired cleft lip and palate. Orthognathic surgery has been the conventional approach for the management of cleft-related maxillary hypoplasia. However, for patients with a severe maxillary deficiency, orthognathic surgery alone has many disadvantages, such as high relapse rates of 25% to 40%, instability, limited amount of advancement, and a highly invasive surgical technique. As an alternative treatment method, distraction osteogenesis has been used successfully in the distraction of the mandible, the maxilla, the entire midface, and the orbits as well as the cranial bones, with stable outcomes. The type of distraction device, either external or internal, can be chosen based on the surgical goals set for the patient. In this study, we report on the use of a rigid external distraction device for maxillary advancement in a 22-year-old woman with a repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate and severe maxillary hypoplasia. After the distraction osteogenesis, 2-jaw surgery was performed to correct the maxillary yaw deviation and the mandibular prognathism. PMID:25726406

Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Il Hong; Lee, Sang Min; Yang, Byoung Eun; Park, In Young

2015-03-01

21

Distraction by deviance.  

PubMed

We report the results of oddball experiments in which an irrelevant stimulus (standard, deviant) was presented before a target stimulus and the modality of these stimuli was manipulated orthogonally (visual/auditory). Experiment 1 showed that auditory deviants yielded distraction irrespective of the target's modality while visual deviants did not impact on performance. When participants were forced to attend the distractors in order to detect a rare target ("target-distractor"), auditory deviants yielded distraction irrespective of the target's modality and visual deviants yielded a small distraction effect when targets were auditory (Experiments 2 & 3). Visual deviants only produced distraction for visual targets when deviant stimuli were not visually distinct from the other distractors (Experiment 4). Our results indicate that while auditory deviants yield distraction irrespective of the targets' modality, visual deviants only do so when attended and under selective conditions, at least when irrelevant and target stimuli are temporally and perceptually decoupled. PMID:25270560

Leiva, Alicia; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Andrés, Pilar

2015-01-01

22

Distracted driving: prevalence, problems, and prevention.  

PubMed

While the number of motor vehicle crashes has declined over the years, crashes resulting from distracted driving are increasing in the United States resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The national public seems to be aware of the dangers associated with using technology while driving, but continues to engage in this dangerous behaviour, and may be unaware of or underestimate the impact of cell phone use on their own driving performance. Problems associated with distracted driving are not limited to novice or teenage drivers; multifaceted universal prevention efforts aimed at impacting large segments of the population may have the greatest impact. Legislation limiting drivers' cell phone use has had little impact, possibly due to low regulation and enforcement. Behaviour change programmes, improved vehicle safety, and public awareness campaigns have been developed as potential preventive efforts to reduce accidents caused by distracted drivers. PMID:24499372

Overton, Tiffany L; Rives, Terry E; Hecht, Carrie; Shafi, Shahid; Gandhi, Rajesh R

2014-02-01

23

Bilateral Alveolar Distraction for Large Alveolar Defects: Case Report.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis has become a very popular technique, as the ability to reconstruct combined deficiencies in bone and soft tissue makes this process unique and invaluable to all types of reconstructive surgeons. We document a case in which an intraoral tooth-borne distractor was designed and segmental alveolar distraction was performed in a large alveolar defect in a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Cosmetic dentistry was performed to attain a pleasing result. This article aims at highlighting the use of distraction in large defects in which bone grafting only is not a suitable procedure. PMID:25279587

Aravindaksha, Shyam Prasad; Batra, Puneet; Sadhu, Partha

2014-10-01

24

Electronic gaming as pain distraction.  

PubMed

The current study investigated whether active distraction reduces participants' experience of pain more than passive distraction during a cold pressor task. In the first experiment, 60 participants were asked to submerge their hand in cold (2°C) water for as long as they could tolerate. They did this with no distraction, and then with active (electronic gaming system) and passive (television) distraction, in randomly assigned order. Tolerance time, pain intensity ratings and task absorption ratings were measured for each condition. A second experiment attempted to control for participants' expectations about the effects of distraction on pain. Forty participants underwent the same experimental procedure, but were given verbal suggestions about the effects of distraction by the experimenter before each distraction condition. Participants in both experiments had a significantly higher pain tolerance and reported less pain with the active distraction compared with passive or no distraction. Participants reported being more absorbed, and were significantly more willing to do the task again when they had the active distraction compared with both passive distraction and no distraction. They also had more enjoyment, less anxiety and greater reduction in pain with active distraction than with passive distraction. There was no effect of suggestion. These experiments offer further support for the use of electronic games as a method of pain control. PMID:21369538

Jameson, Eleanor; Trevena, Judy; Swain, Nic

2011-01-01

25

Maxillary Air Cyst  

PubMed Central

Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options. PMID:24421932

Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

2013-01-01

26

Neonatal mandibular distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Mandibular distraction has revolutionized the treatment of Robin sequence associated with severe airway obstruction. The distraction technique remains the only intervention that directly corrects mandibular hypoplasia and the retropositioned tongue, providing efficient relief of airway stenosis. Multiple studies have demonstrated the efficacy of distraction in avoiding tracheostomy and decreasing the severity airway obstruction in this patient population. The benefit to avoiding tracheostomy and relieving airway obstruction is superior to that of tongue-lip adhesion. It is, therefore, not surprising that mandibular distraction has become the first-line intervention at many centers for the surgical treatment of Robin sequence. The complication profile associated with mandibular distraction appears low; the most common complication is infection, which can be treated by antibiotics alone. The severity of airway obstruction can be quantified by polysomnogram: This tool has become one of the most widely used objective metrics in the Robin sequence population. Therefore indications for surgery, timing of palatoplasty and long-term assessment of airway function should be performed in conjunction with sleep study analysis. The effects of mandibular lengthening on feeding difficulty in Robin sequence patient remains a topic of controversy. Studies have demonstrated conflicting results: This can be an area of future study. Agreed-upon indications for surgery and definitive protocols of care have yet to be formulized; future research should focus on achieving these goals. Such studies would require agreed-upon terminology for Robin sequence, an increase in comparative and prospective analysis, and the use of quantifiable metrics of clinical results. PMID:25383055

Flores, Roberto L

2014-11-01

27

Bilateral Maxillary Sinus Hypoplasia  

PubMed Central

Maxillary sinus hypoplasia (MSH) is an uncommon abnormality of paranasal sinuses noted in clinical practice. Computed tomography (CT) scan helps in diagnosing the anomaly along with any anatomical variation that may be associated with it. MSH is usually associated with other anomalies like uncinate process hypoplasia. Three types of MSH have been described. Type 1 MSH shows mild maxillary sinus hypoplasia, type 2 shows significant sinus hypoplasia with narrowed infundibular passage and hypoplastic or absent uncinate process, and type 3 is cleft like maxillary sinus hypoplasia with absent uncinate process. CT and endoscopic examination usually complement each other in diagnosing MSH. PMID:25548709

Khanduri, Sachin; Agrawal, Sumit; Goyal, Swati

2014-01-01

28

A customized distraction device for alveolar ridge augmentation and alignment of ankylosed teeth.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop an extraosseous, tooth-supported miniature intraoral device that could produce prosthetically driven bone distraction of small atrophic alveolar ridge segments. Extraosseous distraction requires that the distraction device be anchored to a dental implant previously placed into the ridge according to its anatomic axis. A distractor can also correct the position of implants placed in young patients before skeletal growth is completed. Similarly, it allows the alignment of ankylosed teeth not treatable by orthodontics. The device is made of (1) an engine consisting of an orthodontic micrometric screw; (2) a joint between the implant and the engine, ie, the ball attachment/o-ring system; and (3) an anchorage system to the oral cavity provided by an orthodontic appliance and a mini-implant for possible additional support. Surgery involves an osteotomy of the atrophic alveolar ridge segment, incorporating the implant, from the basal bone; afterward the device can be applied and distraction of the segment can be carried out. Distraction was successfully performed in 3 clinical cases: 2 bone-implant segments and 1 bone-ankylosed tooth segment. All cases were clinically uneventful. This mini-device for osteogenic distraction of small atrophic ridge segments can provide for accurate and precise ridge augmentation, as is required for ideal prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:14982366

Nocini, Pier Francesco; De Santis, Daniele; Ferrari, Francesca; Bertele, Gian Paolo

2004-01-01

29

Neural Basis of Visual Distraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to maintain focus and avoid distraction by goal-irrelevant stimuli is critical for performing many tasks and may be a key deficit in attention-related problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that irrelevant stimuli that are consciously perceived may be filtered out on a neural level and not cause the distraction triggered by…

Kim, So-Yeon; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

2010-01-01

30

Segments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a market taxonomy for higher education, including what it reveals about the structure of the market, the model's technical attributes, and its capacity to explain pricing behavior. Details the identification of the principle seams separating one market segment from another and how student aspirations help to organize the market, making…

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

2001-01-01

31

Get the message: distracted driving and teens.  

PubMed

Distracted driving is a growing problem in the United States. With the integration of wireless devices into everyday life, cell phone use behind the wheel is a distraction requiring increasing concern. Teen drivers are most susceptible to the dangers of distracted driving as made evident in the overrepresentation of teens in distraction-related motor vehicle crashes. This article describes the causes, consequences, and statistics related to distracted driving in teenagers and an injury prevention program for teenagers. PMID:24005117

Adeola, Ruth; Gibbons, Mallory

2013-01-01

32

Context effects on auditory distraction  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.

2014-01-01

33

Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... these distracting practices are especially risky for novice drivers, who haven’t developed sound safety judgment behind the ... Risk Motor Vehicle Occupant Protection: Facts About Young Adults Ages 16 ...

34

Distracted driving: a neglected epidemic.  

PubMed

In 2009, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimated nearly 6,000 distracted driver fatalities and 515,000 injuries in the United States alone. Distracted driving is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed. Software is available to disable cell phone usage while driving, but using the advanced technology may require legislation along with a renewed sense of driver responsibility. PMID:23061239

Dildy, Dale W

2012-10-01

35

[The use of bone distraction in the treatment of the transverse direction in adults].  

PubMed

Crowding and mal-positioning of teeth in the dental arch are problems frequently encountered with adult patients. These discrepancies are associated with a lack of development of basal bone, a shortcoming whose etiology is difficult to discern. Treating these problems with expansion assisted by surgery depends on osseous distraction, the separating of segments of bone to create new bone and the movement of whole groups of teeth and their periodontium, a technique that assures excellent stability. It is important to define precisely the indications for this technique as well as our therapeutic protocols, both in the maxilla and in the mandible. For an expander we use a single thread expansion screw welded to two molar bands. To be sure it works effectively; the surgeon first opens the maxillary suture to liberate the two portions of the maxilla. After a ten day wait, the expansion screw is opened daily for up to two weeks depending on how much expansion is required. When the desired point is attained, the expansion device is locked, and the patient returns for check-up visits every ten days. During this period the patient is outfitted with a false tooth to mask the large and unsightly diastema that has appeared between the central incisors. Three months after the original intervention the patient receives a full-banded strap-up. The orthodontist usually employs centripetal forces to level the teeth and to correct rotations in an effort to minimize the risk of periodontal complications. The results that we have obtained with this treatment have fulfilled our expectations with significant improvement in arch form, full respect for the periodontium, an improvement in facial balance, and the appearance of a generous and pleasing smile. PMID:18364215

Sorel, Olivier; Chrétien, Nathalie; Vo, Tuyet-Minh

2008-03-01

36

Cognitive Distraction While Multitasking in the Automobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver distraction is a significant source of motor-vehicle accidents. This chapter begins by presenting a framework for conceptualizing the different sources of driver distraction associated with multitasking. Thereafter, the primary focus is on cognitive sources of distraction stemming from the use of a cell phone while driving. We present converging evidence establishing that concurrent cell phone use significantly increases the

David L. Strayer; Jason M. Watson; Frank A. Drews

2011-01-01

37

Oral and dental restoration of wide alveolar cleft using distraction osteogenesis and temporary anchorage devices.  

PubMed

Closure of large alveolar clefts and restoration by a fixed bridge supported by implants is a challenge in cleft alveolus treatment. A major aesthetic concern with distraction osteogenesis is obtaining a predictable position of the implant in relation to the newly generated bony alveolar ridge. We describe the treatment of a large cleft alveolus and palate reconstruction by distraction osteogenesis utilizing temporary anchorage devices (TADs) followed by a fixed implant-supported bridge. The method consists of segmental bone transport by distraction osteogenesis using a bone-borne distractor to minimize the alveolar cleft, followed by closure of the residual small defect by bone grafting three months later. During the active transport distraction, TADs were used exerting multidirectional forces to control the distraction vector forward and laterally for better interarch relation. A vertical alveolar distraction of the newly reconstructed bone of 15 mm facilitated optimal implant placement. The endosseous implants were osteointegrated and supported a fixed dental prosthesis. In conclusion, the large cleft alveolus defect was repaired in three dimensions by distraction osteogenesis assisted by TADs, and the soft tissues expanded simultaneously. Endosseous implants were introduced in the newly reconstructed bone for a fixed dental prosthesis enabling, rehabilitation of aesthetics, eating and speaking. PMID:23402733

Rachmiel, Adi; Emodi, Omri; Gutmacher, Zvi; Blumenfeld, Israel; Aizenbud, Dror

2013-12-01

38

Craniofacial reconstruction by transport distraction osteogenesis: corticotomy versus osteotomy--an experimental study.  

PubMed

Transport osteogenesis is a modified technique of callus distraction appropriate for the reconstruction of extended osseous defects of long or flat bones. The aim of this study was to determine the regenerative potential of this technique related to the degree of mobilization of the transport segment. In 10 adult sheep, critically sized defects of the calvaria were treated by gradual movement of a transport segment consisting of calvarial bone. The transport segments were either corticotomized (n = 5) or osteotomized (n = 5). The latency period was 5 days; the rate of distraction was 1 mm/d, extended for approximately 40 days. The consolidation period was 28 days. Specimens were investigated by conventional radiography, computed tomography scans, immunofluorescence, and histological examination. In both groups, transport osteogenesis resulted in a complete closure of the defect. The volume and thickness of newly formed bone at the defect site did not differ significantly between the groups, nor did the extent of vascularization. Bone formation and remodeling occurred during the entire period of distraction and consolidation. Osteotomized transport segments became smaller during distraction, whereas the volume of corticotomized segments remained relatively constant. In conclusion, transport osteogenesis resulted in reliable closure of extended skull defects in adult organisms; corticotomy and osteotomy of the transport segment led to a similar extent of bone formation. PMID:15213530

Kramer, Franz-Josef; Mueller, Michal; Rahmstorf, Meike; Swennen, Gwen; Dempf, Rupert; Schierle, Hannes

2004-07-01

39

Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction  

PubMed Central

Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and distraction analgesia. Healthy participants completed three sessions in a randomized order. In one session (Pain Alone), pain was induced by topical application of a 10% capsaicin cream and simultaneous administration of a tonic heat stimulus. In another session (Pain + Distraction), identical capsaicin+heat application procedures were followed, but subjects played video games that required a high level of attention. During both sessions, verbal ratings of pain were obtained and participants rated their degree of catastrophizing. During the other session (Distraction Alone) subjects played the video games in the absence of any pain stimulus. Pain was rated significantly lower during the distraction session compared to the “pain alone” session. In addition, high catastrophizers rated pain significantly higher regardless of whether the subjects were distracted. Catastrophizing did not influence the overall degree of distraction analgesia; however, early in the session high catastrophizers had little distraction analgesia, though later in the session low and high catastrophizers rated pain similarly. These results suggest that both distraction and catastrophizing have substantial effects on experimental pain in normal subjects and these variables interact as a function of time. PMID:20188470

Campbell, Claudia M.; Witmer, Kenny; Simango, Mpepera; Carteret, Alene; Loggia, Marco L.; Campbell, James N.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert R.

2009-01-01

40

Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction.  

PubMed

Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and distraction analgesia. Healthy participants completed three sessions in a randomized order. In one session (Pain Alone), pain was induced by topical application of a 10% capsaicin cream and simultaneous administration of a tonic heat stimulus. In another session (Pain+Distraction), identical capsaicin+heat application procedures were followed, but subjects played video games that required a high level of attention. During both sessions, verbal ratings of pain were obtained and participants rated their degree of catastrophizing. During the other session (Distraction Alone) subjects played the video games in the absence of any pain stimulus. Pain was rated significantly lower during the distraction session compared to the "Pain Alone" session. In addition, high catastrophizers rated pain significantly higher regardless of whether the subjects were distracted. Catastrophizing did not influence the overall degree of distraction analgesia; however, early in the session high catastrophizers had little distraction analgesia, though later in the session low and high catastrophizers rated pain similarly. These results suggest that both distraction and catastrophizing have substantial effects on experimental pain in normal subjects and these variables interact as a function of time. PMID:20188470

Campbell, Claudia M; Witmer, Kenny; Simango, Mpepera; Carteret, Alene; Loggia, Marco L; Campbell, James N; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert R

2010-05-01

41

Monobloc and facial bipartition distraction with internal devices.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis (DO) permits gradual lengthening of the craniofacial skeleton. With the advent of new internal devices, monobloc (M) and facial bipartition (FB) DO are feasible. The rationale behind M and FB distraction is (1) gradual advancement of the M segment is not associated with a substantial retrofrontal dead space; (2) because 5 to 7 days elapse prior to distraction, the nasofrontal opening, in theory, is allowed to remucosalize; (3) gradual expansion of the soft tissues takes advantage of skin creep, potentially limiting relapse; (4) the procedure appears to be less invasive with decreased blood loss and operative time, enabling its use in infants; (5) overdistraction may eliminate or reduce the frequency of subsequent procedures; and (6) the procedure may be combined with FB and skull vault remodeling to provide excellent results in more complex craniofacial dysostosis problems. Five children underwent M advancement (N = 3) and M with FB (N = 2) at 9 months to 5 years of age to correct functional abnormalities such as corneal exposure, increased intracranial pressure, and apnea, as well as severe craniofacial disfigurement. Each patient underwent from 22 to 30 mm of distraction with the Modular Internal Distraction (MID) system, developed by the first author (SRC). There was one infection late in the series along the DO cable track. There were no cases of epidural abscess. In conclusion, MDO, with and without FB, appears to be a safe and effective technique for transcranial frontofacial advancement. The morbidity of the procedure appears to be less than that of conventional M advancement. PMID:10530235

Cohen, S R; Boydston, W; Hudgins, R; Burstein, F D

1999-05-01

42

Analysis of location and prevalence of maxillary sinus septa  

PubMed Central

Purpose The sinus lift procedure requires detailed knowledge of maxillary sinus anatomy and the possible anatomical variations. This study evaluated the location and prevalence of maxillary sinus septa using computed tomography (CT). Methods This study was based on the analysis of CT images for posterior maxilla which were obtained from patients who visited Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital during the period of June 2007 to December 2008. With the exclusion of cases presenting any pathological changes, 236 maxillary sinuses in 204 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The average age of the patients was 50.9. The cases were divided into two groups, an atrophy/edentulous segment and a non-atrophy/dentate segment, and maxillary sinus septa of less than 2.5 mm were not taken in-to consideration. The location of septa was also divided for analysis into 3 regions: the anterior (1st and 2nd premolar), middle (1st and 2nd molar) and posterior (behind 2nd molar) regions. Results In 54 (20.9%) of the 204 patients there were pathologic findings, and those patients were excluded from the analysis. Sinus septa were present in 58 (24.6%) of the 236 maxillary sinuses and in 55 (27%) of the 204 total patients. In the atrophy/edentulous ridge group (148 maxillary sinuses), 41 cases (27.7%) were found, and 17 cases (19.3%) were found in the non-atrophy/dentulous ridge group (88 maxillary sinuses). In terms of location, septa were found in 18 cases (27.3%) in the anterior, in 33 cases (50%) in the middle and in 15 cases (22.7%) in the posterior regions. Conclusions In the posterior maxilla, regardless of type of ridge (atrophy/edentulous or non-atrophy/dentate), the anatomical variation of sinus septa is diverse in its prevalence and location. Thus, accurate information on the maxillary sinus of the patient is essential and should be clearly understood by the surgeon to prevent possible complications during sinus lifting. PMID:20498761

Lee, Won-Jin; Lee, Seung-Jae

2010-01-01

43

Mucopyocele of the maxillary sinus  

PubMed Central

Mucoceles are defined as chronic, cystic lesions in the paranasal sinuses. When the mucocele content becomes infected, the lesion is defined as mucopyocele. Most mucoceles are located in the frontal and anterior ethmoid sinuses and normally they involve the frontal-ethmoid complex, expanding to the superior-medial region of the orbit, leading to ocular disorders; maxillary sinus presentation is rare. In the present article, the authors described a rare case of mucopyocele in the maxillary sinus. PMID:24688571

Kshar, Avinash; Patil, Abhijeet; Umarji, Hemant; Kadam, Sonali

2014-01-01

44

Alleviating memory impairment through distraction.  

PubMed

Distraction typically has a negative impact on memory for recent events and patients with existing memory impairment are particularly vulnerable to distractor interference. In contrast, here we establish a beneficial effect for distractor presentation in humans for both patients with memory impairment due to bilateral hippocampal lesions and healthy adults with low memory performance. Recognition memory for images of place scenes, which had to be memorized for short delay periods was significantly improved with the presentation of a distractor face during the delay. Magnetoencephalography recordings of neural oscillations in the theta frequency range obtained in healthy adults suggest that this memory improvement results from the interruption of rehearsal by the distractor. Our results highlight circumstances where active memory rehearsal may paradoxically increase memory impairments and distraction alleviates these memory deficits in patients with hippocampal injury and healthy adults. PMID:24285905

Cashdollar, Nathan; Lavie, Nilli; Düzel, Emrah

2013-11-27

45

Diagnosing and understanding the maxillary lip-tie (superior labial, the maxillary labial frenum) as it relates to breastfeeding.  

PubMed

Successful breastfeeding is dependent upon an infant's ability to correctly latch onto a mother's breast. If an infant is born with oral soft tissue abnormalities such as tongue-tie or lip-tie, breastfeeding may become challenging or impossible. During the oral evaluation of an infant presenting with breastfeeding problems, one area that is often overlooked and undiagnosed and, thus, untreated is the attachment of the upper lip to the maxillary gingival tissue. Historically, this tissue has been described as the superior labial frenum, median labial frenum, or maxillary labial frenum. These terms all refer to a segment of the mucous membrane in the midline of the upper lip containing loose connective tissue that inserts into the maxillary arch's loose, unattached gingival or tight, attached gingival tissue. There is no muscle contained within this tissue. In severe instances, this tissue may extend into the area behind the upper central incisors and incisive papilla. The author has defined and identified the restrictions of mobility of this tissue as a lip-tie, which reflects the clinical attachment of the upper lip to the maxillary arch. This article discusses the diagnosis and classifications of the lip-tie, as it affects an infant's latch onto the mother's breast. As more and more women choose to breastfeed, lip-ties must be considered as an impediment to breastfeeding, recognizing that they can affect a successful, painless latch and milk transfer. PMID:23821655

Kotlow, Lawrence A

2013-11-01

46

A novel method to monitor driver's distractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many attempts were made in the past to monitor a driver's visual and cognitive distractions. Yet, most of the techniques did not become a practical application due to their contact-based nature of monitoring. In this paper, we describe research that aims to monitor the driver's distractions from a distance. The proposed method is based on the thermal signature of the

Avinash Wesley; Dvijesh Shastri; Ioannis Pavlidis

2010-01-01

47

Driver Distraction From a Control Theory Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distraction from cell phones, navigation systems, information\\/entertainment systems, and other driver-interactive devices now finding their way into the highway vehicles is a serious national safety concern. However, driver distraction is neither well defined nor well understood. In an effort to bring some better definition to the problem, a framework is proposed based on the ideas of control theory. Loci and

Thomas B. Sheridan

2004-01-01

48

Distraction Dodger Lessons for High School Students  

E-print Network

collaborated with education and game design experts to create the Distraction Dodger educational computer game and this curriculum. The game can be accessed at: http://www.its.umn.edu/DistractionDodger The purposes of the game and curriculum are as follows: 1) To help teens

Minnesota, University of

49

77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: Department of Transportation...fiscal year (FY) 2013 funds to provide grants to States for enacting and enforcing distracted...Therefore, the amount available for the grants in FY 2013 may be less than the...

2012-08-24

50

Distractions in the School Science Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I…

Hamza, Karim M.

2013-01-01

51

Driver Distraction Test Rig for HMI Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver distraction test rig is an automotive fascia analog for human machine interface studies, produced in conjunction with Swinburne University of Technology, GM Holden Innovation, and AutoCRC. The prototype will be used in the development and validation of test protocols for evaluating the level of driver distraction imposed by in-vehicle information systems. By means of modular interfacing technologies, spatial reconfiguration

David Shirley; Alex Greenwood; Christian Bottcher; Zhenwei Cao

2009-01-01

52

Simultaneous alveolar cleft closure and dental midline correction with curvilinear intraoral distraction.  

PubMed

This article describes a new method that enables vector control during alveolar distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of a cleft palate patient. The patient presented with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and the alveolar part of the defect was covered by a mobile buccal flap. The distraction was performed by sliding the surgically released tooth segment with the help of an intraoral distractor over 1.5-mm stainless steel archwires held by metal crowns. This vector-controlled method enabled new bone and attached gingiva formation in harmony with the proper alveolar shape. PMID:24024956

Erverdi, Ahmet Nejat; Yilmaz, Berza; Motro, Melih; Gozneli, R?fat; Ugurlu, Kemal

2014-05-01

53

Evaluation of canine retraction following periodontal distraction using NiTi coil spring and implants – A clinical study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the amount of canine retraction with periodontal distraction using miniscrew implants and NiTi coil spring. Material and method Sample comprised of 25 patients who were scheduled for all 1st premolar extraction (13 males and 12 females), in the age range of 16–22 years with mean age 18.8 ± 2.7 years. For each patient left side served as control side (Group I) and right side as experimental side (Group II). At the time of first premolar extraction, periodontal distraction was performed only on the experimental side, followed by retraction of canine from mini-implant by closed NiTi coil spring on both the sides. “Nemotech” software was used to evaluate the amount of canine retraction for a period of 3 months. Results Significantly higher amount of tooth movement was seen from T0–T1 and from T1–T2 in Group II for the maxillary parameters 3C-5C, 6CF-3C, 3C-I/3C-J and for the mandibular parameter 6CF?-3C?. Whereas no significant amount of tooth movement was observed for maxillary and mandibular parameters between T2-T3 except for 6CF?-3C? (p ? 0.01) which was significantly higher for the Group II. Conclusion There was accelerated canine retraction on the periodontal distraction side as compared to the control side, with negligible anchorage loss. PMID:25737943

Khanna, Rohit; Tikku, Tripti; Sachan, Kiran; Maurya, R.P.; Verma, Geeta; Ojha, Vivek

2014-01-01

54

Mandibular alveolar ridge augmentation in the dog using distraction osteogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study investigated the use of distraction osteogenesis for alveolar ridge augmentation.Materials and Methods: Four dogs each had two superior and two inferior implants placed horizontally into an edentulous mandibular quadrant and, after integration, a distraction device was applied. An osteotomy was made to allow the ridge to be distracted vertically. After 10 mm vertical distraction, the device was

Michael S Block; Andrew Chang; Craig Crawford

1996-01-01

55

busso@utdallas.edu ASSESSMENT OF DRIVER'S DISTRACTION USING  

E-print Network

Navigation System (GPS) · Operating and following · Cell phone · Operating and talking · Describing Pictures Assessments · More Distracting · GPS - Operating · Phone - Operating · Less Distracting · GPS - Following Evaluations · More Distracting · Radio · GPS - Operating · Phone - Operating · Pictures · Less Distracting

Busso, Carlos

56

Correction of facial asymmetry and maxillary canting with corticotomy and 1-jaw orthognathic surgery.  

PubMed

Although 2-jaw orthognathic surgery is a typical recommendation for the treatment of facial asymmetry, another good treatment alternative is maxillary corticotomy with temporary skeletal anchorage devices followed by mandibular orthognathic surgery. The corticotomy procedure described here can achieve unilateral molar intrusion and occlusal plane canting correction with potentially fewer complications than 2-jaw orthognathic surgery. The approach allows movement of dentoalveolar segments in less time than with conventional dental intrusion using temporary skeletal anchorage devices. A 2-jaw asymmetry with occlusal plane canting might be corrected using maxillary corticotomy and mandibular orthognathics rather than 2-jaw orthognathics. Two patients with facial asymmetry are presented here. In each one, the maxillary cant was corrected over a period of 2 to 3 months with 3.5 mm of intrusion of the unilateral buccal segment. After the preorthognathic cant correction, orthognathic surgery was done to correct the mandibular asymmetry. PMID:25432261

Ahn, Hyo-Won; Seo, Dong Hwi; Kim, Seong-Hun; Lee, Baek-Soo; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

2014-12-01

57

Assessment of distraction from erotic stimuli by nonerotic interference.  

PubMed

Distraction from erotic cues during sexual encounters is a major contributor to sexual difficulties in men and women. Being able to assess distraction in studies of sexual arousal will help clarify underlying contributions to sexual problems. The current study aimed to identify the most accurate assessment of distraction from erotic cues in healthy men (n = 29) and women (n = 38). Participants were assigned to a no distraction, low distraction, or high distraction condition. Distraction was induced using an auditory distraction task presented during the viewing of an erotic video. Attention to erotic cues was assessed using three methods: a written quiz, a visual quiz, and a self-reported distraction measure. Genital and psychological sexual responses were also measured. Self-reported distraction and written quiz scores most accurately represented the level of distraction present, while self-reported distraction also corresponded with a decrease in genital arousal. Findings support the usefulness of self-report measures in conjunction with a brief quiz on the erotic material as the most accurate and sensitive ways to simply measure experimentally-induced distraction. Insight into distraction assessment techniques will enable evaluation of naturally occurring distraction in patients suffering from sexual problems. PMID:24611908

Anderson, Alex B; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn

2015-01-01

58

Mobile telephones, distracted attention, and pedestrian safety.  

PubMed

Driver distraction is a major cause of traffic accidents, with mobile telephones as a key source of distraction. In two studies, we examined distraction of pedestrians associated with mobile phone use. The first had 60 participants walk along a prescribed route, with half of them conversing on a mobile phone, and the other half holding the phone awaiting a potential call, which never came. Comparison of the performance of the groups in recalling objects planted along the route revealed that pedestrians conversing recalled fewer objects than did those not conversing. The second study had three observers record pedestrian behavior of mobile phone users, i-pod users, and pedestrians with neither one at three crosswalks. Mobile phone users crossed unsafely into oncoming traffic significantly more than did either of the other groups. For pedestrians as with drivers, cognitive distraction from mobile phone use reduces situation awareness, increases unsafe behavior, putting pedestrians at greater risk for accidents, and crime victimization. PMID:18215534

Nasar, Jack; Hecht, Peter; Wener, Richard

2008-01-01

59

Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens  

PubMed Central

Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

2014-01-01

60

The Neural Bases of Distraction and Reappraisal  

E-print Network

Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive ...

McRae, Kateri

61

Temperament, Distraction, and Learning in Toddlerhood  

PubMed Central

The word and non-word learning abilities of toddlers were tested under various conditions of environmental distraction, and evaluated with respect to children’s temperamental attentional focus. Thirty-nine children and their mothers visited the lab at child age 21-months, where children were exposed to fast-mapping word learning trials and nonlinguistic sequential learning trials. It was found that both word and nonword-learning was adversely affected by the presentation of environmental distractions. But it was also found that the effect of the distractions sometimes depended on children’s level of attentional focus. Specifically, children high in attentional focus were less affected by environmental distractions than children low in attentional focus when attempting to learn from a model, whereas children low in attentional focus demonstrated little learning from the model. Translationally, these results may be of use to child health-care providers investigating possible sources of cognitive and language delay. PMID:17138290

Dixon, Wallace E.; Salley, Brenda J.; Clements, Andrea D.

2006-01-01

62

10 Tips for Managing Driver Distraction  

MedlinePLUS

... a range of distracting activities from talking and texting on their phones, to eating, grooming and reading. ... of hand-held cell phones in addition to texting. Prepare. If using a GPS device, enter your ...

63

Living Dangerously: Driver Distraction at High Speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research indicates that cell phone use can distract drivers from safe vehicle operation. However, estimates of the prevalence of cell phone use while driving have been limited to daytime hours and low-speed roadways. This paper describes the results of a study to estimate rates of cell phone use and other distractions by examining approximately 40,000 high-quality digital photographs of

MARK B. JOHNSON; ROBERT B. VOAS; JOHN H. LACEY; A. SCOTT MCKNIGHT; JAMES E. LANGE

2004-01-01

64

[A case of maxillary neurosarcoma].  

PubMed

A case of neurosarcoma located in maxillary sinus is presented. The patient was 62 years old women who complained of nasal obstruction, epistaxis and headache. Results of physical examination showed a giant mass filling the nasal cavity and maxillary sinus. The lesion was completely resected by lateral rhinotomy way. After the operation histopathological diagnosis was difficult, one pathologist recognised schwannoma benignum other one sarcoma. Finally postoperative diagnosis was schwannoma benignum, it was misdiagnosis. Two years later the patient was surgically treated again because of tumor recurrence. These time pathological diagnosis was neurosarcoma. Radiotherapy was done as well. The patient died 18 months after treatment, tumor regrowth and generalization metastases was reason of the death. PMID:11202348

Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, E; Balcerzak, J; Bruzgielewicz, A; Checi?ski, P

2000-01-01

65

Correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe crowding by a specially designed rapid maxillary expander.  

PubMed

To correct an Angle Class II malocclusion or to create spaces in the maxillary arch by nonextraction treatment, distal movement of the maxillary molars is required. Various modalities for distalizing the buccal segment have been reported. Conventional extraoral appliances can be used to obtain maximum anchorage. However, many patients reject headgear wear because of social and esthetic concerns, and the success of this treatment depends on patient compliance. Intraoral appliances, such as repelling magnets, nickel-titanium coils, pendulum appliance, Jones jig appliance, distal jet appliance, and modified Nance appliance, have been introduced to distalize the molars with little or no patient cooperation. However, intraoral appliances can result in anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the maxillary molars. In this case report, we introduce a diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance that was custom designed and fabricated for the treatment of a growing girl with a skeletal Class II malocclusion and severe crowding from a totally lingually positioned lateral incisor. The appliance concomitantly expanded the maxilla transversely and retracted the buccal segment sagittally, distalizing the maxillary molars to reach a Class I relationship and creating the spaces to displace the malpositioned lateral incisor. The uniqueness of this special diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance was highlighted by a series of reconstructions and modifications at different stages of the treatment to reinforce the anchorage. PMID:25636559

Wang, Honghong; Feng, Jing; Lu, Peijun; Shen, Gang

2015-02-01

66

Effects of distraction on memory and cognition: a commentary  

PubMed Central

This commentary is a review of the findings and ideas reported in the preceding nine articles on the effects of distraction on aspects of cognitive performance. The articles themselves deal with the disruptive effects of distraction on recall of words, objects and events, also on visual processing, category formation and other cognitive tasks. The commentary assesses the part played by “domain-general” suppression of distracting information and the “domain-specific” competition arising when tasks and distraction involve very similar material. Some forms of distraction are meaningfully relevant to the ongoing task, and Treisman’s (1964) model of selective attention is invoked to provide an account of findings in this area. Finally, individual differences to vulnerability to distraction are discussed; older adults are particularly affected by distracting stimuli although the failure to repress distraction can sometimes prove beneficial to later cognitive performance. PMID:25120527

Craik, Fergus I. M.

2014-01-01

67

Mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Preliminary results of an animal study with a dentally fixed distraction device.  

PubMed

Lengthening of the human mandible by distraction osteogenesis has become an accepted treatment for correction of severe mandibular disto-basal discrepancies in recent years. This usually entails the deployment of extra-orally located distraction devices. This type of device often causes conspicuous scarring. To avoid this scarring, an intra-oral device is to be developed. In the present animal study, 2 "Troll" mini-pigs and 2 "Yucatan" micro-pigs were fitted with a new solely dentally fixed orthodontic device for mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Following bilateral osteotomy in the dentigerous area of the mandibular body and a latent period of 2 to 7 days, the apparatus was activated 1 mm per day. Within a period of 9 days, a mandibular lengthening of 9 mm was reached. This situation was retained using the distraction device for 6 weeks. After removal of the apparatus, there followed another 6-week period of consolidation. During the experiment, the callus and bone formation and potential dental and periodontal reactions were radiologically examined and underwent histological examination at the end of the experiment. Twelve weeks after the mandibular lengthening, the osteogenesis in the distraction areas was complete. No destructive processes were recognizable, either at the roots or at the periodontium of the teeth near the osteotomy gap. Lengthening of the mandibular body using distraction osteogenesis with the help of a solely dentally fixed distraction device is thus feasible and can, in the future, become the appropriate treatment in the correction of severe mandibular deficiency. PMID:9433049

Braumann, B; Niederhagen, B; Schmolke, C

1997-01-01

68

Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.  

PubMed

Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral. PMID:24098923

Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

2014-02-01

69

Distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Management of mandibular deformities is challenging. Distraction osteogenesis is a relatively new technique with promising results. Materials and Methods: We selected 12 patients. The osteotomy site decided was proximal to the antegonial notch. Latency time was five to seven days. Consolidation period was eight weeks in eleven cases and six weeks in one case. Results: In all the patients, appreciable lengthening of mandible was achieved. Discussion: The greatest advantage of distraction osteogenesis is growth of soft tissue along with the growth of hard tissue. This increases post operative stability PMID:24665178

Karun, Vinayak; Agarwal, Navneet; Singh, Virendra

2013-01-01

70

Using Distraction-Conflict Theory to Measure the Effects of Distractions on Individual Task Performance in a Wireless Mobile Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile wireless computing is changing the way in which people work. It is believed that mobile environments contain various distractions that can affect the performance of knowledge workers. This paper draws on distraction-conflict theory to propose a model that explains the effects of distraction on individual performance in a wireless mobile environment. Initial findings indicated that even a low- level

Darren B. Nicholson; D. Veena Parboteeah; Jennifer A. Nicholson; Joseph S. Valacich

2005-01-01

71

A Novel Method to Monitor Driver's Distractions  

E-print Network

. Experiment-1 focused on driver's cognitive distraction by allowing cell phone talking while driving driving task. In the current era, the debate has gained attention for cell phone usage in the vehicle and presentation: User Interfaces ­ Interaction styles, Theory and methods; K.4.1 [Computers and Society] Public

72

THE EFFECTS OF TELEMATICS ON DRIVER DISTRACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used both cellular phones and analogue radio to measure driver distraction and workload in a low fidelity driving simulator. Thirty-four participants performed a simulated driving task while using either a cell phone or a radio in conjunction with a secondary task assessing their spare attentional capacity. The results showed that more lane deviations were made during the cell

Patrick Siebert; Mustapha Mouloua; Kendra Burns; Jennifer Marino

2002-01-01

73

Consumption: Challenge to sustainable development ... or distraction?  

SciTech Connect

This editorial about sustainable development views it as a distraction to the main issues, pointing out that consumption patterns, not consumption levels is the critical problem. Topics include private consumption and environmental quality, private consumption and resource depletion, patterns versus levels. 21 refs.

Vincent, J.R.; Panayotou, T. [Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-04-04

74

Angiogenesis and mineralization during distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed Central

Distraction osteogenesis is currently a standard method of bone lengthening. It is a viable method for the treatment of short extremities as well as extensive bone defects, because large amounts of bone can be regenerated in the distraction gap. Mechanical stimulation by distraction induces biological responses of skeletal regeneration that is accomplished by a cascade of biologic processes that may include differentiation of pluripotential tissue, angiogenesis, mineralization, and remodeling. There are complex interactions between bone-forming osteoblasts and other cells present within the bone microenvironment, particularly vascular endothelial cells that may be pivotal members of a complex interactive communication network in bone. Regenerate bone forms by three modes of ossification, which include intramembranous, enchondral, and transchondroid ossifications, although intramembraneous bone formation is the predominant mechanism of ossification. In this review we discussed the coupling between angiogenesis and mineralization, the biological and mechanical factors affecting them, the cellular and molecular events occurring during distraction osteogenesis, and the emerging modalities to accelerate regenerate bone healing and remodeling. PMID:12172035

Choi, In Ho; Chung, Chin Youb; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon

2002-01-01

75

Dynamics of Driver Distraction: The process of engaging and disengaging  

PubMed Central

Driver distraction research has a long history, spanning nearly 50 years, but intensifying over the last decade. The dominant paradigm guiding this research defines distraction in terms of excessive workload and limited attentional resources. This approach largely ignores how drivers come to engage in these tasks and under what conditions they engage and disengage from driving—the dynamics of distraction. The dynamics of distraction identifies breakdowns of interruption management as an important contributor to distraction, leading to describe distraction in terms of failures of task timing, switching, and prioritization. The dynamics of distraction also identifies disengagement in driving (e.g., mind wandering) as a substantial challenge that secondary tasks might exacerbate or mitigate. Increasing vehicle automation accentuates the need to consider these dynamics of distraction. Automation offers drivers more opportunity to engage in distractions and disengage from driving, and can surprise drivers by unexpectedly requiring drivers to quickly re-engage in driving—placing greater importance of interruption management expertise. This review describes distraction in terms of breakdowns in interruption management and problems of engagement, and summarizes how contingency, conditioning, and consequence traps lead to problems of engaging and disengaging in driving and distractions. PMID:24776224

Lee, John D.

2014-01-01

76

Living dangerously: driver distraction at high speed.  

PubMed

Recent research indicates that cell phone use can distract drivers from safe vehicle operation. However, estimates of the prevalence of cell phone use while driving have been limited to daytime hours and low-speed roadways. This paper describes the results of a study to estimate rates of cell phone use and other distractions by examining approximately 40,000 high-quality digital photographs of vehicles and drivers on the New Jersey Turnpike. The photographs, which originally were collected as part of a separate study, were taken both during the day and during the night and at different locations across the span of the Turnpike. A radar gun linked to the camera recorded the speeds of vehicles as they passed. This provided us with the speeds of every vehicle photographed, and allowed us to determine population counts of vehicles. A panel of three trained coders examined each photograph and recorded the presence of cell phone use by the drivers or any other distracting behavior. Demographic information on the driver was obtained during previous examinations of the photographs for an unrelated study. A rating was considered reliable when two out of the three coders agreed. Population estimates (and confidence intervals) of cell phone use and other distractions were estimated by weighting the cases by the inverse probability of vehicle selection. Logistic regression was used to predict cell phone use from demographic and situational factors. The results indicated that the most frequent distraction was cell phone use: 1.5% of the drivers on the Turnpike were using cell phones compared to the 3 to 4% use rates reported in the National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS) surveys conducted during the daytime on lower speed roadways. The Turnpike survey indicated that cell phones were used less on weekends and at night, and when the driver was exceeding the speed limit or had a passenger in the car. PMID:14754669

Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert B; Lacey, John H; McKnight, A Scott; Lange, James E

2004-03-01

77

Mandibular distraction in neonates: indications, technique, results  

PubMed Central

Background The Pierre Robin Sequence features were first described by Robin in 1923 and include micrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress with an incidence estimated as 1:8,500 to 1:20,000 newborns. Upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulties are the main concerns related to the pathology. Mandibular distraction should be considered a treatment option (when other treatments result inadequate). Patiants and methods Ten patients between the ages of 1 month and 2 years with severe micrognathia and airway obstruction were treated with Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (MDO). All patients underwent fibroscopic examination of the upper airway and a radiographic imaging and/or computed tomography scans to detect malformations and to confirm that the obstruction was caused by posterior tongue displacement. All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Indications for surgery included frequent apneic episodes with severe desaturation (70%). Gavage therapy was employed in all patients since oral feeding was not possible. The two tracheotomy patients were 5 months and 2 years old respectively, and the distraction procedure was performed to remove the tracheotomy tube. All patients were treated with bilateral mandibular distraction: two cases with an external multivector distraction device, six cases with an internal non-resorbable device and two cases with an internal resorbable device. In one case, the patient with Goldenhar's Syndrome, the procedure was repeated. Results The resolution of symptoms was obtained in all patients, and, when present, tracheotomy was removed without complications. Of the two patients with pre-existing tracheotomies, in the younger patient (5 months old) the tracheotomy was removed 7 days postoperatively. In the Goldenhar's syndrome case (2 years old) a Montgomery device was necessary for 6 months due to the presence of tracheotomy-inducted tracheomalacia. Patients were discharged when the endpoint was obtained: symptoms and signs of airway obstruction were resolved, PAS and maxillomandibular relationship improved, and tracheotomy, when present, removed. During the follow-up, no injury to the inferior alveolar nerve was noted and scarring was significant in only the two cases treated with external devices. Conclusion Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis is a good solution in solving respiratory distress when other procedures are failed in paediatric patients with severe micrognatia. PMID:22300418

2012-01-01

78

Distalization pattern of whole maxillary dentition according to force application points  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to observe stress distribution and displacement patterns of the entire maxillary arch with regard to distalizing force vectors applied from interdental miniscrews. Methods A standard three-dimensional finite element model was constructed to simulate the maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar process. The displacement of each tooth was calculated on x, y, and z axes, and the von Mises stress distribution was visualized using color-coded scales. Results A single distalizing force at the archwire level induced lingual inclination of the anterior segment, and slight intrusive distal tipping of the posterior segment. In contrast, force at the high level of the retraction hook resulted in lingual root movement of the anterior segment, and extrusive distal translation of the posterior segment. As the force application point was located posteriorly along the archwire, the likelihood of extrusive lingual inclination of the anterior segment increased, and the vertical component of the force led to intrusion and buccal tipping of the posterior segment. Rotation of the occlusal plane was dependent on the relationship between the line of force and the possible center of resistance of the entire arch. Conclusions Displacement of the entire arch may be dictated by a direct relationship between the center of resistance of the whole arch and the line of action generated between the miniscrews and force application points at the archwire, which makes the total arch movement highly predictable. PMID:25667914

Sung, Eui-Hyang; Kim, Sung-Jin; Chun, Youn-Sic; Park, Young-Chel; Yu, Hyung-Seog

2015-01-01

79

Hinged distraction of the adolescent arthritic hip.  

PubMed

From 1996 to 2000, 11 adolescents with hip joint arthritis secondary to osteonecrosis or idiopathic chondrolysis were treated with articulated hinged distraction arthroplasty. Indications for surgery were severe pain and limited ambulation. Charts and radiographs were reviewed. Clinical status was assessed preoperatively and at latest follow-up (mean 4.8 years after surgery) using criteria of pain, range of motion, and ambulation level. Ten patients showed improved clinical status, with seven having an excellent outcome and three a good outcome. One patient failed distraction. Mean joint space was 2.6 mm before surgery and 4.8 mm at latest follow-up. Average duration of fixator use was 4.4 months. Four patients (36.4%) had complications. Articulated hip distraction was effective in eliminating pain, improving function, and preventing progressive degenerative changes in young patients' hips. It should be considered a salvage procedure for arthritic hips and an alternative to arthrodesis in this difficult-to-treat group of patients. PMID:15718897

Thacker, Mihir M; Feldman, David S; Madan, Sanjeev S; Straight, Joseph J; Scher, David M

2005-01-01

80

Strategies for preventing distractions and interruptions in the OR.  

PubMed

Stakeholders in the automotive industry, airline industry, and anesthesia profession have identified critical periods of time in which distractions and interruptions of normal processes can have devastating effects. Just as reducing distractions improves safety in an automobile or airplane cockpit, limiting distractions and interruptions during critical times in the perioperative setting can increase patient safety. We assessed perioperative nurses and identified what they perceived as critical phases of nursing care. We also worked with our anesthesia partners to address their concerns about interruptions during the administration of nerve blocks. The perioperative nurses at our hospital initiated strategies to reduce distractions or interruptions to their practice at critical points, and, in collaboration with surgical committee members, we developed strategies to reduce or eliminate distractions for anesthesia professionals during the preoperative administration of nerve blocks and to eliminate distractions for the RN circulator and scrub person during the final counts. PMID:23722034

Clark, Gregory J

2013-06-01

81

Automated Continuous Distraction Osteogenesis May Allow Faster Distraction Rates: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if automated continuous distraction osteogenesis at rates > 1mm/day would result in clinical and radiographic bone formation in a minipig model. Materials and Methods An automated, continuous, curvilinear distraction device was placed across a mandibular osteotomy in 10 minipigs. After 12 mm of distraction and 24 days fixation, animals were sacrificed and bone healing evaluated. The continuous distraction rates were 1.5 (n=5) and 3 mm/day (n=5). A semiquantitative scale was used to assess ex-vivo clinical appearance of the distraction gap (3= osteotomy not visible; 2= <50%; 1= >50%; 0= 100% visible); stability (3 = no mobility; 2 and 1 = mobility in 2 or 1 plane respectively; 0= mobility in 3 planes); radiographic density (4 = 100% gap opaque, 3= >75%, 2 = 50% – 75%, 1= <50%, or 0 = radiolucent). Groups of 4 minipigs distracted discontinuously at 1, 2, and 4 mm/day served as controls. Results The continuous DO 1.5 mm/day group had significantly higher scores for appearance and radiographic density compared to the discontinuous 4 mm/day group. The continuous DO 3mm/day group had significantly higher scores for appearance and radiographic density compared to the discontinuous 4 mm/day group, and higher stability compared to the discontinuous 2 and 4 mm/day groups. Conclusions Results of this preliminary study indicate that continuous DO at rates of 1.5 and 3.0 mm/day produces better bone formation when compared to discontinuous DO at rates faster than 1mm/day. PMID:23499159

Peacock, Zachary S.; Tricomi, Brad; Murphy, Brian; Magill, John; Kaban, Leonard B.; Troulis, Maria

2013-01-01

82

Assessing the awareness of performance decrements in distracted drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have documented the performance decrements associated with driver distractions; however, few have examined drivers’ awareness of these distraction effects. The current study measured how well-calibrated drivers are with respect to performance decrements from distracting tasks. In this test track study, 40 younger and older drivers completed a series of tasks on a hand-held or hands-free cell phone while

William J. Horrey; Mary F. Lesch; Angela Garabet

2008-01-01

83

Subtractive Fuzzy Classifier Based Driver Distraction Levels Classification Using EEG  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] In earlier studies of driver distraction, researchers classified distraction into two levels (not distracted, and distracted). This study classified four levels of distraction (neutral, low, medium, high). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty Asian subjects (n=50, 43 males, 7 females), age range 20–35 years, who were free from any disease, participated in this study. Wireless EEG signals were recorded by 14 electrodes during four types of distraction stimuli (Global Position Systems (GPS), music player, short message service (SMS), and mental tasks). We derived the amplitude spectrum of three different frequency bands, theta, alpha, and beta of EEG. Then, based on fusion of discrete wavelet packet transforms and fast fourier transform yield, we extracted two features (power spectral density, spectral centroid frequency) of different wavelets (db4, db8, sym8, and coif5). Mean ± SD was calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. A fuzzy inference system classifier was applied to different wavelets using the two extracted features. [Results] The results indicate that the two features of sym8 posses highly significant discrimination across the four levels of distraction, and the best average accuracy achieved by the subtractive fuzzy classifier was 79.21% using the power spectral density feature extracted using the sym8 wavelet. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that EEG signals can be used to monitor distraction level intensity in order to alert drivers to high levels of distraction. PMID:24259914

Wali, Mousa Kadhim; Murugappan, Murugappan; Ahmad, Badlishah

2013-01-01

84

Gradual bone distraction in craniosynostosis. Preliminary results in seven cases.  

PubMed

Seven patients with craniosynostosis (mean age 8 years, Apert syndrome, n = 4, Crouzon's disease, n = 3) underwent lengthening of the skull by gradual bone distraction. Three patients (group A) were treated by coronal craniectomy reaching the orbital fissure and gradual bone distraction. The other four (group B) underwent monobloc craniofacial disjunction and gradual bone distraction. The patients' progress was monitored clinically as well as by radiographs and photographs. The results showed that craniofacial disjunction followed by gradual bone distraction produced complete correction of exophthalmus and an improvement in the functional and aesthetic aspects of the middle third of the face without the need for bone grafts. PMID:9075285

do Amaral, C M; Di Domizio, G; Tiziani, V; Galhardi, F; Buzzo, C L; Rinco, T; Kharmandayan, P; Bueno, M A; Bolzani, N; Sabbatini, R M; Lopes, L D; Lopes, P F; Paiva, B; Paiva, R M; Turchiari, L A

1997-03-01

85

Temporal bone resorption: an uncommon complication after mandibular distraction.  

PubMed

Temporal bone absorption is a very infrequent complication following a intraoral mandibular distraction. We present a case of severe temporal bone absorption with skull base bone destruction in a child who experienced the mandibular distraction operation. In her follow-up of the 6th month, it was observed that the implanted distraction device drilled to the temporal bone and stretch into the middle cranial fossa. We recommend to optimize the positioning of the osteotomy and the design of the distraction to avoid the otential risk of adjacent skull destruction. PMID:25748940

Feng, Shi; Zhang, Zhiyong; Shi, Lei; Tang, Xiaojun; Liu, Wei; Yin, Lin; Yang, Bin

2015-03-01

86

Impacted maxillary incisors: diagnosis and predictive measurements  

PubMed Central

Summary Background When the incisors do not erupt at the expected time, it is crucial for the clinician to determine the etiology and formulate an appropriate treatment plan. Aim The aim of this report is to provide useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors using the interceptive treatment: removal of obstacles and rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Design An accurate diagnosis may be obtained with clinical and radiographic exam such as panoramic radiograph, computerized tomography (CT) and cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). It’s important to know the predictive measurements of eruption evaluated on panoramic radiograph: distance from the occlusal plane, maturity, angulation and vertical position of the unerupted incisors. Early diagnosis is important and interceptive orthodontic treatment, such as removal of obstacles and orthopedic rapid maxillary expansion (RME), may correct disturbances during the eruption through recovering space for the incisors and improving the intraosseus position of delayed teeth. Results RME treatment following the surgical removal of the obstacle to the eruption of maxillary incisors leads to an improvement of the intraosseus position of the tooth. Conclusions The angulation and the vertical position of the delayed tooth appear to be important in trying to predict eruption. The improvement of the intraosseus position of the unerupted incisor, obtained by removal of the odontoma and rapid maxillary expansion, permits a conservative surgery and the achievement of an excellent esthetics and periodontal result. PMID:23386930

Pavoni, Chiara; Mucedero, Manuela; Laganà, Giuseppina; Paoloni, Valeria; Cozza, Paola

2012-01-01

87

The biology of distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular and craniomaxillofacial defects: A review  

PubMed Central

Limb lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was first described in 1905. The technique did not gain wide acceptance until Gavril Ilizarov identified the physiologic and mechanical factors governing successful regeneration of bone formation. Distraction osteogenesis is a new variation of more traditional orthognathic surgical procedure for the correction of dentofacial deformities. It is most commonly used for the correction of more severe deformities and syndromes of both the maxilla and the mandible and can also be used in children at ages previously untreatable. The basic technique includes surgical fracture of deformed bone, insertion of device, 5-7 days rest, and gradual separation of bony segments by subsequent activation at the rate of 1 mm per day, followed by an 8-12 weeks consolidation phase. This allows surgeons, the lengthening and reshaping of deformed bone. The aim of this paper is to review the principle, technical considerations, applications and limitations of distraction osteogenesis. The application of osteodistraction offers novel solutions for surgical-orthodontic management of developmental anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton as bone may be molded into different shapes along with the soft tissue component gradually thereby resulting in less relapse. PMID:24688555

Natu, Subodh Shankar; Ali, Iqbal; Alam, Sarwar; Giri, Kolli Yada; Agarwal, Anshita; Kulkarni, Vrishali Ajit

2014-01-01

88

Histologic Comparison of Regenerate Bone Produced from Dentate Versus Edentulous Transport Discs in Bone Transport Distraction Osteogenesis  

E-print Network

the preservation of intact tooth structure in surgeries where massive tissue loss is problematic. Dentoalveolar distraction has been used to rapidly move canines through extraction sites 14 in humans (Moore, Campbell et al. 2011). The technique performed... extraction site. The purpose of the osteotomies is to remove the mesial and the apical bone because it is thought that this procedure will promote angiogenesis and bone healing from an increased vascular supply to the dentoalveolar segment. This vascular...

Sevilla Gaitan, Carlos

2013-12-10

89

Endoscopic sinus surgery for maxillary sinus mucoceles  

PubMed Central

Background Maxillary sinus mucoceles are relatively rare among all paranasal sinus mucoceles. With the introduction of endoscopic sinus surgical techniques, rhinologic surgeons prefer transnasal endoscopic management of sinus mucoceles. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical presentation of maxillary sinus mucoceles and to establish the efficacy of endoscopic management of sinus mucoceles. Methods Between 2003 and 2005, 14 patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for maxillary sinus mucocele. The presenting sign and symptoms, radiological findings, surgical management and need for revision surgery were reviewed. Results There were eight males and six females with an age range of 14 to 65. Ten patients complained of nasal obstruction, five of nasal drainage, five of cheek pressure or pain and one of proptosis of the eye and cheek swelling. The maxillary sinus and ipsilateral ethmoid sinus involvement on computed tomographic studies was seen in 4 patients. Four patients had history of endoscopic ethmoidectomy surgery for ethmoid sinusitis and one had Caldwell-Luc operation in the past. Ethmoidectomy with middle meatal antrostomy and marsupialization of the mucocele was performed in all patients. Postoperative follow-up ranged between 8 to 48 months. All patients had a patent middle meatal antrostomy and healthy maxillary sinus mucosa. No patients need revision surgery. Conclusion The most common causes of mucoceles are chronic infection, allergic sinonasal disease, trauma and previous surgery. In 64% of the patients of our study cause remains uncertain. Endoscopic sinus surgery is an effective treatment for maxillary sinus mucoceles with a favorable long-term outcome. PMID:16953897

Caylakli, Fatma; Yavuz, Haluk; Cagici, Alper Can; Ozluoglu, Levent Naci

2006-01-01

90

Glossectomy as an adjunct to correct an open-bite malocclusion with shortened maxillary central incisor roots.  

PubMed

A young man, 19 years of age, with the chief complaint of an anterior open bite, came for orthodontic treatment with a skeletal Class I relationship, anterior open bite, shortened maxillary incisor roots, and relative macroglossia. The malocclusion was treated by extracting the maxillary first premolars and using a fixed edgewise appliance. A partial glossectomy was performed before the orthognathic surgery with a 3-piece segmental LeFort I mandibular setback, and advancement was achieved with a reduction genioplasty. A functional and esthetic occlusion with an improved facial profile was established, and the apex of the maxillary left central incisor became slightly rounded after prolonged and significant tooth movement. Four years after treatment, there was occlusal stability of the results, and no further root shortening was observed. PMID:23810054

Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Guariza-Filho, Odilon; Carlini, João Luiz; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; Pithon, Matheus Mello; Camargo, Elisa Souza

2013-07-01

91

Development of a mechanical testing system for a mandibular distraction wound.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a mechanical testing system to estimate stiffness of an experimental porcine mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) wound. The system was designed to function without changing the morphology of the healing mandible. A customized jig was designed to allow cantilever-bending tests of the Yucatan mini-pig hemi-mandible. Experimental and control hemi-mandibles were placed in the jig and the proximal segment was secured. A material testing unit applied progressively increasing downward force on the pre-molar occlusal surface. The maximum force applied was 0.030 kN. The stiffness value for each hemi-mandible was represented by the slope of the plot of force (kN) vs displacement (mm). Radiographs were taken before and after mechanical testing to demonstrate any gross morphologic changes or identifiable fractures across the distraction wound. A total of 24 mini-pigs underwent DO of the right mandible with 0-day latency and distraction rates of 1, 2, and 4 mm per day resulting in a 12 mm gap. At the completion of 0, 8, 16, and 24 days of neutral fixation, two animals for each of three different distraction rates were sacrificed for mechanical testing. Stiffness of control hemi-mandibles ranged between 0.018 and 0.317 kN/mm (median 0.063; mean 0.099 +/- 0.080). Stiffness of experimental hemi-mandibles ranged between 0 and 0.025 kN/mm (median 0.004; mean 0.005). The subset that was tested at the end of neutral fixation had stiffness between 0.005 and 0.025 (median 0.011; mean 0.012 +/- 0.011). No morphologic changes were evident on the X-rays after testing. The results indicate that the cantilever-bending model is useful for testing stiffness of an experimental mandibular DO wound without destroying its morphology. PMID:14759112

Perrott, D H; Rahn, B; Wahl, D; Linke, B; Thurüller, P; Troulis, M; Glowacki, J; Kaban, L B

2003-10-01

92

Boredom and Distraction in Multiple Unmanned Boredom and Distraction in Multiple Unmanned Vehicle Supervisory Control  

E-print Network

Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA Operators currently controlling Unmanned Aerial Vehicles report in autonomous flight control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it is not uncommon in search and reconnaissance: boredom, distraction, multiple unmanned vehicles, human supervisory control, task load, workload 1

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

93

[An extensive case of maxillary pneumosinus dilatans].  

PubMed

We present a 40-year-old male with an aggressive case of maxillary pneumosinus dilatans. Our examination including rhinoscopy showed that the nasal wall including the middle turbinate was displaced towards the nasal septum obliterating the middle meatus. A reopening of the affected maxillary sinus was performed endoscopically with success. At the follow-up examination and exposure to high altitude simulation in an underpressure chamber 15 months postoperatively the patient had no symptoms and there were no signs of exopthalmus or facial swelling. PMID:12830759

Juhl, Hans J; von Buchwald, Christian; Bollinger, Birgit; Jansen, Erik

2003-05-26

94

Assessment of Distracted Driving At Highway-Rail Grade Crossings  

E-print Network

was talking to passenger followed by cell phone usage Cell phone usage is perhaps one of the few distractive ways to cut down on cell phone usage Effects of enforcement of existing laws Conduct research with distracted driving #12;Types of Secondary Tasks Talking to front seat passenger Eating/drinking Cell phone

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

95

THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL DISTRACTION ON DRIVER VISUAL BEHAVIOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver distraction can arise from sources internal as well as external to the driver. In this paper we describe a study (in progress) designed to examine the influence of internal distraction, created by cognitive tasks, on drivers' visual behavior and vehicle control. Sixteen drivers will drive a city route while carrying out tasks of varying cognitive complexity. The tasks and

Joanne L. Harbluk; Y. Ian Noy; Moshe Eizenman

96

Distracted walking: Cell phones increase injury risk for college pedestrians  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionDistraction on cell phones jeopardizes motor-vehicle driver safety, but few studies examine distracted walking. At particular risk are college students, who walk frequently in and near traffic, have increased pedestrian injury rates compared to other age groups, and frequently use cell phones. Method: Using an interactive and immersive virtual environment, two experiments studied the effect of cell phone conversation on

Despina Stavrinos; Katherine W. Byington; David C. Schwebel

2011-01-01

97

Distractions and the risk of car crash injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Motor-vehicle accidents are one of the major causes of injury in most motorized countries. Driver distractions have been suggested as a contributor to traffic accidents. Moreover, age of the driver seems to have a role in the relationship between distractions and car crashes. But very few studies have investigated the effect of driver's age on this relationship. This exploratory

Lawrence T. Lam

2002-01-01

98

Neuronal Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27…

Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

2013-01-01

99

Interference by Process, Not Content, Determines Semantic Auditory Distraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic…

Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2009-01-01

100

Policy Statement and Compiled FAQs on Distracted Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... to combat this problem? NHTSA will implement its new multi-year Distraction Plan and Research Agenda that will further examine driver ... address distracted driving in their Strategic Highway Safety Plans. Our state and ... and New York to determine whether the high visibility enforcement ...

101

Three-dimensional analysis of maxillary changes associated with facemask and rapid maxillary expansion compared with bone anchored maxillary protraction  

PubMed Central

Introduction Our objectives in this study were to evaluate in 3 dimensions the growth and treatment effects on the midface and the maxillary dentition produced by facemask therapy in association with rapid maxillary expansion (RME/FM) compared with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP). Methods Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusion were treated with either RME/FM (n = 21) or BAMP (n = 25). Three-dimensional models generated from cone-beam computed tomographic scans, taken before and after approximately 1 year of treatment, were registered on the anterior cranial base and measured using color-coded maps and semitransparent overlays. Results The skeletal changes in the maxilla and the right and left zygomas were on average 2.6 mm in the RME/FM group and 3.7 mm in the BAMP group; these were different statistically. Seven RME/FM patients and 4 BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical displacement of the maxilla. The dental changes at the maxillary incisors were on average 3.2 mm in the RME/FM group and 4.3 mm in the BAMP group. Ten RME/FM patients had greater dental compensations than skeletal changes. Conclusions This 3-dimensional study shows that orthopedic changes can be obtained with both RME/FM and BAMP treatments, with protraction of the maxilla and the zygomas. Approximately half of the RME/FM patients had greater dental than skeletal changes, and a third of the RME/FM compared with 17% of the BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical maxillary displacement. PMID:24182587

Hino, Claudia Toyama; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Nguyen, Tung T.; De Clerck, Hugo J.; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A.

2014-01-01

102

Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress. Results The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises) stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. Conclusions Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction. PMID:24626249

XUE, Junjie; YE, Niansong; YANG, Xin; WANG, Sheng; WANG, Jing; WANG, Yan; LI, Jingyu; MI, Congbo; LAI, Wenli

2014-01-01

103

Maxillary surgical seeding of a clival chordoma.  

PubMed

Seeding on surgical pathway is a rare form of clival chordoma treatment failure. We report the case of a 42-year-old male with a clival chondroid chordoma removed by a sublabial transsphenoidal approach followed by proton beam radiotherapy, who developed a maxillary bone recurrence 3 years after surgery. PMID:21899379

Zemmoura, Ilyess; Ben Ismail, Mounir; Travers, Nadine; Jan, Michel; François, Patrick

2012-02-01

104

Primary malignant melanoma of maxillary gingiva.  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma of maxillary gingiva is a rare clinical entity. Mucosal melanoma is more aggressive than cutaneous form and carries comparatively poorer prognosis. High index of suspicion is required for diagnosing malignant melanoma of oral cavity. Any pigmented lesion in the oral cavity should be taken seriously by the clinician. PMID:25177127

Thakur, Sudhir Kumar; Jha, Somen; Singh, Sarabjeet; Yadav, Anubha

2014-06-01

105

Immediate mandibular distraction in mandibular hypoplasia and upper airway obstruction.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis of the mandible has become an alternative to tracheostomy in infants and children who present with upper airway obstruction due to micrognathia. To avoid prolonged intubation during distraction, we have implemented a protocol of immediate distraction at the time of distractor placement, which results in acute airway improvement. Over 2 years, 22 patients with micrognathia and severe airway obstruction have undergone mandibular distractor placement. Indications for surgery were apnea and desaturations with feeding. Resorbable distraction devices were placed bilaterally and activated to 5 to 8 mm. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 was placed in the gap. Distraction was implemented at postoperative day 2 at 2 mm/d. Forty-four distraction devices were placed in 22 patients (68% male, 32% female) with a mean age of 24.1 months (range, 3 days to 5.5 years). The average distance of distraction performed in the operating room was 5 mm. The average total distraction was 24 mm performed over 12 days. Overall, 89% of patients were extubated after distractor placement in the operating room. Two patients with difficult intubations were extubated 7 days later in the operating room with otolaryngology. Of the 4 tracheostomy patients, 1 patient was decannulated, whereas 3 patients are pending postoperative sleep studies. One patient had a minor wound complication. Tracheostomy and prolonged intubation in patients with mandibular hypoplasia have significant morbidity and mortality. We have implemented a successful protocol of immediate distraction in the operating room with placement of bone morphogenetic protein. Immediate distraction appears to be an effective method of avoiding postoperative intubation and tracheostomy. PMID:23154361

Schoemann, Mark B; Burstein, Fernando D; Bakthavachalam, Sivi; Williams, Joseph K

2012-11-01

106

Distractions a Bigger Problem Distractions at the office are hardly new, but as screens multiply and managers push  

E-print Network

and complexity of their message dictate whether to use cell phones, office phones or email. Truly urgent messagesOn the Job Distractions a Bigger Problem than Ever Distractions at the office are hardly new and complex issues merited phone calls or in-person conversations, while email was reserved for messages

Oliver, Douglas L.

107

Complications of misdiagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption.  

PubMed

Ectopic eruption of maxillary canines can be associated with root resorption of adjacent teeth. This case report describes and discusses an interesting case of a 15-year-old girl with a Class III malocclusion and an impacted maxillary canine. Because of the unfavorable position of the ectopic canine and the severe root resorption of the maxillary left central and lateral incisors, the treatment options included extraction of the maxillary permanent canines. The mandibular first premolars were extracted to compensate for the Class III malocclusion. A panoramic radiograph taken earlier in the mixed dentition already indicated a possible eruption disturbance of the maxillary left permanent canine. The importance of early diagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption is highlighted in this case report. The early identification of radiographic signs of an ectopic pathway of eruption should be followed by deciduous canine extraction to prevent canine retention and maxillary incisor root resorption. PMID:22858336

Garib, Daniela Gamba; Janson, Guilherme; Baldo, Taiana de Oliveira; dos Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra

2012-08-01

108

Simultaneous Sinus Lifting and Alveolar Distraction of a Severely Atrophic Posterior Maxilla for Oral Rehabilitation with Dental Implants  

PubMed Central

We retrospectively reviewed a new preimplantation regenerative augmentation technique for a severely atrophic posterior maxilla using sinus lifting with simultaneous alveolar distraction, together with long-term oral rehabilitation with implants. We also analyzed the regenerated bone histomorphologically. This study included 25 maxillary sinus sites in 17 patients. The technique consisted of alveolar osteotomy combined with simultaneous sinus lifting. After sufficient sinus lifting, a track-type vertical alveolar distractor was placed. Following a latent period, patient self-distraction was started. After the required augmentation was achieved, the distractor was left in place to allow consolidation. The distractor was then removed, and osseointegrated implants (average of 3.2 implants per sinus site, 80 implants) were placed. Bone for histomorphometric analysis was sampled from six patients and compared with samples collected after sinus lifting alone as controls (n = 4). A sufficient alveolus was regenerated, and all patients achieved stable oral rehabilitation. The implant survival rate was 96.3% (77/80) after an average postloading followup of 47.5 months. Good bone regeneration was observed in a morphological study, with no significant difference in the rate of bone formation compared with control samples. This new regenerative technique could be a useful option for a severely atrophic maxilla requiring implant rehabilitation. PMID:22792105

Kanno, Takahiro; Mitsugi, Masaharu; Paeng, Jun-Young; Sukegawa, Shintaro; Furuki, Yoshihiko; Ohwada, Hiroyuki; Nariai, Yoshiki; Ishibashi, Hiroaki; Katsuyama, Hideaki; Sekine, Joji

2012-01-01

109

Deferoxamine Expedites Consolidation during Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background A limitation of mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (DO) is the length of time required for consolidation. This drawback subjects patients to possible pin-site infections, as well as a prolonged return to activities of normal daily living. Developing innovative techniques to abridge consolidation periods could be immensely effective in preventing these problematic morbidities. Deferoxamine (DFO) is an angiogenic activator that triggers the HIF-1? pathway through localized iron depletion. We previously established the effectiveness of DFO in enhancing regenerate vascularity at a full consolidation period (28 days) in a murine mandibular DO model. To investigate whether this augmentation in vascularity would function to accelerate consolidation, we progressively shortened consolidation periods prior to ?CT imaging and biomechanical testing (BMT). Materials and Methods Three time points (14d, 21d and 28d) were selected and six groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were equally divided into control (C) and experimental (E) groups for each time period. Each group underwent external fixator placement, mandibular osteotomy, and a 5.1mm distraction. During distraction, the experimental groups were treated with DFO injections into the regenerate gap. After consolidation, mandibles were imaged and tension tested to failure. ANOVA was conducted between groups, and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results At 14 days of consolidation the experimental group demonstrated significant increases in Bone Volume Fraction (BVF), Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Ultimate Load (UL) in comparison to non-treated controls. The benefit of treatment was further substantiated by a striking 100% increase in the number of bony unions at this early time-period (C:4/10 vs. E:8/10). Furthermore, metrics of BVF, BMD, Yield and UL at 14 days with treatment demonstrated comparable metrics to those of the fully consolidated 28d control group. Conclusion Based on these findings, we contend that augmentation of vascular density through localized DFO injection delivers an efficient means for accelerating bone regeneration without significantly impacting bone quality or strength. PMID:23598047

Donneys, Alexis; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Johnson, Kelsey L.; Blough, Jordan T.; Perosky, Joseph E.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Felice, Peter A.; Nelson, Noah S.; Farberg, Aaron S.; Levi, Benjamin; Buchman, Steven R.

2014-01-01

110

Assessing the awareness of performance decrements in distracted drivers.  

PubMed

Many studies have documented the performance decrements associated with driver distractions; however, few have examined drivers' awareness of these distraction effects. The current study measured how well-calibrated drivers are with respect to performance decrements from distracting tasks. In this test track study, 40 younger and older drivers completed a series of tasks on a hand-held or hands-free cell phone while driving around a course in an instrumented vehicle. Subjective estimates of performance decrements were compared to actual performance decrements. Although their driving performance suffered in dual-task conditions, drivers were generally not well-calibrated to the magnitude of the distraction effects (r=-.38 to .16). In some cases, estimates of distraction were opposite of the observed effects (i.e., smaller estimates of distraction corresponded to larger performance deficits). Errors in calibration were unassociated with several measures of overconfidence in safety and skill, among other variables. We discuss the implications of these findings for potential mitigation strategies for distracted driving. PMID:18329420

Horrey, William J; Lesch, Mary F; Garabet, Angela

2008-03-01

111

The causes and consequences of distraction in everyday driving.  

PubMed

To document drivers' exposure to potential distractions and the effects of these distractions on driving performance, inconspicuous video camera units were mounted in the vehicles of 70 volunteer subjects. The camera units automatically recorded a closeup view of the driver's face, a broader view of the interior of the vehicle, and the roadway immediately ahead of the vehicle whenever it was powered on. Three hours of randomly selected data per subject were coded based on a taxonomy of driver distractions (talking on cell phone, eating, tuning radio, etc.), contextual variables (whether vehicle stopped or moving, road type, traffic level, etc.) and observable measures of driver performance (eyes directed inside or outside vehicle, hands on or off steering wheel, and vehicle position in travel lane). Results were analyzed descriptively and using nonparametric bootstrap analysis techniques. The most common distractions in terms of overall event durations were eating and drinking (including preparations to eat or drink), distractions inside the vehicle (reaching or looking for an object, manipulating vehicle controls, etc.), and distractions outside the vehicle (often unidentified). Although many of the distractions were also associated with negative driving performance outcomes, further research is needed to clarify their impact on driving safety. PMID:12941228

Stutts, Jane; Feaganes, John; Rodgman, Eric; Hamlett, Charles; Reinfurt, Donald; Gish, Kenneth; Mercadante, Michael; Staplin, Loren

2003-01-01

112

Variations of maxillary sinus and accompanying anatomical and pathological structures.  

PubMed

Hypoplasia and aplasia of maxillary sinus, maxillary sinus septae, ethmomaxillary sinus, superior meatus-draining maxillary sinus, and over-pneumatization are the variations of maxillary sinuses. Findings such as uncinate process abnormality, orbital enlargement, sphenomaxillary plate, canine fossa elevation, infraorbital fissure enlargement, thickening of the sinus wall and mucosal pathologies can be seen together with these variations. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and morphology of the anatomical variations of maxillary sinus and accompanying structures. A total of 330 consecutive paranasal sinus computed tomography scans of the patients presenting with sinonasal complaints at our ENT department were assessed for maxillary sinus anatomical variations and related structures. There were 134 (20.3%) anteriorly and 17 (2.5%) posteriorly localized maxillary sinus bony septa. The position of antral septa was frequently vertical at anterior, and horizontal at posterior. We found significant correlation between the anteriorly localized maxillary sinus septa and infraorbital fissure enlargement. Maxillary sinus hypoplasia was found in 31 (4.6%) maxillary sinuses. Seven (1.0%) ethmomaxillary sinuses were assessed. Significant correlation was found between maxillary sinus hypoplasia and orbital enlargement. Presence of mucosal pathology was significant in patients with maxillary sinus septa, but there was no difference when it was compared with the mucosal pathology in the nonseptated group. There was no significant correlation between other anatomical variations and mucosal pathologies. Determining the anatomical variations of maxillary sinus and accompanying structures in patients planning endoscopic sinus surgery will significantly help with providing surgical orientation and preventing possible complications. PMID:18216682

Selcuk, Adin; Ozcan, Kursat Murat; Akdogan, Ozgur; Bilal, Nagihan; Dere, Huseyin

2008-01-01

113

Mucosal cavernous hemangioma of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Mucosal cavernous hemangiomas of maxillary sinus and the lateral nasal wall are seldom encountered and difficult to diagnose with misleading radiologic features like bone erosion and heterogeneity due to patchy contrast uptake. The overall picture mimicking sinonasal malignancy, it is unclear whether there is true breach in the bone or remodeling due to the lesion's chronicity. Interestingly, it often does not bleed as expected during surgery, questioning the use of therapeutic embolization and pre-intervention vascular shrinkage. The clinical presentation and management protocol of sinonasal cavernous hemangiomas seem greatly individualized. We here present a patient with cavernous hemangioma of maxillary sinus and discuss the distinguishing clinical, histologic and imaging characteristics and subsequent management options, and attempt to establish the findings as the basis of considering it as an important differential diagnosis of radiologically heterogeneous sinonasal mass with suspected bone erosions presenting with nasal obstruction and epistaxis, mostly in young women. PMID:25644804

Dutta, Mainak; Kundu, Sohag; Barik, Sabyasachi; Banerjee, Shoham; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

2015-02-01

114

Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow  

PubMed Central

A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma. PMID:22788782

2012-01-01

115

Doubled foramen rotundum and maxillary nerve fenestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the doubled foramen rotundum (FR) can be identified once within the literature, there are no details of the contents\\u000a at that level. We present here an anatomical case demonstrating the maxillary nerve (MN) duplication at the level of an unilateral\\u000a doubled FR: the accessory nervous trunk of the MN separately left the trigeminal ganglion on the outer side

Mugurel Constantin Rusu

116

Effects of airway problems on maxillary growth: a review.  

PubMed

The volume of air passing through the nose and nasopharinx is limited by its shape and diameter. Continuous airflow through the nasal passage during breathing induces a constant stimulus for the lateral growth of maxilla and for lowering of the palatal vault. Maxillary morphological differences exist between patients with airway problems and control groups, identifying a potential etiological role in these patients. The purpose of this article was to review the literature on the interaction between airway problems and expressed maxillary morphology including specific dental and skeletal malocclusions. Statistically significant differences were found between patients with airway problems and control groups, in maxillary skeletal morphology including shorter maxillary length, more proclined maxillary incisors, thicker and longer soft palate, narrower maxillary arch and higher palatal vault. PMID:19756202

Gungor, Ahmet Yalcin; Turkkahraman, Hakan

2009-07-01

117

Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies  

PubMed Central

Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

2014-01-01

118

Enamel thickness of human maxillary molars reconsidered.  

PubMed

Forty-four modern human maxillary molars (M1 = 21, M2 = 12, and M3 = 11) were sectioned through the mesial cusps in a plane perpendicular to the cervical margin of the crown. Eight measurements of enamel thickness as well as bucco-lingual (BL) and mesio-distal (MD) diameters were recorded for each tooth in order to investigate differences in these dimensions between tooth categories. Uni- and multi-variate analyses revealed first maxillary molars to have generally thinner enamel than second or third upper molars, especially with regard to the occlusal basin. Furthermore, the decrease of MD diameters from anterior to posterior is greater than that of BL diameters. Principal Component Analysis using enamel thickness measurements resulted in complete separation of first molars, while second and third maxillary molars showed a certain amount of overlap. This finding casts doubt on using an overall measure of "molar enamel thickness" derived from mixed samples of molars for taxonomic purposes. There appears to be a relationship between bite force and enamel thickness such that posterior molars, where masticatory forces are stronger, have thicker enamel than anterior teeth. It is suggested that the gradient of enamel thickness between (and within) teeth in extant and extinct species may thus provide further information about relative wear resistance as well as the biomechanical constraints of the orofacial skeleton. PMID:8273831

Macho, G A; Berner, M E

1993-10-01

119

ZHANG, YU. Visual and Cognitive Distraction Effects on Driver Behavior and an Approach to Distraction State Classification. (Under the direction of Dr. David B. Kaber).  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT ZHANG, YU. Visual and Cognitive Distraction Effects on Driver Behavior and an Approach to Distraction State Classification. (Under the direction of Dr. David B. Kaber). Contemporary in-vehicle devices

Kaber, David B.

120

Distracted Driving in the United States and Europe  

MedlinePLUS

... Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ... Growing Problem of Driver Distraction [PDF - 180KB] Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

121

Distraction As A Source Of Drive In Social Facilitation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates that in a replication of a well known social facilitation study, subjects show indications across several measures of being more distracted in audience conditions than when they are alone. Subjects were 55 college students. (MP)

Baron, Robert Steven; And Others

1978-01-01

122

75 FR 45696 - Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0194] Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

2010-08-03

123

Individual differences in distractibility: An update and a model  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the current literature on individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of background sound on visual-verbal task performance. A large body of evidence suggests that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) underpin individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction in most tasks and contexts. Specifically, high WMC is associated with a more steadfast locus of attention (thus overruling the call for attention that background noise may evoke) and a more constrained auditory-sensory gating (i.e., less processing of the background sound). The relation between WMC and distractibility is a general framework that may also explain distractibility differences between populations that differ along variables that covary with WMC (such as age, developmental disorders, and personality traits). A neurocognitive task-engagement/distraction trade-off (TEDTOFF) model that summarizes current knowledge is outlined and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:25632345

Sörqvist, Patrik; Rönnberg, Jerker

2014-01-01

124

Investigation of maxillary preprosthetic situations after oral tumor treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to investigate the maxillary preprosthetic situation after oral tumor treatment and\\/or reconstructive surgery, based\\u000a on the review of case history and the clinical records 47 cases were analyzed after oral tumor treatment and\\/or reconstruction,\\u000a including residual maxillary bone, intermaxillary relationships, defection of maxilla and oral situation after radiation therapy.\\u000a The results showed that the residual maxillary bone was

Cao Yingguang; Sun Guohong; Thomas Weischer

2004-01-01

125

Gender differences in the content of cognitive distraction during sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared 220 college men and 237 college women on two types of self?reported cognitive distraction during sex, performance? and appearance?based. We assessed affect, psychological distress, sexual knowledge, attitudes, fantasies, experiences, body image, satisfaction, and sexual function with the Dewgatis Sexual Functioning Inventory and the Sexual History Form to determine associations with distraction. Between?gender analyses revealed that women reported

Marta Meana; Sarah E. Nunnink

2006-01-01

126

The neural bases of distracter-resistant working memory  

PubMed Central

A major difference between humans and other animals is our capacity to maintain information in working memory (WM) while performing secondary tasks, which enables sustained, complex cognition. A common assumption is that the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for WM performance in the presence of distracters, but direct evidence is scarce. We assessed the relationship between fMRI activity and WM performance within-subjects, with performance matched across Distracter and No-distracter conditions. Activity in ventrolateral PFC during WM encoding and maintenance positively predicted performance in both conditions, whereas activity in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) predicted performance only under distraction. Other parts of dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC predicted performance only in the No-distracter condition. These findings challenge a lateral PFC-centered view of distracter-resistance, and suggest that the lateral PFC supports a type of WM representation that is efficient for dealing with task-irrelevant input but is nonetheless easily disrupted by dual-task demands. PMID:24366656

Wager, Tor D.; Spicer, Julie; Insler, Rachel; Smith, Edward E.

2014-01-01

127

Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis with intra-articular distraction.  

PubMed

Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis has shown high rates of union comparable to those with open arthrodesis but with substantially less postoperative morbidity, shorter operative times, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stays. To easily perform arthroscopic resection of the articular cartilage, sufficient distraction of the joint is necessary to insert the arthroscope and instruments. However, sometimes, standard noninvasive ankle distraction will not be sufficient in post-traumatic ankle arthritis, with the development of arthrofibrosis and joint contracture after severe ankle trauma. In the present report, we describe a technique to distract the ankle joint by inserting a 4.6-mm stainless steel cannula with a blunt trocar inside the joint. The cannula allowed sufficient intra-articular distraction, and, at the same time, a 4.0-mm arthroscope can be inserted through the cannula to view the joint. Screws can be inserted to fix the joint under fluoroscopic guidance without changing the patient's position or removing the noninvasive distraction device and leg holder, which are often necessary during standard arthroscopic arthrodesis with noninvasive distraction. PMID:24717518

Kim, Hyong Nyun; Jeon, June Young; Noh, Kyu Cheol; Kim, Hong Kyun; Dong, Quanyu; Park, Yong Wook

2014-01-01

128

Effects of internal and external distraction and focus during exposure to blood-injury-injection stimuli.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effects of attentional focus on fear reduction during exposure. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions: exposure plus internal focus, exposure plus external focus, exposure plus internal distraction, exposure plus external distraction or exposure alone. Fifty blood-injury-injection fearful participants received 3 weekly exposure sessions. Participants in the distraction group reported the greatest fear reduction, with most notable reductions occurring for the external distraction condition. The distraction group also achieved a greater number of steps on a behavioral avoidance task at post-treatment, with the external distraction condition displaying greater approach behavior at follow-up. At follow-up the distraction group also displayed a greater increase in perceived control than the focusing group. Thus, distraction reduces fear within and between sessions and increases approach behavior in the longer-term, with exposure plus external distraction further facilitating this effect. PMID:17321105

Oliver, Naomi S; Page, Andrew C

2008-01-01

129

Modified transversal sagittal maxillary expander for correction of upper midline deviation associated with maxillary arch deficiency.  

PubMed

The transversal sagittal maxillary expander (TSME) is a fixed device designed to develop arch form in patients with constricted dental arches. The present article describes a modified TSME appliance, the activation method, the therapeutic benefits as well as clinical advantages. The appliance has two molar bands, a Hyrax-type transverse expansion screw, one 0.045-inch wire extending from the molar band to the palatal surface of the central incisor in the emiarch crossbite and an 8 mm-Hyrax-type screw attached to this wire between the molar band and the incisor. A buccal arm with a terminal loop is welded to the band in the emiarch and it is extended to the labial surface on the central incisor on the side opposite to the crossbite and the maxillary midline deviation. The modified TSME appliance described in this paper are specifically designed for anteroposterior and transverse development. It has a sagittal effect on the maxillary alveolar process and at the same time allow to restore the correct transverse maxillary diameters. PMID:25747426

Maspero, C; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Farronato, G

2015-04-01

130

Pathological changes in the maxillary sinus mucosae of patients with recurrent odontogenic maxillary sinusitis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the structural and functional changes of maxillary sinus mucosae of patients with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis, and to improve the therapeutic effects. Methods: Ten mucosal biopsy samples collected during the surgeries of patients with recurrent odontogenic maxillary sinusitis were selected as Group A. Another ten mucosal biopsy sample were collected during retention cyst-removing surgeries and referred to as Group B. The mucosae were put in 10% neutral formalin solution for 1 day and prepared into 5-7 µm thick paraffin sections which were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin staining. The reactions included: (1) Reaction with T-lymphocyte (CD-3); (2) reaction with T-helper cell (CD-4); (3) reaction with T-suppressing cell (CD-8); (4) reaction with B-lymphocyte (CD-20). Polymeric horseradish peroxidase visualized detection system was used. The contents of CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD20 in the stained cells of the maxillary sinus mucosal layer were calculated. The responses of receptors to muramidase were classified as mild, moderate and strong. All data were analyzed by Statistica 6.0 package for Windows based on Mann-Whitney non-parametric standards. Results: The epithelial tissues in the maxillary sinus mucosa of Group B were covered with multiple rows of cilia. The epithelial cells of Group A suffered from degeneration, shrinkage and desquamation. Different cells were distributed in the autologous mucosal layer, of which macrophages, fibroblasts, lymphocytes and neutrophils were dominant. The average contents of macrophages and lymphocytes accounted for 42.8%. Lymphocyte subset analysis showed that the number of CD3 cells exceeded that of CD20 ones and there were more CD4+ cells than CD8+ ones. T-helper and T-suppressing cells were distributed remarkably differently. CD8+ cells were mainly located inside and under the epithelium, while CD4+ cells were scattered in the autologous matrix. Conclusion: For patients with recurrent odontogenic maxillary sinusitis, the maxillary sinus mucosa mainly suffered from regeneration of epithelial tissues and inhibition of cell proliferation, which were accompanied by damages to the protective and shielding effects of the mucociliary transport system. Macrophages and lymphocytes dominated in the infiltration of autologous mucosal layer, and the coexisting copious fibroblasts indicated the onset of inflammation. PMID:25225509

Feng, Lin; Li, Hua; E, Ling-Ling; Li, Chuan-Jie; Ding, Yan

2014-01-01

131

Measuring mesiodistal width of impacted maxillary canines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  Precise, three-dimensional localization of impacted maxillary canines is central to their clinical management. Predicting\\u000a precisely the crown’s mesiodistal width is paramount in planning orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to verify\\u000a the exact mesiodistal width of impacted canines via MSCT (multislice spiral computed tomography) examinations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  3D MSCT images from 17 patients with a total of 24

Elisabeth Hofmann; Jürgen Medelnik; Thomas Keller; Stefanie Steinhäuser; Ursula Hirschfelder

2011-01-01

132

Distraction-induced intestinal growth: the role of mechanotransduction mechanisms in a mouse model of short bowel syndrome.  

PubMed

Novel strategies are needed to address the problem of patients with short bowel syndrome. We previously demonstrated a three-fold lengthening of pig bowel after 2 weeks of applied distractive forces, but we have not elucidated the mechanisms facilitating this growth. We used a mouse model of distraction-induced enterogenesis. High molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) osmotically stretched an isolated small bowel segment (PEG-stretch). Significant increases in villus height and crypt depth and in intestinal epithelial cell length and numbers suggested epithelial remodeling in addition to proliferation during enterogenesis. LC-MS/MS analysis showed a two-fold upregulation of ?-actinin-1 and -4. We also demonstrated that p-focal adhesion kinase (FAK), FAK, ?-actinin, and Rac1 were significantly upregulated and that F-actin was relocalized in PEG-stretch versus controls. Blockade of the phosphotidyl inositol 3' kinase pathway failed to influence the increase in proliferation or decline in apoptosis after stretch, suggesting alternative signaling pathways are used, including MEK and P38MAPK, which were both upregulated during enterogenesis. Our data suggests that several known mechanotransduction pathways drive distraction-induced enterogenesis. PMID:24070252

Sueyoshi, Ryo; Woods Ignatoski, Kathleen M; Okawada, Manabu; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

2014-02-01

133

Distraction-Induced Intestinal Growth: The Role of Mechanotransduction Mechanisms in a Mouse Model of Short Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Novel strategies are needed to address the problem of patients with short bowel syndrome. We previously demonstrated a three-fold lengthening of pig bowel after 2 weeks of applied distractive forces, but we have not elucidated the mechanisms facilitating this growth. We used a mouse model of distraction-induced enterogenesis. High molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) osmotically stretched an isolated small bowel segment (PEG-stretch). Significant increases in villus height and crypt depth and in intestinal epithelial cell length and numbers suggested epithelial remodeling in addition to proliferation during enterogenesis. LC-MS/MS analysis showed a two-fold upregulation of ?-actinin-1 and -4. We also demonstrated that p-focal adhesion kinase (FAK), FAK, ?-actinin, and Rac1 were significantly upregulated and that F-actin was relocalized in PEG-stretch versus controls. Blockade of the phosphotidyl inositol 3? kinase pathway failed to influence the increase in proliferation or decline in apoptosis after stretch, suggesting alternative signaling pathways are used, including MEK and P38MAPK, which were both upregulated during enterogenesis. Our data suggests that several known mechanotransduction pathways drive distraction-induced enterogenesis. PMID:24070252

Sueyoshi, Ryo; Ignatoski, Kathleen M. Woods; Okawada, Manabu

2014-01-01

134

Prevalence of and factors associated with distraction among public transit bus drivers  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent research has suggested that driver distraction is a major cause of driving performance impairment and motor vehicle collisions. Research on the topic has focused on passenger vehicles, with studies suggesting that drivers may be distracted nearly 33% of the time spent driving. To date, no study has examined the prevalence of distraction specifically among public transit bus drivers. Methods Over a three-month period, trained investigators observed and recorded distraction behaviors of bus drivers. Distraction prevalence was compared by route characteristics (e.g., geographic area, travel speed) using chi-square test. A general estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate p-values for distraction prevalence by driver demographics. Results Overall, there was a 39% prevalence of distraction. The most prevalent distractions were due to interactions with another passenger. Distractions were more prevalent among drivers <30 years of age or ?50 years of age, on city streets or highways (relative to residential streets), and when there were more than 20 passengers. Distractions were the least prevalent in suburban areas, with the highest prevalence observed in city centers and rural areas. Conclusions Driver distraction is a common problem for public transit bus drivers, mainly due to other passengers. Drivers should be educated on the hazards of distracted driving and on ways to avoid distraction. PMID:24433192

Griffin, Russell; Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald

2015-01-01

135

The Effects of Interactive and Passive Distraction on Cold Pressor Pain in Preschool-aged Children  

PubMed Central

Objective?Using a mixed model design, this study examined the effects of interactive versus passive distraction on healthy preschool-aged children’s cold pressor pain tolerance.?Methods?Sixty-one children aged 3–5 years were randomly assigned to one of the following: interactive distraction, passive distraction, or no distraction control. Participants underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by interactive distraction trial, passive distraction trial, or second baseline trial. One or two additional trials followed. Children originally assigned to distraction received the alternate distraction intervention. Controls participated in both interactive and passive distraction trials in counterbalanced order.?Results?Participants showed significantly higher pain tolerance during both interactive and passive distraction relative to baseline. The two distraction conditions did not differ.?Conclusions?Interactive and passive video game distraction appear to be effective for preschool-aged children during laboratory pain exposure. Future studies should examine whether more extensive training would enhance effects of interactive video game distraction. PMID:21278378

Dahlquist, Lynnda M.; Wohlheiter, Karen

2011-01-01

136

Alveolar ridge augmentation using distraction osteogenesis: a clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Severely resorbed ridges present a great challenge to prosthodontic rehabilitation. Available reconstructive options include autologous/alloplastic augmentation with questionable results, or regeneration of new bone under gradual and controlled tension using distraction osteogenesis. This study focused on use of distraction osteogenesis for the treatment of vertically deficient alveolar ridges to assess its feasibility and outcome. Materials and Methods Alveolar distraction osteogenesis (ADO) was studied at 10 different intra-oral, partial or complete edentulous sites. After a latency period of 5 days, distraction was carried out for 6–7 days at the rate of 0.5 mm every 12 hours (1 mm/day). Distractor was removed after a consolidation period of 12 weeks. Results The mean height gained at the 10 intra-oral sites was 4.8 mm with standard deviation of ± 0.056. The mean follow-up period was 2 years. Complications of therapy included hardware failure, wound gape and extra-oral scar. The overall complication rate was 10%. Conclusion Distraction osteogenesis is a promising option to aid uneventful prosthodontic rehabilitation of severe vertically resorbed alveolar ridges.

Shukla, Anand; Singh, Saumyendra V; Kumar, Sumit; Mehrotra, Divya; Mohammad, S; Singh, Stuti

2012-01-01

137

Acetabular distraction: an alternative approach to pelvic discontinuity in failed total hip replacement.  

PubMed

A pelvic discontinuity occurs when the superior and inferior parts of the hemi-pelvis are no longer connected, which is difficult to manage when associated with a failed total hip replacement. Chronic pelvic discontinuity is found in 0.9% to 2.1% of hip revision cases with risk factors including severe pelvic bone loss, female gender, prior pelvic radiation and rheumatoid arthritis. Common treatment options include: pelvic plating with allograft, cage reconstruction, custom triflange implants, and porous tantalum implants with modular augments. The optimal technique is dependent upon the degree of the discontinuity, the amount of available bone stock and the likelihood of achieving stable healing between the two segments. A method of treating pelvic discontinuity using porous tantalum components with a distraction technique that achieves both initial stability and subsequent long-term biological fixation is described. PMID:25381413

Brown, N M; Hellman, M; Haughom, B H; Shah, R P; Sporer, S M; Paprosky, W G

2014-11-01

138

Cervical radiculopathy treated with chiropractic flexion distraction manipulation: a retrospective study in a private practice setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough flexion distraction performed to the lumbar spine is commonly utilized and documented as effective, flexion distraction manipulation performed to the cervical spine has not been adequately studied.

Jason S Schliesser; Ralph Kruse; L. Fleming Fallon

2003-01-01

139

Composite bone and soft tissue loss treated with distraction histiogenesis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe the use of shortening and angulation to manage composite bone and soft tissue loss associated with combat-related type IIIB open tibia fractures. Four patients underwent placement of a software-driven circular fixator with acute shortening and angulation to manage composite bone and soft tissue loss. Frames were applied using the Rings First Method, and an induced deformity was created with the soft tissue defect within the concavity. Distraction histiogenesis was utilized to restore limb length and regenerate soft tissues. Three patients had healed fractures and mature regenerate allowing frame removal, while one remained in his frame for further consolidation. Mechanical alignment and limb length were restored in all patients. No major frame adjustments were required and all distracted soft tissues healed without complication. The article concludes that composite bone and soft tissue loss is effectively managed with distraction histiogenesis and the use of a software-driven circular fixator. PMID:20371003

Beltran, Michael J; Ochoa, Leah M; Graves, Richard M; Hsu, Joseph R

2010-01-01

140

Distracted driving and implications for injury prevention in adults.  

PubMed

Distracted driving, a significant public safety issue, is typically categorized as cell phone use and texting. The increase of distracted driving behavior (DDB) has resulted in an increase in injury and death. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and perception of DDB in adults. A 7-question SurveyMonkey questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of adults. Standard demographics included age, gender, and highest levels of education. Primary outcome questions were related to frequency of DDB, and overall perceptions specific to distracted driving. Results were compared on the basis of demographics. Chi-square testing and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance were applied, with statistical significance defined as P ? .05. There were 1857 respondents to the survey: 1721 were aged 23-64 years (93%); 1511 were women (81%); 1461 had high school education or greater (79%). A total of 168 respondents (9%) reported being involved in a car accident while distracted. The highest reported frequency of DDB included cell phone use (69%), eating/drinking (67%), and reaching for an object in the care (49%). Younger age (18-34 years) and higher level of education (bachelor's degree or greater) were statistically associated with these DDB; gender demonstrated no statistical significance. Text messaging was reported by 538 respondents (29%), with a statistically significant association with age (18-34 years), higher education (bachelor's degree or greater), and gender (males). A total of 1143 respondents (63%) believed that they could drive safely while distracted. This study demonstrates that DDB in adults is not restricted to reading and sending text messages. Moreover, these results indicated that people fail to perceive the dangers inherent in distracted driving. Prevention and outreach education should not be limited to texting and cell phone use but should target all forms of DDB. The age group 18-34 years should be the primary target in the adult population. PMID:23459429

Hoff, Jane; Grell, Jennifer; Lohrman, Nicole; Stehly, Christy; Stoltzfus, Jill; Wainwright, Gail; Hoff, William S

2013-01-01

141

Muscle response to leg lengthening during distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Continuous lengthening of intact muscles during distraction osteogenesis leads to an increase of sarcomeres and enhances the regeneration of tendons and blood vessels. A high distraction rate leads to an excessive leg and muscle lengthening and might cause damages of muscle fibers with fibrosis, necrosis, and muscle weakness. Complications like muscle contractures or atrophy after postoperative immobilization emphazize the importance of muscles and their function in the clinical outcome. In an animal model of distraction osteogenesis, 18 sheep were operated with an external fixator followed by 4 days latency, 21 days distraction (1.25 mm per day) and 51 days consolidation. The anatomical location (gastrocnemius, peroneus tertius, and first flexor digitorum longus muscle), dimension and occurrence of muscular defects were characterized histologically. The callus formation and leg axis was monitored by weekly X-rays. Additionally, serum creatine kinase was analyzed during a distraction and consolidation period. Significant signs of muscle lesions in all three observed muscles can be found postoperatively, whereas normal callus formation and regular leg axis was observed radiologically. The peroneus tertius and first flexor digitorum longus muscles were found to have significantly more signs of fibrosis, inflammatory, and necrosis. Creatine kinase showed two peaks: 4 and 39 days postoperative as an indication of muscle damage and regeneration. The study implicates that muscle damages should be considered when a long-distance distraction osteogenesis is planned. The surgeon should consider these muscle responses and individually discuss a two-stage treatment or additional muscle tendon releases to minimize the risk of muscle damages. PMID:18973235

Thorey, Fritz; Bruenger, Jens; Windhagen, Henning; Witte, Frank

2009-04-01

142

Centralisation of the radial club hand by gradual distraction.  

PubMed

Centralisation of the carpus on top of the distal end of the ulna in radial club hand of types III and IV has been performed by gradual distraction. For this purpose, I have used the apparatus originally developed for lengthening of digital structures and the forearm. This technique avoids extensive dissection and acute stretching of the radial neuro-vascular structures. Experience has shown that gradual distraction is a safe and relatively simple method for correction of the deformity, particularly in long-standing and neglected cases. PMID:2926219

Kessler, I

1989-02-01

143

Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone.  

PubMed

Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. PMID:23579597

Edell, Aimée R; Jung, Jesse J; Solomon, Joel M; Palu, Richard N

2013-01-01

144

Pinhole osteotomy in distraction osteogenesis - a technical note.  

PubMed

A new surgical approach for performing the mandibular osteotomy for distraction osteogenesis is described. In order to minimize trauma to bone caused by the osteotomy - and adjacent soft tissue - caused by excessive stretching - an additional transbuccal pinhole incision is made. The shaft of the saw blade is passed through this incision. This allows a precise cut of the mandibular ramus at the planned angle and easy guidance of the saw during the procedure. The method can be used both with extraoral or intraoral distraction devices in children and adults. PMID:12220992

Hukki, Jyri; Karaharju-Suvanto, Terhi; Hurmerinta, Kirsti; Sahlin, Pelle

2002-06-01

145

Analytics For Distracted Driver Behavior Modeling in Dilemma Zone  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present the results obtained and insights gained through the analysis of TRB contest data. We used exploratory analysis, regression, and clustering models for gaining insights into the driver behavior in a dilemma zone while driving under distraction. While simple exploratory analysis showed the distinguishing driver behavior patterns among different popu- lation groups in the dilemma zone, regression analysis showed statically signification relationships between groups of variables. In addition to analyzing the contest data, we have also looked into the possible impact of distracted driving on the fuel economy.

Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL] [ORNL; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL; Thakur, Gautam [ORNL] [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

146

Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone  

PubMed Central

Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. PMID:23579597

Edell, Aimée R; Jung, Jesse J; Solomon, Joel M; Palu, Richard N

2013-01-01

147

Maxillary antral bone grafts for repair of orbital fractures.  

PubMed

Use of bone from the maxillary antrum to repair defects in the orbital floor was described more than 20 years ago but has not been reported for correction of orbital rim fractures. The method is appealing because the source is contiguous with the recipient site; enhanced exposure might allow better fracture reduction and evacuation of debris and hematoma from the maxillary sinus. The intraoral approach also avoids an external incision and scar, prevents such complications as pneumothorax or dural perforation, and reduces postoperative pain. In 60 cases of orbital and zygomatic complex fractures seen between 1985 and 1990, less than 8% required more extensive graft material than the maxillary antra could provide. To assess the potential advantages of local over extraanatomical bone grafts, we evaluated maxillary antral bone grafts obtained through buccal sulcus incisions in 14 patients for restoration following fractures of the orbit. Several of these patients are described. Bone union was complete in all patients and there was no morbidity related to infection, oroantral fistula formation, dehiscence, or disfigurement. Sufficient bone was available from the uninvolved contralateral side to repair even severely comminuted fractures. In zygomatic complex fractures, maxillary antral grafts appeared to provide additional strength in the region of the fractured maxillary buttress. The success of the procedure in our experience, coupled with the safety of bone harvesting from this source, and the avoidance of an external scar make maxillary antral bone well suited to reconstruction of all areas of the orbit. PMID:1807409

Copeland, M; Meisner, J

1991-04-01

148

The effect of distractions on the crash types of teenage drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teenage drivers are overrepresented in crashes when compared to middle-aged drivers. Driver distraction is becoming a greater concern among this group as in-vehicle devices, opportunities for distractions, and teenage drivers’ willingness to engage in these activities increase. The objective of this study was to determine how different distraction factors impact the crash types that are common among teenage drivers. A

David M. Neyens; Linda Ng Boyle

2007-01-01

149

Real-Time Detection of Driver Cognitive Distraction Using Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As use of in-vehicle information systems (IVISs) such as cell phones, navigation systems, and satellite radios has increased, driver distraction has become an important and growing safety concern. A promising way to overcome this problem is to detect driver distraction and adapt in-vehicle systems accordingly to mitigate such distractions. To realize this strategy, this paper applied support vector machines (SVMs),

Yulan Liang; Michelle L. Reyes; John D. Lee

2007-01-01

150

Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

2010-01-01

151

Issues in the Evaluation of Driver Distraction Associated with In-Vehicle Information and Telecommunications Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of in-vehicle information and telecommunications systems from the standpoint of driver distraction is of great importance to highway safety and the successful deployment of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) initiative. In this paper, several issues are discussed that bear upon the evaluation of distraction associated with such systems are discussed. The range of distraction phenomena that should be

Louis Tijerina

152

Anagram Solution Time and Effects of Distraction, Sex Differences, and Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An anagram task administered to high and low test-anxious subjects under varied levels of external distraction showed a significant main effect of test anxiety for the "hard" anagrams which also interacted with the subjects' sex and distraction. The effects of increments of anxiety arousal produced by distraction are discussed. (Author/CM)

Papsdorf, James D.; And Others

1982-01-01

153

Project Aura: toward distraction-free pervasive computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most precious resource in a computer system is no longer its processor, memory, disk, or network, but rather human attention. Aura aims to minimize distractions on a user's attention, creating an environment that adapts to the user's context and needs. Aura is specifically intended for pervasive computing environments involving wireless communication, wearable or handheld computers, and smart spaces. Human

David Garlan; Daniel P. Siewiorek; Asim Smailagic; Peter Steenkiste

2002-01-01

154

U.S. State and Federal Laws Targeting Distracted Driving  

PubMed Central

Distracted driving has burgeoned with the proliferation of cell phones, global positioning systems and other in-vehicle and personal electronic devices. Annually more than 3,300 people are killed and an additional 400,000 are injured in the United States in distracted driving crashes. The United States (U.S.) federal and state governments have responded to this public health problem with policies and laws; however, a more comprehensive and more effective approach is still needed. Some restrictions on the use of electronic devices while driving by federal employees and some voluntary guidelines and recommendations have been issued. Public opinion polls show support for addressing the issue of distracted driving with state laws. The majority of states have laws banning text messaging while driving and prohibiting the use of an electronic device by teenage or novice drivers. Some states prohibit all drivers from using a hand-held cellphone. Currently no state has a total ban on the use of personal electronic devices while driving. Successful past traffic safety campaigns changing driver behavior have demonstrated the necessity to adopt a “three Es” approach of Enactment of a law, Education of the public about the law, and rigorous Enforcement of the law. Experience reveals that this approach, along with future federal regulation of in-vehicle electronic devices and the employment of technology to limit the use of electronic devices while driving, is needed to alter personal behavior in order to reduce distractions and keep drivers focused on the driving task. PMID:24776229

Catherine Chase, J.D.

2014-01-01

155

Facilitation and Distraction in Short-Term Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's short-term memory was studied under two experimental conditions: one in which recall was expected to be facilitated because of the provision of a study period, and one in which a distracting task was imposed that was expected to interfere with recall. Forty subjects at each of two age levels, 7 and 11 years, were tested in a…

Hagen, John William; Kail, Robert V., Jr.

156

The Development of Selective Attention under Distracting Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty children at each of two age levels (8 and 11 years old) performed a serial position recall task either in a control condition or under visual or auditory distraction and were tested for recall of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information. (Author/JMB)

Zukier, Henry; Hagen, John William

1978-01-01

157

Distraction and Facilitation--Two Faces of the Same Coin?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unexpected and task-irrelevant sounds can capture our attention and may cause distraction effects reflected by impaired performance in a primary task unrelated to the perturbing sound. The present auditory-visual oddball study examines the effect of the informational content of a sound on the performance in a visual discrimination task. The…

Wetzel, Nicole; Widmann, Andreas; Schroger, Erich

2012-01-01

158

Auditory Distraction in Semantic Memory: A Process-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments demonstrate auditory-semantic distraction in tests of memory for semantic category-exemplars. The effects of irrelevant sound on category-exemplar recall are shown to be functionally distinct from those found in the context of serial short-term memory by showing sensitivity to: The lexical-semantic, rather than acoustic,…

Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2008-01-01

159

Bilateral postoperative maxillary cysts after orthognathic surgery: A case report  

PubMed Central

Postoperative maxillary cysts are locally aggressive lesions, usually developing as delayed complications many years after radical antral surgery. This report describes a case of bilateral postoperative maxillary cysts following orthognathic surgery performed approximately 21 years previously. The patient complained of stinging pain on her right cheek. Radiographic examination revealed low-attenuation lesions on both maxillary sinuses with discontinuously corticated margins without distinct expansion or bone destruction. The cysts were enucleated with the removal of metal plates and screws for pain relief. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of postoperative maxillary cysts lined by ciliated, pseudostratified columnar cells. The patient has remained asymptomatic thus far, and there was no evidence of local recurrence at 21 months of postoperative follow-up. PMID:25473641

Lee, Jung-Hye; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun

2014-01-01

160

Oncologic profile of maxillary odontogenic myxoma: A rare case  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an ectomesenchyme derived neoplasm, almost exclusively found in jaws. This article presents a maxillary OM with a brief review of the molecular and proteomic antecedents of OMs, capturing its histopathogenesis. PMID:24124309

Sarkar, Reena Radhikaprasad

2013-01-01

161

Wnt6 is required for maxillary palp formation in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background Wnt6 is an evolutionarily ancient member of the Wnt family. In Drosophila, Wnt6 loss-of-function animals have not yet been reported, hence information about fly Wnt6 function is lacking. In wing discs, Wnt6 is expressed at the dorsal/ventral boundary in a pattern similar to that of wingless, an important regulator of wing size. To test whether Wnt6 also contributes towards wing size regulation, we generated Wnt6 knockout flies. Results Wnt6 knockout flies are viable and have no obvious defect in wing size or planar cell polarity. Surprisingly, Wnt6 knockouts lack maxillary palps. Interestingly, Wnt6 is absent from the genome of hemipterans, correlating with the absence of maxillary palps in these insects. Conclusions Wnt6 is important for maxillary palp development in Drosophila, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that loss of Wnt6 may also have led to loss of maxillary palps on an evolutionary time scale. PMID:24090348

2013-01-01

162

The effect of distractions on the crash types of teenage drivers.  

PubMed

Teenage drivers are overrepresented in crashes when compared to middle-aged drivers. Driver distraction is becoming a greater concern among this group as in-vehicle devices, opportunities for distractions, and teenage drivers' willingness to engage in these activities increase. The objective of this study was to determine how different distraction factors impact the crash types that are common among teenage drivers. A multinomial logit model was developed to predict the likelihood that a driver will be involved in one of three common crash types: an angular collision with a moving vehicle, a rear-end collision with a moving lead vehicle, and a collision with a fixed object. These crashes were evaluated in terms of four driver distraction categories: cognitive, cell phone related, in-vehicle, and passenger-related distractions. Different driver distractions have varying effects on teenage drivers' crash involvement. Teenage drivers that were distracted at an intersection by passengers or cognitively were more likely to be involved in rear-end and angular collisions when compared to fixed-object collisions. In-vehicle distractions resulted in a greater likelihood of a collision with a fixed object when compared to angular collisions. Cell phone distractions resulted in a higher likelihood of rear-end collision. The results from this study need to be evaluated with caution due to the limited number of distraction related cases available in the U.S. GES crash database. Implications for identifying and improving the reporting of driver distraction related factors are therefore discussed. PMID:16996017

Neyens, David M; Boyle, Linda Ng

2007-01-01

163

Mandible distraction using internal device: mathematical analysis of the results.  

PubMed

For many years, surgeons have sought a method to treat severe facial deformities without using bone grafts and extensive surgery. Distraction osteogenesis offers this promise. The technique used in mandibular hypoplasia follows the basic principles proposed by Ilizarov which states that the device must be elongated 1 mm per day to create optimal bone production. Despite the widespread implementation of this recommendation to include the 1-mm/day separation, doubt still exists as to whether this is the optimal treatment regimen. Intraoral devices with percutaneous activator pins were used in 16 patients with hypoplastic mandibles. The results of distraction were documented by panorex and cephalogram of the mandible. The length of the ramus as well as multiple mandible dimensions and facial angles were measured. The panorex and cephalogram of the mandible were effective in demonstrating the significant increase in length of the mandible and ramus, as well as the entire mandible, but there was no correlation between the stretching obtained by the distraction device and that measured by the radiographic studies. The S-N-B angle was the only facial angle in which there is a statistically significant increase measured and this appeared to be related to a mandible rotation. It is concluded that the mandible distraction (using an intraoral device and an external activator pin) was effective in increasing the ramus length and both the panorex and the cephalogram were effective in demonstrating this morphologic change. There was no correlation between the clinical result and the radiographic studies demonstrating that the clinical judgment still has a significant role in controlling mandible distraction. PMID:17251832

Freitas, Renato da Silva; Alonso, Nivaldo; Busato, Luciano; D'oro, Ubiratã; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

2007-01-01

164

Endodontic treatment of maxillary lateral incisors with anatomical variations  

PubMed Central

Maxillary lateral incisors usually exhibit a single root with a single canal. However, maxillary lateral incisor teeth with unusual morphology of root canal system are frequently reported. These cases of variable root canal anatomy can be treated well by nonsurgical endodontic methods. A detailed description of root canal morphology is fundamental for successful endodontic treatment. Treatment using an operating microscope, radiographs from different angles, and cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) can produce more predictable endodontic outcomes. PMID:24303362

Lee, Moon-Hwan; Ha, Jung-Hong; Jin, Myoung-Uk; Kim, Young-Kyung

2013-01-01

165

A bullet in the maxillary antrum and infratemporal fossa.  

PubMed

A young male patient was shot from a revolver on his left temple from a close range, but surprisingly he survived. On imaging, a complete bullet was found occupying his left maxillary sinus and infratemporal fossa. The bullet, after hitting and breaking the neck of the mandible on the left side, ricocheted and entered the left maxillary sinus through its posterior wall. It was removed safely by a combination of sublabial antrotomy and endoscopic approach. PMID:23852256

Goswami, Saileswar

2013-01-01

166

Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition. PMID:25177502

Koç, Nagihan; Ça??rankaya, L. Berna; Akkaya, Nursel

2014-01-01

167

Response repetition vs. response change modulates behavioral and electrophysiological effects of distraction.  

PubMed

If stimulation occasionally contains distracting information, behavioral responses to task-relevant aspects of the stimulation are prolonged and more error prone. Additionally, event-related potentials (ERPs) acquired in an auditory distraction paradigm show that the distracting information elicits the components mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a and reorienting negativity (RON). Here, we assess to what extent sequential dependencies in the stimulation influence such indicators of distraction. Data of four experiments were reanalyzed for response repetition and response change trials separately. Behavioral performance on Deviants suggests markedly smaller distraction effects in change compared to repetition trials. However, the presence of MMN-P3a-RON in both response repetition and response change trials shows that sequential features in stimulation do not dissolve distraction, but might substantially contribute to the (behavioral) effects measured in distraction paradigms and should be controlled for. PMID:15722214

Roeber, Urte; Berti, Stefan; Widmann, Andreas; Schröger, Erich

2005-03-01

168

[Risk factors and strategies of dental implants in the maxillary posterior without sufficient bone available].  

PubMed

There are two ways to place dental implants in the maxillary posterior without sufficient bone available, one is the maxillary sinus floor bone augmentation technique, the other is to evade maxillary sinus. The maxillary sinus floor bone augmentation technique may result in a series of complication, and reduce obedience of patients for implant surgery. According to principles of the best bone utilization, the evaded maxillary sinus implant technique is more simple, more economic, more predictable, and more shortage of time, compared with the maxillary sinus floor bone augmentation technique, and has certain technological advantages in some special cases. PMID:22389955

Huang, Jiansheng

2012-02-01

169

Does attention capacity moderate the effect of driver distraction in older drivers?  

PubMed

With age, a decline in attention capacity may occur and this may impact driving performance especially while distracted. Although the effect of distraction on driving performance of older drivers has been investigated, the moderating effect of attention capacity on driving performance during distraction has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether attention capacity has a moderating effect on older drivers' driving performance during visual distraction (experiment 1) and cognitive distraction (experiment 2). In a fixed-based driving simulator, older drivers completed a driving task without and with visual distraction (experiment 1, N=17, mean age 78 years) or cognitive distraction (experiment 2, N=35, mean age 76 years). Several specific driving measures of varying complexity (i.e., speed, lane keeping, following distance, braking behavior, and crashes) were investigated. In addition to these objective driving measures, subjective measures of workload and driving performance were also included. In experiment 1, crash occurrence increased with visual distraction and was negatively related to attention capacity. In experiment 2, complete stops at stop signs decreased, initiation of braking at pedestrian crossings was later, and crash occurrence increased with cognitive distraction. Interestingly, for a measure of lane keeping (i.e., standard deviation of lateral lane position (SDLP)), effects of both types of distraction were moderated by attention capacity. Despite the decrease of driving performance with distraction, participants estimated their driving performance during distraction as good. These results imply that attention capacity is important for driving. Driver assessment and training programs might therefore focus on attention capacity. Nonetheless, it is crucial to eliminate driver distraction as much as possible given the deterioration of performance on several driving measures in those with low and high attention capacity. PMID:25667202

Cuenen, Ariane; Jongen, Ellen M M; Brijs, Tom; Brijs, Kris; Lutin, Mark; Van Vlierden, Karin; Wets, Geert

2015-04-01

170

Driver distraction in long-haul truck drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on driver distraction has typically been conducted by means of epidemiology or experimental testing. The study presented here uses a naturalistic approach, where real-world driving data were collected from truck drivers as they worked their normal delivery runs. Crash, near-crash, and crash-relevant conflict data from 41 long-haul truck drivers, driving approximately 140,000 miles, were examined. Of the 2737 crashes,

Richard J. Hanowski; Miguel A. Perez; Thomas A. Dingus

2005-01-01

171

Preliminary clinical research on epiphyseal distraction in osteosarcoma in children  

PubMed Central

Background The feasibility of distal femur epiphysis preservation through epiphyseal distraction by external fixator in childhood osteosarcoma was explored. Methods Between July 2007 and May 2011, 10 children who were suffering from distal femur osteosarcoma received epiphyseal distraction by external fixator, combined with tumor resection and repair with massive allograft bone to preserve the epiphysis of the distal femur and knee function. There were six male and four female patients, 9- to 14-years old (average 10.5 years old). The tumors were staged clinically according to the Enneking staging method: six cases were classified as stage in IIA and four cases as stage in IIB. All patients were diagnosed by biopsy, then received chemotherapy before and after surgery. All patients received tumor bone resection and the defects of the bone were repaired with massive allograft bone that was fixed by intramedullary nails; the distracted epiphysis and allograft bone were fixed with cancellous screws. Results All cases received follow-up from 15 to 56 months (average 38.5 months). There were no local recurrences. One case died of lung metastasis and one case had poor incision healing for rejection of allograft bone. According to the functional evaluation criteria of the International Society of Limb Salvage (ISOLS) after operation, five cases were rated excellent, four cases good and one case fair. The ratio of excellent or good was 90.0%. There was no statistically significant difference in length between the operated and the normal lower limbs during the last review. Conclusions Epiphyseal distraction by external fixator can result in satisfactory limb length and joint function for children with a malignant bone tumor. PMID:25099460

2014-01-01

172

Mandibular fracture patterns consistent with posterior maxillary fractures involving the posterior maxillary sinus, pterygoid plate or both: CT characteristics  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of posterior maxillary fractures involving the posterior maxillary sinus wall, pterygoid plate or both, unrelated to major midface fractures in patients with mandibular fractures, and to characterize associated fractures. Methods: A CT study was performed in patients with mandibular fractures to identify posterior maxillary fractures. Patients aged under 16 years, those with mandibular fractures involving only dentoalveolar components and those with concurrent major midfacial fractures were excluded. Results: 13 (6.7%) of 194 patients with mandibular fractures also had posterior maxillary fractures (case group). The injury pattern correlated with the external force directed to the lateral side of the mandible (p?maxillary fractures involved only the sinus. Conclusions: Mandibular fractures accompanied by posterior maxillary fractures are not rare. The finding of a unilateral posterior maxillary fracture on CT may aid the efficient radiological examination of the mandible based on possible patterns of associated fractures, as follows: in the ipsilateral posterior region as a direct fracture when the impact is a medially directed force, and in the symphysis/parasymphysis or contralateral condylar neck as an indirect fracture. PMID:24336313

Sukegawa, S; Kanno, T; Fujita, G; Yamamoto, N; Furuki, Y; Michizawa, M

2014-01-01

173

Treatment of posttraumatic radial club hand with distraction lengthening.  

PubMed

The clinical and radiological results of distraction lengthening in cases with posttraumatic radial club hand were evaluated. Five patients (3 men and 2 women, with average age of 21 years) with traumatic radial shortening (3 patients had nonunited fracture of distal end radius with bone loss and 2 patients had short radius after malunited fracture of radius or growth arrest of distal radial epiphysis, the average shortening was 4.2 cm) were treated with distraction lengthening using Ilizarov fixator and hybrid fixation technique. Patients were evaluated clinically for hand function and appearance, and radiologically for union. The average follow-up was 25 months. The preplanned length was achieved in all cases with good union and no bone graft was needed, clinically there was much improvement in hand function (the range of motion of the wrist increased and the power of hand grip increased) and appearance. Pin tract infection occurred in 3 cases, broken pin in 1 case, and stiff wrist in 1 case. These complications were treated and did not affect the final results. Acquired radial club hand is difficult to treat. Treatment with distraction lengthening is a good option with excellent results and mild complications that did not affect the overall results. PMID:24126335

Hosny, Gamal A; Kandel, Wael A

2013-11-01

174

Knowledge of sequence structure prevents auditory distraction: an ERP study.  

PubMed

Infrequent, salient stimuli often capture attention despite their task-irrelevancy, and disrupt on-going goal-directed behavior. A number of studies show that presenting cues signaling forthcoming deviants reduces distraction, which may be a "by-product" of cue-processing interference or the result of direct preparatory processes for the forthcoming distracter. In the present study, instead of "bursts" of cue information, information on the temporal structure of the stimulus sequence was provided. Young adults performed a spatial discrimination task where complex tones moving left or right were presented. In the predictable condition, every 7th tone was a pitch-deviant, while in the random condition the position of deviants was random with a probability of 1/7. Whereas the early event-related potential correlates of deviance-processing (N1 and MMN) were unaffected by predictability, P3a amplitude was significantly reduced in the predictable condition, indicating that prevention of distraction was based on the knowledge about the temporal structure of the stimulus sequence. PMID:24657900

Volosin, Márta; Horváth, János

2014-06-01

175

Concealed by conspicuousness: distractive prey markings and backgrounds  

PubMed Central

High-contrast markings, called distractive or dazzle markings, have been suggested to draw and hold the attention of a viewer, thus hindering detection or recognition of revealing prey characteristics, such as the body outline. We tested this hypothesis in a predation experiment with blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and artificial prey. We also tested whether this idea can be extrapolated to the background appearance and whether high-contrast markings in the background would improve prey concealment. We compared search times for a high-contrast range prey (HC-P) and a low-contrast range prey (LC-P) in a high-contrast range background (HC-B) and a low-contrast range background (LC-B). The HC-P was more difficult to detect in both backgrounds, although it did not match the LC-B. Also, both prey types were more difficult to find in the HC-B than in the LC-B, in spite of the mismatch of the LC-P. In addition, the HC-P was more difficult to detect, in both backgrounds, when compared with a generalist prey, not mismatching either background. Thus, we conclude that distractive prey pattern markings and selection of microhabitats with distractive features may provide an effective way to improve camouflage. Importantly, high-contrast markings, both as part of the prey coloration and in the background, can indeed increase prey concealment. PMID:19324754

Dimitrova, Marina; Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H. Martin; Merilaita, Sami

2009-01-01

176

Attention focusing versus distraction during exposure in dental phobia.  

PubMed

A survey of the discrepant findings regarding the effects of attention focusing and distraction on exposure suggested that subjective measures of anxiety and avoidance respond better to the latter condition, and heart rate (HR) reaction responds to the former. To test this hypothesis, 63 dental phobics were recruited who had not visited a dentist for a mean of 6.6 (1.5-25) years. Participants received a 1-h exposure session with either attention focusing or distraction. Subjective anxiety and HR to phobia-related pictures were assessed before and after the treatment session and again after 1 week. Avoidance was recorded in terms of adherence to the dental treatment schedule in the following 6 months. Contrary to expectation, state anxiety showed a greater decrease in the attention focusing than the distraction condition after 1 week. Both treatment conditions were similarly effective with regard to HR and avoidance. HR habituated in both groups after exposure and 73% of followed-up patients adhered to the dental treatment schedule. Comparison of the present with previous results suggests that the differences between attentional conditions tend to be more pronounced during shorter exposure sessions than were employed in the present study. PMID:17719559

Schmid-Leuz, Barbara; Elsesser, Karin; Lohrmann, Thomas; Jöhren, Peter; Sartory, Gudrun

2007-11-01

177

Distraction: its utilization and efficacy with children undergoing dental treatment.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the utilization and efficacy of distraction in reducing the anxious and disruptive behavior of 4 children undergoing dental treatment. During the distraction procedure, the children were shown a poster and told a story about it during dental treatment. They earned a prize if they attended to the poster and story and could correctly answer questions about them following each intervention visit. The children's disruptive behavior was assessed via direct observation, and results were analyzed within a multiple baseline design. The children exhibited high levels of anxious and disruptive behavior across baseline visits, regardless of the length of time in treatment or number of visits. Anxious and disruptive behavior decreased upon introduction of the intervention for all children. This was accompanied by the children meeting the criterion for correct answers on the distraction quiz. However, 2 of the children demonstrated an increase in their anxious and disruptive behavior across intervention visits. Results are discussed in terms of the need to evaluate treatment strategies that promote maintenance as well as initial changes. PMID:2793636

Stark, L J; Allen, K D; Hurst, M; Nash, D A; Rigney, B; Stokes, T F

1989-01-01

178

Nasal profile changes with le fort I maxillary advancement surgery.  

PubMed

Introduction : The purpose of this study was to quantify anteroposterior facial soft tissue changes with respect to underlying skeletal movements after Le Fort I maxillary advancement surgery by using lateral cephalograms taken before and after the operation. Materials and Methods : The study group consisted of 20 patients (10 women, 10 men; mean age 23.4 ± 1.4 years) having a Class III skeletal deformity caused by a retrognathic maxilla. All patients were treated by Le Fort I maxillary advancement osteotomy. Lateral cephalograms were taken before and 1.6 ± 0.4 years after surgery. Results : The anteroposterior position of A-point and anteroposterior position of maxillary incisor were significantly protracted (-2.69 ± 3.34 and -2.68 ± 3.21, respectively; P < .01). The nasal anteroposterior and superoinferior positions (NASALAP and NASALSI, respectively) were significantly changed (-2.70 ± 6.81, P < .01, and -2.55 ± 5.80, P < .05, respectively) and nasal elevation and protraction were observed after Le Fort I maxillary advancement surgery. Conclusions : The changes in anteroposterior and superoinferior positions of A-point were correlated with the nasal superoinferior position (r = -0.71 , P < .05; r = 0.72, P < .05) after Le Fort I maxillary advancement surgery. PMID:25714267

Mar?an, Gülnaz; Hocao?lu, Emre; Cura, Nil; Emekli, Ufuk

2015-03-01

179

Correlation of biomechanical stiffness with plain radiographic and ultrasound data in an experimental mandibular distraction wound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the stiffness of a porcine mandibular distraction wound at the end of neutral fixation.Twenty-four Yucatan minipigs underwent unilateral mandibular distraction: zero-day latency, rates of 1, 2, and 4mm per day, distraction gap of 12mm. Radiographic and ultrasound bone fill scores at 0, 8, 16 and 24 days of neutral fixation were used

L. B. Kaban; P. Thurmüller; M. J. Troulis; J. Glowacki; D. Wahl; B. Linke; B. Rahn; D. H. Perrott

2003-01-01

180

The Effects of Visual and Cognitive Distraction on Driver Situation Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Driver distraction has become a major concern for transportation safety due to the increasing use of in–vehicle devices. To\\u000a reduce safety risk, it is crucial to understand how fundamental aspects of distracting activities affect driver cognition\\u000a in terms of roadway situation awareness. This study used a simulator-based experiment to investigate the effects of visual,\\u000a cognitive and simultaneous distraction on operational

Meghan Rogers; Yu Zhang; David Kaber; Yulan Liang; Shruti Gangakhedkar

181

Distracters” Do Not Always Distract: Visual Working Memory for Angry Faces is Enhanced by Incidental Emotional Words  

PubMed Central

We are often required to filter out distraction in order to focus on a primary task during which working memory (WM) is engaged. Previous research has shown that negative versus neutral distracters presented during a visual WM maintenance period significantly impair memory for neutral information. However, the contents of WM are often also emotional in nature. The question we address here is how incidental information might impact upon visual WM when both this and the memory items contain emotional information. We presented emotional versus neutral words during the maintenance interval of an emotional visual WM faces task. Participants encoded two angry or happy faces into WM, and several seconds into a 9?s maintenance period a negative, positive, or neutral word was flashed on the screen three times. A single neutral test face was presented for retrieval with a face identity that was either present or absent in the preceding study array. WM for angry face identities was significantly better when an emotional (negative or positive) versus neutral (or no) word was presented. In contrast, WM for happy face identities was not significantly affected by word valence. These findings suggest that the presence of emotion within an intervening stimulus boosts the emotional value of threat-related information maintained in visual WM and thus improves performance. In addition, we show that incidental events that are emotional in nature do not always distract from an ongoing WM task. PMID:23112782

Jackson, Margaret C.; Linden, David E. J.; Raymond, Jane E.

2012-01-01

182

Interdisciplinary treatment of multiple maxillary anterior diastemas: case report.  

PubMed

This article describes an interdisciplinary (orthodontic and prosthodontic) approach for treating a 28-year-old woman who had multiple maxillary anterior diastemas, insufficient lip support, and inadequate anterior guidance. Although the patient also had diastemas among her mandibular anterior teeth, she declined orthodontic or restorative treatment for this arch. Initially, ceramic orthodontic brackets and polytetrafluoroethylene-coated arch wires were used. Orthodontic treatment involved leveling and aligning the maxillary dental arch, correcting the incisor angulations, and providing appropriate spaces for prosthetic restoration. After orthodontic treatment, IPS Empress 2 crowns were delivered to the six maxillary anterior teeth. This interdisciplinary approach produced a successful outcome and improved esthetics. The patient remained satisfied at the three-year follow-up examination. PMID:21466998

Terzioglu, Hakan; Akcam, Okan; Yilmaz, Burak; Halil, Suleyman

2009-01-01

183

Maxillary canine transposition to incisor site: a rare condition.  

PubMed

Tooth transposition is defined as positional interchange of 2 adjacent teeth within the same quadrant. The incidence has been reported as about 0.4%, and the maxillary permanent canine has been reported as the tooth most frequently involved. Several etiologic factors like genetics, interchange in position of the developing tooth buds, trauma, mechanical interferences, and early loss of incisors have been associated with tooth transposition. Articles in the literature report various kinds of transpositions, but there are only a few reported cases of transposition of the maxillary canine to central incisor site. This kind of transposition has been suggested as resulting primarily by opportunistic canine migration into the space left from an early lost central incisor. However, there are only 2 long-term roentgenographic follow-up studies documenting maxillary canine migration and substantiating this hypothesis. This report shows 2 cases of this rare condition, with 1 of them documented with long-term records. PMID:15825796

Türkkahraman, Hakan; Sayin, M Ozgür; Yilmaz, H Hüseyin

2005-03-01

184

Post-traumatic impaction of maxillary incisors: diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim To provide clinicians with useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors due to trauma. Methods We present a case of post-traumatic impaction of a central right maxillary incisor in a young patient. The treatment plan consisted in the interceptive management (surgical and orthodontic), the valuation of the necessary space to move the impacted tooth in the normal position and the biomechanical approach for anchorage, avoiding prosthetic/implants replacement. Results The therapy of an impacted maxillary incisor due to trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach: orthodontic, surgical, endodontic and periodontal considerations are essential for successful treatment. Conclusions Surgical exposure and orthodontic traction is the treatment most often used in case of posttraumatic impacted incisor: this technique in fact can lead to suitable results at the periodontal, occlusal and esthetics levels at an early stage and more definitively than with other treatment options. PMID:23991268

Paoloni, Valeria; Pavoni, Chiara; Mucedero, Manuela; Bollero, Patrizio; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

2013-01-01

185

Maxillary Chronic Osteomyelitis Caused by Domestic Violence: A Diagnostic Challenge  

PubMed Central

Maxillary osteomyelitis is a rare condition defined as inflammation of the bone primarily caused by odontogenic bacteria, with trauma being the second leading cause. The present report documents a rare case of maxillary osteomyelitis in a 38-year-old female who was the victim of domestic violence approximately a year prior to presentation. Intraoral examination revealed a lesion appearing as exposed bony sequestrum, with significant destruction of gingiva and alveolar mucosa in the maxillary right quadrant, accompanied by significant pain, local edema, and continued purulence. Teeth numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 were mobile, not responsive to percussion, and nonvital. Treatment included antibiotic therapy for seven days followed by total enucleation of the necrotic bone tissue and extraction of the involved teeth. Microscopic findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis of chronic suppurative osteomyelitis. Six months postoperatively, the treated area presented complete healing and there was no sign of recurrence of the lesion. PMID:25610667

Oliveira, Tamyris Inácio; de Carli, Marina Lara; Ribeiro Junior, Noé Vital; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa; Tatakis, Dimitris N.; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa

2014-01-01

186

Effect of maxillary sinus floor augmentation without bone grafts  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the present review was to determine the effectiveness of maxillary sinus floor augmentation without bone grafts using lateral window technique. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles. We also included articles by hand search until June 2012. The analysis included both human and animal studies which satisfied the following criteria: Minimum of 6 months follow-up, no use of bone grafts, and lateral window approach to the sinus. Results: We included 22 articles in the review. A descriptive analysis of the constructed evidence tables indicated that there is evidence of predictable a mount of bone formation in the maxillary sinus augmentation without the use of bone grafts. Conclusion: Within the limits of the articles and data available, maxillary sinus augmentation without bone graft might be considered effective inpredictable bone formation. PMID:24082693

Kumar, D. Shiva; Jayakumar, N. D.; Padmalatha, O.; Sankari, M.; Varghese, Sheeja S.

2013-01-01

187

Management of Unerupted Maxillary Deciduous Central Incisor: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Failure of eruption of primary teeth can be considered rare, especially in maxillary anterior teeth. The problem can be either mechanical obstruction of eruption or a failure of the eruption mechanism. This case report presents failure of eruption of the maxillary right deciduous central incisor in a 4-year-old girl. The unerupted primary tooth was removed surgically. The histological finding revealed fibroma with reactive giant cells. Periodic follow-up visits were advised to monitor the developing dentition and to ensure enough space for the permanent incisor. How to cite this article: Shakra KA. Management of Unerupted Maxillary Deciduous Central Incisor: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):58-60. PMID:25206241

2014-01-01

188

Capillary Hemangioma in Maxillary Anterior Region: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Hemangiomas are relatively common benign proliferative lesion of vascular tissue origin. They are often present at birth and may become more apparent throughout life. They are seen on facial skin, tongue, lips, buccal mucosa and palate as well as muscles. Hemangiomas occur more common in females than males. This case report presents a case of capillary hemangioma in maxillary anterior region in a 10-year-old boy. How to cite this article: Satish V, Bhat M, Maganur PC, Shah P, Biradar V. Capillary Hemangioma in Maxillary Anterior Region: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):144-147. PMID:25356016

Bhat, Manohar; Maganur, Prabhadevi C; Shah, Parth; Biradar, Vijay

2014-01-01

189

Endodontic Management of a Maxillary Molar with Three Mesiobuccal Canals  

PubMed Central

It is imperative that the clinician should have comprehensive knowledge about the normal anatomy and its variations of the teeth as the deviations from the usual are very common. An increased awareness of unusual anatomy and a better understanding of the root canal system guide the clinician in accurate diagnosis and treatment of such variations in order to achieve a successful endodontic outcome. The maxillary first molar has been shown to have a wide variation in respect to the number of canals specifically noted in the mesiobuccal root. The current case report shows the successful management of a maxillary molar in which the mesiobuccal root had three canals. PMID:25505997

Gundam, Sirisha; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

2014-01-01

190

Aplasia and hypoplasia of the maxillary sinus: A case series  

PubMed Central

Maxillary sinus aplasia and hypoplasia are rare conditions that can cause symptoms such as headaches and voice alteration. The majority of patients are asymptomatic, but these conditions must be noticed for importance of differential diagnosis such as infection and neoplasms. Conventional radiographs could not differentiate between inflammatory mucosal thickening, neoplasm, and hypoplasia of the sinus. Computed tomography (CT) and also cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are the proper modalities to detect these conditions. In the present study, CBCT findings of three cases with maxillary sinus hypoplasia and aplasia are reported. PMID:25426156

Jafari-Pozve, Nasim; Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Ataie-Khorasgani, Masoud; Jafari-Pozve, Shahram

2014-01-01

191

Unilateral cacosmia: a presentation of maxillary fungal infestation  

PubMed Central

We present a case of long-standing unilateral cacosmia in a healthy 67-year-old man due to maxillary fungal infestation. Treatment with septoplasty had been attempted 10?years prior but no further investigation or management undertaken and symptoms continued. Subsequent MRI scan revealed significant opacification of the left maxillary sinus. This was readily amenable to treatment by balloon sinuplasty. This yielded viscous grey mucus which grew Scedosporium apiospermum. The case highlights the need for careful investigation of olfactory symptoms, including blood tests to exclude systemic causes, endoscopy and imaging where indicated. PMID:23563684

Erskine, Sally E; Schelenz, Silke; Philpott, Carl M

2013-01-01

192

Incidental treatment of maxillary dysesthesia with maxillary sinus lift procedure--a case report.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of dysesthesia to the left palate with referred pain to the left infraorbital distribution after extraction of the left maxillary first and second premolars. The clinical and radiologic examination revealed an alveolar crestal bone dehiscence suggestive of an occult oral antral communication (OAC) that had spontaneously healed. Stimulation of the mucosa at this bony dehiscence consistently reproduced the dysesthesia. A sinus lift procedure was performed in this region for implant site development and also resulted in resolution of the dysesthesia. This case represents an instance in which surgical alteration of a trigger zone of neuropathic pain can result in its resolution. PMID:25454712

Weinstock, Robert J; Clarkson, Earl

2014-12-01

193

Immediate implants in anterior maxillary arch  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the osseo-integration and soft tissue status of the endosseous implants placed in immediate extraction socket. Methodology: Seven patients (4 males and 3 females) aged 20-30 years were selected for the study. Nine implants were placed in seven patients in the maxillary arch. All the patients were clinically ?nd thoroughly examined. Under local anesthesia, the indicated tooth was extracted. The extracted socket was prepared using standard drills with palatal wall as guide. The longest and widest implants were placed (Hi-Tec Implants). All implants showed good primary stability. The implants used in the study were tapered design endosseous implants with Threaded implants (TI) unit plasma-sprayed surface. Surgical re-entry (secondary surgery) was performed to remove the healing cap after 6 months for supra crestal fabrication. All patients were reviewed periodically at 3rd and 6th month interval and the following clinical parameters including modified plaque index (mPlI), modified bleeding index (mBI), probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL), and distance between the implant shoulder and mucosal margin (DIM), distance between the implant shoulder and first bone-implant contact, and Clinical Mobility Index were recorded. The results were computed and subjected to statistical evaluation. Results: The mPlI, mBI, PD, AL, and DIM were evaluated around the implants at baseline, 3rd and 6th month intervals and analyzed statistically by Friedman T-test. The results of the above were shown to be statistically non-significant. The distance between the implant shoulder and first bone implant contact was evaluated around the implants at base line, 3rd and 6th month intervals. The results proved to be statistically significant (0.01) implying that there was a bone apposition around the implants. Conclusion: During the course of the study, soft tissue status around implants was found to be healthy. Osseointegration as assessed by clinical and radiographic findings was found to be sound. PMID:24678203

Anitha, K.; Kumar, S. Senthil; Babu, M. R. Ramesh; Candamourty, Ramesh; Thirumurugan

2014-01-01

194

Parathyroid hormone reverses radiation induced hypovascularity in a murine model of distraction osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Radiation treatment results in a severe diminution of osseous vascularity. Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been shown to have an anabolic effect on osteogenesis, though its impact on angiogenesis remains unknown. In this murine model of distraction osteogenesis, we hypothesize that radiation treatment will result in a diminution of vascularity in the distracted regenerate and that delivery of intermittent systemic PTH will promote angiogenesis and reverse radiation induced hypovascularity. Materials and methods Nineteen Lewis rats were divided into three groups. All groups underwent distraction of the left mandible. Two groups received radiation treatment to the left mandible prior to distraction, and one of these groups was treated with intermittent subcutaneous PTH (60 ?g/kg, once daily) beginning on the first day of distraction for a total duration of 21 days. One group underwent mandibular distraction alone, without radiation. After consolidation, the rats were perfused and imaged with micro-CT angiography and quantitative vascular analysis was performed. Results Radiation treatment resulted in a severe diminution of osseous vascularity in the distracted regenerate. In irradiated mandibles undergoing distraction osteogenesis, treatment with intermittent PTH resulted in significant increases in vessel volume fraction, vessel thickness, vessel number, degree of anisotropy, and a significant decrease in vessel separation (p < 0.05). No significant difference in quantitative vascularity existed between the group that was irradiated, distracted and treated with PTH and the group that underwent distraction osteogenesis without radiation treatment. Conclusions We quantitatively demonstrate that radiation treatment results in a significant depletion of osseous vascularity, and that intermittent administration of PTH reverses radiation induced hypovascularity in the murine mandible undergoing distraction osteogenesis. While the precise mechanism of PTH-induced angiogenesis remains to be elucidated, this report adds a key component to the pleotropic effect of intermittent PTH on bone formation and further supports the potential use of PTH to enhance osseous regeneration in the irradiated mandible. PMID:23643680

Kang, Stephen Y.; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Donneys, Alexis; Rodriguez, Joey J.; Nelson, Noah S.; Felice, Peter A.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Buchman, Steven R.

2013-01-01

195

CT-based manual segmentation and evaluation of paranasal sinuses.  

PubMed

Manual segmentation of computed tomography (CT) datasets was performed for robot-assisted endoscope movement during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Segmented 3D models are needed for the robots' workspace definition. A total of 50 preselected CT datasets were each segmented in 150-200 coronal slices with 24 landmarks being set. Three different colors for segmentation represent diverse risk areas. Extension and volumetric measurements were performed. Three-dimensional reconstruction was generated after segmentation. Manual segmentation took 8-10 h for each CT dataset. The mean volumes were: right maxillary sinus 17.4 cm(3), left side 17.9 cm(3), right frontal sinus 4.2 cm(3), left side 4.0 cm(3), total frontal sinuses 7.9 cm(3), sphenoid sinus right side 5.3 cm(3), left side 5.5 cm(3), total sphenoid sinus volume 11.2 cm(3). Our manually segmented 3D-models present the patient's individual anatomy with a special focus on structures in danger according to the diverse colored risk areas. For safe robot assistance, the high-accuracy models represent an average of the population for anatomical variations, extension and volumetric measurements. They can be used as a database for automatic model-based segmentation. None of the segmentation methods so far described provide risk segmentation. The robot's maximum distance to the segmented border can be adjusted according to the differently colored areas. PMID:18716789

Pirner, S; Tingelhoff, K; Wagner, I; Westphal, R; Rilk, M; Wahl, F M; Bootz, F; Eichhorn, Klaus W G

2009-04-01

196

Fibrous ankylosis after distraction osteogenesis of a costochondral neomandible in a patient with grade III hemifacial microsomia.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis has recently become a mainstay for treatment of craniofacial syndromes with mandibular hypoplasia. This article presents the difficult case of a patient with a previous costochondral rib graft who underwent mandibular distraction and developed a fibrous pseudoarthrosis at the distraction site. This was attributed in part to an associated temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Resorption of the pseudoarthrosis occurred once the distractor was removed. It appears that distraction osteogenesis of a mandible with an ankylosed temporomandibular joint can result in healing with a fibrous union, presumably because of movement at the distraction site when masticating. This can result in a pseudo "temporomandibular joint" at the distraction site. A temporomandibular joint arthroplasty was performed, followed by repeat distraction. We conclude that if there is an ankylosed temporomandibular joint or a stiff temporomandibular joint that may ankylose during the course of the distraction process, then a temporomandibular joint arthroplasty should be performed before or at the time the distractor is placed. PMID:11572253

Thomas, D J; Rees, M J

2001-09-01

197

Radiographic features of vertically fractured, endodontically treated maxillary premolars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the most frequent radiographic appearance of bony lesions associated with vertically fractured roots of endodontically treated maxillary premolars. Study Design. The radiographic features of 102 endodontically treated teeth and their periradicular areas (51 with and 51 without vertically fractured roots) were evaluated and compared. Results. The predominant appearance of the periradicular

Aviad Tamse; Zvi Fuss; Joseph Lustig; Yehuda Ganor; Israel Kaffe

1999-01-01

198

[Radical maxillary sinusotomy in patient with severe haemophilia A].  

PubMed

Case presentation of radical maxillary sinusotomy in chronic sinusitis patient with severe haemophilia A, the paper contains detailed description of the surgical technique, postsurgical care, hemostatic and complementary treatment, as well as anesthesia options making this procedure safe in terms of hemorrhagic complications. PMID:22332382

Afanas'ev, V V; Shinkevich, D S; Mamonov, V E; Pisetski?, M M; Chenchikov, M V

2011-01-01

199

An Investigation of Driver Distraction Near the Tipping Point of Traffic Flow Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship between driver distraction and characteristics of driver behavior associated with reduced highway traffic efficiency. Background: Research on the three-phase traffic theory and on behavioral driving suggests that a number of characteristics associated with efficient traffic flow may be affected by driver distraction. Previous studies have been limited, however, by

Joel M. Cooper; Ivana Vladisavljevic; Nathan Medeiros-Ward; Peter T. Martin; David L. Strayer

2009-01-01

200

Distract-R: Rapid Prototyping and Evaluation of In-Vehicle Interfaces  

E-print Network

a lively business meeting, or dialing a cell phone while crossing the street. One domain that has receivedDistract-R: Rapid Prototyping and Evaluation of In-Vehicle Interfaces Dario D. Salvucci, Mark Zuber +1 215 895 2674 salvucci@cs.drexel.edu ABSTRACT As driver distraction from in-vehicle devices

Salvucci, Dario D.

201

Use of ultrasound to assess healing of a mandibular distraction wound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: A standardized, noninvasive technique to assess healing of the mandibular distraction wound is not available. Current methods include clinical examination, plain radiography, and computed tomography. These imaging techniques are expensive and obligate the patient to serial radiation exposure. In addition, anatomic overlap and metal artifacts may obscure the distraction gap. In contrast, ultrasound has been shown to be a

Maria Troulis; Mary Jane O'Neill; Leonard B. Kaban

2002-01-01

202

Selective Attention in Schizophrenic and Manic Psychoses: The Effect of Distraction on Information Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to identify the general level of cognitive processing that is especially vulnerable to distraction in schizophrenia. Attempts to determine at what level auditory distraction interferes with schizophrenics' performance, as opposed to normals, on simple recall tasks. (Editor/RK)

Oltmanns, Thomas F.

1978-01-01

203

Distractions N' Driving: video game simulation educates young drivers on the  

E-print Network

Distractions N' Driving: video game simulation educates young drivers on the dangers of texting University illustrate a powerful, practical, and cost-effective program that has been successful in educating communities. Keywords: Distracted driving, education, human factors, outreach, texting * Corresponding author

Parasuraman, Raja

204

Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N=27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders were trained along with their parents to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Distraction produced significant positive effects for observer-rated distress scores for the low hypnotizable children. Discusses…

Smith, Julien T.; And Others

1996-01-01

205

75 FR 45697 - Safety Advisory Notice: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...initiative on distracted driving may be found at http...telephone increased the risk of a safety-critical...practice of distracted driving on our nation's...designed to prohibit texting by commercial motor...operation of PEDs while driving any motor vehicle...strives to reduce the risk of harm from...

2010-08-03

206

Posterior P1 and early frontal negativity reflect developmental changes in attentional distraction during adolescence.  

PubMed

Previous studies in adults have revealed that attentional distraction modulates the late positive potential (LPP) during emotion regulation. To determine whether early visual components reflect developmental changes in attentional distraction during adolescence, we collected event-related potentials from 20 young adolescents, 18 older adolescents, and 18 young adults as they performed a distraction task (counting) while viewing affective images. Consistent with previous findings obtained in distraction studies, the distraction task (counting) reduced emotional modulation of the LPP. At an early stage of processing, counting reduced emotional modulation of P1 and increased the negativity bias of early frontal negativity (eFN) for negatively valenced pictures compared to simple viewing with no distraction. sLORETA analyses further revealed eFN indexing of rostral prefrontal cortical activation, a cortical area that has been shown in recent fMRI studies to be activated by distraction. Moreover, P1 amplitudes in young and older adolescents did not differ but were both larger than the P1s in young adults. In addition, eFN amplitudes significantly decreased with age. The dissociable distraction patterns between the posterior P1 and eFN provide evidence not only for the timing hypothesis of emotion regulation but also for different developmental trajectories of visual processing areas and the prefrontal cortex during affective processing in adolescence. PMID:24658081

Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Hong; Chen, Jie; Chen, Ning; Liu, Xia; Wang, Dahua; Shen, Jiliang

2014-06-01

207

Collision Warning Design to Mitigate Driver Distraction John D. Lee & Joshua D. Hoffman  

E-print Network

technology move into cars and trucks, distraction-related crashes are likely to be- come an important problem and direct driv- ers attention to the car ahead when it unexpectedly brakes. We conducted two experiments] General Terms: Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Performance. Keywords: Smart cars, Distraction

Lee, John D.

208

Measurement of forces generated during distraction of growing-rods in early onset scoliosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To measure the forces applied during distraction of growing-rods in early onset scoliosis (EOS), aimed at developing a motorized elongation device. METHODS: A consecutive series of measurements were carried out to analyze the forces applied by the surgeon during distraction of single growing-rods in 10 patients affected by EOS (mean age 8.3 years; range 6 to 10 years) undergoing the first distraction 6 months following implantation of the rods. For each measurement, output from the transducer of a dedicated pair of distraction calipers was recorded at zero load status and at every 1 mm of distraction, up to a maximum of 12 mm for each of the two connected rods. RESULTS: Twenty measurements were obtained showing a linear increase of the load with increasing distraction, with a mean peak force of 485 N at 12 mm distraction and a single reading over 500 N. We did not observe bone fractures or ligament disruptions during or after rod elongations. There was one case of superficial wound infection in the cohort. CONCLUSION: The safe peak force carrying capacity of a motorized device for distraction of growing-rods is 500N. PMID:22470846

Teli, Marco; Grava, Giuseppe; Solomon, Victor; Andreoletti, Giuseppe; Grismondi, Emanuele; Meswania, Jay

2012-01-01

209

Distractibility in daily life is reflected in the structure and function of human parietal cortex  

PubMed Central

We all appreciate that some of our friends and colleagues are more distractible than others. This variability can be captured by pencil and paper questionnaires in which individuals report such cognitive failures in their everyday life. Surprisingly, these self-report measures have high heritability, leading to the hypothesis that distractibility might have a basis in brain structure. In a large sample of healthy adults, we demonstrated that a simple self-report measure of everyday distractibility accurately predicted grey matter volume in a remarkably focal region of left superior parietal cortex. This region play a causal role in reducing distractibility because we found that disrupting its function with TMS increased susceptibility to distraction. Finally, we showed that the self-report measure of distractibility reliably predicted our laboratory-based measure of attentional capture. Our findings distinguish a critical mechanism in the human brain causally involved in avoiding distractibility, which importantly, bridges self-report judgments of cognitive failures in everyday life and a commonly used laboratory measure of distractibility to the structure of the human brain. PMID:21543590

Kanai, Ryota; Dong, Mia Yuan; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

2011-01-01

210

The Use of Choice-Based Distraction to Decrease the Distress of Children at the Dentist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was conducted to examine whether choice-based distraction provides an effective means of reducing the distress of children undergoing routine dental treatment. Sixty children between the ages of 5-12 who required restorative dental treatment were assigned randomly to either a Control group or a Distraction group in which the…

Filcheck, Holly A.; Allen, Keith D.; Ogren, Hilary; Darby, James Brandt; Holstein, Brian; Hupp, Steve

2005-01-01

211

Why Does Working Memory Capacity Predict RAPM Performance? A Possible Role of Distraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current theories concerning individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) suggest that WMC reflects the ability to control the focus of attention and resist interference and distraction. The current set of experiments tested whether susceptibility to distraction is partially responsible for the established relationship between…

Jarosz, Andrew F.; Wiley, Jennifer

2012-01-01

212

Understanding commercial truck drivers' decision-makin process concerning distracted driving.  

PubMed

A concurrent mixed methods design was used to explore personal and workplace factors, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, that affect truck drivers' decision-making about distracted driving on the job. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with experts in truck safety and distracted driving, and quantitative data were collected via online survey of truck drivers in the United States. Findings from the interviews illustrated how drivers perceived distractions and the importance of supervisors enforcing organizational distracted driving policies. Survey results found that behavioral intentions were most important in regards to texting and crash and near-crash outcomes, while perceived norms from management best described the correlation between dispatch device use and negative crash-related outcomes. By using a mixed methods design, rather than two separate studies, these findings revealed nuanced differences into the influence of supervisors on distracted driving. PMID:25732132

Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C

2015-05-01

213

Joint Preservation of the Wrist Using Articulated Distraction Arthroplasty: A Case Report of a Novel Technique  

PubMed Central

Distraction arthroplasty of the ankle, elbow, and hip has become widely accepted and used within the orthopaedic community with excellent initial results which appear sustained. To date it has not been applied to the wrist in the same manner. A novel technique, drawn upon past success of articulated ankle distraction and static wrist distraction, was devised and evaluated by application of articulated wrist distraction performed over a 12-week period in a patient with poor functional outcome following limited wrist fusion. Posttreatment results showed improvement in range of motion (100-degree arc), subjective pain, and functional outcome measures (DASH 21.7, Mayo Wrist Score 80) comparable or better than either limited wrist fusion or proximal row carpectomy. Articulated wrist distraction initially appears to be a promising therapeutic option for the management of the stiff and painful wrist to maintain maximal function for which formal wrist arthrodesis may be the only alternative.

Fletcher, Matt D. A.

2015-01-01

214

A comparison of the effects of thought suppression, distraction and concentration.  

PubMed

This study compared the effects of suppression, focused-distraction, and concentration on controlling unwanted distressing thoughts, and examined how anxiety levels were associated with the use of each thought-control technique. In the study, college students were told to suppress thoughts about a distressing story, to suppress the same thoughts by focusing on an alternative distraction task, to simply concentrate on that alternative task, or to think about anything without restrictions for 6minutes. This initial period was followed by a "free-thinking" period to assess the delayed effect of thought-control techniques. The results indicated that focused-distraction and concentration led to fewer intrusions of target thoughts than suppression, and concentration in turn resulted in fewer target intrusions than focused-distraction during the initial period. Participants in the focused-distraction and concentration condition also tended to report lower anxiety during the initial period than those who were told to suppress thoughts. PMID:17897619

Lin, Yi-Jen; Wicker, Frank W

2007-12-01

215

Neither state or trait anxiety alter the response to distracting emotionally neutral sounds.  

PubMed

Attentional control theory suggests that heightened anxiety, whether due to trait or state factors, causes an increased vulnerability to distraction even when the distracters are emotionally neutral. Recent passive oddball studies appear to support this theory in relation to the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds. However such studies have manipulated emotional state via the content of task stimuli, thus potentially confounding changes in emotion with differences in task demands. To identify the effect of anxiety on the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds, 50 participants completed a passive oddball task requiring emotionally neutral sounds to be ignored. Crucially, state anxiety was manipulated independent of the task stimuli (via unrelated audiovisual stimuli) thus removing confounds relating to task demands. Neither state or trait anxiety was found to influence the susceptibility to distraction by emotionally neutral sounds. These findings contribute to the ongoing debate concerning the impact of emotion on attention. PMID:25217343

Hoskin, Robert; Hunter, Mike D; Woodruff, Peter W R

2015-01-01

216

Assessment of the occlusion technique as a means for evaluating the distraction potential of driver support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver distraction is a safety-critical issue that has been bought to greater public attention with the recent developments of more advanced driver support systems (DSS), e.g. navigation systems. Such systems have the potential to distract drivers significantly from the primary task of controlling their vehicle, potentially resulting in an accident. DSS developers need to be able to assess distraction potential

MICHAEL A. PETTITT; GARY E. BURNETT; STEVEN BAYER; A. Stevens

2006-01-01

217

Perceptions of driver distraction by cellular phone users and nonusers.  

PubMed

The present study examined the perceptions of cellular phone users and nonusers on issues relating to vehicle control and driver distraction. Participants were asked if they own a cellular phone; if so, how much they use it; and their beliefs regarding cellular phone use while driving, including actions involving the use of cellular phones which could potentially cause vehicular accidents and the need for laws. A total of 330 individuals participated; 72% owned a cellular phone. The results indicate that nonusers of cellular phones believed more strongly than users that cellular phone use while driving negatively affects driving performance and that talking on the cellular phone could potentially cause an accident, and they also had a greater preference for new laws limiting such acts. Cellular phone users, more than nonusers, preferred no laws limiting cellular phone use and believed more strongly that other people driving while using a cellular phone were more dangerous than themselves doing the same. Implications of these results are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include interventions that limit driver distractibility. PMID:16170950

Wogalter, Michael S; Mayhorn, Christopher B

2005-01-01

218

Olfactory Identification Test Using Familiar Distracters for Koreans  

PubMed Central

Objectives Odors used in an odor identification test should be familiar to the subject, but there are some unfamiliar distracters in Korean version of Sniffin' stick (KVSS) II identification test. In this study, we used the results of the original version of KVSS II identification to modify the KVSS II identification test. Methods Eighty-three participants took an original version of KVSS II identification test and a visual analogue scale of subjective odor function. KVSS II identification which has 16 items was performed to choose one out of four odors items. And visual analogue scale was checked from 0 to 10 points of their subjective olfactory function. Two weeks later they took the modified version of KVSS II identification test. Hyposmic or anosmic patients were excluded. Results The mean score of the original version of KVSS II identification and modified version of KVSS II identification were 11.3 and 12.5, respectively (P<0.05). The KVSS II identification test and subjective olfactory function were positively correlated (r=0.247, P<0.05), as were the modified KVSS II identification test and subjective olfactory function (r=0.329, P<0.05). Conclusion After modification of distracters, KVSS II identification test appears to be suited for assessment of olfactory function. PMID:24587876

Kim, Jae-Myung; Jeong, Mi Soon; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Seol, Jeong-Hun; Hong, Seok-Chan; Cho, Jae Hoon

2014-01-01

219

Bicycling safety and distracted behavior in The Hague, the Netherlands.  

PubMed

As planners and public health officials in many cities around the world seek to increase bicycle ridership, bicyclists who are performing a secondary task (such as listening to a portable music device) may pose a risk to public safety. This study examines bicycling safety and potentially distracted behavior in The Hague, the Netherlands, a place where bicycling is a common, everyday travel mode among all walks of life and where bicycling infrastructure is well developed. Based on 1360 observations of bicycling behavior, this study shows that bicyclists who were using a cell phone, listening to a portable music device, or talking with other bicyclists exhibited more unsafe behaviors than those bicyclists who were not performing a secondary task. Furthermore, bicyclists who were performing a secondary task also more frequently created situations where other people had to evade them to avoid an accident. As with distracted car driving, the performance of a secondary task while bicycling may be unsafe for the person engaging in the behavior as well as for other people around them. PMID:23643938

Terzano, Kathryn

2013-08-01

220

Accurate expectancies diminish perceptual distraction during visual search.  

PubMed

The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively "spills-over" to task-irrelevant information. The spill-over of perceptual processing capacity increases the likelihood that task-irrelevant information will impair performance. In two visual search experiments, we tested the automaticity of the allocation of perceptual processing resources by measuring the extent to which the processing of task-irrelevant distracting stimuli was modulated by both perceptual load and top-down expectations using behavior, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and electrophysiology. Expectations were generated using a trial-by-trial cue that provided information about the likely load of the upcoming visual search task. When the cues were valid, behavioral interference was eliminated and the influence of load on frontoparietal and visual cortical responses was attenuated relative to when the cues were invalid. In conditions in which task-irrelevant information interfered with performance and modulated visual activity, individual differences in mean blood oxygenation level dependent responses measured from the left intraparietal sulcus were negatively correlated with individual differences in the severity of distraction. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a top-down biasing mechanism interacts with perceptual load to support filtering of task-irrelevant information. PMID:24904374

Sy, Jocelyn L; Guerin, Scott A; Stegman, Anna; Giesbrecht, Barry

2014-01-01

221

Accurate expectancies diminish perceptual distraction during visual search  

PubMed Central

The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively “spills-over” to task-irrelevant information. The spill-over of perceptual processing capacity increases the likelihood that task-irrelevant information will impair performance. In two visual search experiments, we tested the automaticity of the allocation of perceptual processing resources by measuring the extent to which the processing of task-irrelevant distracting stimuli was modulated by both perceptual load and top-down expectations using behavior, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and electrophysiology. Expectations were generated using a trial-by-trial cue that provided information about the likely load of the upcoming visual search task. When the cues were valid, behavioral interference was eliminated and the influence of load on frontoparietal and visual cortical responses was attenuated relative to when the cues were invalid. In conditions in which task-irrelevant information interfered with performance and modulated visual activity, individual differences in mean blood oxygenation level dependent responses measured from the left intraparietal sulcus were negatively correlated with individual differences in the severity of distraction. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a top-down biasing mechanism interacts with perceptual load to support filtering of task-irrelevant information. PMID:24904374

Sy, Jocelyn L.; Guerin, Scott A.; Stegman, Anna; Giesbrecht, Barry

2014-01-01

222

An Assessment of the Relationship between the Maxillary Sinus Floor and the Maxillary Posterior Teeth Root Tips Using Dental Cone-beam Computerized Tomography  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary posterior teeth root tips using dental cone-beam CT. Methods: A total of 87 right and 89 left maxillary sinus regions from 92 patients were examined using dental cone-beam CT. Images were analyzed by a specialist in oral and maxillofacial radiology. Perpendicular lines were drawn on the cross-sectional images between the deepest point of the maxillary sinus floor and the root tips of the maxillary first and second premolars and first, second and third molars, and the distances were measured using built-in measurement tools. Means, standard deviations and minimum and maximum values were calculated for all right and left premolars and molars. T-tests were used to compare measurements between left and right sides and between female and male patients. Results: The distance between sinus floor and root tip was longest for the first premolar root tip and shortest for the second molar buccodistal root tip for both right and left sides. No statistically significant differences were found between the right and left side measurements or between female and male patients (P>.05). Conclusions: Knowledge of the anatomical relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary posterior teeth root tips is important for the preoperative treatment planning of maxillary posterior teeth. PMID:20922167

Kilic, Cenk; Kamburoglu, Kivanc; Yuksel, Selcen Pehlivan; Ozen, Tuncer

2010-01-01

223

The effect of human amniotic fluid on mandibular distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local administration of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on newly formed bone obtained by mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) with histomorphometry. A unilateral mandibular osteotomy at the left corpus was performed in 32 adult male rabbits. After a 5-day latency period, the left mandibles were lengthened by mandibular DO over 5 days, at a rate of 1mm/day, via a custom-made distractor. After the distraction, the rabbits were divided randomly into four groups: 0.3ml HAF was injected into the distraction gap followed by 21 (group 1) or 45 (group 2) days of consolidation; or 0.3ml normal saline (NS) was administered followed by 21 (group 3) or 45 (group 4) days of consolidation. Mandibles were removed at the end of the consolidation period and investigated histomorphometrically. The newly formed bone area (NFBA) and number of fibroblasts increased significantly in the HAF groups compared to the NS groups (NFBA: group 1 vs. group 3, P<0.05; group 2 vs. group 4, P<0.01; fibroblasts: group 1 vs. group 3, and group 2 vs. group 4, P<0.05), and also in both 45-day consolidation groups compared to the 21-day consolidation groups (NFBA: group 1 vs. group 2, and group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.001; fibroblasts: group 1 vs. group 2, and group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.01). Additionally, the numbers of osteoblasts and capillaries were increased significantly at 45 days of consolidation compared to 21 days in both the HAF and NS groups (osteoblasts: group 1 vs. group 2, P<0.01; group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.05; capillaries: group 1 vs. group 2, and group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.01). Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that local HAF administration effectively accelerated bone formation. Thus, a HAF injection procedure could improve new bone formation around the bone in maxillofacial operations such as DO. PMID:25457823

Gokce, S M; Karacayli, U; Nalcaci, R; Avunduk, M C; Özgöçmen, M; Karasahin, E; Gokce, H S

2015-03-01

224

Dopaminergic modulation of distracter-resistance and prefrontal delay period signal.  

PubMed

Dopamine has long been implicated in the online maintenance of information across short delays. Specifically, dopamine has been proposed to modulate the strength of working memory representations in the face of intervening distracters. This hypothesis has not been tested in humans. We fill this gap using pharmacological neuroimaging. Healthy young subjects were scanned after intake of the dopamine receptor agonist bromocriptine or placebo (in a within-subject, counterbalanced, and double-blind design). During scanning, subjects performed a delayed match-to-sample task with face stimuli. A face or scene distracter was presented during the delay period (between the cue and the probe). Bromocriptine altered distracter-resistance, such that it impaired performance after face relative to scene distraction. Individual differences in the drug effect on distracter-resistance correlated negatively with drug effects on delay period signal in the prefrontal cortex, as well as on functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the fusiform face area. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that dopaminergic modulation of the prefrontal cortex alters resistance of working memory representations to distraction. Moreover, we show that the effects of dopamine on the distracter-resistance of these representations are accompanied by modulation of the functional strength of connections between the prefrontal cortex and stimulus-specific posterior cortex. PMID:25300902

Bloemendaal, Mirjam; van Schouwenburg, Martine R; Miyakawa, Asako; Aarts, Esther; D'Esposito, Mark; Cools, Roshan

2015-03-01

225

Age differences in the frontoparietal cognitive control network: implications for distractibility.  

PubMed

Current evidence suggests that older adults have reduced suppression of, and greater implicit memory for, distracting stimuli, due to age-related declines in frontal-based control mechanisms. In this study, we used fMRI to examine age differences in the neural underpinnings of attentional control and their relationship to differences in distractibility and subsequent memory for distraction. Older and younger adults were shown a rapid stream of words or nonwords superimposed on objects and performed a 1-back task on either the letters or the objects, while ignoring the other modality. Older adults were more distracted than younger adults by the overlapping words during the 1-back task, and they subsequently showed more priming for these words on an implicit memory task. A multivariate analysis of the imaging data revealed a set of regions, including the rostral PFC and inferior parietal cortex, that younger adults activated to a greater extent than older adults during the ignore-words condition, and activity in this set of regions was negatively correlated with priming for the distracting words. Functional connectivity analyses using right and left rostral PFC seeds revealed a network of putative control regions, including bilateral parietal cortex, connected to the frontal seeds at rest. Older adults showed reduced functional connectivity within this frontoparietal network, suggesting that their greater distractibility may be due to decreased activity and coherence within a cognitive control network that normally acts to reduce interference from distraction. PMID:22659108

Campbell, Karen L; Grady, Cheryl L; Ng, Charisa; Hasher, Lynn

2012-07-01

226

Correlation of biomechanical stiffness with plain radiographic and ultrasound data in an experimental mandibular distraction wound.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the stiffness of a porcine mandibular distraction wound at the end of neutral fixation.Twenty-four Yucatan minipigs underwent unilateral mandibular distraction: zero-day latency, rates of 1, 2, and 4 mm per day, distraction gap of 12 mm. Radiographic and ultrasound bone fill scores at 0, 8, 16 and 24 days of neutral fixation were used to evaluate interval healing. At sacrifice, biomechanical stiffness was determined using an Instron machine to produce a downward force of 2 mm/min at the premolar occlusal surface. Force (kilo-Newton, kN) and displacement (mm) were recorded at a rate of 10,000 points/second. Stiffness across the distraction wound, plain radiographic and ultrasound bone fill scores all increased with duration of neutral fixation and were highest for the 1 mm per day group at all time points. At the end of fixation, even in the most clinically stable group, stiffness across the distraction wound was only 25.5% of control.Despite clinical stability and high bone fill scores by X-ray and ultrasound, the distraction wound did not achieve normal stiffness at the end of neutral fixation in this model. This may have implications for the management of patients who undergo large movements by distraction. PMID:12767878

Kaban, L B; Thurmüller, P; Troulis, M J; Glowacki, J; Wahl, D; Linke, B; Rahn, B; Perrott, D H

2003-06-01

227

Intraoral mass presenting as maxillary sinus carcinoma: a case report.  

PubMed

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. It is of unknown etiology, and occurs more commonly in the elderly men, with a routinely shown aggressive behavior and poor prognosis for survival. Radiographically, it looks like severe osteomyelitis. Histopathologic study is essential to confirm diagnosis, and the undifferentiated histologic appearance often necessitates immunohistochemical studies for differentiation from other high-grade neoplasms. We present an 83-year-old man complaining of pain and unilateral swelling on the left side of the face due to a rare malignant tumor of maxillary sinus origin, a sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. He underwent hemimaxillectomy and radiotherapy, but refused chemotherapy. Maxillary sinus malignancy may be presented with unspecific symptoms mimicking sinusitis or dental pain. Coming across such symptoms, the physician or dentist must consider malignancies as well, and carry out medical and dental workups. PMID:24910668

Mahdavi, Omid; Boostani, Najmehalsadat; Karimi, Sharareh; Tabesh, Adel

2013-11-01

228

Familial aggregation of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA)  

PubMed Central

Agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular second premolars is the most frequent form of hypodontia. Its prevalence varies across population from 0.8% to 4.5%. Genetic aberrations and environmental factors may cause agenesis of one or more teeth. The management of child having such a problem is very important since diastema in teeth especially in upper anteriors not only affects child's physical appearance but also its psychological development as the child wants to look like other children. In this article is presented a case of non-syndromic agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors (MLIA) and mandibular central incisors in a 10-year-old boy (patient) in permanent dentition with its management along with the radiographic investigations and photographic presentations of the other members of his family affected with this condition. PMID:23536620

Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Choudhary, Kartik; Saxena, Aditya

2013-01-01

229

Aggressive inflammatory pseudotumor of the maxillary sinus and orbit.  

PubMed

Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) is a rare, locally aggressive, benign neoplasm of unknown etiology. It is uncommon in the head and neck region, particularly in the paranasal sinuses. We present an unusual case of IPT of the maxillary sinus and orbit in a 27-year-old woman who presented with cheek swelling, right orbital swelling, double vision, and associated fever and trismus. Computed tomography identified a mass with radiologic features suggestive of a malignancy of the maxillary sinus and orbit; the mass extended into the infratemporal fossa, parapharyngeal space, anterior antral wall, and surrounding soft tissue. A diagnosis of IPT was established on the basis of histologic and immunohistochemical analysis, which identified a proliferation of bland spindle cells and a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate. Despite its aggressive appearance, IPT is associated with a good prognosis. Our patient was treated successfully with a combination of surgery, steroid therapy, and methotrexate. Chemotherapeutic agents are generally reserved for recalcitrant cases. PMID:24652559

Chong, Sheldon; Teh, Carren; Shashinder, Singh; Mun, Kein Seong; Viswaraja, Subrayan

2014-03-01

230

Fragment Reattachment after Atypical Crown Fracture in Maxillary Central Incisor  

PubMed Central

Background. Fracture by trauma is one of the most common types of dental injury in the permanent dentition among children and teenagers. Aim. The aim of this study was to report the treatment performed to an atypical dental trauma case in a maxillary central incisor of a young patient by means of reattachment of the tooth fragment. Case Description. A 12-year-old male patient suffered a vertical crown fracture to the maxillary right central incisor. After clinical and radiographic examinations, a conservative restorative treatment which consisted in the reattachment of the tooth fragment with flow resin was performed in order to preserve the dental element and to obtain maximum aesthetics. Conclusion. The reattachment of fractured fragment is a fast and easy technique that can be used successfully as an option to restore dental element which suffered trauma. Clinical Significance. This technique restores the aesthetics and function of the dental element with minimal discomfort to the patient. PMID:25610663

Vaz, Vanessa Torraca Peraro; Presoto, Cristina Dupim; Jordão, Keren Cristina Fagundes; Paleari, André Gustavo; Dantas, Andrea Abi-Rached; Segalla, José Claudio Martins; de Oliveira Junior, Osmir Batista

2014-01-01

231

Automating skeletal expansion: An implant for distraction osteogenesis of the mandible  

PubMed Central

Background Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a technique of bone lengthening that makes use of the body’s natural healing capacity. An osteotomy is created and a rigid distraction device is attached to the bone. After a latency period, the device is activated 2–4 times per day for a total of 1 mm/day of bone lengthening. This technique is used to correct a variety of congenital and acquired deformities of the mandible, midface and long bones. To shorten the treatment period and to eliminate the complications of patient activation of the device, an automated continuous distraction device would be desirable. It has been reported that continuous distraction generates adequate bone with lengthening at a rate of 2 mm/day, thereby reducing the treatment time. Method of Approach The device we describe here uses miniature high-pressure hydraulics, position feedback, and a digital controller to achieve closed-loop control of the distraction process. The implanted actuator can produce up to 40N of distraction force on linear trajectories as well as curved distraction paths. In the paper we detail the spring-powered hydraulic reservoir, controller, and user interface. Results Experiments to test the new device design were performed in a porcine cadaver head and in live pigs. In the cadaver head, the device performed an 11-day/11 mm distraction with a root-mean-squared position error of 0.09 mm. The device functioned for periods of several days in each of five live animals, though some component failures occurred, leading to design revisions. Conclusions The test series showed that the novel design of this system provides the capabilities necessary to automate distraction of the mandible. Further developments will focus on making the implanted position sensor more robust and then carrying out clinical trials. PMID:20740071

Magill, John C.; Byl, Marten F.; Goldwaser, Batya; Papadaki, Maria; Kromann, Roger; Yates, Brent; Morency, Joseph R.; Kaban, Leonard B.; Troulis, Maria J.

2010-01-01

232

maxillary palps present maxillary palps absent forehead with spines forehead without spines  

E-print Network

Bmcnrcd antenna" segmented I i head longer .han wide head no. longer .han "'ide abdomen densely covered with seue abdomen oval Lipeurw caponi. Cuclutogatter heterographu. Goniocote. hoiogOlter abdomen with sclcrotized markings abdomen without sclcrotized markings ~. Goniode. gigtU Goniode. di.,imili. MALLOPHAGA: PICTORIAL

233

Alterations in Maxillary Sinus Volume among Oral and Nasal Breathers  

PubMed Central

Background Oral breathing causes many changes in the facial anatomical structures in adult patients. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of long-term oral breathing (>5 years) on the maxillary sinus volumes among adult male patients. Material/Methods We accessed medical records of 586 patients who had undergone cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for any reason between September 2013 and April 2014. Patients who had undergone cone-beam dental volumetric tomography scans for any reason and who had answered a questionnaire about breathing were screened retrospectively. Cone beam dental volumetric tomography (I-Cat, Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA) was used to take the images of the maxillo-facial area at a setting of 120 kVp and 3.7 mA. This study involved male patients older than 21 years of age. Results The study included a total of 239 male patients, of which 68 were oral breathers and 171 were nasal breathers. The mean age of the oral breathers was 48.4 years and that of the nasal breathers was 46.7 years and the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The mean maxillary sinus volumes of the oral and nasal breathers were 9043.49±1987.90 and 10851.77±2769.37, respectively, and the difference in maxillary sinus volume between the 2 groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions The volume of maxillary sinus in oral breathers (>5 years) was significantly lower than in nasal breathers, but it remains unclear whether this is due to malfunctioning of the nasal cavity or due to the underlying pathological condition. PMID:25553770

Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Gulsun, Belgin; Koparal, Mahmut; Atalay, Yusuf; Aksoy, Orhan; Adiguzel, Ozkan

2015-01-01

234

Skeletal features in patient affected by maxillary canine impaction  

PubMed Central

Objective: To analyze the skeletal features of patients with maxillary canine impaction. Material and Methods: The complete pre-treatment records of 1674 orthodontic patients were examined. From the subjects with maxillary impacted canine 12 patients were excluded , remaining 108. The subjects with maxillary impacted canine were divided into two study groups: a palatally displaced canine group (PDCG) (77 patients) and a buccally displaced canine group (BDCG) (31 patients). The values of the skeletal features measured on the lateral cephalometric radiograph were compared with a control group (CG) of 121 subjects randomly selected from the initial sample without maxillary canine impaction. The statistical analysis of the difference between the study groups and the CG was tested using ?2 test and Fisher’s exact test. The level of significance was set at P ?0.05. Results: The CG was characterized by increased values of A point-Nasion-B point angle (ANB) and by a retro-positioned or smaller lower jaw. PDCG patients showed normal skeletal features compared to the CG, presenting mainly I class and lower rank of II and III sagittal skeletal features. PDCG subjects presented also normal values of the Steiner vertical skeletal relationship angles with normal facial divergence compared to the CG. PDCG cases were also characterized by horizontal and prognathic growth. BDCG did not present significant differences in skeletal features compared to the CG, except for an increased ANB. Conclusions: Palatally displaced canine (PDC) was frequently the only orthodontic problem of patients and was not associated whit altered skeletal features. The frequent absence of malocclusion in PDC patients explains the delayed identification of this problem. BDCG patients did not present significant differences in skeletal features with respect to the orthodontic population. The presence of both buccally displaced canine (BDC) and malocclusion makes the patient with BDC both aware of the need for, and motivated to undergo, orthodontic treatment. Key words:Canine impaction, palatal displacement, buccal displacement, skeletal features. PMID:23722128

Mercuri, Emanuele; Cavallini, Costanza; Vicari, Donatella; Leonardi, Rosalia; Barbato, Ersilia

2013-01-01

235

The role of the maxillary sinus on the voice.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the maxillary sinus on the voice. The prospective study was conducted at an academic secondary referral center. A prospective chart review of 43 patients (17 males, 26 females) who conducted a voice recording and survey before and 3 months after middle meatal antrostomy whose lesion was confined to the maxillary sinus. Subjective voice changes were surveyed using a questionnaire. After phonation [?m ma: the Korean pronunciation of 'mother'], [Nu Na: the Korean pronunciation of 'sister'], we analyzed the nasal consonant [m] of [?m ma] and nasalized vowel [a] of [?m ma] and [a] of [Nu Na]. In the poll conducted, the change rates for males and females were 41.1 % (7/17) and 15.4 % (4/26), respectively; of the male patients, 85.7 % (6/7) felt that the sound quality was better and 14.3 % (1/6) that it was worse. However, all the female patients felt it was better. Among of the patients with an improved voice, reduced nasal sound was the most frequent observation. In an objective analysis, a tendency to lowered frequencies was observed for nasalized vowels after surgery. Significant differences were observed at second formant frequencies of [a] of [?m ma] and first formant frequencies of [a] of [Nu Na] in female subjects (P < 0.005). Our findings indicated that the maxillary sinus plays a role in the modification of voice quality. Preoperative counseling is important for patients concerning expected changes in the voice after maxillary sinus surgery. PMID:25348340

Koo, Soo Kweon; Kwon, Soon Bok; Chon, Kyong Myong; Kim, Yang Jae; Kim, Young Joong

2014-10-28

236

Radiologic findings in aspergillosis of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Antral aspergillosis has recently been found to be often induced by endodontic material (Endomethasone, N2, Riebler Material), that contains zinc oxide and paraformaldehyde. A study of 34 otherwise healthy patients with aspergillus infection of the maxillary sinus had a pathognomonic radiologic appearance noted in 26 patients (76%). All patients except one had a history of endodontic therapy. The radiology, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of solitary antral aspergillosis are briefly discussed. PMID:3462640

Beck-Mannagetta, J; Necek, D

1986-09-01

237

Primary Small Cell Undifferentiated (Neuroendocrine) Carcinoma of the Maxillary Sinus  

PubMed Central

Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) of the paranasal sinuses is an extremely rare and distinctive tumor with aggressive clinical behavior. Moreover, SNECs originating in the head and neck region have been reported to be highly aggressive and to have a poor prognosis. This report describes a patient with a maxillary sinus SNEC who was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy. PMID:24639904

Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Shetty, Premalatha

2014-01-01

238

Primary small cell undifferentiated (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) of the paranasal sinuses is an extremely rare and distinctive tumor with aggressive clinical behavior. Moreover, SNECs originating in the head and neck region have been reported to be highly aggressive and to have a poor prognosis. This report describes a patient with a maxillary sinus SNEC who was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy. PMID:24639904

Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Shetty, Premalatha

2014-01-01

239

Distraction and microvascular epiphysis transfer for radial club hand.  

PubMed

This paper presents a different technique of treatment for Bayne type IV radial club hand using a microvascular joint transfer in order to reconstruct the absent half of the wrist joint, aiming for better movement and stability at the wrist joint with preservation of longitudinal growth. The method uses preoperative soft tissue distraction to obtain proper alignment of the hand on the ulna before the second metatarsophalangeal joint with the whole metatarsal bone is transplanted. The treatment takes about 4 months and the optimum period for surgery is during the second year of life. Pollicization is added later in the normal manner. The new technique has been used in 12 cases by the author since 1987 and the results of the first nine cases are reported with a mean follow-up of 6 years. This technique appears to be promising but is demanding because of the microvascular joint transplantation at an early age. PMID:9726542

Vilkki, S K

1998-08-01

240

A push-pull distraction method for arthroscopic subtalar joint arthrodesis.  

PubMed

Unlike ankle joint arthroscopy, distraction of the subtalar joint can be challenging. We introduce a powerful distraction method that can be used during an arthroscopic subtalar joint arthrodesis procedure using a "push-pull" technique. A fully threaded screw is used to push the talus while the calcaneus is pulled to distract the joint. The technique allows the surgeon to access the rather tight joint without disrupting a significant amount of the ligamentous and capsular structures. It also allows preservation of the vascular structures that supply the talus. The "push-pull" screw can also be converted to a second point of fixation at the end of the procedure. PMID:24785201

Shibuya, Naohiro; Smith, Rebecca S; Escobedo, Laura A; Agarwal, Monica R

2014-01-01

241

The effect of a safe zone on nurse interruptions, distractions, and medication administration errors.  

PubMed

Patient safety is a health care priority. Yet medical errors are ranked the eighth leading cause of death. Medication administration errors (MAEs) often result from multiple environmental and individual factors. This quality improvement initiative adapted a protocol based on airline industry safety measures to decrease nurse distractions and interruptions during medication administration, with the goal of decreasing MAEs. Sources of distractions, interruptions, and MAEs were measured pre and post intervention. Patient satisfaction scores were measured concurrently. Results of this initiative differ from previous studies in which similar interventions reduced both distractions and MAEs. An unexpected finding was dramatically increased patient satisfaction. PMID:25723837

Yoder, Mindy; Schadewald, Diane; Dietrich, Kim

2015-01-01

242

Removal of an upper third molar from the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

The maxillary sinus or antrum is the largest of the paranasal sinuses. It is located in the maxillary bone and has a proximity to the apexes of upper molars and premolars, which allows it to form a direct link between the sinus and the oral cavity. Dislocation of a foreign body or tooth to the interior of a paranasal sinus is a situation that can occur as a result of car accidents, firearm attacks, or iatrogenic in surgical procedures. Therefore, it is necessary to know how to treat this kind of situation. This study's objective is to report the case of a 23-year-old female patient, leucoderma, who sought treatment from the Surgical Unit at the Dental Faculty of the Federal University of Sergipe. She had a history of pain and edema in the right side of the genian region and two failed attempts at removing dental unit (DU) 18. The extraoral clinical exam revealed intense edema of the left hemiface with signs of infection, excoriation of the labial commissure, hematoma, a body temperature of 39°C, and a limited ability to open her mouth. The patient was medicated and treated surgically. The tooth was removed from the maxillary sinus with caution, as should have been done initially. PMID:25705524

Amorim, Klinger de Souza; da Silva, Vanessa Tavares; da Cunha, Rafael Soares; Souto, Maria Luisa Silveira; São Mateus, Carla Rocha; Souza, Liane Maciel de Almeida

2015-01-01

243

Removal of an Upper Third Molar from the Maxillary Sinus  

PubMed Central

The maxillary sinus or antrum is the largest of the paranasal sinuses. It is located in the maxillary bone and has a proximity to the apexes of upper molars and premolars, which allows it to form a direct link between the sinus and the oral cavity. Dislocation of a foreign body or tooth to the interior of a paranasal sinus is a situation that can occur as a result of car accidents, firearm attacks, or iatrogenic in surgical procedures. Therefore, it is necessary to know how to treat this kind of situation. This study's objective is to report the case of a 23-year-old female patient, leucoderma, who sought treatment from the Surgical Unit at the Dental Faculty of the Federal University of Sergipe. She had a history of pain and edema in the right side of the genian region and two failed attempts at removing dental unit (DU) 18. The extraoral clinical exam revealed intense edema of the left hemiface with signs of infection, excoriation of the labial commissure, hematoma, a body temperature of 39°C, and a limited ability to open her mouth. The patient was medicated and treated surgically. The tooth was removed from the maxillary sinus with caution, as should have been done initially. PMID:25705524

Amorim, Klinger de Souza; da Silva, Vanessa Tavares; da Cunha, Rafael Soares; Souto, Maria Luisa Silveira; São Mateus, Carla Rocha; Souza, Liane Maciel de Almeida

2015-01-01

244

Treatment of a maxillary fibrosarcoma in an adult alpaca.  

PubMed

Case Description-An approximately 5-year-old sexually intact male alpaca was evaluated because of a right-sided maxillary mass that had recurred after previous surgical debulking. Clinical Findings-Clinical, radiographic, and CT examination revealed an approximately 1.5-cm-diameter soft tissue mass associated with expansile osteolysis of the maxillary alveolar bone, beginning at the level of the right maxillary third premolar tooth extending caudally to the level of the rostral roots of the second molar tooth. Treatment and Outcome-Right partial maxillectomy was performed, and histologic examination revealed an incompletely excised fibrosarcoma with osseous metaplasia. External beam radiation therapy to the tumor bed was initiated 1 month after surgery. Computerized planning was performed, and a total radiation dose of 48 Gy was prescribed in eleven 4.4-Gy fractions. Follow-up CT evaluations 6 and 58 weeks after radiation therapy was completed revealed no evidence of tumor recurrence. No clinical evidence of tumor recurrence was detected through 110 weeks after radiation therapy. Clinical Relevance-The oral fibrosarcoma in the alpaca described here was successfully treated with surgical excision and adjuvant radiation therapy, resulting in excellent quality of life of the treated animal. PMID:25719850

Higginbotham, Mary Lynn; McCaw, Dudley L; Anderson, David E; Lattimer, Jimmy C; Armbrust, Laura; Andrews, Gordon A; McBride, Brandon D

2015-03-15

245

Myoepithelial carcinoma arising in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in maxillary sinus  

PubMed Central

Myoepithelial carcinoma is characterized by nearly exclusive myoepithelial differentiation and evidence of malignancy. It may arise de novo or in preexisting benign tumors including pleomorphic adenoma and benign myoepithelioma. A 39-year-old lady presented with painless progressive swelling on the right cheek and right side of palate. On surgery, there was a mass in right maxillary sinus which was surgically excised and diagnosed on histopathology as pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequently, there were two recurrences. The first recurrence was in the right maxilla after 2 years that was removed surgically and diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. One year later, she came with rapidly progressive swelling in bilateral cheeks and face. Intraoperatively, there was a large tumor in both maxillary sinuses with extensive local infiltration. Histologically, it was diagnosed as myoepithelial carcinoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is usually a high grade malignancy. It occurs most commonly in parotid gland followed by submandibular glands, minor salivary glands and occasionally in sublingual gland. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of myoepithelial carcinoma arising in a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in the maxillary sinus. PMID:24574666

Gupta, Ashumi; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Michael, Rajiv

2013-01-01

246

Clinical significance of neck node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary antrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To further clarify the clinical significance of neck node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus (maxillary SCC).Materials and Methods: The medical charts of the 116 patients with maxillary SCC were retrospectively reviewed. Twelve patients (10.3%) presented initially with neck node metastases, and 14 (13.5%) of 104 node-negative patients subsequently developed regional recurrence during the follow-up period.

Gwi Eon Kim; Eun Ji Chung; John Jihoon Lim; Ki Chang Keum; Sang Wook Lee; Jae Ho Cho; Chang Geol Lee; Eun Chang Choi

1999-01-01

247

Internet Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the most interesting and useful aspects of the Internet marketplace are providing research and targeting specific marketing segments. A plethora of free information on Net users and their habits exists on the Web. In addition, marketers can conduct their own online research inexpensively through e-mail and a variety of Websites analysis tools. Target marketing on the Web means

Susie Chang

1998-01-01

248

Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis with oro-nasal fistula: a case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim of the study The odontogenic sinusitis has an incidence between 38 and 40.6%. Increased risk of maxillary sinusitis has been reported with the presence of periapical abscesses, periodontal disease, dental trauma, tooth extraction and implant placement when the sinusal membrane is perforated. Materials and methods A patient with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis associated with oro-nasal fistula was treated. Results The follow-up at six months showed the complete resolution of maxillary sinusitis, palatal fistula got closed and pain symptoms disappeared. Conclusion This case report describes a rare complication of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis: the oro-nasal fistula. PMID:25678949

Carini, Fabrizio; Longoni, Salvatore; Amosso, Ernesto; Carini, Stefania; Garavello, Werner; Porcaro, Gianluca

2014-01-01

249

Treatment of an Extensive Maxillary Cyst Using Nasal Airway and Balloon Catheter Devices  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Large maxillary cysts occasionally expand into the maxilla and erode the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity. The Caldwell-Luc procedure is the recommended treatment for large maxillary sinus cysts. However, it is hard to preserve the nasal space in the case of large maxillary sinus cysts that penetrate into the nasal cavity. Methods. A 22-year-old man who had large maxillary sinus cysts was referred to our department for a surgical treatment. After removing the cyst from the maxillary sinus using the Caldwell-Luc procedure, we used nasal airway and balloon catheter devices to preserve the space of the inferior nasal meatus and maxillary sinus. These devices were removed 10 days postoperatively. Insertion and removal of both devices were simple and painless. Findings. The nasal airway and balloon catheter devices were useful for performing maxillary sinus surgery to remove large cysts. Our method was satisfactorily safe and was an effective minimally invasive treatment that preserved the space of the inferior nasal meatus and maxillary sinus. PMID:24804124

Fukumoto, Chonji; Higo, Morihiro; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

2014-01-01

250

Distraction lengthening of the ulna in radial club hand using the Ilizarov technique.  

PubMed

Six children with radial club hand had distraction lengthening of the ulna using the Ilizarov technique at the mean age of 10 years. The mean lengthening achieved was 4.7 cm (46% of original ulna length). Complications included nocturnal pain, pin track infection and callus fracture or delayed union. Distraction lengthening of the ulna can enhance the ability to perform normal activities of daily living, such as reaching the perineum or driving a car, but complications are extremely common. The high rate of callus fracture in this series reinforces the need for regular radiographic review during distraction and suggests that after distraction it may take more than 4 weeks for satisfactory callus consolidation before removal of the fixator. PMID:9607657

Pickford, M A; Scheker, L R

1998-04-01

251

Frontofacial osteotomies, advancement, and remodeling by distraction: an extended application of the technique.  

PubMed

The purpose of this clinical report is to present the distraction technique for advancement of the frontofacial skeleton as a unit. Our 14-year-old patient was diagnosed with Carpenter's syndrome and kleblattschädel deformity at birth. At other centers the patient underwent corrective surgeries, including repeated fronto-orbital advancement in an attempt to correct the residual deformity. This has resulted in bony malunion and recurrent deformity, and it has left the patient with no available donor sites for harvesting of bone graft. The patient had class III malocclusion, severe midfacial and frontal deficiency, and relative turricephaly. We performed frontofacial osteotomies and placement of the distraction devices. Distraction of 20 mm was accomplished, correcting the exophthalmos and midface retrusion and producing class I dental occlusion. We conclude that distraction is an optional surgical method that can be applied in selected cases for advancement of the entire frontofacial skeleton. PMID:9482056

Talisman, R; Hemmy, D C; Denny, A D

1997-07-01

252

Evaluation of Vibrotactile Alert Systems for Supporting Hazard Awareness and Safety of Distracted Pedestrians  

E-print Network

There are an increasing number of motor-vehicle accidents due to distracted drivers not paying attention to their surroundings. The use of smart phones and tablets are also on the rise, which can contribute significantly to this problem. Drivers...

Marsalia, Angela

2013-11-20

253

Eye movements of young and older adults while reading with distraction  

E-print Network

The authors used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' online performance in the reading in distraction paradigm. Participants read target sentences and answered comprehension questions following each sentence. In some sentences...

Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Kramer, Arthur F.

2006-03-01

254

Driver distraction: a perennial but preventable public health threat to adolescents.  

PubMed

Although public health efforts have made some progress in reducing risk of adolescent motor vehicle crashes over the last three decades, new technologies and evolving behavior patterns have focused attention on the risk of distracted driving. For many of the same reasons that alcohol-impaired driving represents a distinct risk for adolescents, distracted driving has an elevated impact on this age group. Similarly, many of the strategies used to reduce alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents might be applied to driver distraction, including adults serving as role models with high standards of behavior. The unique challenge posed by the proliferation of new technological distractions may accelerate this risk behavior and may lend itself to innovative prevention efforts. PMID:24759438

Bingham, C Raymond

2014-05-01

255

BONE REGENERATION AND DOCKING SITE HEALING AFTER BONE TRANSPORT DISTRACTION OSTEOGENESIS IN THE CANINE MANDIBLE  

PubMed Central

Purpose Bone transport distraction osteogenesis (BTDO) provides a promising alternative to traditional grafting techniques. However, existing BTDO devices have many limitations. The purpose of this research was to test a new device, the mandibular bone transport reconstruction plate (BTRP), in an animal model with comparable mandible size to humans and to histologically and mechanically examine the regenerate bone. Materials and methods Eleven adult foxhound dogs were divided into an unreconstructed control group of 5 animals, and an experimental group of 6 animals. In each animal, a 34 mm segmental defect was created in the mandible. The defect was reconstructed with BTRP. Histological and biomechanical characteristics of the regenerate and un-repaired defect were analyzed and compared to bone on the contralateral side of the mandible after 4 weeks of consolidation. Results The reconstructed defect was bridged with new bone, with little bone in the control defect. Regenerate density and microhardness were 22.3% and 42.6% lower than the contralateral normal bone, respectively. Likewise, the anisotropy of the experimental group was statistically lower than in the contralateral bone. Half the experimental animals showed non-union at the docking site. Conclusion The device was very stable and easy to install and activate. After one month of consolidation, the defect has been bridged with new bone with evidence of active bone formation. Regenerate bone was less mature than the control bone. Studies are underway to identify when the regenerate properties compare to normal bone, and to identify methods to augment bone union at the docking site. PMID:21601342

Nagashima, Lucy K; Newby, Michelle Rondon; Zakhary, Ibrahim E; Nagy, William W; Zapata, Uriel; Dechow, Paul C; Opperman, Lynne A; Elsalanty, Mohammed E

2011-01-01

256

Learning static object segmentation from motion segmentation  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the SANE (Segmentation According to Natural Examples) algorithm for learning to segment objects in static images from video data. SANE uses background subtraction to find the segmentation of moving ...

Ross, Michael G. (Michael Gregory), 1975-

2005-01-01

257

Effects of Simulator Practice and Real-World Experience on Cell-Phone-Related Driver Distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our research examined the effects of practice on cell-phone—related driver distraction. Background: The driving literature is ambiguous as to whether practice can reduce driver distraction from concurrent cell phone conversation. Methods: Drivers reporting either high or low real-world cell phone usage were selected to participate in four 90-min simulated driving sessions on successive days. The research consisted of two

Joel M. Cooper; David L. Strayer

2008-01-01

258

Implantation of a distractible titanium cage after cervical corpectomy: technical experience in 20 consecutive cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background. This prospective observational study was undertaken to investigate the advantages, the safety, and the drawbacks of reconstructing\\u000a a cervical corpectomy with a distractible corpectomy cage. According to the author’s literature search, this is the second clinical report on a distractible cervical corpectomy cage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method. 20 consecutive patients underwent a single- or multi-level cervical corpectomy for spondylotic myelopathy, traumatic

M. Payer

2006-01-01

259

Coaction and upward social comparison reduce the illusory conjunction effect: Support for distraction–conflict theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes an integration of Festinger’s (1954) social comparison theory and Baron’s (1986) distraction–conflict theory of the social facilitation–inhibition effect, which successfully predicts attentional focusing in coaction when social comparison represents a distraction. Two experiments confronted participants with the illusory conjunction task (Treisman, 1998), where illusions occur because of the lack of attentional processing of central cues. If coaction,

Dominique Muller; Thierry Atzeni; Fabrizio Butera

2004-01-01

260

TVAR modeling of EEG to detect audio distraction during simulated driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. The objective of our current study was to look for the EEG correlates that can reveal the engaged state of the brain while undertaking cognitive tasks. Specifically, we aimed to identify EEG features that could detect audio distraction during simulated driving. Approach. Time varying autoregressive (TVAR) analysis using Kalman smoother was carried out on short time epochs of EEG data collected from participants as they undertook two simulated driving tasks. TVAR coefficients were then used to construct all pole model enabling the identification of EEG features that could differentiate normal driving from audio distracted driving. Main results. Pole analysis of the TVAR model led to the visualization of event related synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) patterns in the form of pole displacements in pole plots of the temporal EEG channels in the z plane enabling the differentiation of the two driving conditions. ERS in the EEG data has been demonstrated during audio distraction as an associated phenomenon. Significance. Visualizing the ERD/ERS phenomenon in terms of pole displacement is a novel approach. Although ERS/ERD has previously been demonstrated as reliable when applied to motor related tasks, it is believed to be the first time that it has been applied to investigate human cognitive phenomena such as attention and distraction. Results confirmed that distracted/non-distracted driving states can be identified using this approach supporting its applicability to cognition research.

Dahal, Nabaraj; (Nanda Nandagopal, D.; Cocks, Bernadine; Vijayalakshmi, Ramasamy; Dasari, Naga; Gaertner, Paul

2014-06-01

261

The Molecular and Cellular Events That Take Place during Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary: Gradual bone lengthening using distraction osteogenesis principles is the gold standard for the treatment of hypoplastic facial bones. However, the long treatment time is a major disadvantage of the lengthening procedures. The aim of this study is to review the current literature and summarize the cellular and molecular events occurring during membranous craniofacial distraction osteogenesis. Mechanical stimulation by distraction induces biological responses of skeletal regeneration that is accomplished by a cascade of biological processes that may include differentiation of pluripotential tissue, angiogenesis, osteogenesis, mineralization, and remodeling. There are complex interactions between bone-forming osteoblasts and other cells present within the bone microenvironment, particularly vascular endothelial cells that may be pivotal members of a complex interactive communication network in bone. Studies have implicated number of cytokines that are intimately involved in the regulation of bone synthesis and turnover. The gene regulation of numerous cytokines (transforming growth factor-?, bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor-1, and fibroblast growth factor-2) and extracellular matrix proteins (osteonectin, osteopontin) during distraction osteogenesis has been best characterized and discussed. Understanding the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate membranous distraction osteogenesis may guide the development of targeted strategies designed to improve distraction osteogenesis and accelerate bone regeneration that may lead to shorten the treatment duration. PMID:25289295

Rachmiel, Adi

2014-01-01

262

Informational masking of speech in children: Effects of ipsilateral and contralateral distracters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a closed-set speech recognition paradigm thought to be heavily influenced by informational masking, auditory selective attention was measured in 38 children (ages 4-16 years) and 8 adults (ages 20-30 years). The task required attention to a monaural target speech message that was presented with a time-synchronized distracter message in the same ear. In some conditions a second distracter message or a speech-shaped noise was presented to the other ear. Compared to adults, children required higher target/distracter ratios to reach comparable performance levels, reflecting more informational masking in these listeners. Informational masking in most conditions was confirmed by the fact that a large proportion of the errors made by the listeners were contained in the distracter message(s). There was a monotonic age effect, such that even the children in the oldest age group (13.6-16 years) demonstrated poorer performance than adults. For both children and adults, presentation of an additional distracter in the contralateral ear significantly reduced performance, even when the distracter messages were produced by a talker of different sex than the target talker. The results are consistent with earlier reports from pure-tone masking studies that informational masking effects are much larger in children than in adults.

Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

2005-11-01

263

Stuck in the 70s: the role of social norms in distracted driving.  

PubMed

Successful campaigns to end distracted driving must understand prevailing social norms for behaviors such as texting and phoning while driving. The current work examined this issue by asking younger drivers to read car crash scenarios and rate the responsibility of the driver for the crash, and to levy fines and assign jail time, as a function of whether the driver was attentive, had been drinking, or was distracted by phoning or texting. In the first experiment, ratings were performed in the absence of injunctive norm information (laws against drunk and distracted driving). In the second experiment, injunctive norm information was included. Impaired drivers were viewed as more responsible in both experiments, with texting drivers viewed as the most responsible. However, drunk drivers received the most fines and jail time. When compared to data from the 1970s, the results show that anti-drunk driving campaigns have changed how younger drivers view drunk driving, but that norms have not yet changed for distracted driving, despite consistent results showing they know the risk of driving distracted. Implications for social norm distracted driving campaigns are discussed. PMID:22664691

Atchley, Paul; Hadlock, Chelsie; Lane, Sean

2012-09-01

264

The congruency sequence effect emerges when the distracter precedes the target.  

PubMed

The congruency effect in distracter interference tasks is typically smaller when the previous trial was incongruent as compared to congruent, suggesting the operation of a control process that minimizes the influence of irrelevant stimuli on behavior. However, both the conditions under which this congruency sequence effect (CSE) can be most easily observed without the typical learning and memory confounds, and the control process underlying it, remain controversial. We therefore tested a recent hypothesis that the CSE is most easily observed without the typical confounds when the distracter is processed before the target. In line with this "distracter head start" hypothesis, in Experiments 1 and 2 the CSE was larger when the distracter appeared before, relative to with, the target. Further, in Experiment 3, we observed a negative congruency effect after incongruent trials when a long interval separated the distracter from the target, consistent with a modulation of the response engendered by the distracter but not with a shift of attention toward the target. These findings reveal an important determinant of CSE magnitude when the typical learning and memory confounds are absent and new insights into the nature of control processes that contribute to this phenomenon. PMID:25616120

Weissman, Daniel H; Egner, Tobias; Hawks, Zoë; Link, Jacqueline

2015-03-01

265

Stress shifts brain activation towards ventral 'affective' areas during emotional distraction.  

PubMed

Acute stress has been shown to impair working memory (WM), and to decrease prefrontal activation during WM in healthy humans. Stress also enhances amygdala responses towards emotional stimuli. Stress might thus be specifically detrimental to WM when one is distracted by emotional stimuli. Usually, emotional stimuli presented as distracters in a WM task slow down performance, while evoking more activation in ventral 'affective' brain areas, and a relative deactivation in dorsal 'executive' areas. We hypothesized that after acute social stress, this reciprocal dorsal-ventral pattern would be shifted towards greater increase of ventral 'affective' activation during emotional distraction, while impairing WM performance. To investigate this, 34 healthy men, randomly assigned to a social stress or control condition, performed a Sternberg WM task with emotional and neutral distracters inside an MRI scanner. Results showed that WM performance after stress tended to be slower during emotional distraction. Brain activations during emotional distraction was enhanced in ventral affective areas, while dorsal executive areas tended to show less deactivation after stress. These results suggest that acute stress shifts priority towards processing of emotionally significant stimuli, at the cost of WM performance. PMID:21498384

Oei, Nicole Y L; Veer, Ilya M; Wolf, Oliver T; Spinhoven, Philip; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Elzinga, Bernet M

2012-04-01

266

A Mobile App Offering Distractions and Tips to Cope With Cigarette Craving: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite considerable effort, most smokers relapse within a few months after quitting due to cigarette craving. The widespread adoption of mobile phones presents new opportunities to provide support during attempts to quit. Objective To design and pilot a mobile app "DistractMe" to enable quitters to access and share distractions and tips to cope with cigarette cravings. Methods A qualitative study with 14 smokers who used DistractMe on their mobiles during the first weeks of their quit attempt. Based on interviews, diaries, and log data, we examined how the app supported quitting strategies. Results Three distinct techniques of coping when using DistractMe were identified: diversion, avoidance, and displacement. We further identified three forms of engagement with tips for coping: preparation, fortification, and confrontation. Overall, strategies to prevent cravings and their effects (avoidance, displacement, preparation, and fortification) were more common than immediate coping strategies (diversion and confrontation). Tips for coping were more commonly used than distractions to cope with cravings, because they helped to fortify the quit attempt and provided opportunities to connect with other users of the application. However, distractions were important to attract new users and to facilitate content sharing. Conclusions Based on the qualitative results, we recommend that mobile phone-based interventions focus on tips shared by peers and frequent content updates. Apps also require testing with larger groups of users to assess whether they can be self-sustaining. PMID:25099632

Smith, Wally; Pearce, Jon; Borland, Ron

2014-01-01

267

Trigeminal nitric oxide synthase expression correlates with new bone formation during distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been reported to be involved with both bone healing and bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that there is no correlation between new bone formation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis and NOS expression in the trigeminal ganglion of rats. Newly formed tissue during distraction osteogenesis and trigeminal NOS expression measured by the NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) reaction were evaluated in 72 male Wistar rats by histomorphometric and histochemical methods. In animals submitted to 0.5 mm/day distraction osteogenesis, the percentage of bone tissue was higher in the basal area of the mandibles compared with the center and significantly increased through the experimental periods (P < 0.05). At the sixth postoperative week, the difference in bone formation between the continuous and acute distraction osteogenesis groups was the highest. Significant correlation between new bone formation by distraction osteogenesis and NADPH-d-reactive neurons was found, varying according to neuronal cell size (r = -0.6, P = 0.005, small cells strongly stained; r = 0.5, P = 0.018, large cells moderately stained). The results suggest that NOS may play a role in the bone healing process via neurogenic pathways, and the phenomenon seems to be neuronal cell morphotype-dependent. Further studies are now warranted to investigate the mechanistic link between the expression of trigeminal NOS and mandibular new bone formation by distraction osteogenesis. PMID:18330484

de Albuquerque, Rubens Ferreira; Aparecida Del Bel, Elaine; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme; Moura de Oliveira, Maria Tereza; Mardegan Issa, João Paulo

2008-04-01

268

[Finite-element investigation on center of resistance of maxillary anterior teeth].  

PubMed

A three-dimensional finite element model of premaxillary bone and anterior teeth was established with ANSYS 13.0. The anterior teeth were fixed with strong stainless labial archwire and lingual frame. In the horizontal loading experiments, a horizontal retraction force of 1.5 N was applied bilaterally to the segment through hooks at the same height between 7 and 21 mm from the incisal edge of central incisor; in vertical loading experiments, a vertical intrusion force of 1.5 N was applied at the midline of lingual frame with distance between 4 and 16 mm from the incisal edge of central incisor. After loading, solution was done and displacement and maximum principle stress were calculated. After horizontal loading, lingual displacement and stress in periodontal membrane (PDM) was most homogeneous when the traction force was 14 mm from the edge of central incisor; after vertical loading, intrusive displacement and stress in PDM were most homogeneous when the traction force was 12 mm from the incisal edge of central incisor. The results of this study suggested that the location of center of resistance (CRe) of six maxillary anterior teeth is about 14 mm gingivally and 12 mm lingually to incisal edge of central incisor. The location can provide evidence for theoretical and clinical study in orthodontics. PMID:25764710

Su, Jiehua; Liu, Jiali; Zhang, Duangqiang; Luo, Gusheng; Chen, Libing; Yu, Xiaonan; Lin, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jian

2014-10-01

269

A new method of morphological comparison for bony reconstructive surgery: maxillary reconstruction using scapular tip bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

esthetic appearance is one of the most important factors for reconstructive surgery. The current practice of maxillary reconstruction chooses radial forearm, fibula or iliac rest osteocutaneous to recreate three-dimensional complex structures of the palate and maxilla. However, these bone flaps lack shape similarity to the palate and result in a less satisfactory esthetic. Considering similarity factors and vasculature advantages, reconstructive surgeons recently explored the use of scapular tip myo-osseous free flaps to restore the excised site. We have developed a new method that quantitatively evaluates the morphological similarity of the scapula tip bone and palate based on a diagnostic volumetric computed tomography (CT) image. This quantitative result was further interpreted as a color map that rendered on the surface of a three-dimensional computer model. For surgical planning, this color interpretation could potentially assist the surgeon to maximize the orientation of the bone flaps for best fit of the reconstruction site. With approval from the Research Ethics Board (REB) of the University Health Network, we conducted a retrospective analysis with CT image obtained from 10 patients. Each patient had a CT scans including the maxilla and chest on the same day. Based on this image set, we simulated total, subtotal and hemi palate reconstruction. The procedure of simulation included volume segmentation, conversing the segmented volume to a stereo lithography (STL) model, manual registration, computation of minimum geometric distances and curvature between STL model. Across the 10 patients data, we found the overall root-mean-square (RMS) conformance was 3.71+/- 0.16 mm

Chan, Harley; Gilbert, Ralph W.; Pagedar, Nitin A.; Daly, Michael J.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

2010-02-01

270

Accuracy of virtual models in the assessment of maxillary defects  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to assess the reliability of measurements performed on three-dimensional (3D) virtual models of maxillary defects obtained using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 3D optical scanning. Materials and Methods Mechanical cavities simulating maxillary defects were prepared on the hard palate of nine cadavers. Images were obtained using a CBCT unit at three different fields-of-views (FOVs) and voxel sizes: 1) 60×60 mm FOV, 0.125 mm3 (FOV60); 2) 80×80 mm FOV, 0.160 mm3 (FOV80); and 3) 100×100 mm FOV, 0.250 mm3 (FOV100). Superimposition of the images was performed using software called VRMesh Design. Automated volume measurements were conducted, and differences between surfaces were demonstrated. Silicon impressions obtained from the defects were also scanned with a 3D optical scanner. Virtual models obtained using VRMesh Design were compared with impressions obtained by scanning silicon models. Gold standard volumes of the impression models were then compared with CBCT and 3D scanner measurements. Further, the general linear model was used, and the significance was set to p=0.05. Results A comparison of the results obtained by the observers and methods revealed the p values to be smaller than 0.05, suggesting that the measurement variations were caused by both methods and observers along with the different cadaver specimens used. Further, the 3D scanner measurements were closer to the gold standard measurements when compared to the CBCT measurements. Conclusion In the assessment of artificially created maxillary defects, the 3D scanner measurements were more accurate than the CBCT measurements.

Kur?un, ?ebnem; K?l?ç, Cenk; Özen, Tuncer

2015-01-01

271

Immediate placement of implant into impacted maxillary canine extraction socket.  

PubMed

Impaction of a maxillary canine is common. Orthodontic realignment is not always the therapy of choice. Instead, the impacted tooth can be extracted and replaced by an implant. The replacement of a single tooth with an implant in the anterior maxilla is a topic of interest for clinicians because of its esthetic implications, mostly when immediate loading has been planned. This article describes a clinical case in which an impacted maxillary canine was replaced by an immediately restored osseointegrated implant. A 21-year-old woman with a palatally impacted maxillary canine and the corresponding primary tooth still remaining in the arch was treated. Both the primary and permanent teeth were surgically extracted. A conical-shaped blasted implant was immediately placed into the socket of the primary canine. A self-contained osseous defect remained on the palatal aspect and was filled with bovine bone mineral. The implant achieved excellent primary stability, so it was immediately restored with a provisional acrylic resin crown in light centric occlusion. After 6 months, the definitive metal-ceramic crown was placed. The therapy provided an excellent esthetic result, maintaining ideal soft tissue contours and papillary height. No signs of radiolucency were visible at the 1-year evaluation. The case presented supports the use of single implants for the replacement of extracted primary teeth, especially in areas where esthetics is a high priority. Furthermore, because the prosthetic restoration was done immediately, the overall time needed to restore the patient was considerably reduced in comparison with the time required for the conventional approach. PMID:17370664

Cardaropoli, Daniele; Debernardi, Cesare; Cardaropoli, Giuseppe

2007-02-01

272

Radiographic Investigation of Location and Angulation of Curvatures in Human Maxillary Incisors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this radiographic study was to evaluate the degree and location of root canal curvatures of human maxillary incisors. A total of 286 extracted human maxillary incisors (145 central and 141 lateral incisors) were included in this investigation. Exclusion criteria were teeth with extensive carious lesions, restorations, and root canal treatment. For this in vitro study, the teeth

Brita Willershausen; Adrian Kasaj; Haki Tekyatan; Bernd Roehrig; Benjamin Briseno

2008-01-01

273

[Halotherapy in combined non-puncture therapy of patients with acute purulent maxillary sinusitis].  

PubMed

Halotherapy was applied for non-puncture treatment of 45 patients with acute purulent maxillary sinusitis. The response was evaluated by changes in clinico-immunological, cytological, x-ray and bacteriological parameters. Halotherapy was found effective in the treatment of acute purulent maxillary sinusitis without puncture. PMID:13677023

Grigor'eva, N V

2003-01-01

274

Early correction of class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion and face mask therapy  

PubMed Central

A case report is presented of a class III malocclusion with a class III skeletal pattern and maxillary retrusion. Patient, a 10-year-old boy was treated with an orthopedic face mask in conjunction with rapid maxillary expansion and standard pre-adjusted edgewise appliance. Treatment was completed after 3 years and proved to be stable following the active treatment. PMID:23956600

Karthi, Muthukumar; Anbuselvan, Gobichettipalayam Jagatheeswaran; Kumar, Bhandari Pawan

2013-01-01

275

Rapid maxillary expansion in the deciduous and mixed dentition evaluated through posteroanterior cephalometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an agreement among orthodontists that a posterior crossbite relationship should be treated early. The Haas expansion appliance is frequently chosen whenever a maxillary skeletal constriction exists in the deciduous, mixed, or permanent dentition. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of rapid maxillary expansion for 32 children between 5 and 11 years of age, by inspection of anteroposterior

Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho; Luciana Andrade do Prado Montes; Luiz Flores Torelly

1995-01-01

276

Transverse maxillary archform and mandibular asymmetry in patients with posterior unilateral crossbite  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPosterior unilateral crossbite (PUXB) treatment is usually maxillary-oriented. The aim of this retrospective investigation was first to study the maxillary morphology in PUXB patients and second, to evaluate the possible association between the transverse upper arch morphology (DTD) and the skeletal (a)symmetry of the corresponding mandible.

Fabrizia Ferro; Paola Spinella; Nicola Lama

277

Primary schwannoma of maxillary sinus masquerading as malignant tumour  

PubMed Central

Polyp and mucocele are the commonest sinonasal tumours and schwannoma is rarely found in the paranasal sinuses. We report a case of a 64-year-old man presenting with progressive nasal obstruction and numbness on left cheek for the past 2?months. High-resolution CT found a soft tissue mass in the maxillary antrum with bony destruction. Clinical features, radiological scan and nasal endoscopic examination were suggestive of a malignant tumour. Tumour was excised through Caldwell-Luc's approach and histopathological examination found a mixed schwannoma. PMID:23595193

Minhas, R S; Thakur, J S; Sharma, D R

2013-01-01

278

Peripheral odontogenic myxoma of maxillary gingiva: A rare clinical entity.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma comprises 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxomas are relatively rare benign mesenchymal tumors found exclusively in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaw and are usually located centrally in the mandible. Soft-tissue localization is rarely seen and is classified as peripheral myxoma. Peripheral myxoma is slow growing and less aggressive, as compared to the central myxoma. It has a low recurrence rate. Till date, only few cases of maxillary gingival myxomas are reported in the literature. Here, we present an unusual case of primary peripheral odontogenic myxoma occurring in the gingiva of anterior maxilla in a 41-year-old female patient. PMID:24174762

Jain, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Soundarya Narayana

2013-09-01

279

Profile Changes Following Maxillary Impaction and Autorotation of the Mandible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:  The aim of this study was the evaluation and prediction of profile changes after Le Fort I osteotomy including maxillary impaction\\u000a and subsequent autorotation of the mandible.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods:  A group of 42 patients (32 female, 10 male) underwent a Le Fort I osteotomy with posterior impaction after preoperative orthodontic\\u000a treatment. No surgical intervention in the mandible was performed. Pre-

Stefanie Steinhäuser; Uta Richter; Franz Richter; Josip Bill; Ingrid Rudzki-Janson

2008-01-01

280

Peripheral odontogenic myxoma of maxillary gingiva: A rare clinical entity  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma comprises 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxomas are relatively rare benign mesenchymal tumors found exclusively in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaw and are usually located centrally in the mandible. Soft-tissue localization is rarely seen and is classified as peripheral myxoma. Peripheral myxoma is slow growing and less aggressive, as compared to the central myxoma. It has a low recurrence rate. Till date, only few cases of maxillary gingival myxomas are reported in the literature. Here, we present an unusual case of primary peripheral odontogenic myxoma occurring in the gingiva of anterior maxilla in a 41-year-old female patient. PMID:24174762

Jain, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Soundarya Narayana

2013-01-01

281

Complete Bilateral Gemination of Maxillary Incisors with Separate Root Canals  

PubMed Central

Developmental anomalies in the hard tissue are seen frequently in dental practice. Gemination and fusion are the most commonly encountered anomalies, and distinction between the two is always challenging. Gemination, also called double tooth, is an anomaly exhibiting two joined crowns and usually a single root. It represents an incomplete attempt of a single tooth germ to split. It is considered multifactorial in etiology, with genetic and environmental causes. This paper discusses a rare example of bilateral gemination (prevalence 0.04%) of maxillary central incisors with completely separated roots. Multidisciplinary care ensured a successful esthetic and functional outcome. PMID:25254121

Mahendra, Lodd; Govindarajan, Sujatha; Jayanandan, Muruganandhan; Shamsudeen, Shaik Mohammed; Kumar, Nalin; Madasamy, Ramasamy

2014-01-01

282

Mandibular distraction osteogenesis in very young patients to correct airway obstruction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to measure changes in the airway cross-sectional area of pediatric patients with micrognathia and obstructive airway symptoms after treatment by mandibular distraction. The measurements obtained were correlated with the clinical outcomes.Ten patients, ranging in age from 3 months to 8 years, underwent measurement and distraction. Eight patients were under 30 months of age. Six were diagnosed with Pierre Robin sequence, two with Treacher Collins syndrome, and two with Nager syndrome. All patients had retrognathia of greater than 8 mm and obstructive airway symptoms while awake that had resulted in tracheostomy (3), repeated apnea monitor triggering (5), or abnormal sleep study (2). Cephalometric analysis was performed pretreatment and posttreatment by distraction. The effective airway space was defined with the following boundaries: a horizontal line from the tip of the odontoid to the velum, the uvula tip to the tongue base along the shortest line, the tongue base down to the base of the epiglottis, and the horizontal line to the posterior pharynx. These lines were traced for each cephalogram, the outline was digitized, and the area was calculated by computer. An analysis of the square area change was done by paired t test. The range of distraction was 8 to 22 mm; the mean effective airway increase was 67.5 percent, with a range of 26 to 120 percent. Measurable airway increase occurred in all patients who underwent distraction, and all patients showed clinical improvement. Six patients with Pierre Robin sequence became asymptomatic, with normal sleep, feeding, and weight gain. Two patients with Nager syndrome and tracheostomies were decannulated and were asymptomatic postdistraction. One patient with Treacher Collins syndrome without tracheostomy became asymptomatic after mandibular distraction; one patient failed to distract because of premature consolidation and continued to require a cannula. Mandibular distraction seems to provide a consistent change in tongue base position that improves obstructive airway symptoms by increasing measured effective airway space. The potential for mandibular distraction exceeds the simple correction of malocclusion also by eliminating soft-tissue obstruction of the micrognathic airway. Airway improvement is independent of the syndrome diagnosed. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis may be useful to avoid or decannulate existing tracheostomy in infants with micrognathia. PMID:11496167

Denny, A D; Talisman, R; Hanson, P R; Recinos, R F

2001-08-01

283

Distraction osteogenesis for cleft palate closure: A finite element analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Current methods of closure of the cleft palate result in the formation of scars and impairment of growth. Distraction osteogenesis (DO) might be an effective means to repair or at least reduce the size of wide clefts. This study investigates the biomechanical aspects of this process. Materials and Methods: DO simulation was applied to reduce the size of a unilateral hard palate cleft on a three-dimensional (3D) model of the maxilla. For the position of osteotomy lines, two different models were assumed, with the osteotomy line on the affected side in model A and on the intact side in model B. In each model, DO screws were placed on two different positions, anteriorly (models A1 and B1) and posteriorly (models A2 and B2). Displacement pattern of the bony island in each of the four models, reaction forces at DO locations, and von Mises stress were estimated. Mesh generation and data processing were carried out in the 3D finite element analysis package (ABAQUS V6.7-1; Simulia Corp., Providence, RI, USA). Results: In model B2, the island moved almost evenly, assuring a more complete closure of the cleft. The most uniform stress distribution was found in model B1. Conclusion: The results suggest that the best positions for the DO screw and the osteotomy line for closure of the cleft palate are posteriorly and on the intact side, respectively. PMID:24688567

Ghasemianpour, Majid; Ehsani, Sara; Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Bayat, Mohammad; Ghorbanpour, Maedeh; Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Mirhashemi, Fatemeh Sadat

2014-01-01

284

Neural correlates of 'distracting' from emotion during autobiographical recollection.  

PubMed

Remembering emotional autobiographical memories (AMs) is important for emotional well-being, and investigation of the role of emotion regulation (ER) during AM recollection has relevance for understanding mental health issues. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the brain mechanisms underlying ER and AM, less is known about the role of ER during AM recollection. The present study investigated how focusing away (or 'distracting') from the emotional content during AM recollection influences the subjective re-experiencing of emotions and the associated neural correlates, by manipulating the retrieval focus of participants who remembered emotional AMs while fMRI data were recorded. First, focusing away from emotion led to decreased self-reported emotional responses, along with increased engagement of ER-related regions (ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, vmPFC), and reduced activity in emotion-related regions (amygdala, AMY). Second, increased vmPFC activity was linked to reduced emotional ratings, during the non-emotional focus. Third, mediation analysis identified vmPFC as a functional hub integrating affective signals from AMY and mediating their impact on the subjective re-experiencing of emotion, according to the current retrieval focus. Collectively, these findings shed light on the neural mechanisms underlying the ability to effectively switch attentional focus away from emotions during AM recollections and have direct relevance for understanding, preventing and treating affective disorders, characterised by reduced ability to regulate emotions. PMID:24603021

Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Sanda; Dolcos, Florin

2015-02-01

285

Progressive immediate loading of a perforated maxillary sinus dental implant: a case report.  

PubMed

The displacement of a dental implant into the maxillary sinus may lead to implant failure due to exposure of the apical third or the tip of the implant beyond the bone, resulting in soft tissue growth. This case report discusses dental implant placement in the upper first molar area with maxillary sinus involvement of approximately 2 mm. A new technique for progressive implant loading was used, involving immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus perforation and low primary stability. Follow-up was performed with resonance frequency analysis and compared with an implant placed adjacent in the upper second premolar area using a conventional delayed loading protocol. Implants with maxillary sinus involvement showed increasing stability during the healing period. We found that progressive implant loading may be a safe technique for the placement of immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus involvement. PMID:25678816

Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

2015-01-01

286

Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Metallic foreign bodies are rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and usually they have a dental origin. Two main surgical app­roaches are currently used for the removal of foreign bodies in the maxillary sinus: the bone flap and the endoscopic sinus tech­niques. However, the treatment is not only surgical removal. We are reporting one case of foreign body like a hand sewing needle entered into the maxillary sinus through an unusual route— carious deciduous molar tooth. It was diagnosed by three-dimensional images from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and removed by a simple procedure, with magnetic iron, thereby avoiding the risk of damage to a large portion of the alveolar bone near the maxillary sinus. How to cite this article: Shao L, Qin X, Ma Y. Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):61-64. PMID:25206242

Qin, Xiurong; Ma, Yingwei

2014-01-01

287

Progressive immediate loading of a perforated maxillary sinus dental implant: a case report  

PubMed Central

The displacement of a dental implant into the maxillary sinus may lead to implant failure due to exposure of the apical third or the tip of the implant beyond the bone, resulting in soft tissue growth. This case report discusses dental implant placement in the upper first molar area with maxillary sinus involvement of approximately 2 mm. A new technique for progressive implant loading was used, involving immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus perforation and low primary stability. Follow-up was performed with resonance frequency analysis and compared with an implant placed adjacent in the upper second premolar area using a conventional delayed loading protocol. Implants with maxillary sinus involvement showed increasing stability during the healing period. We found that progressive implant loading may be a safe technique for the placement of immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus involvement. PMID:25678816

Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

2015-01-01

288

Spiral computed tomographic evaluation and endodontic management of a maxillary canine with two canals  

PubMed Central

Aberrations in the root canal system can pose a considerable challenge to the endodontist during root canal treatment. These anatomical variations are more commonly seen in maxillary molars and mandibular teeth, but only a few cases have been reported with alteration in the internal canal anatomy of maxillary canine. The present report describes the diagnosis of bilateral occurrence of two root canals in maxillary canines with single root and the endodontic management of the right maxillary canine with the aid of spiral computed tomography (CT). The CT images revealed the presence of Vertucci's type-III canal configuration in the right maxillary canine. The same canal pattern was found in the contra-lateral canine, which was absolutely healthy; and also all the mandibular anterior teeth and first premolars showed bifid canal pattern. PMID:23833466

Subha, N; Prabu, M; Prabhakar, V; Abarajithan, M

2013-01-01

289

Visual and cognitive distraction metrics in the age of the smart phone: A basic review.  

PubMed

Sources of distraction are numerous and varied, and defining and measuring distraction and attention is complicated. The driving task requires constant adjustments and reallocation of attention to cognitive, motor, and visual processes. While it is fairly straightforward to measure distraction in an experimental situation (e.g., simulator, closed course), driver distraction in the real world is highly contextual. While no single metric is capable of capturing the complexities of distraction, several have proved useful in helping researchers gain fuller understanding of it. Few have reached a level of consensus among researchers and user interface designers. ISO and SAE may be considered the 'gold standard' for providing mechanisms through which open scientific consensus-based standards can be achieved.While there are a number of metrics used in predicting distraction, three have been studied closely and are going through the SAE and ISO standards process. They are (1) 'the occlusion method'; (2) the Lane Change Test (LCT); and (3) the Detection Response Task (DRT). The metrics described here apply generally to the experimental context where driving is tightly controlled. Like any method, there are limitations with each-and they don't necessarily agree with one another.Experimental methods and analyses are different than those in naturalistic driving (ND). ND relies more on data mining versus traditional experimental manipulation. ND data are a challenge precisely in that they lack experimental control.In future, driver metrics will go beyond specific measurement of task load, and will include how drivers self regulate when they choose to be distracted. PMID:24776223

McGehee, Daniel V

2014-01-01

290

Combined micro computed tomography and histology study of bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone augmentation is a vital part of surgical interventions of the oral and maxillofacial area including dental implantology. Prior to implant placement, sufficient bone volume is needed to reduce the risk of peri-implantitis. While augmentation using harvested autologous bone is still considered as gold standard, many surgeons prefer bone substitutes to reduce operation time and to avoid donor site morbidity. To assess the osteogenic efficacy of commercially available augmentation materials we analyzed drill cores extracted before implant insertion. In younger patients, distraction osteogenesis is successfully applied to correct craniofacial deformities through targeted bone formation. To study the influence of mesenchymal stem cells on bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis, human mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the distraction gap of nude rat mandibles immediately after osteotomy. The distraction was performed over eleven days to reach a distraction gap of 6 mm. Both the rat mandibles and the drill cores were scanned using synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography. The three-dimensional data were manually registered and compared with corresponding two-dimensional histological sections to assess bone regeneration and its morphology. The analysis of the rat mandibles indicates that bone formation is enhanced by mesenchymal stem cells injected before distraction. The bone substitutes yielded a wide range of bone volume and degree of resorption. The volume fraction of the newly formed bone was determined to 34.4% in the computed tomography dataset for the augmentation material Geistlich Bio-Oss®. The combination of computed tomography and histology allowed a complementary assessment for both bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis.

Ilgenstein, Bernd; Deyhle, Hans; Jaquiery, Claude; Kunz, Christoph; Stalder, Anja; Stübinger, Stefan; Jundt, Gernot; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert; Hieber, Simone E.

2012-10-01

291

Visual and cognitive distraction metrics in the age of the smart phone: A basic review  

PubMed Central

Sources of distraction are numerous and varied, and defining and measuring distraction and attention is complicated. The driving task requires constant adjustments and reallocation of attention to cognitive, motor, and visual processes. While it is fairly straightforward to measure distraction in an experimental situation (e.g., simulator, closed course), driver distraction in the real world is highly contextual. While no single metric is capable of capturing the complexities of distraction, several have proved useful in helping researchers gain fuller understanding of it. Few have reached a level of consensus among researchers and user interface designers. ISO and SAE may be considered the ‘gold standard’ for providing mechanisms through which open scientific consensus-based standards can be achieved. While there are a number of metrics used in predicting distraction, three have been studied closely and are going through the SAE and ISO standards process. They are (1) ‘the occlusion method’; (2) the Lane Change Test (LCT); and (3) the Detection Response Task (DRT). The metrics described here apply generally to the experimental context where driving is tightly controlled. Like any method, there are limitations with each—and they don’t necessarily agree with one another. Experimental methods and analyses are different than those in naturalistic driving (ND). ND relies more on data mining versus traditional experimental manipulation. ND data are a challenge precisely in that they lack experimental control. In future, driver metrics will go beyond specific measurement of task load, and will include how drivers self regulate when they choose to be distracted. PMID:24776223

McGehee, Daniel V.

2014-01-01

292

Effect of age and pop out distracter on attended field of view  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the functional field of view (FFOV) of younger and older individuals using the attended field of view (AFOV), a method which allows for eye and head movement. The impact of a pop out distracter and a dual task on the FFOV measure was also investigated. Methods Nine young adult (25 ± 6 years) and 9 older participants (72 ± 4 years) took part in the experiment. The AFOV test involved the binocular detection and localization of a white target (Landolt-C) in a field of 24 white rings (distracters). The further AFOV tests were modified to include the presence of a pop out distracter, a dual task condition, and a combination of the two. Results Older observers had lower viewing efficiency (log [1/presentation time]) in all conditions (pooled mean across conditions: older: 0.05 ± 0.02; younger: 0.48 ± 0.04) than the younger group. The addition of dual or a pop out distracter did not affect the older group (mean difference ?104 ± 150 ms and ?124 ± 122 ms respectively) but the additional pop out distracter reduced the efficiency of the younger group for targets near fixation (mean difference ?68 ± 35 ms). Conclusion Better viewing efficiency was observed in younger individuals compared to older individuals. Difficulty in disregarding irrelevant stimuli and thereby resorting to inefficient search strategy is proposed as the reason for the differences. The finding that both older and younger individuals are not affected significantly by the presence of the irrelevant pop out distracter has implications in situations such as driving or hazard avoidance. In such scenarios, search performance is likely not impaired beyond what is found with distracters (visual clutter) in the environment. PMID:25323645

Babu, Raiju J.; Leat, Susan J.; Irving, Elizabeth L.

2014-01-01

293

An Enjoyable Distraction During Exercise Augments the Positive Effects of Exercise on Mood  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested. A sample of 84 undergraduate students rated their mood and arousal before and after a standardized exercise, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at a pace of 3.6 mph for 10 minutes. During the work out session, participants watched the same television show, which they previously rated as enjoyable, or not enjoyable. As added controls, a third group exercised with no distraction (the TV was turned off); a fourth group did not exercise, but watched the television show. The results showed that exercise alone was sufficient to increase pleasant mood (95% CI 0.61, 1.46) and that including an enjoyable distraction during exercise significantly augmented pleasant mood compared to all other groups (95% CI 1.58, 2.99; R2 = 0.29). These results show that the enjoyment of a distraction is a key factor that can augment the intensity of positive mood following exercise. Key points The hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested. The results support this hypothesis by showing for the first time that while exercise alone was sufficient to increase the intensity of positive mood; combining exercise with an enjoyable distraction resulted in significantly greater increases in pleasant mood compared to exercise alone. Accounting for the enjoyment of a distraction type in future studies can increase the sensitivity of research designs used to detect changes in positive mood post-exercise. PMID:24790478

Privitera, Gregory J.; Antonelli, Danielle E.; Szal, Abigail L.

2014-01-01

294

Root canal morphology of South Asian Indian maxillary molar teeth  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian Maxillary molars using a tooth clearing technique. Materials and Methods: Hundred teeth each comprising of first, second, and third molars collected from different dental schools and clinics in India were subjected to standard dye penetration, decalcification and clearing procedure before being studied. Results: The first molar mesiobuccal roots exhibited 69% Type I, 24% Type II, 4% Type IV, 2% Type V, and 1% exhibited a Vertuccis Type VIII canal anatomy. In the group with three separate roots the second molar mesiobuccal roots in exhibited 80.6% Type I, 15.3% Type II, 2.7% Type IV, and 1.4% Type V canal anatomy while the third molars mesiobuccal roots exhibited 57.4% Type I, 32% Type II, 2.1% Type III, 8.5% Type IV, 1% had a Type V canal anatomy in the similar group. Conclusion: A varied root canal anatomy was seen in the mesiobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars. PMID:25713497

Singh, Shishir; Pawar, Mansing

2015-01-01

295

Maxillary Sinus Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumors: A Review and Case Report  

PubMed Central

An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an immunohistochemically diverse entity demonstrating neoplastic and nonneoplastic qualities. Although IMTs can arise in any area of the body, lesions arising in certain sites, namely, the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pterygopalatine fossa, demonstrate a heightened neoplastic and invasive potential. Despite case specific complete tumor regression and disease remission in response to pharmacotherapeutics, a subset of IMTs remain resistant to all forms of therapy. We present such a case, a 34-year-old female patient, with a highly resistant, maxillary sinus IMT. Her refractory, ALK-1 negative IMT has not responded well to novel therapies reported in current literature. This case suggests the role of zonal expressivity within a single lesion as a probable mechanism for its highly resistant nature and should promote determination of each IMT's cytogenetic profile to provide more effective targeted therapy. Paper includes a literature review of all maxillary sinus IMTs from 1985 to 2014 along with their immunohistochemical staining, treatments, and outcomes.

Hansen, Chase C.; Eisenbach, Colby; Torres, Carlos; Graham, Suzanne

2015-01-01

296

Dental and skeletal changes following surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate skeletal and dental changes after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). Clinical trials were carried out that assessed skeletal and dental changes through cephalograms, computer tomographs or dental casts. No other simultaneous treatment during the active expansion period was accepted. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Medline, Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, All Evidence-based Medicine Reviews, Embase, Web of Science and Lilacs) were searched. Abstracts which appeared to fulfil the selection criteria were selected by consensus. The original articles were then retrieved and evaluated with a methodological checklist. Their references were hand searched for possible missing articles. Only 12 articles fulfilled the selection criteria. All presented methodological flaws. An individual methodological analysis of these articles was made. Expansion was greater at the molars and diminished progressively to the anterior part of the dental arch in all the evaluation periods. Vertical and sagittal skeletal changes were nil or not clinically significant. The nasal portion of the maxillary complex showed an increase in dimensions thereby improving nasal patency. An overall dental relapse of 0.5-1 mm is reported after 1 year of orthodontic treatment. The conclusions should be considered with caution because only a secondary level of evidence was found. PMID:16567079

Lagravère, M O; Major, P W; Flores-Mir, C

2006-06-01

297

Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique.  

PubMed

Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

2014-01-01

298

Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique  

PubMed Central

Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

2014-01-01

299

Determining skill transferability of action games as a method to reduce in-vehicle phone distractions.  

PubMed

Distracted driving has been shown to be a safety issue in numerous studies. To combat this problem, in-vehicle technology, legislation, media interventions, and other methods have been proposed and attempted. However research indicates that the drivers themselves may circumvent, ignore, or not be able to react in time for these interventions to be effective. Therefore research into training programs for drivers may improve reaction time under distraction. Research indicates that action game players have faster reaction times and more attentional resources than non-players on paper-based tests. However, transferability to driving has not been studied yet. This paper outlines a study to determine if action game players perform better at a driving task based on frequency of game-play. Participants will be placed into two groups of play (high vs. low) and tested against two levels of distraction (none vs. phone conversation). It is expected that participants who play higher frequency of action games will perform better under distraction than lower frequency players. Driver performance, conversation recall, frequency and durations of eye fixations will be analyzed based on previous research which has validated those variables as a measure of distraction and higher workload. PMID:22317717

Rupp, M; McConnell, D S; Smither, J A

2012-01-01

300

Comparative evaluation of the mandibular distraction zone using ultrasonography and conventional radiography.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of ultrasonography (USG) for the evaluation of bone formation in the mandibular distraction wound and to compare this with radiographic evaluation, which is currently the standard modality. Twenty-two patients underwent mandibular distraction (30 sides) with a variety of distraction devices. The wounds were assessed with plain radiographs and USG at established time intervals. Estimates of bone formation using a semiquantitative bone fill score were made for radiographs and USG. USG bone fill scores were correlated with radiography scores. At week 4 the difference between the scores was statistically significant (P=0.01); at all other time points, USG and radiography scores were comparable. At week 4, USG scores were significantly higher than the corresponding radiography scores, indicating that USG is an earlier indicator of calcification in the distraction zone as compared to radiography. USG evaluation of the distraction osteogenesis (DO) zone has many inherent advantages over conventional methods. The results of this study indicate that USG is an accurate non-invasive technique that may prove to be useful in assessing the mandibular DO regenerate in patients. PMID:24393569

Issar, Y; Sahoo, N K; Sinha, R; Satija, L; Chattopadhyay, P K

2014-05-01

301

Aging increases distraction by auditory oddballs in visual, but not auditory tasks.  

PubMed

Aging is typically considered to bring a reduction of the ability to resist distraction by task-irrelevant stimuli. Yet recent work suggests that this conclusion must be qualified and that the effect of aging is mitigated by whether irrelevant and target stimuli emanate from the same modalities or from distinct ones. Some studies suggest that aging is especially sensitive to distraction within-modality while others suggest it is greater across modalities. Here we report the first study to measure the effect of aging on deviance distraction in cross-modal (auditory-visual) and uni-modal (auditory-auditory) oddball tasks. Young and older adults were asked to judge the parity of target digits (auditory or visual in distinct blocks of trials), each preceded by a task-irrelevant sound (the same tone on most trials-the standard sound-or, on rare and unpredictable trials, a burst of white noise-the deviant sound). Deviant sounds yielded distraction (longer response times relative to standard sounds) in both tasks and age groups. However, an age-related increase in distraction was observed in the cross-modal task and not in the uni-modal task. We argue that aging might affect processes involved in the switching of attention across modalities and speculate that this may due to the slowing of this type of attentional shift or a reduction in cognitive control required to re-orient attention toward the target's modality. PMID:24852497

Leiva, Alicia; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Andrés, Pilar

2015-05-01

302

The Relationship between Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), Working Memory and Distraction – A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Approach  

PubMed Central

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) have been reported to have memory enhancement effects in humans. A neuro-stimulatory action and an anti-cortisol mechanism of action may contribute to that relation. In order to study DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol relations to working memory and distraction, we recorded the electroencephalogram of 23 young women performing a discrimination (no working memory load) or 1-back (working memory load) task in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. We measured salivary DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol both before each task and at 30 and 60 min. Under working memory load, a higher baseline cortisol/DHEA ratio was related to higher distraction as indexed by an enhanced novelty P3. This suggests that cortisol may lead to increased distraction whereas DHEA may hinder distraction by leading to less processing of the distractor. An increased DHEA production with consecutive cognitive tasks was found and higher DHEA responses attributed to working memory load were related to enhanced working memory processing as indexed by an enhanced visual P300. Overall, the results suggest that in women DHEA may oppose cortisol effects reducing distraction and that a higher DHEA response may enhance working memory at the electrophysiological level. PMID:25105970

do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Gomes, Ana Coelho; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

2014-01-01

303

Psychological factors for driver distraction and inattention in the Australian and New Zealand rail industry.  

PubMed

A signal passed at danger (SPAD) event occurs when a train moves past a stop signal into a section of unauthorised track. SPAD events are frequently attributed to driver distraction and inattention, but few studies have explored the failure mode from the perspective of task demand and the ability of the driver to self-regulate in response to competing activities. This study aimed to provide a more informed understanding of distraction, inattention and SPAD-risk in the passenger rail task. The research approach combined focus groups with a generative task designed to stimulate situational insight. Twenty-eight train drivers participated from 8 different rail operators in Australia and New Zealand. Data were analysed thematically and revealed several moderating factors for driver distraction. Time-keeping pressure and certain aspects of the driver-controller dynamic were considered to distort performance, and distractions from station dwelling and novel events increased SPAD-risk. The results are conceptualised in a succinct model of distraction linking multiple factors with mechanisms that induced the attentional shift. The commonalities and inter-dynamics of the factors revealed insight into driving anxiety in the passenger rail mode, and suggested that SPAD-risk was intensified when three or more factors converged. The paper discusses these issues in the context of misappropriated attention, taxonomic implications, and directions for future research. PMID:24076301

Naweed, Anjum

2013-11-01

304

Auditory distraction transmitted by a cochlear implant alters allocation of attentional resources  

PubMed Central

Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses which restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The successful adaptation of auditory cognition to the CI input depends to a substantial degree on individual factors. We pursued an electrophysiological approach toward an analysis of cortical responses that reflect perceptual processing stages and higher-level responses to CI input. Performance and event-related potentials on two cross-modal discrimination-following-distraction (DFD) tasks from CI users and normal-hearing (NH) individuals were compared. The visual-auditory distraction task combined visual distraction with following auditory discrimination performance. Here, we observed similar cortical responses to visual distractors (Novelty-N2) and slowed, less accurate auditory discrimination performance in CI users when compared to NH individuals. Conversely, the auditory-visual distraction task was used to combine auditory distraction with visual discrimination performance. In this task we found attenuated cortical responses to auditory distractors (Novelty-P3), slowed visual discrimination performance, and attenuated cortical P3-responses to visual targets in CI users compared to NH individuals. These results suggest that CI users process auditory distractors differently than NH individuals and that the presence of auditory CI input has an adverse effect on the processing of visual targets and the visual discrimination ability in implanted individuals. We propose that this attenuation of the visual modality occurs through the allocation of neural resources to the CI input. PMID:25798083

Finke, Mareike; Sandmann, Pascale; Kopp, Bruno; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

2015-01-01

305

Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment  

PubMed Central

Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses), yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor). Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., “uh” or “umm”) and filler words (e.g., “like” or “you know”). Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods. PMID:24904488

Hsu, Kean J.; Babeva, Kalina N.; Feng, Michelle C.; Hummer, Justin F.; Davison, Gerald C.

2014-01-01

306

Improving Dental Experiences by Using Virtual Reality Distraction: A Simulation Study  

PubMed Central

Dental anxiety creates significant problems for both patients and the dental profession. Some distraction interventions are already used by healthcare professionals to help patients cope with unpleasant procedures. The present study is novel because it a) builds on evidence that natural scenery is beneficial for patients, and b) uses a Virtual Reality (VR) representation of nature to distract participants. Extending previous work that has investigated pain and anxiety during treatment, c) we also consider the longer term effects in terms of more positive memories of the treatment, building on a cognitive theory of memory (Elaborated Intrusions). Participants (n?=?69) took part in a simulated dental experience and were randomly assigned to one of three VR conditions (active vs. passive vs. control). In addition, participants were distinguished into high and low dentally anxious according to a median split resulting in a 3×2 between-subjects design. VR distraction in a simulated dental context affected memories a week later. The VR distraction had effects not only on concurrent experiences, such as perceived control, but longitudinally upon the vividness of memories after the dental experience had ended. Participants with higher dental anxiety (for whom the dental procedures were presumably more aversive) showed a greater reduction in memory vividness than lower dental-anxiety participants. This study thus suggests that VR distractions can be considered as a relevant intervention for cycles of care in which people’s previous experiences affect their behaviour for future events. PMID:24621518

Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Pahl, Sabine; P. White, Mathew; Andrade, Jackie; Qian, Cheng; Bruce, Malcolm; May, Jon; Moles, David R.

2014-01-01

307

Technology-related distracted walking behaviours in Manhattan's most dangerous intersections.  

PubMed

Use of mobile devices has been cited as a distraction while driving, and more recently, among pedestrians crossing urban streets. In 2010, over half of New York City traffic fatalities were pedestrians. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of distracted walking due to pedestrians' use of headphones, mobile phones, or both. Data were gathered by direct observations at the 10 intersections in Manhattan with the highest frequency of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. More than 1 in 4 of the >3500 pedestrians observed were distracted by mobile electronic devices while crossing during the 'walk' (28.8%) and 'don't walk' (26.3%) signals. Poisson regression analyses established there was a significant difference in individuals talking on a mobile device during the 'walk' signal versus the 'don't walk' signal; however, no other significant differences in other distracted walking behaviours were observed. This study contributes to the emerging literature on distracted walking behaviour by pedestrians in busy urban areas and can help to inform pedestrian-focused safety efforts. PMID:24667654

Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali; Basch, Charles E

2014-10-01

308

The association of distraction and caution displayed by pedestrians at a lighted crosswalk.  

PubMed

The rates of deaths and injuries among pedestrians have fallen in recent years, but still remain public health problems as about 5000 pedestrians die each year. Because pedestrians have been shown to be responsible or partially responsible for many of the crashes in which they are involved, we sought to assess the relationship of distracted walking and performing routine cautionary behaviors of pedestrians crossing a busy street in a southwestern city at an intersection, adjacent a university. The behavior of 866 individuals was recorded by trained observers as pedestrians walked across a 105-foot wide street served by a stop light and zebra painted crosswalk. We defined distracted pedestrians as those wearing headphones, talking on a cell phone, eating, drinking, smoking or talking as they crossed the street. Caution was measured by looking left and right, and entering the crosswalk only when the white proceed light was illuminated. We found that only 13.5% of walkers looked left and right and entered the crosswalk while the white light was flashing. Approximately 20% of walkers were distracted as they crossed the street. Regression analysis indicated that distraction was negatively, but weakly associated with displaying cautious pedestrian behaviors. Because traffic lights were routinely ignored and lack of caution was predicted by distraction, we suggest that inexpensive education efforts target pedestrians near college campuses. PMID:15989209

Bungum, Timothy J; Day, Charlene; Henry, L Jean

2005-08-01

309

Brain activation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction in internet gaming disorder.  

PubMed

We evaluated neural substrates related to the loss of control in college students with internet gaming disorder (IGD). We hypothesized that deficit in response inhibition under gaming cue distraction was the possible mechanism for the loss of control internet use. Eleven cases of IGD and 11 controls performed Go/NoGo tasks with/without gaming distraction in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. When the gaming picture was shown as background while individuals were performing Go/NoGo tasks, the IGD group committed more commission errors. The control group increased their brain activations more over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal lobe under gaming cue distraction in comparison with the IGD group. Furthermore, brain activation of the right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe were negatively associated with performance of response inhibition among the IGD group. The results suggest that the function of response inhibition was impaired under gaming distraction among the IGD group, and individuals with IGD could not activate right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe to keep cognitive control and attention allocation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction. This mechanism should be addressed in any intervention for IGD. PMID:24388058

Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen; Ko, Chih-Hung

2014-01-01

310

Plugging the Attention Deficit: Perceptual Load Counters Increased Distraction in ADHD  

PubMed Central

Objective: Increased vulnerability to extraneous distraction is a key symptom of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which may have particularly disruptive consequences. Here we apply Load Theory of attention to increase understanding of this symptom, and to explore a potential method for ameliorating it. Previous research in nonclinical populations has highlighted increased perceptual load as a means of improving the ability to focus attention and avoid distraction. The present study examines whether adults with ADHD can also benefit from conditions of high perceptual load to improve their focused attention abilities. Method: We tested adults with ADHD and age- and IQ-matched controls on a novel measure of irrelevant distraction under load, designed to parallel the form of distraction that is symptomatic of ADHD. During a letter search task, in which perceptual load was varied through search set size, participants were required to ignore salient yet entirely irrelevant distractors (colorful images of cartoon characters) presented infrequently (10% of trials). Results: The presence of these distractors produced a significantly greater interference effect on the search RTs for the adults with ADHD compared with controls, p = .005, ?p2 = .231. Perceptual load, however, significantly reduced distractor interference for the ADHD group and was as effective in reducing the elevated distractor interference in ADHD as it was for controls. Conclusions: These findings clarify the nature of the attention deficit underlying increased distraction in ADHD, and demonstrate a tangible method for overcoming it. PMID:24219607

2013-01-01

311

Students distracted by electronic devices perform at the same level as those who are focused on the lecture  

PubMed Central

Background. Little is known about the characteristics of internet distractions that students may engage in during lecture. The objective of this pilot study is to identify some of the internet-based distractions students engage in during in-person lectures. The findings will help identify what activities most commonly cause students to be distracted from the lecture and if these activities impact student learning. Methods. This study is a quasi-experimental pilot study of 26 students from a single institution. In the current study, one class of third-year students were surveyed after a lecture on special needs dentistry. The survey identified self-reported utilization patterns of “smart” devices during the lecture. Additionally, twelve quiz-type questions were given to assess the students’ recall of important points in the lecture material that had just been covered. Results. The sample was comprised of 26 students. Of these, 17 were distracted in some form (either checking email, sending email, checking Facebook, or sending texts). The overall mean score on the test was 9.85 (9.53 for distracted students and 10.44 for non-distracted students). There were no significant differences in test scores between distracted and non-distracted students (p = 0.652). Gender and types of distractions were not significantly associated with test scores (p > 0.05). All students believed that they understood all the important points from the lecture. Conclusions. Every class member felt that they acquired the important learning points during the lecture. Those who were distracted by electronic devices during the lecture performed similarly to those who were not. However, results should be interpreted with caution as this study was a small quasi-experimental design and further research should examine the influence of different types of distraction on different types of learning. PMID:25279260

Nalliah, Romesh P.

2014-01-01

312

Students distracted by electronic devices perform at the same level as those who are focused on the lecture.  

PubMed

Background. Little is known about the characteristics of internet distractions that students may engage in during lecture. The objective of this pilot study is to identify some of the internet-based distractions students engage in during in-person lectures. The findings will help identify what activities most commonly cause students to be distracted from the lecture and if these activities impact student learning. Methods. This study is a quasi-experimental pilot study of 26 students from a single institution. In the current study, one class of third-year students were surveyed after a lecture on special needs dentistry. The survey identified self-reported utilization patterns of "smart" devices during the lecture. Additionally, twelve quiz-type questions were given to assess the students' recall of important points in the lecture material that had just been covered. Results. The sample was comprised of 26 students. Of these, 17 were distracted in some form (either checking email, sending email, checking Facebook, or sending texts). The overall mean score on the test was 9.85 (9.53 for distracted students and 10.44 for non-distracted students). There were no significant differences in test scores between distracted and non-distracted students (p = 0.652). Gender and types of distractions were not significantly associated with test scores (p > 0.05). All students believed that they understood all the important points from the lecture. Conclusions. Every class member felt that they acquired the important learning points during the lecture. Those who were distracted by electronic devices during the lecture performed similarly to those who were not. However, results should be interpreted with caution as this study was a small quasi-experimental design and further research should examine the influence of different types of distraction on different types of learning. PMID:25279260

Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

2014-01-01

313

Transantral revision of recurrent maxillary and ethmoidal disease following functional intranasal surgery.  

PubMed

Recurring disease in the maxillary sinus, despite inferior meatal antrostomies, has led to the widespread use of middle meatal antrostomy or simple decompression of the natural ostium of the middle meatus in attempts to restore function to the maxillary sinus. We have reported recurrent disease in the maxillary sinus in patients with stage III or stage IV hyperplastic rhinosinusitis in whom attempts at functional surgery of the middle meatus were unsuccessful in reversal of retrograde changes. One hundred patients who had previously undergone intranasal sphenoethmoidectomy with removal of the middle turbinate, decompression of the maxillary ostium, and removal of overt hyperplastic disease of the middle meatus underwent revision transantral ethmoidectomy. All recurrent or residual diseased mucosa was removed, including polyps, occasional mucoceles, and hyperplastic changes that occurred despite patency of a middle meatal maxillary ostium. In many of these patients the maxillary sinus was widely marsupialized secondarily into the posterior nasal vault. While the initial overall polyp recurrence rate after intranasal sphenoethmoidectomy in these patients was as high as 19.2%, the rate of polyp recurrence after transantral revision was less than 5% in from 18 to 48 months postoperatively. The experience in this series suggests that mucosal changes have played a primary role in unsuccessful treatment, independent of whether or not adequate functional egress for maxillary secretion, drainage, or ventilation has been created or restored.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1565487

Friedman, W H; Katsantonis, G P

1992-04-01

314

Septal deviation is associated with maxillary sinus fungus ball in male patients.  

PubMed

Fungus is one of the causes of chronic rhinosinusitis. If the fungus occupies the sinus but does not invade the sinonasal mucosa, this is called sinus fungus ball. Any association between anatomical variations and fungus ball remains unclear. Sinus fungus ball is defined as non-invasive chronic fungal rhinosinusitis occurring in immunocompetent patients, and the maxillary sinus is the most commonly affected. The etiology of maxillary sinus fungus ball remains unclear. This study assessed the potential contribution of anatomical variations, such as deviated nasal septum, concha bullosa, and Haller cell to the development of fungus ball in the maxillary sinus. Concha bullosa and Haller cell are structural variations that narrow the nasal airflow passage and contribute to chronic rhinosinusitis. The involvement of these variations has been investigated in chronic sinusitis but not in sinus fungus ball. Preoperative computed tomography findings of 103 patients with maxillary sinus fungus ball were evaluated retrospectively. Septal deviation and Haller cell were not correlated with the side of maxillary sinus fungus ball. Concha bullosa was more common on the unaffected side (p = 0.099). When we analyzed males and females separately, maxillary sinus fungus ball was more common on the concave side of the deviated septum in only male patients (p = 0.006). The high incidence of maxillary fungus ball in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling fungus spores. PMID:24646922

Oshima, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio

2014-01-01

315

Ilizarov distraction-lengthening in congenital anomalies of the upper limb.  

PubMed

Nine patients underwent Ilizarov distraction-lengthening for congenital anomalies. All were late cases and had undergone other procedures. In five radial club hand patients with very short forearms, we achieved an average 5.8 cm increase in length with each distraction cycle. In two patients with symbrachydactyly of the cleft hand type, we achieved pinch grip between a radial and an ulnar digit by lengthening the short ray. Another case of the monodactyly type in which we tried to lengthen three transplanted proximal toe phalanges ended in failure. A soft tissue distraction was attempted in a case of camptodactyly but failed. We report the problems we encountered and suggest some solutions. PMID:9607658

Hülsbergen-Krüger, S; Preisser, P; Partecke, B D

1998-04-01

316

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome and respiratory obstruction: a novel use of distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, or distal arthrogryposis type IIA (DA 2A), is a rare and severe multiple congenital contracture syndrome that is associated with upper airway obstruction. This obstruction has been clinically significant enough to warrant tracheostomy and has been associated with mortality. We describe a patient who presented to us as a neonate and the novel management of her respiratory obstruction in the setting of DA 2A. Bilateral mandibular osteotomies were performed and bilateral internal mandibular distracters were placed. She was distracted a total of 3 cm over 15 days without event and successfully extubated on the postoperative day 16. Preoperative polysomnogram demonstrated an obstructive apnea hypopnea index of 43.7, but a repeat polysomnogram demonstrated an apnea hypopnea index of 8.1. In this study, we report the first use of distraction osteogenesis in the setting of severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome secondary to DA 2A. PMID:24777016

Toranto, Jason D; Ward, Sally Davidson; Lin, Aaron; Urata, Mark M

2014-05-01

317

Assessment of the distraction regenerate using three-dimensional quantitative computer tomography.  

PubMed

This study presents a new method for objective assessment of the distraction regenerate using three-dimensional quantitative computer tomography (3D-QCT). The distraction specimens of 16 sheep that underwent bifocal cranial distraction osteogenesis to reconstruct a critical size defect were used to evaluate this method. To analyse the validity of this method the results were compared to conventional quantitative computer tomography (QCT). Squared correlation coefficients (r(2)) according to Sackett showed a high reliability (r(2) > 70% for the total DO regenerate, DO Regions 2-4). Method comparison according to Bland-Altman (< or =6.25% of measurements out of 95% limits of agreement) showed that three-dimensional computer tomography based bone densitometry is valid for future DO research. PMID:15617969

Swennen, G R J; Eulzer, C; Schutyser, F; Hüttmann, C; Schliephake, H

2005-01-01

318

Vision loss after maxillary artery embolization secondary to compressive optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of no light perception (NLP) vision in a patient with sinonasal melanoma after maxillary artery embolization secondary to presumptive compressive optic neuropathy. Two reports of NLP vision occurring after maxillary artery embolization are reported in the literature,, both occurring secondary to collateral blood flow to the ophthalmic artery resulting in central retinal artery occlusion. In the current case report, the presumed mechanism of vision loss is secondary to compressive optic neuropathy from local edema occurring after maxillary artery embolization. PMID:23503054

Finnerty, Katie N; Mancini, Ronald

2013-01-01

319

Endodontic management of a maxillary first and second premolar with three canals  

PubMed Central

Unusual anatomical configurations must be considered in the radiographic and clinical evaluation during the endodontic treatment. The canal anatomy maxillary first and second premolar has been studied extensively and the presence of three canals is relatively rare especially in the maxillary second premolar. The occurrence of three canals with separate foramina in both the first and second premolar is shown to be in extremely low percentages and has been documented as practically non-existent in Asian populations. This article describes a case of a maxillary first and second premolar with three canals each. PMID:24554870

Theruvil, Robin; Ganesh, Chitharanjan; George, Anoj Cherian

2014-01-01

320

This was printed from Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal Add iPods to things that distract  

E-print Network

player's effects. "Knowing how distracting cell phones can be, it may not be surprising that using an i: Technology In the wake of a federal agency urging a ban on any cell phone use while driving comes a studyThis was printed from Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal Add iPods to things that distract

Salvucci, Dario D.

321

Evaluation of functional and esthetic outcome after correction of mandibular hypoplasia secondary to temporomandibular ankylosis treated by distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Patient with TMJ ankylosis are affected with mandibular hypoplasia which in turn causes functional and esthetic problems. Restoration of normal function and esthetics is the prime goal in treatment of such patients with distraction becoming an important treatment option. The present study also was conducted on patients with mandibular hypoplasia secondarily to TMJ ankylosis treated with distraction. Since function and esthetics improvement was the prime aim behind the treatment with distraction, evaluation of functional and esthetics outcome becomes an important aspect. Thus the study was indigenously designed and aimed at qualitative evaluation of the functional and esthetic outcome after correction of mandibular hypoplasia secondary to temporomandibular ankylosis with Distraction osteogenesis. Patients treated with distraction were evaluated on the basis of parameters for function and esthetics. Parameters for function were occlusion, airway, mouth opening and chewing-biting perception of patient pre and post distraction. Parameters for esthetics used were patient and panel perception. All parameters for function and occlusion improved with distraction in all the patients except one in whom occlusion and chewing- biting pattern worsened. It is concluded that distraction is a good option for improving patients functional and esthetic outcome in cases of mandibular hypoplasia secondary to temporomandibular ankylosis as the results achieved are stable with negligible chances of relapse. PMID:24822007

Gupta, Gaurav Mahesh; Gupta, Pranjali; Sharma, Ashish; Patel, Nehal; Singh, Abhishek

2014-06-01

322

An in vitro study of the accuracy of a new protocol for planning distraction osteogenesis of the mandible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro accuracy of a new protocol for distraction osteogenesis of the mandible that involves a planning process and a surgical technique. Materials and Methods: An experimental design was developed to simulate distraction osteogenesis on stereolithographic models of patients with craniofacial deformities. All patients had previously undergone 3-dimensional computerized scans

Jaime Gateno; Marc E. Allen; John F. Teichgraeber; Marion L. Messersmith

2000-01-01

323

Preprosthetic vertical distraction osteogenesis of the mandible using an L-shaped osteotomy and titanium membranes for guided bone regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Vertical osteodistraction is a new alternative method for alveolar ridge augmentation of the mandible. The purpose of this article is describe a technique using an L-shaped osteotomy and titanium membranes for guided bone regeneration (GBR) in the distraction gap. Patients and Methods: Ten patients with severe atrophy of the edentulous molar region of the mandible underwent vertical callus distraction

Clemens N Klug; Gabriele A Millesi-Schobel; Werner Millesi; Franz Watzinger; Rolf Ewers

2001-01-01

324

Effects of cell-phone and text-message distractions on true and false recognition.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of electronic communication distractions, including cell-phone and texting demands, on true and false recognition, specifically semantically related words presented and not presented on a computer screen. Participants were presented with 24 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists while manipulating the concurrent presence or absence of cell-phone and text-message distractions during study. In the DRM paradigm, participants study lists of semantically related words (e.g., mother, crib, and diaper) linked to a non-presented critical lure (e.g., baby). After studying the lists of words, participants are then requested to recall or recognize previously presented words. Participants often not only demonstrate high remembrance for presented words (true memory: crib), but also recollection for non-presented words (false memory: baby). In the present study, true memory was highest when participants were not presented with any distraction tasks during study of DRM words, but poorer when they were required to complete a cell-phone conversation or text-message task during study. False recognition measures did not statistically vary across distraction conditions. Signal detection analyses showed that participants better discriminated true targets (list items presented during study) from true target controls (items presented during study only) when cell-phone or text-message distractions were absent than when they were present. Response bias did not vary significantly across distraction conditions, as there were no differences in the likelihood that a participant would claim an item as "old" (previously presented) rather than "new" (not previously presented). Results of this study are examined with respect to both activation monitoring and fuzzy trace theories. PMID:21198365

Smith, Theodore S; Isaak, Matthew I; Senette, Christian G; Abadie, Brenton G

2011-06-01

325

Comparison of acceptance and distraction strategies in coping with experimentally induced pain  

PubMed Central

Background This study compared an acceptance-based strategy with a control-based strategy (distraction) in terms of the ability of participants to tolerate a painful stimulus, across two experiments. In addition, participants were either actively encouraged, or not, to link pain tolerance with pursuit of valued goals to examine the impact of pursuing a personally meaningful goal or value on the extent to which pain will be tolerated. Methods Participants in experiment 1 (n=41) and experiment 2 (n=52) were equally assigned to acceptance or distraction protocols. Further, half the participants in each group generated examples from their own lives in which they had pursued a valued objective, while the other half did not. In experiment 2, the values focus was enhanced to examine the impact on pain tolerance. Results There were no significant differences overall between the acceptance and distraction groups on pain tolerance in either experiment. However, in experiment 2, individuals classified as accepting in terms of general coping style and who were assigned to the acceptance strategy showed significantly better pain tolerance than accepting individuals who were in the distraction condition. Across both experiments, those with strong goal-driven values in both protocols were more tolerant of pain. Participants appeared to have more difficulty adhering to acceptance than to distraction as a strategy. Conclusion Acceptance may be associated with better tolerance of pain, but may also be more difficult to operationalize than distraction in experimental studies. Matching coping style and coping strategy may be most effective, and enhancement of goal-driven values may assist in pain coping. PMID:25834464

Moore, Hazel; Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McGuire, Brian E

2015-01-01

326

The impact of task relevance and degree of distraction on stimulus processing  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of task relevance on event-related potential amplitudes of early visual processing was previously demonstrated. Study designs, however, differ greatly, not allowing simultaneous investigation of how both degree of distraction and task relevance influence processing variations. In our study, we combined different features of previous tasks. We used a modified 1-back task in which task relevant and task irrelevant stimuli were alternately presented. The task irrelevant stimuli could be from the same or from a different category as the task relevant stimuli, thereby producing high and low distracting task irrelevant stimuli. In addition, the paradigm comprised a passive viewing condition. Thus, our paradigm enabled us to compare the processing of task relevant stimuli, task irrelevant stimuli with differing degrees of distraction, and passively viewed stimuli. EEG data from twenty participants was collected and mean P100 and N170 amplitudes were analyzed. Furthermore, a potential connection of stimulus processing and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was investigated. Results Our results show a modulation of peak N170 amplitudes by task relevance. N170 amplitudes to task relevant stimuli were significantly higher than to high distracting task irrelevant or passively viewed stimuli. In addition, amplitudes to low distracting task irrelevant stimuli were significantly higher than to high distracting stimuli. N170 amplitudes to passively viewed stimuli were not significantly different from either kind of task irrelevant stimuli. Participants with more symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity showed decreased N170 amplitudes across all task conditions. On a behavioral level, lower N170 enhancement efficiency was significantly correlated with false alarm responses. Conclusions Our results point to a processing enhancement of task relevant stimuli. Unlike P100 amplitudes, N170 amplitudes were strongly influenced by enhancement and enhancement efficiency seemed to have direct behavioral consequences. These findings have potential implications for models of clinical disorders affecting selective attention, especially ADHD. PMID:24079268

2013-01-01

327

Impact of social and technological distraction on pedestrian crossing behaviour: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of the present work was to study the impact of technological and social distraction on cautionary behaviours and crossing times in pedestrians. Methods Pedestrians were observed at 20 high-risk intersections during 1 of 3 randomly assigned time windows in 2012. Observers recorded demographic and behavioural information, including use of a mobile device (talking on the phone, text messaging, or listening to music). We examined the association between distraction and crossing behaviours, adjusting for age and gender. All multivariate analyses were conducted with random effect logistic regression (binary outcomes) and random effect linear regression (continuous outcomes), accounting for clustering by site. Results Observers recorded crossing behaviours for 1102 pedestrians. Nearly one-third (29.8%) of all pedestrians performed a distracting activity while crossing. Distractions included listening to music (11.2%), text messaging (7.3%) and using a handheld phone (6.2%). Text messaging, mobile phone use and talking with a companion increased crossing time. Texting pedestrians took 1.87 additional seconds (18.0%) to cross the average intersection (3.4 lanes), compared to undistracted pedestrians. Texting pedestrians were 3.9 times more likely than undistracted pedestrians to display at least 1 unsafe crossing behaviour (disobeying the lights, crossing mid-intersection, or failing to look both ways). Pedestrians listening to music walked more than half a second (0.54) faster across the average intersection than undistracted pedestrians. Conclusions Distracting activity is common among pedestrians, even while crossing intersections. Technological and social distractions increase crossing times, with text messaging associated with the highest risk. Our findings suggest the need for intervention studies to reduce risk of pedestrian injury. PMID:23243104

Thompson, Leah L; Rivara, Frederick P; Ayyagari, Rajiv C; Ebel, Beth E

2013-01-01

328

Bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines: Review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Oligodontia, or agenesis of six or more teeth, excluding third molars, which involves canine agenesis is rare, and restorative management can be challenging. Bilateral agenesis of a permanent canine in the general population often indicates a several missing adult teeth. The most common sign of it is the primary canine retention beyond its exfoliation age. The multistage restorative management includes the early diagnosis, excluding associated medical problems as well as assessment of patient's malocclusion and facial skeletal pattern, life span of deciduous teeth, possibility of premolar substitution, minimum required number of prosthetic units, patient's preferences, and the cost of treatment. A 10-year-old boy with bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is described. Some thoughts on the multidisciplinary restorative management of this case are discussed. PMID:25657989

Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

2015-01-01

329

Severe maxillary osteomyelitis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dental injuries to or abnormalities in functionally important teeth and associated bones in predators may significantly reduce the ability to kill and consume prey (Lazar et al. 2009). This impairment is likely exacerbated in coursing predators, such as Gray Wolves, that bite and hold onto fleeing and kicking prey with their teeth. Damage to carnassials (upper fourth premolar, P4, and lower first molar, M1) and associated bones in Gray Wolves may especially inhibit the consumption of prey because these teeth slice meat and crush bone. Here I report maxillary osteomyelitis involving the carnassials in a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota of such severity that I hypothesize it ultimately caused the Gray Wolf to starve to death.

Barber-Meyer, Shannon

2012-01-01

330

Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma on the Left Maxillary Alveolus: A Unique Presentation  

PubMed Central

Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs) are a group of soft-tissue malignant tumours. They derive from primitive skeletal muscle tissue with head and neck as its principle location. These tumours are extremely rare in adults and it is believed to have a different natural course, treatment response, and prognosis. The invasiveness of tumour, metastasis, lymph node involvement, and the age at diagnosis is a predictor of outcome in patients with RMC. Hence early recognition and histological sub-typing is of critical importance in the therapy of the disease. We report a rare case of RMC in a 50-year-old female patient involving the left maxillary alveolus with a detailed clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.

Geethika, V.; Rao, Nageswara; Smitha, B.; Kiran, Ch. Sai

2015-01-01

331

Ectopic maxillary canines: segregation analysis and a twin study.  

PubMed

The etiology of ectopic canines is controversial, with opinion divided as to a genetic or environmental mechanism. This study addressed the hypothesis that genetic factors play a role in the etiology of ectopic maxillary canines. Sixty-three probands were identified, and information on the dental status of 395 relatives was determined. Pedigrees were constructed and the Relative Risk calculated. Complex segregation analysis was carried out by means of the Pedigree Analysis Package. The best mathematical model obtained was a single dominant gene with autosomal transmission, incomplete penetrance, and highly variable expression. Only two of seven pairs of monozygotic twins were concordant for ectopic canines. This is consistent with environmental or epigenetic variables affecting the phenotype. The low concordance rate is consistent with the low penetrance determined by the segregation analysis and further supports the existence of environmental factors. PMID:18502969

Camilleri, S; Lewis, C M; McDonald, F

2008-06-01

332

A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

Kayal, Vizhi G

2012-01-01

333

A rare occurrence of geminated-taloned maxillary lateral incisor.  

PubMed

The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

Neeraja, R; Kayal, Vizhi G

2012-05-01

334

Distraction as a measure of presence: using visual and tactile adjustable distraction as a measure to determine immersive presence of content in mediated environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess and improve the user experience in entertainment products, developers need results of evaluation methods, which\\u000a in detail measure the relationship between the mediated content and the resulting media experience. This paper proposes a\\u000a method applying adjustable distraction (AD) to determine presence as immersion (Lombard and Ditton in At the heart of it all:\\u000a the concept of presence, Department

Rolf Nordahl; Dannie Korsgaard

2010-01-01

335

Cholesteatoma of the maxillary sinus: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Cholesteatoma is a relatively common disease entity within the middle ear cavity, but it is rarely found in the paranasal sinuses. We describe a rare case of cholesteatoma in the maxillary sinus of an elderly man presenting with recurrent sinus infections and nasal obstruction refractory to medical treatment. The patient was treated using functional endoscopic sinus surgery with successful removal of the cholesteatoma. He has no recurrence of the cholesteotoma at a 13year follow-up. We review the literature and history on maxillary cholesteatomas and discuss the theories on the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma formation. We propose functional endoscopic sinus surgery with maxillary antrostomy and marsupialization of the cholesteatoma as a primary treatment option for a maxillary cholesteatoma. PMID:25459312

Sozansky, Jeanie; Josephson, Jordan S

2015-01-01

336

Maxillary protraction using skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics in Skeletal Class III patients  

PubMed Central

The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathia using skeletal anchorage devices and intermaxillary elastics. Miniplates were inserted between the mandibular lateral incisor and canine teeth on both sides in a male patient aged 14 years 5 months. Self-drilling mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were installed between the maxillary second premolar and molar teeth, and Class III elastics were used between the miniplates and miniscrews. On treatment completion, an increase in the projection of the maxilla relative to the cranial base (2.7 mm) and significant improvement of the facial profile were observed. Slight maxillary counterclockwise (1°) and mandibular clockwise (3.3°) rotations were also observed. Maxillary protraction with skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics was effective in correcting a case of Skeletal Class III malocclusion without dentoalveolar side effects.

A?larc?, Cahide; Albayrak, Gayem Ero?lu; F?nd?k, Yavuz

2015-01-01

337

Orthodontic tooth movement through the maxillary sinus in an adult with multiple missing teeth.  

PubMed

This case report describes the successful orthodontic tooth movement through the maxillary sinus in an adult patient. A 41-year-old Asian woman had severe lip protrusion and multiple missing posterior teeth. Her orthodontic treatment included the extraction of 2 teeth, maximum retraction of the incisors using the extraction spaces and the existing spaces from the missing molars, and closure of all remaining spaces. Even though the treatment time was extended because of the anatomic and biologic challenges associated with moving posterior teeth over a long distance through the maxillary sinus, a successful outcome was obtained, with significant bone modeling of the maxillary sinus. The results demonstrate that a carefully selected force system can overcome the anatomic limitations of moving tooth against the cortical bone of the maxillary sinus wall in adult patients. PMID:25263152

Oh, Heesoo; Herchold, Kiri; Hannon, Stephanie; Heetland, Kelly; Ashraf, Golnaz; Nguyen, Vince; Cho, Heon Jae

2014-10-01

338

Maxillary protraction using skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics in Skeletal Class III patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathia using skeletal anchorage devices and intermaxillary elastics. Miniplates were inserted between the mandibular lateral incisor and canine teeth on both sides in a male patient aged 14 years 5 months. Self-drilling mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were installed between the maxillary second premolar and molar teeth, and Class III elastics were used between the miniplates and miniscrews. On treatment completion, an increase in the projection of the maxilla relative to the cranial base (2.7 mm) and significant improvement of the facial profile were observed. Slight maxillary counterclockwise (1°) and mandibular clockwise (3.3°) rotations were also observed. Maxillary protraction with skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics was effective in correcting a case of Skeletal Class III malocclusion without dentoalveolar side effects. PMID:25798416

Esenlik, Elçin; A?larc?, Cahide; Albayrak, Gayem Ero?lu; F?nd?k, Yavuz

2015-03-01

339

A systematic review of the effects of bone-borne surgical assisted rapid maxillary expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: A systematic literature review was conducted to find out if bone-borne maxillary expansion with corticotomies is an effective and secure orthodontic\\/orthopaedic treatment modality, eliminating orthodontic and periodontal side effects of tooth-borne maxillary expansion with corticotomies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT) and case series with a sample size >or=5 were electronically searched in PubMED,

Jeroen Verstraaten; Anne M. Kuijpers-Jagtman; Maurice Y. Mommaerts; Stefaan J. Bergé; Rania M. Nada; Jan G. J. H. Schols

2010-01-01

340

Multidisciplinary Approach for the Treatment of Horizontal Root-Fractured Maxillary Anterior Teeth  

PubMed Central

Dental trauma can lead to a wide range of injuries of which crown and root fractures are examples. Crown-root fractures often need complex treatment planning. This case report describes the use of MTA in the multidisciplinary management of a patient with a horizontally fractured central incisor and luxation in a different central incisor. A 42-year-old female patient presented within 1?h of receiving direct trauma to her maxillary area. Clinical examination revealed that the right and left maxillary central incisors presented mobility and sensitivity to percussion and palpation but no sensitivity to thermal stimulations. Occlusal displacement with extrusion in the left maxillary central incisor and luxation in the right maxillary central incisor was observed. Radiographic examination revealed horizontal root fracture at the apical third of the left maxillary central incisor. Root fracture in the right maxillary incisor was not observed. Endodontic and aesthetic restorative treatments were completed. MTA showed a good long-term outcome when used in root-fractured and luxated teeth. In addition, composite resin restoration provided satisfactory aesthetic results even after 15 months. PMID:25485158

Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Demirel, Gulbike; Sevimay, Semra

2014-01-01

341

Radiographic assessment of findings in the maxillary sinus using cone-beam computed tomography.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES. To assess the presence of anatomic variations and pathology of the maxillary sinus using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the maxilla where pre- implant surgery is planned. MATERIAL AND METHODS. This retrospective study evaluates a sample CBCT scans of 34 dental patients (68 sinuses). CBCT is used to assess maxillary sinus mucosa and outflow and prevalence of septa. The mucosal thickening was measured and the sinus outflow was classified as open or obstructed. RESULTS. Mucosal thickening was found in 48.5%, septa in 20.6% and total opacity in 2.9% of the sinuses. Maxillary sinus outflow was blocked in 26.5% of the scans. Strong association between radiological signs of maxillary sinus ostium blockage and thickened mucosa was observed. CONCLUSIONS. Anatomic variations and lesions of the maxillary sinus were common findings in CBCT examinations of the maxilla required for dental preprosthetic planning. Routine CBCT scans, including maxillary sinus ostium are recommended for risk assessment prior to surgery. PMID:24589634

Dobele, Ilze; Kise, Ligija; Apse, Peteris; Kragis, Gints; Bigestans, Andris

2013-01-01

342

Multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of horizontal root-fractured maxillary anterior teeth.  

PubMed

Dental trauma can lead to a wide range of injuries of which crown and root fractures are examples. Crown-root fractures often need complex treatment planning. This case report describes the use of MTA in the multidisciplinary management of a patient with a horizontally fractured central incisor and luxation in a different central incisor. A 42-year-old female patient presented within 1?h of receiving direct trauma to her maxillary area. Clinical examination revealed that the right and left maxillary central incisors presented mobility and sensitivity to percussion and palpation but no sensitivity to thermal stimulations. Occlusal displacement with extrusion in the left maxillary central incisor and luxation in the right maxillary central incisor was observed. Radiographic examination revealed horizontal root fracture at the apical third of the left maxillary central incisor. Root fracture in the right maxillary incisor was not observed. Endodontic and aesthetic restorative treatments were completed. MTA showed a good long-term outcome when used in root-fractured and luxated teeth. In addition, composite resin restoration provided satisfactory aesthetic results even after 15 months. PMID:25485158

Celikten, Berkan; Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Demirel, Gulbike; Sevimay, Semra

2014-01-01

343

Compensatory orthodontic treatment for maxillary deficiency: a 4-year follow-up.  

PubMed

In this article, we report the orthodontic treatment of a boy (age 12 years 9 months) who had a midface deficiency, a concave facial profile with maxillary retrusion, a complete crossbite (anterior and posterior), and the maxillary right canine retained in the alveolus. Rapid maxillary expansion was performed followed by complete orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances combined with Class III elastics and anterior vertical elastics. Time was allowed to elapse until growth was virtually over before removing the fixed appliances (at age 18 years 4 months), and no retainer of any type was used. As a result of treatment, significant improvement was noted in his facial appearance, with a proper maxillomandibular relationship, total correction of the maxillary atresia, and satisfactory overjet and overbite. The results remained stable at the 4-year follow-up. Therefore, it can be argued that the use of Class III elastics combined with rapid maxillary expansion has a beneficial effect in the treatment of transverse and sagittal maxillary deficiency in growing patients. Excellence in how the treatment was finished and discontinuation of treatment and control in the final stages of growth contributed to the stability of the final results. PMID:25085306

Silveira, Giordani Santos; de Gauw, Johnny Holanda; Motta, Alexandre Trindade; Mucha, José Nelson

2014-08-01

344

Variation in Size and Form between Left and Right Maxillary Central Incisor Teeth  

PubMed Central

Background: To compare the variation in size of left and right maxillary central incisors for male patients (using digital calipers of 0.01 mm accuracy). To compare the variation in size of left and right maxillary central incisors for female patients (using digital calipers of 0.01 mm accuracy). To find out the difference between the maxillary central incisors of men and women. Its clinical applicability if difference exists. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 dental students of PMNM Dental College and Hospital were selected. Of 70 dental students, 40 male and 30 female were selected. Impressions were made for all subjects, using irreversible hydrocolloid (Algitex, manufacturer DPI, Batch-T-8804) using perforated stock metal trays. The mesiodistal crown width and cervical width were measured for each incisor and recorded separately for left and right teeth. The length was measured for each incisor and recorded separately for left and right maxillary central incisor using digitec height caliper. Results: The mean value of maximum crown length of maxillary left central incisor of male was greater in length compared with maxillary right central incisor. Mean value of maximum crown length for male patient right and left side was greater compared with maximum crown length of female patient. Conclusion: When compared the dimensions of teeth between two sex, male group shows larger values to female group. PMID:25859104

Vadavadagi, Suneel V; Hombesh, M N; Choudhury, Gopal Krishna; Deshpande, Sumith; Anusha, C V; Murthy, D Kiran

2015-01-01

345

The impact of frenulum height on strains in maxillary denture bases  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The midline fracture of maxillary complete dentures is a frequently encountered complication. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of frenulum height on midline strains of maxillary complete dentures. MATERIALS AND METHODS A removable maxillary complete denture was fabricated and duplicated seven times. Four different labial frenulum heights were tested for stresses occurring on the palatal cameo surface. The strains were measured with strain gauges placed on 5 different locations and the stresses were calculated. To mimic occlusal forces bilaterally 100 N of load was applied from the premolar and molar region. RESULTS A statistically significant association between the height of the labial frenulum and the calculated stresses and strains was shown (P<.05) predominantly on the midline and especially on the incisive papilla. The results showed that stress on the anterior midline of the maxillary complete denture increases with a higher labial frenulum. CONCLUSION Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that the stress on the anterior midline of the maxillary complete denture increases with a higher labial frenulum. Surgical or mechanical precautions should be taken to prevent short-term failure of maxillary complete dentures due to stress concentration and low cycle fatigue tendency at the labial frenulum region. PMID:24353878

Bilhan, Hakan; Baysal, Gokhan; Sunbuloglu, Emin; Bozdag, Ergun

2013-01-01

346

How Positive Affect Modulates Cognitive Control: Reduced Perseveration at the Cost of Increased Distractibility  

E-print Network

in frontal brain areas. Intelligent organisms pursuing goal-directed behavior in a con- stantly changing Distractibility Gesine Dreisbach and Thomas Goschke Dresden University of Technology A fundamental problem that organisms face in a changing environment is how to regulate dynamically the balance between stable

Schubart, Christoph

347

Computational Modeling of Driver Distraction by Integrating Cognitive and Agent-based Traffic Simulation Models  

E-print Network

various types of distraction, cell-phone dialing and text messaging have been shown to significantly. For instance, current mapping systems on cell-phones improve overall traffic conditions on road networks systems, misuse of such systems might threaten vulnerability of transportation networks. For example, cell-phone

Salvucci, Dario D.

348

What Does Distractibility in ADHD Reveal about Mechanisms for Top-Down Attentional Control?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we attempted to clarify whether distractibility in ADHD might arise from increased sensory-driven interference or from inefficient top-down control. We employed an attentional filtering paradigm in which discrimination difficulty and distractor salience (amount of image "graying") were parametrically manipulated. Increased…

Friedman-Hill, Stacia R.; Wagman, Meryl R.; Gex, Saskia E.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

2010-01-01

349

AGE-RELATED PRESERVATION OF TOP-DOWN CONTROL OVER DISTRACTION IN VISUAL SEARCH  

E-print Network

, bottom-up and top-down processes, are frequently viewed as essential to any theory of selective attention- matically guide attention based upon feature saliency and top-down processing involves higher is whether bottom-up distraction is a fully automatic process, or whether its effects can be minimized by top-down

Leber, Andy

350

Attentional Distraction during Exercise in Overweight and Normal-Weight Boys.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of attentional distraction on field running distance and activity intensity during an exercise session in normal-weight and overweight youngsters and to investigate potential mediators. Fifty-three 12-14 yr-old boys participated twice in a 12-min running test and a 20-min exercise session, once with attentional distraction (by listerning to music) and once without distraction (counterbalanced randomised controlled design). At the end of the endurance test running distance was recorded. During the exercise session activity intensity was assessed by accelerometers. After each experiment, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was estimated and seven questions were asked about how participants experienced the experiment. Both overweight and normal-weight boys ran further during the running test with music (p < 0.05) and this effect was mediated by a decrease in feelings of annoyance. During the exercise session with music, both overweight and normal-weight boys exercised less at low and high intensity and more at moderate and very high intensity (p < 0.01) and this effect was mediated by a decrease in RPE. We can conclude that attentional distraction has a positive effect on running distance on a field endurance test and on activity intensity during an exercise session through different mechanisms in both overweight and normal-weight boys. PMID:25782065

Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

2015-01-01

351

Self-report measures of distractibility as correlates of simulated driving performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relationship between self-reported measures pertaining to attention difficulties and simulated driving performance while distracted. Thirty-six licensed drivers participated in a simulator driving task while engaged in a cell phone conversation. The participants completed questionnaires assessing their tendency toward boredom, cognitive failures, and behaviors associated with attention deficit and hyperactivity. Scores on these measures were significantly

Steven J. Kass; Kristen E. Beede; Stephen J. Vodanovich

2010-01-01

352

Bias caused by self-reporting distraction and its impact on crash estimates.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, driver distractions, such as cell phone use and texting, have become a significant contributor to roadway crashes. Some states now have legislation that severely restricts or bans driver activities deemed distracting. However, many policies and engineered countermeasures are based on self-reported crash data. This raises the issue of potential bias and when not controlled for in analysis supporting policy decisions, can lead to poor allocation of public resources. This study explores the impact of self-reporting driver distraction on the likelihood estimates of the injury severity category of vehicle crashes. Using a two-step correction technique, the presence of bias is tested, when present corrected, and its impact is interpreted. The findings show that self-reporting bias is present in the national database, a database often used to help evaluate policy and engineering options, self-reporting bias understates the true effect of driver distraction on injury severity, and it is not uniform across injury categories. As a result, the forecast of potential savings of countermeasure policies or in-vehicle devices will be distorted leading to inefficient allocation of public resources. PMID:22578905

Hanley, Paul F; Sikka, Nikhil

2012-11-01

353

How does distraction affect cognitive performance? In everyday life, we repeatedly perform multiple tasks simul-  

E-print Network

listening to the radio, and, in some instances, we have cell phone conversations while we drive cars to vehicles in front and braking harder, whereas drivers conversing on a cell phone showed delayed brakingHow does distraction affect cognitive performance? In everyday life, we repeatedly perform multiple

354

The association of distraction and caution displayed by pedestrians at a lighted crosswalk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of deaths and injuries among pedestrians have fallen in recent years, but still remain public health problems as about 5000 pedestrians die each year. Because pedestrians have been shown to be responsible or partially responsible for many of the crashes in which they are involved, we sought to assess the relationship of distracted walking and performing routine cautionary

Timothy J. Bungum; Charlene Day; L. Jean Henry

2005-01-01

355

Ultrasound: assessment of the distraction osteogenesis wound in patients undergoing mandibular lengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Common methods of assessment of the clinical distraction osteogenesis (DO) wound consist of serial physical examinations, plain radiographs, and computed tomography (CT). Ultrasound (US) is an inexpensive and efficient method of imaging that provides detailed assessment of bone formation across a defect. It has proved to be useful for the evaluation of long bone DO healing. The purpose of

Maria J Troulis; Carolyn Coppe; Mary Jane O’Neill; Leonard B Kaban

2003-01-01

356

Monoblock Craniofacial Internal Distraction in a Child with Pfeiffer Syndrome: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 7-yr-old boy visited our surgical center with Pfeiffer syndrome type 1, presenting with macrocrania, broad big toe and thumb, exophthalmos, tongue protrusion, malocclusion with midfacial retrusion, mild respiratory difficulty due to minor upper airway obstruction, and developmental delay. He also exhibited anthrophobia with a passive character. The patient was treated with internal monoblock distraction osteogenesis to increase the intracranial and intraorbital volumes, and the nasal and pharyngeal airway spaces using two modular mid-facial internal distractors. For distraction, the latency period was 1 week, the daily activation of 1.0 mm was 20 days (total advancement 20 mm at the midline), and the consolidation period was 3 months. The follow-up computed tomography 12 months after surgery showed expansion of the brain and proper ossification in the distracted area. The patient also showed aesthetically good cranial contours, improved tongue and eyeball protrusion, no respiratory difficulty, and improved learning. We suggest that the internal distraction may last longer than an external type, resulting in a better bone fusion rate and successful expansion of craniofacial bones. PMID:18437024

Chung, Jaiho; Park, Dong Ha

2008-01-01

357

Stress Reduction through Audio Distraction in Anxious Pediatric Dental Patients: An Adjunctive Clinical Study  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the eff-cacy of ‘audio distraction’ in anxious pediatric dental patients. Materials and methods: Sixty children were randomly selected and equally divided into two groups of thirty each. The first group was control group (group A) and the second group was music group (group B). The dental procedure employed was extraction for both the groups. The children included in music group were allowed to hear audio presentation throughout the treatment procedure. Anxiety was measured by using Venham's picture test, pulse rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation. Results: ‘Audio distraction’ was found efficacious in alleviating anxiety of pediatric dental patients. Conclusion: ‘Audio distraction’ did decrease the anxiety in pediatric patients to a significant extent. How to cite this article: Singh D, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Tripathi AM. Stress Reduction through Audio Distraction in Anxious Pediatric Dental Patients: An Adjunctive Clinical Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):149-152. PMID:25709291

Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, JN; Tripathi, Abhay Mani

2014-01-01

358

Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N = 27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders and their parents were trained to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Measures of pain and anxiety were obtained from the children and their parents. Independent raters also judged participants' video-taped distress responses. Data were collected during

Julien T. Smith; Arreed Barabasz; Marianne Barabasz

1996-01-01

359

Effect of pattern recognition features on detection for driver's cognitive distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constituent technology of a driver monitor system using information of a driver's psychosomatic states is expected to create driver's states adaptive drive supporting system for the reduction of traffic accidents. In this study we identified a driver's distraction as one of major psychosomatic states which may result in a traffic accident by using Internet based survey on a questionnaire basis.

Masahiro MIYAJI; Haruki KAWANAKA; Koji OGURI

2010-01-01

360

Speech Recognition and In-Vehicle Telematics Devices: Potential Reductions in Driver Distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech Recognition is frequently cited as a potential remedy to distraction resulting from drivers' operation of in-vehicle devices. This position typically assumes that the introduction of speech recognition will result in reduced cognitive workload and improved driving performance. Past research neither fully supports nor fully discounts this assumption. However, it is difficult to compare many of these studies, due to

Marvin C. McCallum; John L. Campbell; Joel B. Richman; James L. Brown; Emily Wiese

2004-01-01

361

Eye Closure Reduces the Cross-Modal Memory Impairment Caused by Auditory Distraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eyewitnesses instructed to close their eyes during retrieval recall more correct and fewer incorrect visual and auditory details. This study tested whether eye closure causes these effects through a reduction in environmental distraction. Sixty participants watched a staged event before verbally answering questions about it in the presence of…

Perfect, Timothy J.; Andrade, Jackie; Eagan, Irene

2011-01-01

362

Which Components of Task-Irrelevant Information Are Distracting?: A Developmental Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was designed to determine if subjects of different ages are equally distracted by meaningless perceptual and by semantic features of potentially interfering information. In contrast to a Stroop-like task, figures instead of words were used as possibly interfering information. First graders, fourth graders, and college students…

Goncu, Artin

363

A Simple and Light Weight External Fixator for Distraction Advancement Manoplasty  

PubMed Central

Background With the growing interest in long bone distraction several types of distractors have been introduced; all have the same principle of an outer structure which acts like a scaffold and the distracting mechanism is a separate device which is mounted on this outer structure. Objectives We have used a simple and very light weight external fixator we designed and discuss the results of distraction and advantages of this device . Materials and Methods We applied our distractor to treat 14 men and four women, with a mean age of 39 years. There were three thumbs and 23 fingers; 26 digits (18 patients) lengthened by distraction callotasis and second stage bone grafting evaluated accordingly. Results All patients but one were satisfied with the results and a stable pinch and grip was obtained. After lengthening, all patients maintained sensation of the finger pulp, as assessed by the Semes - Weinstein test. Conclusions The superiority of this device for manoplasty lies in its simplicity of construction in addition to being, lightweight and also eases of application. PMID:24350123

Nazerani, Shahram; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ebrahimpoor, Adel; Vahedian, Jalal; Nazerani, Tara; Nazerani, Tina; Bidarmaghz, Bardia

2012-01-01

364

Distraction Control Processes in Free Recall: Benefits and Costs to Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How is semantic memory influenced by individual differences under conditions of distraction? This question was addressed by observing how participants recalled visual target words-drawn from a single category-while ignoring spoken distractor words that were members of either the same or a different (single) category. Working memory capacity (WMC)…

Marsh, John E.; Sörqvist, Patrik; Hodgetts, Helen M.; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

2015-01-01

365

77 FR 24764 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Safety Administration, Vehicle Research and Test Center...Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices...distracting devices in vehicles. These NHTSA Guidelines...required to operate the vehicle safely and that are...Test Track Studies; Driver Eye Glance Behavior During...

2012-04-25

366

Why Are Auditory Novels Distracting? Contrasting the Roles of Novelty, Violation of Expectation and Stimulus Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past studies show that novel auditory stimuli, presented in the context of an otherwise repeated sound, capture participants' attention away from a focal task, resulting in measurable behavioral distraction. Novel sounds are traditionally defined as rare and unexpected but past studies have not sought to disentangle these concepts directly. Using…

Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Elsley, Jane V.; Andres, Pilar; Barcelo, Francisco

2011-01-01

367

The harassed decision maker: Time pressures, distractions, and the use of evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated dominant simplifying strategies people use in adapting to different information processing environments. It was hypothesized that judges operating under either time pressure or distraction would systematically place greater weight on negative evidence than would their counterparts under less strainful conditions. 6 groups of male undergraduates (N = 210) were presented 5 pieces of information to assimilate in evaluating cars

Peter Wright

1974-01-01

368

Gaming at the dentist's serious game design for pain and discomfort distraction  

E-print Network

Gaming at the dentist's ­ serious game design for pain and discomfort distraction Rafael Bidarra1 of dentist treatments. In fact, a large group of patients, particularly youngsters, experience a strong resistance or even aversion to visiting a dentist's practice, often due to previous distressing and painful

Bidarra, Rafael

369

Speech Perception by 6- to 8-Month-Olds in the Presence of Distracting Sounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of selective attention in infant phonetic perception was examined using a distraction masker paradigm. We compared perception of /bu/ versus /gu/ in 6- to 8-month-olds using a visual fixation procedure. Infants were habituated to multiple natural productions of 1 syllable type and then presented 4 test trials (old-new-old-new). Perception…

Polka, Linda; Rvachew, Susan; Molnar, Monika

2008-01-01

370

Effects of osteoinduction on bone regeneration in distraction: results of a pilot study.  

PubMed

Rate and frequency of distraction as well as stimulatory effects transmitted by growth factors and local gene therapy have a decisive influence on bone regeneration. In a pilot study we tested the effect of four different morphogenetic and mitotic proteins and a genetically transferred vector system on bone healing in continuous osteodistraction in a large animal experiment on 24 Goettingen mini-pigs. For this purpose bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2), BMP-7, TGF-beta, IGF-1 and a liposome vector were instilled into the distraction gap. The animals were killed after 1-4 weeks of consolidation. Histological and radiological evaluations showed maximum bone formation after the application of BMP-2/7, whereas the application of TGF-beta, IGF-1 and the liposomal vector had only a limited effect on bone regeneration. The quantitative analysis demonstrated an average amount of bone in the distraction gap of 50% and 61% after instillation of BMP-2 and 7, respectively. The BMP-2 expression, however, was maximal after induction with the non-viral vector. Only after BMP-2/7 application could physical, radiographic and histological evidence of bone union be detected. In bone distraction with a short observation period the application of morphogenetic proteins seems to enhance bone regeneration significantly. Before application in humans further studies are necessary to measure the dose-effect relationship, the mode of application and the efficacy of different inductive proteins. The combination of osteodistraction with osteoinduction, however, could shorten treatment times dramatically. PMID:19910206

Kroczek, A; Park, J; Birkholz, T; Neukam, F W; Wiltfang, J; Kessler, P

2010-07-01

371

Distraction and pedestrian safety: how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music impact crossing the street.  

PubMed

As use of handheld multimedia devices has exploded globally, safety experts have begun to consider the impact of distraction while talking, text-messaging, or listening to music on traffic safety. This study was designed to test how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music may influence pedestrian safety. 138 college students crossed an interactive, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian street. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups: crossing while talking on the phone, crossing while texting, crossing while listening to a personal music device, or crossing while undistracted. Participants distracted by music or texting were more likely to be hit by a vehicle in the virtual pedestrian environment than were undistracted participants. Participants in all three distracted groups were more likely to look away from the street environment (and look toward other places, such as their telephone or music device) than were undistracted participants. Findings were maintained after controlling for demographics, walking frequency, and media use frequency. Distraction from multimedia devices has a small but meaningful impact on college students' pedestrian safety. Future research should consider the cognitive demands of pedestrian safety, and how those processes may be impacted by distraction. Policymakers might consider ways to protect distracted pedestrians from harm and to reduce the number of individuals crossing streets while distracted. PMID:22269509

Schwebel, David C; Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Davis, Tiffany; O'Neal, Elizabeth E; de Jong, Desiree

2012-03-01

372

Adipose-derived stem cells transfected with pEGFP-OSX enhance bone formation during distraction osteogenesis*  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate the effects of local delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transfected with transcription factor osterix (OSX) on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis. New Zealand white rabbits (n=54) were randomly divided into three groups (18 rabbits per group). A directed cloning technique was used for the construction of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-OSX, where EGFP is the enhanced green fluorescence protein. After osteodistraction of the right mandible of all experimental rabbits, rabbits in group A were treated with ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-OSX, group B with ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-N1, and group C with physiological saline. Radiographic and histological examinations were processed after half of the animals within each group were humanely killed by injection of sodium pentothal at Week 2 or 6 after surgery. The distraction bone density was measured as its projectional bone mineral density (BMD). Three parameters were measured, namely, the thickness of new trabeculae (TNT), and the volumes of the newly generated cortical bone (NBV1) and the cancellous bone (NBV2) of the distracted regions. Good bone generation in the distraction areas was found in group A, which had the highest BMD, TNT, and NBV in the distraction zones among the groups. There was no significant difference in bone generation in the distraction areas between groups B and C. The results indicate that the transplantation of ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-OSX can effectively promote bone generation during distraction in vivo. PMID:24793766

Lai, Qing-guo; Sun, Shao-long; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Chen-ping; Yuan, Kui-feng; Yang, Zhong-jun; Luo, Sheng-lei; Tang, Xiao-peng; Ci, Jiang-bo

2014-01-01

373

[Treatment of Congenital Deformities of the Forearm by Ilizarov's Distraction Method.].  

PubMed

The authors describe two cases of distraction of the bones of the forearm, using Ilizarov's distraction method. In the first case the author treated a patient with aplasia of the 1st metacarpal bone, a hypoplastic thumb on a dermal stalk and a hypoplastic radius on the right. After operations which were not effective (extension of the dermal stalk of the hypoplastic thumb by a Z-plasty, correction of the position of the hand by means of an osseo-cartilaginous transplant) and after pollicization of the index finger they decided for distraction of the radius by means of an original compressive-distraction apparatus. Within one year they achieved a prolongation of 10 cm in a 20-year-old female patient. The predistraction stage lasted 39 weeks and the stage of active rehabilitation without the apparatus 6 months. The authors achieved a correct position of the hand, functional restoration and better appearance of the right upper extremity. In the second case, a 25-year-old female patient, the left hand was adequately developed, there was hypoplasia of the radius (only the distal quarter of the radius was developed) and the ulna was bent in a radial direction. In this patient they achieved a correct position of the hand within 18 weeks, straightening of the bent ulna and its prolongation by 4 cm in 4 weeks. The stage of spontaneous osteogenesis of the newly formed bone took 8 weeks and the stage of active rehabilitation 3 months. They achieved a correct position of the hand, they improved the hand grip and aesthetic appearance. Both patients were satisfied with the results. Key words: club hand, distraction of the radius and ulna, Ilizarov's method. PMID:20483093

Guzanin, S

1992-01-01

374

Sex differences in endogenous pain modulation by distracting and painful conditioning stimulation  

PubMed Central

Sex differences in endogenous pain modulation were tested in healthy volunteers (32 men, 30 women). Painful contact heat stimuli were delivered to the right leg alone, and then in combination with various electrical conditioning stimuli delivered to the left forearm. Four conditioning protocols were applied to each subject in separate sessions: mild, nonpainful (control); distracting; stressful-yet-nonpainful; strongly painful. Thermal stimuli were rated on visual analog scales for pain intensity (INT) and unpleasantness (UNP). Distracting and painful conditioning stimuli significantly reduced heat pain INT and UNP ratings for both sexes, with significantly larger distraction effects on INT ratings for men than women (p=0.004). No sex differences in pain-evoked hypoalgesia were detected (p>0.05). The stress protocol did not consistently reduce heat pain ratings, possibly because the protocol was not sufficiently stressful to activate endogenous modulatory systems. Regression analysis revealed that the magnitude of pain-evoked hypoalgesia was predicted by the perceived distraction (p=0.003) and stress (p=0.04) produced by the painful conditioning stimulation, providing evidence that distraction and stress contribute to pain-evoked hypoalgesia. However, the contribution of stress to pain-evoked hypoalgesia differed by sex (p=0.02), with greater perceived stress associated with greater hypoalgesia in men and the opposite trend in women, suggesting sex differences in the mechanisms underlying pain-evoked hypoalgesia. This study provides indirect evidence that multiple neural mechanisms are involved in endogenous pain modulation and suggests that sex-specific aspects of these systems may contribute to greater pain sensitivity and higher prevalence of many chronic pain conditions among women. PMID:17951004

Quiton, Raimi L.; Greenspan, Joel D.

2007-01-01

375

Assessment of distraction callus in rabbits by monitoring of the electrical impedance of bone  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Evaluation of distraction callus is important for determination of the optimal time for removal of external fixation. We attempted to determine whether there might be a relationship between the electrical impedance of bone and callus maturation, with a view to using impedance as a way of knowing when to remove a fixator. Methods We applied an external lengthener to the right tibia of 24 rabbits and performed distraction at 1 mm/day for 10 days. Radiographs were taken and measurement of overall impedance between fixation pins was performed weekly after distraction. At weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 after distraction (n = 6 each), resistivity of the bone to electrical conductivity was measured before killing. Cross-sectional area of the conduction pathway in callus and maximum bending stress were measured after excision of the tibia. Results The overall impedance increased statistically significantly from 1 to 6 weeks after completion of distraction. The resistivity of bone decreased over 4 weeks and the cross-sectional area of callus decreased significantly over 6 weeks, while the maximum bending stress increased significantly over the same time. We observed a negative correlation between the cross-sectional area of callus and maximum bending stress. Interpretation The impedance values, which are related to changes in electrical conductivity and the conduction pathway, increased due to the changes in the cross-sectional area of callus, despite the reduction in bone resistivity. Since the cross-sectional area of callus was correlated with maximum bending stress and the impedance values increased with the callus-remodeling process, we suggest that temporal increases in overall impedance reflect callus maturation. PMID:20860454

2010-01-01

376

Prevalence of tooth agenesis and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor associated with palatally displaced canine (PDC) anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-eight nonsyndromic North American white orthodontic patients with palatal displacement of one or both maxillary canine teeth were studied for associated tooth agenesis and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors. Agenesis of permanent teeth was identified by x-ray film analysis. Conical crown-size reduction (peg-shape anomaly) of the maxillary lateral incisor (I2) was determined by direct observation. Increases in absence of third molars

Sheldon Peck; Leena Peck; Matti Kataja

1996-01-01

377

Frequency of the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis extended to the anterior ethmoid sinus and response to surgical treatment  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Odontogenic sinusitis usually affects the maxillary sinus but may extend to the anterior ethmoid sinuses. The purpose of this study is to determine the percentage of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis extended to the anterior ethmoid sinuses and determine also the surgical resolution differences between odontogenic maxillary sinusitis and odontogenic maxillary associated to anterior ethmoidal sinusitis. Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study performed on 55 patients diagnosed of odontogenic sinusitis and treated surgically by functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Results: This study showed that 52.7% of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis spreads to anterior ethmoid, causing added anterior ethmoid sinusitis. We found that 92.3% of the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis (who underwent middle meatal antrostomy) and 96.5% of the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis extended to the anterior ethmoid (treated with middle meatal antrostomy and anterior ethmoidectomy) were cured. Conclusions: Ethmoid involvement is frequent in maxillary odontogenic sinusitis. The ethmoid involvement does not worsen the results of “functional endoscopic sinus surgery” applied to the odontogenic sinusitis. Key words:Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis, ethmoiditis, functional endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:24608208

Crovetto-Martínez, Rafael; Martin-Arregui, Francisco J.; Zabala-López-de-Maturana, Aitor; Tudela-Cabello, Kiara

2014-01-01

378

Novel transcripts in the maxillary venom glands of advanced snakes.  

PubMed

Venom proteins are added to reptile venoms through duplication of a body protein gene, with the duplicate tissue-specifically expressed in the venom gland. Molecular scaffolds are recruited from a wide range of tissues and with a similar level of diversity of ancestral activity. Transcriptome studies have proven an effective and efficient tool for the discovery of novel toxin scaffolds. In this study, we applied venom gland transcriptomics to a wide taxonomical diversity of advanced snakes and recovered transcripts encoding three novel protein scaffold types lacking sequence homology to any previously characterised snake toxin type: lipocalin, phospholipase A2 (type IIE) and vitelline membrane outer layer protein. In addition, the first snake maxillary venom gland isoforms were sequenced of ribonuclease, which was only recently sequenced from lizard mandibular venom glands. Further, novel isoforms were also recovered for the only recently characterised veficolin toxin class also shared between lizard and snake venoms. The additional complexity of snake venoms has important implications not only for understanding their molecular evolution, but also reinforces the tremendous importance of venoms as a diverse bio-resource. PMID:22465490

Fry, Bryan G; Scheib, Holger; de L M Junqueira de Azevedo, Inacio; Silva, Debora Andrade; Casewell, Nicholas R

2012-06-01

379

[Failure in the orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canines].  

PubMed

Maxillary canine impaction occurs in 1-3% of most Western populations and its orthodontic treatment is often difficult. Failure to resolve the impaction is not uncommon and may lead to malpractice lawsuits. The information in the literature about the reasons for non-resolution of this condition is sparse and unsubstantiated. This encourages the dispensing of inappropriate treatment that may result in severe tooth, soft and hard tissue damage as well as a prolonged treatment period. This review describes the epidemiology, pathogenesis and the wide range of reasons that may lead to failure to resolve the canine impaction. It shows that a lack of appreciation of anchorage demands and inaccurate positional diagnosis of the 3-D location and orientation of impacted teeth are the major reasons for failure. In addition, the review shows that invasive cervical root resorption (ICRR) is a frequently undiagnosed or unrecognized cause of failure of orthodontic resolution of impacted canines, and should be distinguished from replacement resorption (ankylosis). Corrective measures which may lead to successful treatment are further recommended. Special emphasis is placed on the crucial role of cone beam computerized tomography in the accurate radiographic diagnosis and early detection of pathology of impacted tooth and damage to adjacent anchor teeth. The importance of teamwork in achieving the best treatment outcome is stressed. PMID:24020246

Chaushu, S; Abramovitz, I; Becker, A

2013-04-01

380

Trigeminocardiac reflexes: maxillary and mandibular variants of the oculocardiac reflex.  

PubMed

Three case reports are presented to illustrate the existence and importance of reflex bradycardic responses that can occur during maxillofacial surgical procedures. All three patients were healthy young adults undergoing operations which did not include any manipulation of orbital structures. After the patients had been anaesthetized for some time and were haemodynamically stable, profound bradycardia or ventricular asystole occurred suddenly in response to manipulations of the bony structures of the maxilla or mandible, or dissection of, or traction on, the attached soft tissue structures. The parasympathetic supply to the face is carried in the trigeminal nerve. Alternative afferent pathways must exist via the maxillary and/or mandibular divisions, in addition to the commonly reported pathway via the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve in the classic oculocardiac reflex. The efferent arc involves the vagus, regardless of which branch of the trigeminal nerve transmits the afferent impulses. All patients undergoing maxillofacial procedures should be monitored carefully for reflex bradycardia and ventricular asystole. PMID:1914059

Lang, S; Lanigan, D T; van der Wal, M

1991-09-01

381

Alveolar bone changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.  

PubMed

Objective: To quantitatively evaluate the effects of asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) on cortical bone thickness and buccal alveolar bone height (BABH), and to determine the formation of dehiscence and fenestration in the alveolar bone surrounding the posterior teeth, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: The CBCT records of 23 patients with true unilateral posterior skeletal crossbite (10 boys, 14.06 ± 1.08 years old, and 13 girls, 13.64 ± 1.32 years old) who had undergone ARME were selected from our clinic archives. The bonded acrylic ARME appliance, including an occlusal stopper, was used on all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME (T1) and after the 3-month retention period (T2). Axial slices of the CBCT images at 3 vertical levels were used to evaluate the buccal and palatal aspects of the canines, first and second premolars, and first molars. Paired samples and independent sample t-tests were used for statistical comparison. Results: The results suggest that buccal cortical bone thickness of the affected side was significantly more affected by the expansion than was the unaffected side (P < .05). ARME significantly reduced the BABH of the canines (P < .01) and the first and second premolars (P < .05) on the affected side. ARME also increased the incidence of dehiscence and fenestration on the affected side. Conclusions: ARME may quantitatively decrease buccal cortical bone thickness and height on the affected side. PMID:25478739

Akin, Mehmet; Baka, Zeliha Muge; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

2014-12-01

382

Segment alignment control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.

1988-01-01

383

99mTechnetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate uptake in maxillary bone during and after rapid maxillary expansion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone activity at the midpalatal suture that had been biomechanically stimulated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). A rigid acrylic-bonded expansion device with a maxiskeleton screw was used for RME in three patients who were in three different growth periods. The screw was activated twice a day by 1/4 turns. After sufficient expansion, the screw was fixed with acrylic resin, and the same appliance was used as a removable retention plate for three months. Single photone emission computed tomography (SPECT) bone scintigraphy records were obtained before (T1) and at the end of RME (T2) and three months after the retention period (T3). According to the scintigraphic records, the increase in bone activity was highest in the anterior and medial sections on both the left and right sides of the maxilla in all cases. After three months of retention, the bone activity returned to its original level. Therefore, it may be stated that the retention period of three months was sufficient for bone reorganization. PMID:14580022

Arat, Z Mirzen; Gökalp, Hatice; Atasever, Tamer; Türkkahraman, Hakan

2003-10-01

384

[The dynamic x-ray changes in the regenerated bone after osteotomy and distraction of the femur].  

PubMed

The article presents an experience with treatment of 53 patients with shorter lower extremities by osteotomy, fixation with the Ilizarov apparatus and distraction. The dynamics of roentgenological alterations of the regenerate is described. PMID:7709539

Ga?dukov, V M; Dedushkin, V S; Prokopovich, L N

1994-01-01

385

Effects of Videogame Distraction using a Virtual Reality Type Head-Mounted Display Helmet on Cold Pressor Pain in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective?To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain.?Method?Forty-one children, aged 6–14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submerged in the cold water) were measured for each cold pressor trial.?Results?Both distraction conditions resulted in improved pain tolerance relative to baseline. Older children appeared to experience additional benefits from using the helmet, whereas younger children benefited equally from both conditions. The findings suggest that virtual reality technology can enhance the effects of distraction for some children. Research is needed to identify the characteristics of children for whom this technology is best suited. PMID:18367495

Weiss, Karen E.; Dillinger Clendaniel, Lindsay; Law, Emily F.; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D.

2009-01-01

386

Use of instant messaging predicts self-report but not performance measures of inattention, impulsiveness, and distractibility.  

PubMed

We examined how young adults' use of instant messaging, text messaging, and traditional reading related to their self-reported experience of distractibility and impulsiveness and to their performance on computerized tasks designed to assess inattention and impulsive responses to visual stimuli. Participants reported their media use and completed self-report measures of impulsiveness (i.e., the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) and distractibility for academic reading. They also completed performance based measures of inattention and impulsiveness using the Tests of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.(®)). Results demonstrated that instant message use was significantly related to higher levels of attentional impulsiveness and distractibility on the self-report measures, while traditional reading consistently predicted lower levels of impulsiveness and distractibility. However, media use was not significantly related to the performance measures of inattention and behavioral impulsiveness. PMID:23952624

Levine, Laura E; Waite, Bradley M; Bowman, Laura L

2013-12-01

387

Protocols for Late Maxillary Protraction in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the protocols used at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) to protract the maxilla during early adolescence. It is a modification of techniques introduced by Eric Liou with his Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (ALT-RAMEC) technique. The main differences between the CHLA protocol and previous maxillary protraction protocols are the age the protraction is attempted, the sutural loosening by alternating weekly expansion with constriction and the use of Class III elastics to support and redirect the protraction by nightly facemask wear. The CHLA protocol entirely depends on patient compliance and must be carefully taught and monitored. In a cooperative patient, the technique can correct a Class III malocclusion that previously would have been treated with LeFort 1 maxillary advancement surgery. Thus, it is not appropriate for patients requiring 2 jaw surgeries to correct mandibular prognathism, occlusal cants or facial asymmetry. The maxillary protraction appears to work by a combination of skeletal advancement, dental compensation and rotation of the occlusal planes. Microscrew/microimplant/temporary anchorage devices have been used with these maxillary protraction protocols to assist in expanding the maxilla, increasing skeletal anchorage during protraction, limiting dental compensations and reducing skeletal relapse. PMID:21765629

Yen, Stephen L-K

2011-01-01

388

Experimental study on penetration of dental implants into the maxillary sinus in different depths  

PubMed Central

The exposing of dental implant into the maxillary sinus combined with membrane perforation might increase risks of implant failure and sinus complications. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the dental implant penetration into the maxillary sinus cavity in different depths on osseointegration and sinus health in a dog model. Material and Methods Sixteen titanium implants were placed in the bilateral maxillary molar areas of eight adult mongrel dogs, which were randomly divided into four groups according to the different penetrating extents of implants into the sinus cavities (group A: 0 mm; group B: 1 mm; group C: 2 mm; group D: 3 mm). The block biopsies were harvested five months after surgery and evaluated by radiographic observation and histological analysis. Results No signs of inflammatory reactions were observed in any maxillary sinus of the eight dogs. The tips of the implants with penetrating depth of 1 mm and 2 mm were found to be fully covered with newly formed membrane and partially with new bone. The tips of the implants with penetrating depth over 3 mm were exposed in the sinus cavity and showed no membrane or bone coverage. No significant differences were found among groups regarding implant stability, bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area in the implant threads (BA). Conclusions Despite the protrusion extents, penetration of dental implant into the maxillary sinus with membrane perforation does not compromise the sinus health and the implant osseointegration in canine. PMID:24473723

ZHONG, Weijian; CHEN, Binke; LIANG, Xin; MA, Guowu

2013-01-01

389

Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis Associated with an Unusual Foreign Body: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Foreign bodies in maxillary sinuses are unusual clinical conditions, and they can cause chronic sinusitis by mucosal irritation. Most cases of foreign bodies in maxillary sinus are related to iatrogenic dental manipulation and only a few cases with non-dental origin are reported. Oroantral fistulas secondary to dental procedures are the most common way of insertion. Treatment is surgical removal of the foreign body either endoscopically or with a combined approach, with Caldwell-Luc procedure if endoscopic approach is inadequate for visualisation. In this case, we present a 24-year-old male patient with unilateral chronic maxillary sinusitis due to a wooden toothpick in left maxillary sinus. The patient had a history of upper second premolar tooth extraction. CT scan revealed sinus opacification with presence of a foreign body in left maxillary sinus extending from the floor of the sinus to the orbital base. The foreign body, a wooden toothpick, was removed with Caldwell-Luc procedure since it was impossible to remove the toothpick endoscopically. There was no obvious oroantral fistula in the time of surgery, but the position of the toothpick made us to think that it was inserted through a previously healed fistula, willingly or accidentally. PMID:22953127

?ahin, Yunus Feyyat; Muderris, Togay; Bercin, Sami; Sevil, Ergun; K?r?s, Muzaffer

2012-01-01

390

Localization of impacted maxillary canines using cone beam computed tomography. Review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Summary This review analyzed the literature focused on Cone- Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) diagnostic accuracy and efficacy in detecting impacted maxillary canines, and evaluated the possible advantages in using CBCT technique compared with traditional radiographs. PubMed and Embase searches were performed selecting papers since 1998 up to September 2011, moreover reference lists were hand searched. Two reviewers selected relevant publications on the basis of predetermined inclusion criteria. The literature search yielded 94 titles, of which 5 were included in the review. Three studies used CBCT technique to 3D localize maxillary impacted canines and assess root resorption of adjacent teeth. Other two publications compared traditional radiographs with CBCT images in the diagnosis of maxillary impacted canines. Only three studies presented the results using statistical analysis. The present review highlighted that the use of CBCT has a potential diagnostic effect and may influence the outcome of treatment when compared with traditional panoramic radiography for the assessment of impacted maxillary canines. Furthermore it underlines the need of future studies performed according with high level methodological standards, investigating diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of CBCT in the diagnosis of maxillary impacted teeth. PMID:22783450

Rossini, Giulia; Cavallini, Costanza; Cassetta, Michele; Galluccio, Gabriella; Barbato, Ersilia

2012-01-01

391

Effects of Cryotherapy on the Maxillary Antrostomy Patency in a Rabbit Model of Chronic Rhinosinusitis  

PubMed Central

It is acknowledged that many causes of failures in endoscopic sinus surgery are related to scarring and narrowing of the maxillary antrostomy. We assessed the effect of low-pressure spray cryotherapy in preventing the maxillary antrostomy stenosis in a chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) rabbit model. A controlled, randomized, double-blind study was conducted on 22 New Zealand rabbits. After inducing unilateral rhinogenic CRS, a maxillary antrostomy was performed and spray cryotherapy was employed on randomly selected 12 rabbits, while saline solution was applied to the control group (n = 10). The antrostomy dimensions and the histological scores were assessed 4 weeks postoperatively. The diameter of cryotreated antrostomy was significantly larger at 4 weeks than that in the control group. At 4 weeks, the maxillary antrostomy area in the study group was significantly larger than the mean area in the control group (103.92 ± 30.39?mm2 versus 61.62 ± 28.35?mm2, P = 0.002). Submucosal fibrous tissues and leukocytic infiltration in saline-treated ostia were more prominent than those in cryotreated ostia with no significant differences between the two groups regarding the histological scores. Intraoperative low-pressure spray cryotherapy increases the patency of the maxillary antrostomy at 4 weeks postoperatively with no important local side effects. PMID:24286071

Gocea, Anamaria; Taulescu, Marian; Trombitas, Veronica

2013-01-01

392

DOES EXPOSURE TO DISTRACTION IN AN EXPERIMENTAL SETTING IMPACT DRIVER PERCEPTION OF CELL PHONE EASE OF USE AND SAFETY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We examined drivers' perception of the ease and safety of cell phone use while driving before and after exposure to distraction in an experimental setting. During the study, each driver reflected on driving and task performance while engaged in conversation-like and arithmetic distraction tasks on a hands- free and hand-held cell phone. Hands-free phones were consistently rated easier to

Angela Garabet; William J. Horrey; Mary F. Lesch

393

Segmented trapped vortex cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

2010-01-01

394

Sipunculans and segmentation  

PubMed Central

Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups—Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata—use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral nervous system form in anterior-posterior progression. Contrary to traditional belief, loss of segmentation may have occurred more often than commonly assumed, as exemplified in the sipunculans, which show remnants of segmentation in larval stages but are unsegmented as adults. The developmental plasticity and potential evolutionary lability of segmentation nourishes the controversy of a segmented bilaterian ancestor versus multiple independent evolution of segmentation in respective metazoan lineages. PMID:19513266

Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

2009-01-01

395

Segmentation fusion for connectomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of automatic 3D segmentation of a stack of electron microscopy sections of brain tissue. Unlike previous efforts, where the reconstruction is usually done on a section-to-section basis, or by the agglomerative clustering of 2D segments, we leverage information from the entire volume to obtain a globally optimal 3D segmentation. To do this, we formulate the segmentation

Amelio Vazquez-Reina; Michael Gelbart; Daniel Huang; Jeff Lichtman; Eric Miller; Hanspeter Pfister

2011-01-01

396

Evaluation of stress and pain during rapid maxillary expansion treatments.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to use salivary cortisol levels, pressure pain threshold (PPT) and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) to assess stress, anxiety and pain during the expansion and retention phase of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in children and investigate to whether this parameters are associated with gender or skeletal maturity stages. STAIC was used to assess the anxiety levels of the children. Salivary samples were collected for stress hormone determination. Visual Analog Scale was used for pain determination. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) was measured by using algometer. Data collection was performed a week before RME treatment (T0), at the day of the expansion appliance was bonded (T1), at the days of 1st, 4th, 7th, 14th, 25th, 36th activations of expansion screw (T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7) and after the retention period of 3?months (T8). The results of this study showed that the differences were statistically significant within-day (P??0·05). There were statistically significant differences of state-trait anxiety levels between pre and post-treatment stages (P?

Gecgelen, M; Aksoy, A; Kirdemir, P; Doguc, D K; Cesur, G; Koskan, O; Ozorak, O

2012-10-01

397

The influence of driver distraction on the severity of injuries sustained by teenage drivers and their passengers.  

PubMed

Studies show that teenage drivers are at a higher risk for crashes. Opportunities to engage in technology and non-technology based distractions appear to be a particular concern among this age group. An ordered logit model was developed to predict the likelihood of a severe injury for these drivers and their passenger using a national crash database (the 2003, U.S. DOT-General Estimate System [GES]). As one would expect, speeding substantially increases the likelihood of severe injuries for teenage drivers and their passengers. The results of the analysis also reveal that teenage drivers have an increased likelihood of more severe injuries if distracted by a cell phone or by passengers than if the source of distraction was related to in-vehicle devices or if the driver was inattentive. Additionally, passengers of teenage drivers are more likely to sustain severe injuries when their driver is distracted by devices or passengers than with a non-distracted or inattentive driver. This supports the previous literature on teenage drivers and extends our understanding of injuries for this age group related to distraction-related crashes. PMID:18215556

Neyens, David M; Boyle, Linda Ng

2008-01-01

398

An fMRI study of attentional control in the context of emotional distracters in euthymic adults with bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Inability to modulate attention away from emotional stimuli may be a key component of dysregulated emotion in bipolar disorder (BD). Previous studies of BD indicate abnormalities in neural circuitry underlying attentional control, yet few studies examined attentional control in the context of emotional distracters. We compared activity and connectivity in neural circuitry supporting attentional control and emotion processing among 22 individuals with BD type 1, currently remitted and euthymic, and 19 healthy controls. Participants performed an emotional n-back paradigm, comprising high and low attentional demand conditions, each with either emotional (happy, fearful), neutral or no face flanker distracters. During the high attentional control demand conditions without emotional distracters, BD individuals showed reduced activity versus controls in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and inferior parietal cortex. During the high attentional control demand conditions with fearful-face distracters, BD individuals showed greater activity than controls in these regions and amygdala and striatum. Relative to controls, BD individuals also showed abnormal patterns of effective connectivity between dACC and amygdala during high attentional control demand with emotional face distracters. Inter-episode bipolar disorder is characterized by abnormal recruitment of attentional control neural circuitry, especially in the context of emotionally distracting information. PMID:22510433

Mullin, Benjamin C.; Perlman, Susan B.; Versace, Amelia; de Almeida, Jorge R.C.; LaBarbara, Edmund J.; Klein, Crystal; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Phillips, Mary L.

2011-01-01

399

Preliminary soft tissue distraction using external fixator in radial club hand.  

PubMed

Preliminary soft tissue distraction using an external fixator before centralisation and tendon transfer of the flexor and extensor carpi ulnaris to the little finger metacarpal was used to treat Bayne's type III and IV deformities in 18 hands of 14 patients with radial club hands. Treatment with external fixator was started at a mean age of 8 (range 3-30) months. In 16 of 18 hands, the surgical treatment was completed before 10 months of age. Adequate soft tissue stretching was achieved before centralisation using fractional distraction with the external fixator in the majority of hands. After an average follow-up period of 31 months, there were seven good, eight satisfactory and one unsatisfactory result. PMID:18977832

Kanojia, R K; Sharma, N; Kapoor, S K

2008-10-01

400

Callus distraction for the treatment of acquired radial club-hand deformity after osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

We report our experience of the use of callus distraction with a monolateral fixator for the treatment of acquired radial club-hand deformity after osteomyelitis. Between 1994 and 2004, 13 patients with a mean age of eight years (4 to 15) were treated by callus distraction with a monolateral fixator after a preliminary period of at least four weeks in a corrective short-arm cast. All patients achieved bony union and were satisfied with the functional and cosmetic outcome. There were no major complications, but three patients required cancellous bone grafting at the docking site for delayed union. Local treatment and oral antibiotics were required for pin-site infection in six patients. There were no deep infection or recurrence of osteomyelitis. PMID:17998192

Zhang, X; Duan, L; Li, Z; Chen, X

2007-11-01

401

Overheard cell-phone conversations: when less speech is more distracting.  

PubMed

Why are people more irritated by nearby cell-phone conversations than by conversations between two people who are physically present? Overhearing someone on a cell phone means hearing only half of a conversation--a "halfalogue." We show that merely overhearing a halfalogue results in decreased performance on cognitive tasks designed to reflect the attentional demands of daily activities. By contrast, overhearing both sides of a cell-phone conversation or a monologue does not result in decreased performance. This may be because the content of a halfalogue is less predictable than both sides of a conversation. In a second experiment, we controlled for differences in acoustic factors between these types of overheard speech, establishing that it is the unpredictable informational content of halfalogues that results in distraction. Thus, we provide a cognitive explanation for why overheard cell-phone conversations are especially irritating: Less-predictable speech results in more distraction for a listener engaged in other tasks. PMID:20817912

Emberson, Lauren L; Lupyan, Gary; Goldstein, Michael H; Spivey, Michael J

2010-10-01

402

The effects of analytical rumination, reappraisal, and distraction on anger experience.  

PubMed

The manner in which individuals recall negative life events has important affective consequences. The present experiment investigated the effects of emotion regulation strategies on anger experience. One hundred and twenty-one undergraduates recalled an anger-inducing memory and were instructed to engage in either analytical rumination, cognitive reappraisal, or distraction for 20 minutes. In the remaining (control) condition, participants were instructed to write about their thoughts but were not given any emotion regulation instructions. Rumination maintained anger, whereas participants in the remaining conditions reported decreased anger following the writing task. Our results suggest that reappraisal facilitates adaptive processing of anger-inducing memories and distraction facilitates rapid reductions in anger experience. These findings have implications for the management of clinical populations that commonly experience difficulty with anger regulation. PMID:22440071

Denson, Thomas F; Moulds, Michelle L; Grisham, Jessica R

2012-06-01

403

Handwriting Segmentation Contest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of the handwriting segmentation contest that was organized in the context of ICDAR2007. The aim of this contest was to use well established evaluation practices and procedures in order to record recent advances in off-line handwriting segmentation. Two benchmarking datasets (one for text line and one for word segmentation) were used in a common evaluation

B. Gatos; A. Antonacopoulos; N. Stamatopoulos

2007-01-01

404

Multiresolution Color Image Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image segmentation is the process by which an original image is partitioned into some homogeneous regions. In this paper, a novel multiresolution color image segmentation (MCIS) algorithm which uses Markov random fields (MRF's) is proposed. The proposed approach is a relaxation process that converges to the MAP (maximum a posteriori) estimate of the segmentation. The quadtree structure is used to

Jianqing Liu; Yee-hong Yang

1994-01-01

405

Degree of Distraction: What Cell Phones Do To A Driver's Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today’s fast paced, technology-saturated world, cell phones have changed daily life in a multitude of ways – and not always for the better. A major concern surrounding mobile phones is the hazard of conversation-engrossed drivers losing focus on the road, potentially contributing to crashes. But while anecdotes of cell phone- distracted drivers aren’t hard to find, an actual scientific

Amy Oprean

2009-01-01

406

An Investigation of Incongruency and Distraction Hypotheses: The Context of Dubbed TV Commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study seeks to understand the effectiveness of commercials that are basically nation-wide commercials dubbed in the regional languages, while not changing any part of the visual: thus they are ‘national’ with their visuals and regional with their sound track. Here incongruency and distraction hypotheses are investigated through two experiments. A social message against the use of cell-phones is

P. Venkatesh; Piyush Kumar Sinha

2008-01-01

407

In-Car Dictation and Driver’s Distraction: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We describe a prototype dictation UI for use in cars and evaluate it by measuring (1) driver’s distraction, (2) task completion\\u000a time, and (3) task completion quality. We use a simulated lane change test (LCT) to assess driving quality while using the\\u000a prototype, while texting using a cell phone and when just driving. The prototype was used in two modes

Martin Labský; Tomáš Macek; Jan Kleindienst; Holger Quast; Christophe Couvreur

408

Prevalence of driving distractions among high school student drivers in three Canadian cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionMotor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and hospitalisation for Canadian youth. Graduated Drivers Licensing have been implemented in several Canadian provinces.PurposeTo assess the prevalence of compliance with rules and driving distractions among high school students in three Canadian cities (Halifax, Barrie and Vancouver) representing different geographic, socioeconomic and jurisdictional settings.MethodsObservations were made at schools in the three

J Oda; A Macpherson; T Middaugh-Bonney; M Brussoni; S Piedt; I Pike

2010-01-01

409

Posterior vertebral injury; is this a burst fracture or a flexion-distraction injury?  

PubMed

In thoracolumbar spinal fractures with posterior column injury for applying proper management, it is important to distinguish a flexion-distraction injury (FDI) from a three column burst fracture (BF) as in clinical examination, both may have a similar significant tenderness on direct spinal palpation. Careful attention to the comprehensive clinical examination and detailed imaging features are essential in making an accurate diagnosis and thus appropriate treatment. PMID:25207330

Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

2014-06-01

410

The role of distraction osteogenesis in the management of craniofacial syndromes  

PubMed Central

Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has been established as a useful technique in the correction of skeletal anomalies of the long bones for several decades. However, the use of DO in the management of craniofacial deformities has been evolving over the past 20 years, with initial experience in the mandible, followed by the mid-face and subsequently, the cranium. This review aims to provide an overview of the current role of DO in the treatment of patients with craniofacial anomalies. PMID:23662252

Heggie, Andrew A.; Kumar, Ricky; Shand, Jocelyn M.

2013-01-01

411

Carotid Artery Dissection and Stroke Complicating Treatment of Post-mandibular distraction Ankylosis: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Mandibular distraction osteogenesis is an increasingly accepted treatment option for severe upper airway obstruction in grade 3 Robin sequence. Complications are rarely reported but can include fracture, pin dislodgement, tooth bud damage, and temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Operative correction of these complications can carry inherent risks of their own. We present a patient who incurred carotid artery dissection and stroke after release of postdistraction coronoid-zygomatic ankylosis for the treatment of mandibular micrognathia. PMID:25489770

Arnspiger, Sarah A; Felder, John M; Wood, Benjamin C; Rogers, Gary F; Oh, Albert K

2014-12-01

412

Cognitive\\/Attentional Distraction in the Control of Conditioned Nausea in Pediatric Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to investigate the use of cognitive\\/attentional distraction (via commercially available video games) to control conditioned nausea in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The first study compared the nausea severity in children who played video games during chemotherapy-related procedures with that of control-group children who did not play video games. The second study used a combined ABAB

William H. Redd; Paul B. Jacobsen; Maria Die-Trill; Helen Dermatis; Maureen McEvoy; Jimmie C. Holland

1987-01-01

413

Driver distraction in an unusual environment: Effects of text-messaging in tunnels.  

PubMed

Text messaging while driving can be distracting and significantly increases the risk of being involved in a collision. Compared to freeway driving, driving in a tunnel environment introduces factors that may interact with driver attentional resources to exacerbate the effects of distraction on driving safety. With planning and design of the 18km Stockholm Bypass tunnel ongoing, and because of the potentially devastating consequences of crashes in long tunnels, it is critical to assess the effects of driver distraction in a tunnel environment. Twenty-four participants (25-50 years) drove in simulated highway and tunnel road environments while reading and writing text messages using their own mobile phones. As expected, compared to driving alone, text messaging was associated with decrements in driving performance and visual scanning behavior, and increases in subjective workload. Speeds were slower compared to baseline (no text-messaging) driving when participants performed the text-messaging tasks in the tunnel environment compared to the freeway, suggesting that drivers may have attempted to compensate more for the increased text-messaging-related workload when they were in the tunnel. On the other hand, increases in lane deviation associated with the most complex text-messaging task were more pronounced in the tunnel compared to on the freeway. Collectively, results imply that driver distraction in tunnels is associated with generally similar driving decrements as freeway driving; however, the potential consequences of these decrements in tunnels remain significantly more serious. Future research should attempt to elucidate the nature of any differential compensatory behavior in tunnel, compared to freeway, driving. In the meantime, drivers should be advised to refrain from text messaging, especially when driving in tunnels. PMID:23200448

Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Young, Kristie L; Patten, Christopher; Lenné, Michael G; Ceci, Ruggero

2013-01-01

414

Association between energy intake and viewing television, distractibility, and memory for advertisements12345  

PubMed Central

Background: The effect of television viewing (TVV) with and without advertisements (ads) on energy intake is unclear. Objective: The objectives were to test 1) the effect of TVV, with and without ads, on energy intake compared with a control and reading condition and 2) the association of distractibility and memory for ads with energy intake and body weight. Design: Forty-eight (26 female) adults (age: 19–54 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 20–35 completed this laboratory-based study. All participants completed 4 buffet-style meals in random order in the following conditions: 1) control, 2) while reading, 3) while watching TV with food and nonfood ads (TV-ads), and 4) while watching TV with no ads (TV-no ads). Energy intake was quantified by weighing foods. Distractibility and memory for ads in the TV-ads condition were quantified with a norm-referenced test and recognition task, respectively. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that energy and macronutrient intake did not differ significantly among the 4 conditions (P > 0.65). Controlling for sex, memory for ads was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) and energy intake but only when viewing TV (r = 0.39, P < 0.05 during the TV-no ads condition, and r = 0.29, P = 0.06 during the TV-ads condition). Controlling for sex, distractibility was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) but not energy intake. Distractibility, however, accounted for 13% of the variance in men's energy intake (P = 0.11). Conclusions: TVV did not affect energy intake, but individual characteristics (memory for ads) were associated with body weight and energy intake in certain conditions. These characteristics should be considered in food intake and intervention studies. PMID:19056603

Martin, Corby K; Coulon, Sandra M; Markward, Nathan; Greenway, Frank L; Anton, Stephen D

2009-01-01

415

Vertical distraction osteogenesis combined with bilateral 2-step osteotomy for preprosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous mandible.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to appraise the effectiveness of distraction osteogenesis combined with bilateral 2-step osteotomy for the vertical augmentation of atrophic edentulous mandibles. To verify the predictability of this technique, we evaluated bone density and vertical bone gain of a cohort of 27 patients. The intraoral alveolar distractor was placed in the symphyseal area; then, it was left in situ for 2 months after surgery to consolidate the newly formed bone. A total of 189 implants were inserted. The main complications' issue was tied up to the neurosensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve, which disappeared few months after the surgery.At the end of the distraction osteogenesis, a mean vertical bone gain of 10.5 mm evaluated by comparing preoperative and postoperative computed tomography was reached. Three months after the surgery, the radiologic data indicated that the difference in the mean bone density, recorded in Hounsfield units (HU), between the distracted bone and the preexisting mandibular bone was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The last measurements done showed that the osseous density in the distraction chamber was higher than the original medullary bone density: the regenerated bones were more dense (876.8 [205.9] HU) than the preexisting medullary bone (312.1 [142.3] HU) and less dense than the preexisting cortical bone (1721.1 [170.4] HU) at the ninth month.In conclusion, this approach appeared to be a viable solution for the improvement of vertical volume in atrophic mandibles. PMID:23851764

Marianetti, Tito M; Leuzzi, Fabrizio; Foresta, Enrico; Gasparini, Giulio; Cervelli, Daniele; Amoroso, Pier Fracesco; Pelo, Sandro

2013-07-01

416

Radiologic evaluation of an unusually sized complex odontoma involving the maxillary sinus by cone beam computed tomography.  

PubMed

As a group, odontomas are the most common odontogenic neoplasms. This case report illustrates the benefits of cone beam computed tomography, in terms of treatment planning and surgical technique, to localize a large maxillary odontoma and accurately establish its relationship with the maxillary sinus and molar. PMID:19626225

Isler, Sabri Cemil; Demircan, Sabit; Soluk, Merva; Cebi, Zerrin

2009-01-01

417

Maxillary Arch Dimensions and Spectral Characteristics of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate Who Produce Middorsum Palatal Stops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine maxillary arch dimensions of children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP) who produced middorsum palatal stops and (b) to describe some spectral characteristics of middorsum palatal stops. Method: Maxillary arch width, length, and height dimensions and first spectral moments of…

Zajac, David J.; Cevidanes, Lucia; Shah, Sonam; Haley, Katarina L.

2012-01-01

418

CAD–CAM prosthetically guided bone regeneration using preformed titanium mesh for the reconstruction of atrophic maxillary arches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protocol presented here is intended to minimise the intervention in bone reconstruction surgery when severe atrophy or deformity is present in the maxillary arches. A patient underwent augmentation of an atrophic maxillary arch using titanium mesh and particulate autogenous plus bovine demineralised bone. After computed tomography data elaboration, computer-aided design and computer-aided machining were used to plan the augmentation

L. Ciocca; M. Fantini; F. De Crescenzio; G. Corinaldesi; R. Scotti

2011-01-01

419

A case report of maxillary second molar with two palatal root canals and a furcal enamel pearl.  

PubMed

This case report presents an uncommon case of maxillary molar with two palatal root canals and an enamel pearl in the furcation area. The article discusses root canal complexities of maxillary second molars as well as possibility of coexisting anomalies in the region that makes radiographic interpretation difficult and compromises the success of endodontic treatment. PMID:23411467

Shojaeian, Shiva; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Hajian, Sara

2013-01-01

420

Cirugía preprotésica e implantológica en pacientes con atrofia maxilar severa Preprosthetic and implantological surgery in patients with severe maxillary atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims. To evaluate the success of the osseointegration of dental implants in patients with severe maxillary atrophy after sinus lift augmentation and onlay graft surgery with autologous bone grafts. Design. A descriptive and analytic study of 27 patients with severe maxillary atrophy and partial or total edentulism, after 4 years follow-up. All cases underwent to autologous bone graft sinus lift

Cirujano Adjunto

421

Biomechanical evaluation of maxillary Lefort ? fracture with bioabsorbable osteosynthesis internal fixation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to apply biomechanical analysis model to evaluate the effects of bioabsorbable internal fixation devices on maxillary Lefort ? fracture. CT scan technology and the finite element software (ansys) were used to establish three-dimensional finite element models of five resorbable internal fixation devices in maxillary Lefort ? fractures. We used the model to calculate the stress of the upper jaw and internal fixation. We further analyzed the stability of fixation under four occlusions. The fixation using two bioabsorbable plates was not stable. The zygomaticomaxillary pillars fixation is more stable than other fixations. The stability of fracture fixation was influenced with the molar occlusion. The current study developed a functional three-dimensional finite element model of bioabsorbable internal fixation and compared the stability of five fixation methods for maxillary Lefort ? fractures. The results would facilitate the application of bioabsorbable materials in dental clinic. PMID:25146129

Wu, Wei; Zhou, Jiang; Xu, Chong-Tao; Zhang, Jie; Jin, Yan-Jiao; Sun, Geng-Lin

2014-12-01

422

Primary Hydatid Cyst of the Right Maxillary Sinus: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A hydatid cyst of the head and neck is a very rare condition, even in areas where Echinococcus infestation is endemic. Case Report: We report a rare case of primary hydatid cyst of the right maxillary sinus in a 40-year-old man. The initial diagnosis of the presence of a cystic mass was the result of physical examination and computed tomography (CT) scan. We resected the cystic mass using the Caldwell-Luc procedure. A definitive diagnosis was confirmed by postoperative histopathologic examination. Conclusion: Hydatid cyst of the maxillary sinus is an extremely rare presentation. However, this condition should be considered in differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the maxillary sinus. PMID:25320704

Lotfi, Ali Reza; Zarrintan, Sina; Naderpour, Masoud; Sokhandan, Mohammad; Fakhrjou, Ashraf; Bayat, Amrollah; Salehpour, Firouz; Djalilian, Hamid

2014-01-01

423

Concomitant solitary median maxillary central incisor and fused right mandibular incisor in primary dentition  

PubMed Central

Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a unique developmental anomaly in primary dentition. It involves central incisor tooth germs and may or may not be associated with other anomalies. Its presence, concomitant with fusion of right mandibular incisors has not previously been reported. A 5-year-old girl was presented with a single symmetrical primary maxillary incisor at the midline, with the absence of labial frenulum, an indistinct philtrum and a prominent midpalatal ridge. There was an associated fused tooth in the right incisor region and radiographic examination confirmed only one maxillary central incisor in both the dentitions. Family history revealed that the father of the girl also had a similar anomaly providing probable evidence of etiological role for heredity in SMMCI. PMID:23230364

Shilpa, G.; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Gokhale, Niraj; Yamini, V.

2012-01-01

424

Prosthetic rehabilitation of acquired maxillary defects secondary to mucormycosis: clinical cases.  

PubMed

Maxillary necrosis can occur due to bacterial infections such as osteomyelitis, viral infections, such as herpes zoster or fungal infections, such as mucormycosis, aspergillosis etc. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection, which mainly infects immunocompromised patients. Once the maxilla is involved, surgical resection and debridement of the necrosed areas can result in extensive maxillary defects. The clinician is to face many a challenge in order to replace not only the missing teeth, but also the lost soft tissues and bone, including hard palate and alveolar ridges. The prosthesis (Obturator) lacks a bony base and the lost structures of the posterior palatal seal area compromise retention of the prosthesis. Furthermore, the post surgical soft tissues are scarred and tense, which exert strong dislodging forces. The present article describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of maxillary necrosis secondary to mucormycosis in two cases, one completely edentulous and the other partially edentulous. PMID:25095851

Shah, Rupal J; Katyayan, Manish Khan; Katyayan, Preeti Agarwal; Chauhan, Vishal

2014-01-01

425

Maxillary sinus perforation with presence of an antral pseudocyst, repaired with platelet rich fibrin  

PubMed Central

The maxillary sinus lifting procedure is an important preprosthetic surgical procedure for the creation of adequate bone volume in the edentulous posterior maxilla for the placement of dental implants. The presence of a maxillary sinus cyst has been considered a contraindication for this operation. Perforation of the membrane and hence the elongation of the healing time for implant placement is the most common complication in this type of procedure. The purpose of the case is to show the safely repair of the large sinus perforation during the sinus lifting with presence of the antral pseudocyst. In this case, we present a patient who had a maxillary sinus lifting procedure in the presence of antral pseudocysts. No complications were seen during follow-up periods and all implants are functioning successfully. Platelet-rich fibrin may be used safely when large perforation occurs during the sinus lifting with the presence of an antral pseudocyst. PMID:25593876

Baykul, Timuçin; F?nd?k, Yavuz

2014-01-01

426

Maxillary sinus perforation with presence of an antral pseudocyst, repaired with platelet rich fibrin.  

PubMed

The maxillary sinus lifting procedure is an important preprosthetic surgical procedure for the creation of adequate bone volume in the edentulous posterior maxilla for the placement of dental implants. The presence of a maxillary sinus cyst has been considered a contraindication for this operation. Perforation of the membrane and hence the elongation of the healing time for implant placement is the most common complication in this type of procedure. The purpose of the case is to show the safely repair of the large sinus perforation during the sinus lifting with presence of the antral pseudocyst. In this case, we present a patient who had a maxillary sinus lifting procedure in the presence of antral pseudocysts. No complications were seen during follow-up periods and all implants are functioning successfully. Platelet-rich fibrin may be used safely when large perforation occurs during the sinus lifting with the presence of an antral pseudocyst. PMID:25593876

Baykul, Timuçin; F?nd?k, Yavuz

2014-01-01

427

Life cycle of the fish parasite Gnathia maxillaris (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidae).  

PubMed

The taxonomic classification of some parasitic isopods of the family Gnathiidae has been revised in the last years. However, their biological cycles have been described only partially or incompletely. Gnathia maxillaris (Montagu, 1804) is one of the most studied species, but certain aspects of its life cycle are still poorly known. A detailed study on the life cycle of G. maxillaris was carried out over several years by sampling larvae from an infestation of large volume aquaria at the Aquarium of Barcelona. At the same time, a system of in vitro cultivation of G. maxillaris was developed, which provided new data to complete the description of its life cycle. Periods of incubation, fertilization, planktonic stages, the attachment site on the fish host and biometric characteristics of larval forms were detailed. The new information may help better control health state of marine fish in aquaculture. PMID:25065135

Hispano, Coral; Bultó, Patrici; Blanch, Anicet R

2014-06-01

428

Young driver distraction: state of the evidence and directions for behavior change programs.  

PubMed

Adolescent drivers are overrepresented in distraction-related motor vehicle crashes. A number of potential reasons for such an elevated risk include driving inexperience, high adoption of communication technology, increased peer involvement, and tendency to take risks, which render young drivers particularly vulnerable. Major legislative efforts in Graduated Licensing Systems that include passenger restrictions have shown positive effects. Restrictions on cell phone use are also being introduced; however, it is challenging to enforce such regulations. This article argues that such contextual, legislative interventions are an essential prevention strategy, but there is an unfilled need to introduce behavior change programs that may target adolescents, parents, and friends. A theoretical framework is applied in which risk and protective factors are identified from research within the contexts of community and jurisdiction. In the literature on distraction, social context and normative influences are key elements used to inform program design for adolescent drivers, with parental monitoring informing interventions targeting parents. Following from this assessment of the message content assessment, the design of strategies to deliver the messages is reviewed. In the current literature, school-based programs, simulations, and Web-delivered programs have been evaluated with supplementary strategies delivered by physicians and parents. Such developments are still at an early stage of development, and ultimately will need controlled implementation and evaluation studies. Of course, there is no likely single approach to prevent adolescent driver distraction. Complementary approaches such as the further development of technological interventions to manage phone use are needed. PMID:24759436

Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L; Sheehan, Mary

2014-05-01

429

Cockpit Interruptions and Distractions: An Analysis of ASRS Reports and an Experimental Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent detailed analysis of 107 ASRS incident reports focusing on interruptions and distractions as their primary feature revealed several interesting and surprising findings. Of those tasks that were interfered with, over 40% fell within the category of monitoring; for example, monitoring the autopilot flying the aircraft, monitoring the pilot flying, or monitoring the altimeter or navigation instruments for future action. Surprisingly, over 60% of the tasks that were considered distractions fell under the broad category of communication or conversation. Using these findings, we have developed an experimental paradigm that will help us understand the method by which pilots perform certain monitoring tasks. Specifically, we hope to determine the degree to which pilots rely on internal time mechanisms versus external cues as a means of successfully completing a monitoring task. In addition, we will incorporate a battery of competing aviation type tasks, including communication, to see how these tasks affect the process of monitoring. The long range goal of this research is to find operational solutions that facilitate effective monitoring in the presence of both sudden interruptions and distractions that lead to unintended multiple tasks situations.

Dismukes, R. K.; Young, Grant E.; Connors, Mary (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

430

In vivo study of human mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Part II: Determination of callus mechanical properties.  

PubMed

Distraction Osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical technique used to reconstruct bone defects. To improve the current treatment protocols, the knowledge of the mechanical properties of the bone regenerate is of major interest. The aim of this study, constituting the second part of our paper previously published in Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics, was to identify the elastic and viscous properties of bone callus. This is done in the case of a mandibular DO by analyzing the experimental measurements of the forces imposed on bone regenerate by a distraction device. The bone transport forces were evaluated thanks to strain gauges glued on the distraction device. A rheological model describing the callus constitutive behavior was developed and the material constants involved were identified. The time-dependent character of the bone regenerate mechanical behavior was confirmed. The viscous response of the mesenchymal tissue was described by two characteristic times. The first one describing the viscoelastic callus behavior was estimated to be 140 seconds and the second one representing the permanent bone callus lengthening was evaluated to be 5646 seconds. An average value of 0.35 MPa for the regenerate Young's modulus was deduced. The elastic properties of mesenchymal tissue found are in agreement with the rare data available in the literature. PMID:23957392

Bonnet, Anne-Sophie; Dubois, Guillaume; Lipinski, Paul; Schouman, Thomas

2013-01-01

431

Distraction arthroplasty with arthroscopic microfracture in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis of the ankle joint.  

PubMed

We treated a 39-year-old female who had experienced destruction of her ankle joint owing to rheumatoid arthritis. This relatively young patient wished to avoid ankle fusion and joint replacement. Therefore, distraction arthroplasty with arthroscopic microfracture was performed to improve her symptoms and preserve motion. A microfracture procedure specifically for cartilage defects of the tibial plafond and talar dome was performed with the arthroscope, after which a hinged external fixator was applied to distract the ankle joint. The ankle joint space was enlarged by the external device and joint movement allowed. After 3 months, removal of the external device and repeat arthroscopy revealed newly formed fibrocartilage on the surfaces of both the tibia and the talus. At 2 years after the surgery, a radiograph showed that the joint space enlargement of the ankle had been maintained. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved from 37 points preoperatively to 82 points at 2 years postoperatively. Our findings suggest that good clinical results can be achieved with distraction arthroplasty and arthroscopic microfracture in a relatively young patient with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25619810

Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Adachi, Nobuo; Kato, Tomohiro; Ochi, Mitsuo

2015-01-01

432

Increased gamma oscillations evoked by physically salient distracters are associated with schizotypy.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in aberrant salience as a precursor of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. The present study investigates the neurophysiology of attentional capture by salient stimuli in the visual modality. Evoked oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range (40 Hz) was assessed during visual processing of physically salient distracters and evaluated in relation to schizotypy and its positive, negative and disorganized dimension. The early evoked visual gamma-band response (GBR) was assessed for 24 healthy participants using EEG time-frequency analysis. Physical salience was constituted by colored stimuli diverting from an ongoing baseline condition. schizotypal personality traits were measured by the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ; Raine in Schizophr Bull 17:555-564, 1991). The early evoked visual GBR was significantly pronounced in the physically salient distracter condition. GBR signal power was significantly correlated with positive schizotypal personality traits (r = 0.588; p = 0.024*). Our results indicate that the early evoked GBR in visual processing of physically salient distracters is associated with schizotypy. These findings refer to the phenomenology of aberrant salience by bridging the gap to neurophysiological research on early sensory selection and attentional capture in the schizophrenia spectrum. PMID:25421170

Kornmayer, Laura; Leicht, Gregor; Mulert, Christoph

2015-01-01

433

Effects of a Visual Distracter Task on the Gait of Elderly versus Young Persons  

PubMed Central

Seniors show deficits of dual-task walking when the second task has high visual-processing requirements. Here, we evaluate whether similar deficits emerge when the second task is discrete rather than continuous, as is often the case in everyday life. Subjects walked in a hallway, while foot proprioception was either perturbed by vibration or unperturbed. At unpredictable intervals, they were prompted to turn their head and perform a mental-rotation task. We found that locomotion of young subjects was not affected by this distracter task with or without vibration. In contrast, seniors moved their legs after the distraction at a slower pace through smaller angles and with a higher spatiotemporal variability; the magnitude of these changes was vibration independent. We conclude that the visual distracter task degraded the gait of elderly subjects but completely spared young ones, that this effect is not due to degraded proprioception, and that it rather might reflect the known decline of executive functions in the elderly. PMID:21765827

Bock, Otmar; Beurskens, Rainer

2011-01-01

434

The impact of intraoperative saline irrigations on bacterial load within the maxillary sinus  

PubMed Central

Background Saline irrigations are routinely employed during endoscopic sinus surgery to remove mucous and debris from the sinus cavities. What is unknown is whether this results in a quantitative reduction in pathologic bacteria within the sinus mucosa. The objectives of this study were to quantify the amount of 5 different bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), and Streptococcus pneumoniae) within the maxillary sinus and to determine the impact of saline irrigations on bacterial counts. Methods Twenty patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were prospectively enrolled. After bilateral maxillary antrostomies, biopsies were taken of the maxillary sinus mucosa prior to any irrigation. In each patient, the left maxillary sinus was then irrigated with 250 cc of normal saline (NS) with a pressurized pulse-irrigation device and the right side was irrigated with 250 cc of NS using a 30-cc syringe attached to a curved suction tip. Repeat maxillary sinus mucosal biopsies were then taken from each side. Each biopsy was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence and amount of each of the bacteria. Results Saline irrigations were found to significantly reduce the amount of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and S. pneumoniae found within the maxillary sinus mucosa. No difference was found for H. influenzae or CNS. No difference in bacterial load reduction was able to be shown between the pressurized saline flushes and manual saline rinse methods. Conclusion Intraoperative saline irrigations are able to significantly reduce the amount of potentially pathogenic bacteria within the diseased sinus mucosa. PMID:22287465

Seiberling, Kristin A.; McHugh, Richard K.; Aruni, Wilson; Church, Christopher A.

2015-01-01

435

Divergent requirements for fibroblast growth factor signaling in zebrafish maxillary barbel and caudal fin regeneration.  

PubMed

The zebrafish maxillary barbel is an integumentary organ containing skin, glands, pigment cells, taste buds, nerves, and endothelial vessels. The maxillary barbel can regenerate (LeClair & Topczewski 2010); however, little is known about its molecular regulation. We have studied fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway molecules during barbel regeneration, comparing this system to a well-known regenerating appendage, the zebrafish caudal fin. Multiple FGF ligands (fgf20a, fgf24), receptors (fgfr1-4) and downstream targets (pea3, il17d) are expressed in normal and regenerating barbel tissue, confirming FGF activation. To test if specific FGF pathways were required for barbel regeneration, we performed simultaneous barbel and caudal fin amputations in two temperature-dependent zebrafish lines. Zebrafish homozygous for a point mutation in fgf20a, a factor essential for caudal fin blastema formation, regrew maxillary barbels normally, indicating that the requirement for this ligand is appendage-specific. Global overexpression of a dominant negative FGF receptor, Tg(hsp70l:dn-fgfr1:EGFP)(pd1) completely blocked fin outgrowth but only partially inhibited barbel outgrowth, suggesting reduced requirements for FGFs in barbel tissue. Maxillary barbels expressing dn-fgfr1 regenerated peripheral nerves, dermal connective tissue, endothelial tubes, and a glandular epithelium; in contrast to a recent report in which dn-fgfr1 overexpression blocks pharyngeal taste bud formation in zebrafish larvae (Kapsimali et al. 2011), we observed robust formation of calretinin-positive tastebuds. These are the first experiments to explore the molecular mechanisms of maxillary barbel regeneration. Our results suggest heterogeneous requirements for FGF signaling in the regeneration of different zebrafish appendages (caudal fin versus maxillary barbel) and taste buds of different embryonic origin (pharyngeal endoderm versus barbel ectoderm). PMID:23350700

Duszynski, Robert J; Topczewski, Jacek; LeClair, Elizabeth E

2013-02-01

436

Case Study: Videogame Distraction Reduces Behavioral Distress in a Preschool-Aged Child Undergoing Repeated Burn Dressing Changes: A Single-Subject Design  

PubMed Central

Objective?This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes.?Method?A 4-year-old girl underwent 3 baseline and 10 videogame distraction sessions (5 passive and 5 interactive) using a restricted alternating treatments design. Observed behavioral distress was coded, and parents and nurses rated the child’s distress and cooperative behavior.?Results?Relative to baseline, behavioral distress decreased and cooperative behavior increased immediately after the onset of videogame distraction. Single Case Randomization Tests revealed significantly lower behavioral distress and greater cooperation during interactive videogame distraction relative to passive videogame distraction.?Conclusions?Interactive videogame distraction appears to be a feasible and effective pain management strategy for a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated painful medical procedures. PMID:23248343

Sil, Soumitri; Burns, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

437

What is a segment?  

PubMed Central

Animals have been described as segmented for more than 2,000 years, yet a precise definition of segmentation remains elusive. Here we give the history of the definition of segmentation, followed by a discussion on current controversies in defining a segment. While there is a general consensus that segmentation involves the repetition of units along the anterior-posterior (a-p) axis, long-running debates exist over whether a segment can be composed of only one tissue layer, whether the most anterior region of the arthropod head is considered segmented, and whether and how the vertebrate head is segmented. Additionally, we discuss whether a segment can be composed of a single cell in a column of cells, or a single row of cells within a grid of cells. We suggest that ‘segmentation’ be used in its more general sense, the repetition of units with a-p polarity along the a-p axis, to prevent artificial classification of animals. We further suggest that this general definition be combined with an exact description of what is being studied, as well as a clearly stated hypothesis concerning the specific nature of the potential homology of structures. These suggestions should facilitate dialogue among scientists who study vastly differing segmental structures. PMID:24345042

2013-01-01

438

Surgical correction of excessive gingival display in class I vertical maxillary excess: Mucosal strip technique  

PubMed Central

There are several conditions that results in excessive gingival display. In case of class I vertical maxillary excess the reason for this excessive display is the hypermobile lip. Though orthodontic treatment is the choice of treatment, surgical repositioning along with the orthodontics gives more predictable and stable results. This case report discusses cosmetic surgical management of case with class I vertical maxillary excess with excessive gingival display. The technique involves removal of strip of mucosal tissue from the labial vestibule thereby limiting the retraction of elevator muscles. PMID:25097447

Jananni, M.; Sivaramakrishnan, M.; Libby, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

439

Giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the maxillary sinus and zygoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), formally known as odontogenic keratocysts, are benign developmental tumors that are found primarily in the mandibular molar region and ascending ramus. The disease is characterized by aggressive growth and a high recurrence rate following surgical treatment. The present study reports the rare case of a 25-year-old male with a giant KCOT involving the right zygoma, maxillary bone and maxillary sinus. The tumor was removed using a modified treatment of enucleation, grinding and cryotherapy. Recurrence has not been observed within the eight-month follow-up period. The present study discusses the clinical features and surgical management of this case. PMID:25364448

ZHOU, JIANHUA; WANG, LILI; CHEN, ZHENGGANG; QIU, JIANZHONG; DONG, QUANJIANG

2014-01-01

440

Hemangioma of the Maxillary Sinus Presenting as a Mass: CT and MR Features  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas of the sinonasal tract are rare, and because these lesions lack the typical signs or symptoms, they can be confused with other malignant conditions. We report a case of cavernous hemangioma of the maxillary sinus in a 68-year-old man that was completely resected by endoscopic sinus surgery. Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed several enhancing areas within the tumor, the substantial bone erosion and remodeling made it difficult to differentiate this cavernous hemangioma from other expansile maxillary sinus lesions. We present the CT and MR findings of this lesion and discuss the differential diagnoses and potential therapeutic approaches. PMID:25901262

Jung, Won Sang; Yoo, Chang Young; Park, Yong-Jin; Ihn, Yon Kwon

2015-01-01