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1

Segmental maxillary distraction with a novel device for closure of a wide alveolar cleft  

PubMed Central

Treatment of a wide alveolar cleft with initial application of segmental distraction osteogenesis is reported, in order to minimise cleft size prior to secondary alveolar bone grafting. The lesser maxillary segment was mobilised with osteotomy at Le Fort I level and, a novel distractor, facilitated horizontal movement of the dental/alveolar segment along the curvature of the maxillary dental arch. Following a latency period of 4 days distraction was applied for 7 days at a rate of 0.5 mm twice daily. Radiographic, ultrasonographic and clinical assessment revealed new bone and soft tissue formation 8 weeks after completion of the distraction phase. Overall the maxillary segment did move minimising the width of the cleft, which allowed successful closure with a secondary alveolar bone graft. PMID:24987601

Bousdras, Vasilios A.; Liyanage, Chandra; Mars, Michael; Ayliffe, Peter R

2014-01-01

2

Breakage of internal maxillary distractor: considerable complication of maxillary distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Maxillary distraction osteogenesis using intraoral distractors is now one of the standard treatments of maxillary retrusion. This report shows 2 cases of breakage of this internal maxillary distractor in patients with cleft lip and palate; one was observed during the distraction period and the other was during the retention period. The first case required a rotational movement of the distraction segment, and this movement caused the laterally dislocation of the posterior part of the distractor, where the distractor suffered some mechanical forces by mouth opening. In the latter case, breakage of distractor was observed on the radiographs taken 3 months after distraction and this complication may have been caused by mechanical force by occlusion and mastication. Both breakages were found at the joint of the anchorage plate and the extension rod, which has some flexibility for adjusting the plate to the bone surface. Therefore, surgeons should pay special attention for this mechanical weak area in this distractor not only during the advancement period, but also during the retention period and should avoid unnecessary frequent bending for adopting the bone surface, which directly weakens the joint. PMID:18585604

Aikawa, Tomonao; Iida, Seiji; Isomura, Emiko T; Namikawa, Mari; Matsuoka, Yudai; Yamada, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Taku; Takigawa, Yoko

2008-07-01

3

Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis in the Hypoplastic Cleft Maxilla  

PubMed Central

Orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis play a prime role in the correction of maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Advancement of the anterior maxilla alone without interfering with the velopharyngeal sphincter may be advantageous in cleft patients, who more commonly have speech deficits and dental crowding. We present a case series of anterior maxillary segmental distraction for maxillary hypoplasia in 5 CLP patients with a one-year follow-up. A custom-made tooth-borne distraction device with a hyrax screw positioned anteroposteriorly was used. The evaluation comprised of hard and soft tissue analysis and speech assessment. A stable occlusion with positive overjet and correction of dental-crowding without extraction was achieved at one year post-distraction. Facial profile and lip support improved. There was no deterioration in speech. PMID:23984033

Rao (Janardhan), Sruthi; Kotrashetti, S. M.; Lingaraj, J. B.; Pinto, P. X.; Keluskar, K. M.; Jain, Siddharth; Sone, Piyush; Rao, Santhosh

2013-01-01

4

Removable splint with locking attachments for maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the RED system.  

PubMed

The external traction hooks of the intraoral splint used to control traction forces applied to the maxilla with the rigid external distraction system represent a major barrier to surgical procedures. The purpose of this article is to introduce a removable intraoral splint with locking attachments that can be placed post-surgically immediately before distraction, facilitating surgery and consequently reducing the operative time. Fifteen cleft lip and palate patients underwent maxillary distraction osteogenesis using a rigid external distraction device in combination with the proposed removable splint that was fixed onto the maxillary teeth to provide anchorage. Initial records showed severe maxillary hypoplasia and negative overjet. The removable splint was fabricated using 1.5-mm diameter stainless-steel rigid orthodontic wires soldered to the locking attachments (Y&B Products LP, Chiang Mai, Thailand), making possible its placement post-surgically. Stable splint fixation was achieved prior to the distraction procedure and the desired treatment goals were reached. No complications inserting or removing the splint post-surgically, including pain or discomfort, were observed. The use of the removable splint with locking attachments has proved to be a highly effective fixation approach to manage the severely hypoplastic maxilla, eliminating lip constraints resulting from scarring, and allowing for easier, more deliberate and careful dissection. PMID:17629458

Suzuki, E Y; Suzuki, B

2007-12-01

5

Three-dimensional evaluation of nasal and pharyngeal airway after Le Fort I maxillary distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate volumetric changes in the nasal cavity (NC) and pharyngeal airway space (PAS) after Le Fort I maxillary distraction osteogenesis (MDO) using a three-dimensional (3D) simulation program, and to determine the effects of MDO on respiratory function during sleep with polysomnography (PSG). 3D computed tomography images were obtained and analyzed before surgery (T0) and at a mean 8.2±1.2 months postsurgery (T1) (SimPlant-OMS software) for 11 male patients (mean age 25.3±5.9 years) with severe skeletal class III anomalies related to maxillary retrognathia. The simulation of osteotomies and placement of distractors were performed on stereolithographic 3D models. NC and PAS were segmented separately on these models for comparison of changes between T0 and T1. PSG including the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), sleep efficiency, sleep stages (weakness, stages 1-4, and rapid eye movement (REM)), and mean lowest arterial O2 saturation were obtained at T0 and T1 to investigate changes in respiratory function during sleep. MDO was successful in all cases as planned on the models; the average forward movement at A point was 10.2mm. Increases in NC and PAS volume after MDO were statistically significant. These increases resulted in significant improvement in sleep quality. PSG parameters changed after MDO; AHI and sleep stages weakness, 1, and 2 decreased, whereas REM, stages 3 and 4, sleep efficiency, and mean O2 saturation increased. PMID:25475850

Gokce, S M; Gorgulu, S; Karacayli, U; Gokce, H S; Battal, B

2014-12-01

6

Biomechanical comparison of two intraoperative mobilization techniques for maxillary distraction osteogenesis: Down-fracture versus non-down-fracture  

PubMed Central

Purposes: The purpose of this study was to compare the distraction forces and the biomechanical effects between two different intraoperative surgical procedures (down-fracture [DF] and non-DF [NDF]) for maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Materials and Methods: Eight patients were assigned into two groups according to the surgical procedure: DF, n = 6 versus NDF, n = 2. Lateral cephalograms taken preoperatively (T1), immediately after removal of the distraction device (T2), and after at least a 6 months follow-up period (T3) were analyzed. Assessment of distraction forces was performed during the distraction period. The Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare the difference in the amount of advancement, the maximum distraction force and the amount of relapse. Results: Although a significantly greater amount of maxillary movement was observed in the DF group (median 9.5 mm; minimum-maximum 7.9-14.1 mm) than in the NDF group (median 5.9 mm; minimum-maximum 4.4-7.6 mm), significantly lower maximum distraction forces were observed in the DF (median 16.4 N; minimum-maximum 15.1-24.6 N) than in the NDF (median 32.9 N; minimum-maximum 27.6-38.2 N) group. A significantly greater amount of dental anchorage loss was observed in the NDF group. Moreover, the amount of relapse observed in the NDF group was approximately 3.5 times greater than in the DF group. Conclusions: In this study, it seemed that, the use of the NDF procedure resulted in lower levels of maxillary mobility at the time of the maxillary distraction, consequently requiring greater amounts of force to advance the maxillary bone. Moreover, it also resulted in a reduced amount of maxillary movement, a greater amount of dental anchorage loss and poor treatment stability.

Yang, Lili; Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Suzuki, Boonsiva

2014-01-01

7

Orthodontic considerations for maxillary distraction osteogenesis in growing patients with cleft lip and palate using internal distractors.  

PubMed

The orthodontist plays a key role in the selection of the optimal treatment for patients followed by a craniofacial team. For patients with cleft lip and palate, the need for multidisciplinary treatment planning and sequentially staged treatment is essential for successful patient outcomes. The technique of Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla using an internal device is potentially a predictable, stable, and convenient option for the correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia. It is an alternative option for treatment of maxillary hypoplasia in growing patients. In this article, the authors describe the orthodontist's approach to the management of cleft patients with severe maxillary deficiency with the use of an internal distraction device. The information is presented with a focus on the clinical aspects of treatment, using case illustrations and appropriate literature. PMID:25383056

Silveira, Adriana da; Moura, Pollyana Marques de; Harshbarger, Raymond J

2014-11-01

8

Bone-anchored maxillary expansion and bilateral interoral mandibular distraction osteogenesis in adult with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

Severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) threatens patients' lives. To solve ventilation problem, snoring, and avoid another orthognathic surgery for mandibular advancement, bone-anchored rapid maxillary expansion and bilateral interoral mandibular distraction osteogenesis were tried on a 20-year-old Chinese male patient with severe skeletal class II malocclusion and OSAS.The patient had polysomnography (apnea-hypopnea index 54.2), body mass index measurement (19.7 kg/m), and cephalometry before the treatment. Bone-anchored rapid maxillary expansion was performed for the correction of maxillary transverse and minor sagittal deficiency and the improvement of nasal airflow by decreasing nasal resistance. Bilateral interoral mandibular distraction osteogenesis was operated to lengthen the small, retruded mandible by 15 mm. Orthodontic treatment after the maxillary expansion and mandibular distraction osteogenesis can help obtain stable occlusion.The Epworth Sleepiness Scale, a questionnaire for temporomandibular joint, cephalometric analysis, polysomnography, acoustic rhinometry, and multislice spiral computed tomography were performed to evaluate changes from the treatment. All the results showed that the patient had a significantly alleviated OSAS. In addition, an acceptable occlusion was also obtained. PMID:23714918

Nie, Ping; Zhu, Min; Lu, Xiao-Feng; Fang, Bing

2013-05-01

9

Orthodontic treatment of an ankylosed maxillary central incisor through osteogenic distraction.  

PubMed

Tooth ankylosis is one of the various problems in dentistry and requires special treatment approaches for satisfactory results. In the orthodontic treatment of an ankylosed tooth, different treatment modalities have been put into practice including both orthodontic and orthodontic-surgical approaches. For favorable results, gingival margin esthetics must be considered as much as leveling the ankylosed tooth in the arch. Distraction osteogenesis accompanied by orthodontic mechanics is a sensible way of achieving this goal. However, devices used in the distraction protocol are high in price and bulky in shape, causing functional and esthetic problems for the patient. This report describes treatment of an infrapositioned ankylosed incisor with continuous distraction forces produced by conventional orthodontic mechanics. In conclusion, the ankylosed tooth was leveled in the upper arch successfully with a harmonic gingival margin. PMID:19905868

Dolanmaz, Do?an; Karaman, Ali Ihya; Pampu, A Alper; Topkara, Ahu

2010-03-01

10

Backward distraction osteogenesis of condylar segment in patient with mandibular ramus deficiency--report of a case.  

PubMed

A backward distraction osteogenesis (BDO) of the condylar segment for treatment of mandibular ramus deficiency was developed. This report describes the clinical progress of a patient with mandibular ramus deficiency in whom satisfactory occlusion was achieved and maintained by gradual posterosuperior repositioning of the displaced condyles into the glenoid fossae during intermaxillary fixation. Findings of pre- and postoperative clinical and magnetic resonance imaging indicate that the effect of BDO on the temporomandibular joint was negligible. PMID:15243466

Hamada, Yoshiki; Kondoh, Toshirou; Ogawa, Takumi; Nakajima, Toshifumi; Sekiya, Hideki; Seto, Kanichi

2004-07-01

11

Stability after maxillary segmentation for correction of anterior open bite: a cohort study of 33 cases.  

PubMed

The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the stability after multi-segmentation of the maxilla for correction of anterior open bite deformities. A total of 33 patients who underwent segmented maxillary osteotomy between 1994 and 2006 were included in the study. Rigid fixation with plates and postsurgical intermaxillary fixation for 6 weeks was applied to each patient. All patients were then followed in a standardized examination procedure at months 6, 12, 18 and up to 30 months postoperatively. Vertical and horizontal relation of the incisors was measured both clinically and on cast models. The main finding was that statistically significant relapse was found vertically, whereas the horizontal relationship to the mandible was unchanged. The vertical relapses were predominantly seen in patients with severe open bite evident preoperatively. PMID:23321050

Silva, Ingrid; Suska, Felicia; Cardemil, Carina; Rasmusson, Lars

2013-10-01

12

Numerical Simulation of Functional Evaluation for Implant-Supported Complete Maxillary Denture with an Efficient CT Image Segmentation and Mesh Creation Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study aims to create twelve numerical models of implant-supported attachment-retained complete maxillary dentures by an efficient CT image segmentation and mesh creation technique, as well as evaluate mechanical characteristics of Model 1. Methods: Masks were first created after identifying regions of interest on CT scan images of maxillary prosthesis, then integrated with CAD models of implant, and finally

Lulu Gong; Xiaomei Li; Zuquan Ding

2010-01-01

13

Adult patient with hemifacial microsomia treated with combined orthodontics and distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis is an alternative treatment option for patients with facial asymmetry and mandibular hypoplasia. New bone is formed between bone segment surfaces that are gradually separated by incremental traction. The purpose of this article is to report the treatment of a 22-year-old man with hemifacial microsomia, facial asymmetry, and a skeletal Class II profile. The patient's left mandibular ramus was lengthened with distraction osteogenesis, and miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion was used to correct the maxillary transverse deficiency. Postoperative orthodontic treatment achieved tooth alignment and closure of the posterior open bite. The total treatment period was 27 months. These therapeutic treatments improved the patient's facial appearance. PMID:24373657

Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Da-Young; Hwang, Chung-Ju

2014-01-01

14

Ankylosed maxillary incisor with severe root resorption treated with a single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy, vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis, and mini-implant anchorage.  

PubMed

Dentoalveolar ankylosis interferes with the vertical growth of the alveolar process, which can lead to an open bite, an unesthetic smile, and occlusal disharmony. This case report presents a new treatment protocol for an ankylosed tooth with severe root resorption using a combined surgical orthodontic management protocol involving a single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy and vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis with intraoral elastics and mini-implant anchorage. After distraction and active orthodontic treatment, the patient's anterior open bite was corrected. A Class I dental relationship was achieved, overjet was decreased, and a normal incisor relationship was obtained. PMID:25172260

Sen???k, Neslihan Ebru; Koçer, Gülperi; Kaya, Bulem Üreyen

2014-09-01

15

Adjacent segment degeneration after single-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion: Disc space distraction and its impact on clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to find whether excessive distraction of the disc space for cage insertion was a risk factor for adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). One hundred and sixteen consecutive patients who underwent ACDF for single-level cervical disc herniation between June 2006 and November 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative, postoperative and final follow-up disc height (DH), sagittal segmental alignment (SSA), and sagittal alignment of the cervical spine (SACS) were measured and compared between the ASD group and non-ASD group. In 116 patients, ASD was radiographically proven in 28 (24.1%) patients. The clinical outcomes were significantly improved compared to the preoperative scores in both groups. However, the postoperative and final follow-up DH of the ASD group were significantly higher than in the non-ASD group (p<0.05). In addition, the postoperative DH was significantly correlated with the postoperative or final follow-up SSA (p<0.05). However, postoperative DH was not found to significantly correlate with postoperative or final follow-up SACS (p=0.072 and p=0.096, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that postoperative DH was the most significant risk factor for ASD. The clinical outcomes of ACDF for single-level degenerative cervical disc disease were satisfactory. Postoperative DH (the distracted distance) had the greatest impact on the incidence of ASD. Excessive disc space distraction is a considerable risk factor for the development of radiographic ASD. PMID:25487176

Li, Jia; Li, Yongqian; Kong, Fanlong; Zhang, Di; Zhang, Yingze; Shen, Yong

2014-12-01

16

Stability of the Anterior Maxillary Segment and Teeth after Segmental Le Fort I Osteotomy and Postoperative Skeletal Elastic Fixation With or Without Occlusal Splint  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives To assess the short term dental and skeletal stability of the anterior maxillary segment after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy with postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint. Material and Methods 29 consecutive patients underwent segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and elastic skeletal fixation was applied. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether a fixed occlusal splint was used for six weeks (group A) or dismounted perioperatively (group B). Changes in landmarks and reference planes between the two timepoints were estimated on lateral cephalometric radiographs. Results Group A: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.56 mm (SD 0.77; range -2.04 to 1.08 mm) and a mean posterior movement of -0.93 mm (SD 1.03; range -2.52 to 0.96 mm). The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.33° (SD 2.56; range -6° to 4°) (95% CI: -1.75 to 1.08°). Group B: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.13 mm (SD 1.36; range -1.92 to 3.6 mm) and a mean anterior movement of 0.11 mm (SD 1.78; range -2.88 to 3.84 mm). The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.07° (SD 3.05; range -5° to 5°) (95% CI: -1.83 to 1.69°). There was no statistically significant difference in stability between the two groups at the P value 0.05. Conclusions The skeletal anterior fixation with postoperative elastics for eight weeks may not compromise the early postoperative dental and skeletal stability of the anterior segment in segmental Le Fort I osteotomy. PMID:25386231

Jensen, Thomas; Due, Karen Margrethe; Neumann-Jensen, Bjarne

2014-01-01

17

Distracted Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... on Distracted Driving. Washington, DC: US Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2011. Available from: ... Other Electronic Devices. Washington, DC. US Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, 2011. Â Available from: http:// ...

18

Bifocal Distraction to Regenerate Segmental Mandibular Defects Using a Custom Made Device: A Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: Mandibular reconstruction following tumor ablative surgery had been a challenge. It has gone through days of temporary stabilization with k-wire, stainless steel reconstruction plate to avascularized and vascularized bone grafts with varying degree of success and failure. Reconstruction with vascularized bone grafts, though most definitive, requires special expertise, expensive equipment, and long operative time. It also produces donor site morbidity and requires a significant learning curve. With the development of transport distraction techniques there has been a paradigm shift from “reconstructive” to “regenerative” surgery. The objective of this study was to identify the feasibility of an internal device for reconstruction of extensive mandibular defects. Methods and material: This article is to highlight a process of attempted mandibular regeneration in two cases using an indigenously designed distractor device. In individuals with extensive post ablative mandibular defects who were unwilling to have a secondary surgical site or were medically unfit for a long reconstructive procedure, the distraction technique can be used to reconstruct the lost mandibular structures. Conclusion: A satisfactory amount of regenerate was achieved using a bifocal distraction osteogenesis technique for extensive defects of the mandible. The custom made device which was used for this purpose was moderately satisfactory and requires further evaluation and refinement. PMID:22110823

Krishnan, Sriram; Subramaniam, Ramkumar

2010-01-01

19

Distraction Arthroplasty  

MedlinePLUS

... who has ankle arthritis. W hat is the goal of distraction arthroplasty? The major goal of this treatment is healing of damaged tissue ... AOFAS) offers information on this site as an educational service. The content of FootCareMD, including text, images ...

20

Application of interdental distraction osteogenesis to unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis is widely used for the treatment of craniofacial deformities. In patients with cleft lip and palate, distraction osteogenesis can be employed to repair the alveolar cleft. In this report, we describe the management of three cases of unilateral cleft lip and palate by interdental distraction osteogenesis. Interdental distraction osteogenesis of the maxillary bone was performed to reduce the width of the alveolar cleft in these patients in conjunction with orthodontic treatment. Tooth-tooth type distraction devices were fabricated and delivered at the same time as osteotomy. Distraction was continued until the midline of the dentition coincided with the facial midline, and until the width of the alveolar cleft was reduced to the width of lateral incisor or had closed. One month after distraction was complete, orthodontic treatment with an edgewise appliance was initiated, and neighboring teeth were moved into the newly created bone. A favorable treatment outcome was achieved in all three cases. PMID:21701123

Sakamoto, Teruo; Ishii, Takenobu; Mukai, Miya; Ueki, Akinobu; Sueishi, Kenji; Suga, Kenichirou; Nakano, Yoko; Uchiyama, Takeshi

2011-01-01

21

Advancement of mandibular symphysis with distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

This case report demonstrates the effects of mandibular symphysis advancement with distraction osteogenesis (DO) in a 21-year-old man with a Class I molar relationship, protrusive maxillary incisors, crowding in both arches, and increased overjet and overbite. Treatment consisted of maxillary arch leveling, mandibular incisor repositioning through mandibular symphysis advancement with DO, and subsequent mandibular arch leveling. The osteotomy line, between the canine and the first premolar, was extended from the interdental area to the lower border of the mandibular symphysis bilaterally. The distraction device was cemented after mobilization of the mandibular symphysis. The screws were activated (0.8 mm per day) after a latent period of 1 week. The amount of activation per side was 6.4 mm. After an 8-week consolidation period, the distraction appliance was removed. At the end of treatment, increases of SNB angle, effective mandibular length, SN/GoGn, anterior facial height, mandibular incisor inclinations, and labiomental angle were observed. Decreases of ANB angle, overjet, and distance from the lower lip to the esthetic line were noted. Even though this patient's long-term results are not yet available, the results so far are encouraging. Mandibular symphysis advancement with DO seems to be an effective method for correcting mandibular anterior crowding and an increased overjet. PMID:19201331

Turk, Tamer; Cakmak, Fethiye; Sumer, Mahmut

2009-02-01

22

Dento-Alveolar distraction osteogenesis using rigid intra-oral tooth borne distraction device  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this clinical prospective study is to apply and evaluate an approach to reduce the overall orthodontic treatment time, by means of dentoalveolar distraction osteogenesis to achieve rapid canine retraction using an indigenously developed intra-oral tooth-borne distraction device. Materials & Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Four patients selected for the purpose of Maxillary and/or Mandibular canine distraction with a rigid custom-made, intra-oral distraction device made of stainless steel and were scheduled for orthodontic treatment with bilateral first premolar extraction and then subsequent bilateral canine teeth distalization. Results: In all the patients the canine teeth moved distally and made contact with the second premolars within 14-16 days range after which they were kept passive, with the appliance for a week of consolidation. The amount of canine retraction was in 7-7.5mms range, in all the patients, in each of the four quadrants studied. Bodily movement, tipping and buccal flaring of the canine teeth were noticed in all the cases. Conclusion: Combination of newer orthodontic appliances and the principles of biomechanics to maintain the control over rapid tooth movement, rapid canine distalization using distraction osteogenesis awaits further development before routine application, of this innovative and exciting approach. How to cite the article: Nair A, Kumar JP, Venkataramana V, Yuvaraj A, Reddy VS, Kumar SK. Dento-Alveolar distraction osteogenesis using rigid intra-oral tooth borne distraction device. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):106-13. PMID:24876710

Nair, Arvind; Kumar, J Phani; Venkataramana, V; Yuvaraj, A; Reddy, V Sridhar; Kumar, S Kishore

2014-01-01

23

Distraction by deviance.  

PubMed

We report the results of oddball experiments in which an irrelevant stimulus (standard, deviant) was presented before a target stimulus and the modality of these stimuli was manipulated orthogonally (visual/auditory). Experiment 1 showed that auditory deviants yielded distraction irrespective of the target's modality while visual deviants did not impact on performance. When participants were forced to attend the distractors in order to detect a rare target ("target-distractor"), auditory deviants yielded distraction irrespective of the target's modality and visual deviants yielded a small distraction effect when targets were auditory (Experiments 2 & 3). Visual deviants only produced distraction for visual targets when deviant stimuli were not visually distinct from the other distractors (Experiment 4). Our results indicate that while auditory deviants yield distraction irrespective of the targets' modality, visual deviants only do so when attended and under selective conditions, at least when irrelevant and target stimuli are temporally and perceptually decoupled. PMID:25270560

Leiva, Alicia; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Andrés, Pilar

2015-01-01

24

Distractions in Everyday Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... about one hour and 15 minutes in their vehicles every day? Unfortunately, people often treat this as ... easy access to information, entertainment, and communications, in-vehicle distractions are increasing – as is the temptation to ...

25

Bilateral Alveolar Distraction for Large Alveolar Defects: Case Report.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis has become a very popular technique, as the ability to reconstruct combined deficiencies in bone and soft tissue makes this process unique and invaluable to all types of reconstructive surgeons. We document a case in which an intraoral tooth-borne distractor was designed and segmental alveolar distraction was performed in a large alveolar defect in a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Cosmetic dentistry was performed to attain a pleasing result. This article aims at highlighting the use of distraction in large defects in which bone grafting only is not a suitable procedure. PMID:25279587

Aravindaksha, Shyam Prasad; Batra, Puneet; Sadhu, Partha

2014-10-01

26

Hollow maxillary complete denture.  

PubMed

Residual ridge resorption is the reduction in size of the bony ridge under the mucoperiosteum. The resorption occurs at a faster rate in mandibular arch as compared to the maxillary arch; but severely atrophic maxillae with large interridge distance often pose a clinical challenge during fabrication of a successful maxillary complete denture. This clinical report describes a simple technique of fabricating a hollow maxillary complete denture in a patient with resorbed maxillary and mandibular ridges with increased interridge distance which reduces the weight of the prosthesis and thereby enhances the retention. PMID:23204735

Radke, Usha; Mundhe, Darshana

2011-12-01

27

Maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition.  

PubMed

Dental transposition is the positional interchange of two adjacent teeth. Canine transpositions are usually accompanied by other dental anomalies, such as: impaction of the incisors; missing teeth; peg-shaped lateral incisors; severe rotation or malposition of adjacent teeth; dilacerations; and malformations. Local pathologic processes, such as tumors, cysts, retained primary canines, and supernumerary teeth, might be responsible for canine transposition. The purpose of this paper was to present a rare case of maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition in an 8-year-old girl. The patient presented with noneruption of the permanent maxillary left central incisor, and a radiographic examination revealed an impacted dilacerated incisor. The central incisor was extracted because the root was severely dilacerated. At the 3-year follow-up, an oral examination revealed that the canine had transposed to the extraction site. Through orthodontic traction, combined with reshaping of the tooth, the transposed canine was successfully positioned into the incisor position. PMID:24290551

Lin, Yng-Tzer J

2013-01-01

28

Long-term stability of LeFort III distraction osteogenesis with a rigid external distraction device in a patient with Crouzon syndrome.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old boy, diagnosed with Crouzon syndrome, had moderate exorbitism, a concave profile, an anterior crossbite of -4.0 mm, and a skeletal Class III jaw-base relationship caused by midfacial hypoplasia. At age 8 years 9 months, a LeFort III osteotomy was performed, and distraction osteogenesis was immediately started with the rigid external distractor system. The midface was advanced approximately 10.0 mm for 6 days, including overcorrection. After the distraction, a reverse headgear was used for 6 years to prevent relapse and to accelerate expected growth. At age 16 years 5 months, after extraction of the maxillary first premolars and mandibular third molars, 0.022-in preadjusted edgewise brackets were placed to treat the edge-to-edge incisor relationship and minor crowding. After 13 months of treatment, the facial profile was significantly improved, and an acceptable occlusion was achieved. During the 9-year observation period after the distraction, acceptable facial growth occurred, and no relapse of the maxillary advancement was observed. However, syndrome-specific growth and methodologically induced relapse should be considered when planning a LeFort III distraction in children for the treatment of Crouzon syndrome. PMID:21967944

Kuroda, Shingo; Watanabe, Keiichiro; Ishimoto, Kyoko; Nakanishi, Hideki; Moriyama, Keiji; Tanaka, Eiji

2011-10-01

29

Orthodontic treatment for a patient with hypodontia involving the maxillary lateral incisors.  

PubMed

Developmental absence of maxillary lateral incisors is not uncommon in orthodontic patients. Treatment depends on a number of factors, including skeletal pattern, type of malocclusion, overjet, and the shape and color of the canines. Management can be broadly divided into space closure, space opening or redistribution, and prosthetic replacement. The purpose of this article was to report the treatment of a girl with an Angle Class I malocclusion with missing maxillary lateral incisors and severe crowding in the mandibular labial segment. Treatment included preadjusted fixed appliances, extraction of the mandibular first premolars, and space closure of the maxillary labial segment space with the canines substituted for the maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:21536213

Al-Anezi, Saud A

2011-05-01

30

Bilateral Maxillary Sinus Hypoplasia  

PubMed Central

Maxillary sinus hypoplasia (MSH) is an uncommon abnormality of paranasal sinuses noted in clinical practice. Computed tomography (CT) scan helps in diagnosing the anomaly along with any anatomical variation that may be associated with it. MSH is usually associated with other anomalies like uncinate process hypoplasia. Three types of MSH have been described. Type 1 MSH shows mild maxillary sinus hypoplasia, type 2 shows significant sinus hypoplasia with narrowed infundibular passage and hypoplastic or absent uncinate process, and type 3 is cleft like maxillary sinus hypoplasia with absent uncinate process. CT and endoscopic examination usually complement each other in diagnosing MSH.

Khanduri, Sachin; Agrawal, Sumit; Goyal, Swati

2014-01-01

31

Neural Basis of Visual Distraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to maintain focus and avoid distraction by goal-irrelevant stimuli is critical for performing many tasks and may be a key deficit in attention-related problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that irrelevant stimuli that are consciously perceived may be filtered out on a neural level and not cause the distraction triggered by…

Kim, So-Yeon; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

2010-01-01

32

Congenital maxillomandibular syngnathia: a new management technique using distraction techniques.  

PubMed

Complex zygomaticomandibular syngnathia is an extremely rare condition with an unknown etiology. The main goal of the surgery is to release the ankylosis, establish good functioning mandible, and prevent reankylosis, if possible. In our case, we offer a new solution to have an adequate oral opening and to prevent reankylosis. After the release of bony syngnathia, we placed a distractor between mandibular segment and maxillozygomatic complex. To our best knowledge, this is the only syngnathia case in the literature treated using distraction techniques. There is a major improvement in the patient's status. Distraction may broaden our horizons in this rare and difficult-to-treat deformity. PMID:25569423

Kona?, Ersoy; Aliyev, Ali; Tunçbilek, Gökhan

2015-01-01

33

Hollow Maxillary Complete Denture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual ridge resorption is the reduction in size of the bony ridge under the mucoperiosteum. The resorption occurs at a\\u000a faster rate in mandibular arch as compared to the maxillary arch; but severely atrophic maxillae with large interridge distance\\u000a often pose a clinical challenge during fabrication of a successful maxillary complete denture. This clinical report describes\\u000a a simple technique of

Usha Radke; Darshana Mundhe

34

Effect of electrical stimulation on mandibular distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine whether the use of electrical stimulation during mandibular lengthening accelerates new bone formation. Twenty adult female rabbits weighing between 2800 g and 3200 g underwent left mandibular body osteotomy. After a 3 day latency period, an external fixation device was activated at a rate of 0.7 mm per day for 10 days. Direct current electrical stimulation of 10 microA was applied to 10 rabbit mandibles. Two of the screws were used as electrodes during the distraction phase. The other 10 rabbits (control group) were not stimulated. The device was then stabilized for periods of 10, 20, 30 and 60 days in both groups. The distraction segment was evaluated radiographically by assessing the proportion of bone mineral density using a dichroma scan. The amount of new bone formation was studied histologically with an image analyzer to evaluate the bone formation in the distraction gap. Histological examination showed that the new bone formation 10 and 20 days after distraction was greater in the electrical stimulation group than in the control group. Ten and 20 days after distraction, image analysis and analysis of bone mineral density in areas of newly formed bone indicated that there was a greater amount of new bone formation in the stimulation group than in the control group. The radiographic evaluation, however, did not demonstrate significantly different images between the stimulation group and the control group. Thirty and 60 days after distraction, no difference in the amount of new bone formation was noted in either the experimental or the control groups. These results indicate that electrical stimulation during gradual distraction promotes new bone formation in the early retention period in a rabbit model. PMID:10851668

Hagiwara, T; Bell, W H

2000-02-01

35

Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that distracted driving, especially among new drivers, ... whenever the cars were moving. A suite of sensors recorded acceleration, sudden braking or swerving, and other ...

36

Context effects on auditory distraction  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.

2014-01-01

37

Context effects on auditory distraction.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S

2013-10-01

38

Neonatal mandibular distraction in a patient with treacher collins syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze a case of mandibular distraction in a case of Treacher Collins syndrome. Mandibular distraction is an adequate surgical treatment of patients with Pierre Robin sequence and represents an alternative to tracheostomy. In severe hypoplastic cases or when three-dimensional vector control or gonial angle control is necessary, extraoral bidirectional or multidirectional devices have an advantage over intraoral devices. The anchorage obtained with transfixing Kirschner wires fixed in the mandibular distal segment and symphysis is crucial in neonates for the stability of the devices. Moreover, with the use of a second pin for each bone segment, the extraoral devices allow to modify the vector orientation and consequently the shape of the newly formed mandible. PMID:25569412

Brevi, Bruno Carlo; Leporati, Massimiliano; Sesenna, Enrico

2015-01-01

39

Distalization of the patella during tibial callus distraction.  

PubMed

Consecutive distalization of the patella is described in two patients undergoing segmental transportation after high tibial corticotomy. Revision surgery with loosening and proximal reattachment of a portion of the patellar ligament bridging the callus distraction zone could re-establish the correct patellar position. Despite excellent callus formation after tibial corticotomy just below the tibial tuberositas, this procedure should be performed more distally as the fibers of the patellar tendon spread laterally and distally. PMID:9709862

Eingartner, C; Bretschneider, C; Badke, A; Weise, K

1998-01-01

40

Unfavourable results with distraction in craniofacial skeleton  

PubMed Central

Distraction osteogenesis has revolutionised the management of craniofacial abnormalities. The technique however requires precise planning, patient selection, execution and follow-up to achieve consistent and positive results and to avoid unfavourable results. The unfavourable results with craniofacial distraction stem from many factors ranging from improper patient selection, planning and use of inappropriate distraction device and vector. The present study analyses the current standards and techniques of distraction and details in depth the various errors and complications that may occur due to this technique. The commonly observed complications of distraction have been detailed along with measures and suggestions to avoid them in clinical practice. PMID:24501455

Agarwal, Rajiv

2013-01-01

41

Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction.  

PubMed

Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and distraction analgesia. Healthy participants completed three sessions in a randomized order. In one session (Pain Alone), pain was induced by topical application of a 10% capsaicin cream and simultaneous administration of a tonic heat stimulus. In another session (Pain+Distraction), identical capsaicin+heat application procedures were followed, but subjects played video games that required a high level of attention. During both sessions, verbal ratings of pain were obtained and participants rated their degree of catastrophizing. During the other session (Distraction Alone) subjects played the video games in the absence of any pain stimulus. Pain was rated significantly lower during the distraction session compared to the "Pain Alone" session. In addition, high catastrophizers rated pain significantly higher regardless of whether the subjects were distracted. Catastrophizing did not influence the overall degree of distraction analgesia; however, early in the session high catastrophizers had little distraction analgesia, though later in the session low and high catastrophizers rated pain similarly. These results suggest that both distraction and catastrophizing have substantial effects on experimental pain in normal subjects and these variables interact as a function of time. PMID:20188470

Campbell, Claudia M; Witmer, Kenny; Simango, Mpepera; Carteret, Alene; Loggia, Marco L; Campbell, James N; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert R

2010-05-01

42

A simple solution for vector control in vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

One of the important and frequent complications in alveolar distraction osteogenesis is vectorial change of the transport segment. This report presents a simple solution for vector angulation control by placing intermaxillary fixation screws intraoperatively. Advantages of the technique are also discussed. PMID:25295887

Kocyigit, Ismail Doruk; Tuz, Hakan H; Ozgul, Ozkan; Coskunses, Fatih Mehmet; Kisnisci, Reha S

2014-10-01

43

Skeletally-anchored Rapid Maxillary Expansion using the Dresden Distractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:  It was the aim of this study to carry out a 3-D analysis of the teeth, alveolar and skeletal structures during bone-borne, surgically-assisted rapid maxillary expansion (RME) with the Dresden Distractor (DD). We aimed to determine whether a translatory and skeletal movement of the segments would be possible while reducing the dento-alveolar side effects associated with tooth-borne RME.Materials and Methods:  Standardized

Lars Hansen; Eve Tausche; Volker Hietschold; Thorsten Hotan; Manuel Lagravère; Winfried Harzer

2007-01-01

44

Alveolar ridge development with forced eruption and distraction of retained natural dentition.  

PubMed

Orthodontic forced eruption of teeth to correct vertical periodontal defects and aid in the development of alveolar ridge height is a well-documented concept in dentistry. These procedures enhance both hard (osseous) and soft (gingival) tissue growth before endosseous implant placement. Key factors that influence the effectiveness of this type of orthodontic movement are discussed. The effectiveness of forced eruption of a distracted segment of bone in the anterior maxilla is also evaluated and a new distraction device when implants are already present is introduced. These procedures require a proper initial diagnosis, a treatment plan, and a team, interdisciplinary approach to achieve optimal esthetic results and patient satisfaction. PMID:18088714

Hinds, Kenneth F

2004-02-01

45

Evaluation of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Regeneration by Bifocal Distraction Osteogenesis with Retrograde Transportation of Horseradish Peroxidase in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Bifocal distraction osteogenesis has been shown to be a reliable method for reconstructing segmental mandibular defects. However, there are few reports regarding the occurrence of inferior alveolar nerve regeneration during the process of distraction. Previously, we reported inferior alveolar nerve regeneration after distraction, and evaluated the regenerated nerve using histological and electrophysiological methods. In the present study, we investigated axons regenerated by bifocal distraction osteogenesis using retrograde transportation of horseradish peroxidase in the mandibles of dogs to determine their type and function. Methods and Findings Using a bifocal distraction osteogenesis method, we produced a 10-mm mandibular defect, including a nerve defect, in 11 dogs and distracted using a transport disk at a rate of 1 mm/day. The regenerated inferior alveolar nerve was evaluated by retrograde transportation of HRP in all dogs at 3 and 6 months after the first operation. At 3 and 6 months, HRP-labeled neurons were observed in the trigeminal ganglion. The number of HRP-labeled neurons in each section increased, while the cell body diameter of HRP-labeled neurons was reduced over time. Conclusions We found that the inferior alveolar nerve after bifocal distraction osteogenesis successfully recovered until peripheral tissue began to function. Although our research is still at the stage of animal experiments, it is considered that it will be possible to apply this method in the future to humans who have the mandibular defects. PMID:24732938

Isomura, Emiko Tanaka

2014-01-01

46

Distractions in the School Science Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I examined in close detail the conversations of three groups of high school students trying to explain how a real galvanic cell works. The three groups experienced the same two distractions, (1) a nonworking light-emitting diode and (2) negative readings on a voltmeter. The analysis reveals how one of the groups, through a series of contingencies, successively made the two distractions continuous with the main purpose of the activity. In the remaining two groups, no such continuity was established. The results show that (a) experiences initially being distracting, perplexing, and confusing may indeed acquire significance for the students' possibilities of coping with the main purpose of the activity but that (b) the outcome is highly contingent on the particular experiences drawn upon by the students to cope with the distractions. Consequently, I discuss ways in which teachers may turn distractions encountered in laboratory activities into educative experiences for more than a few lucky students.

Hamza, Karim M.

2013-08-01

47

Condylar Mineralization Following Mandibular Distraction in Rats  

PubMed Central

The impact of mandibular distraction on condyles is poorly understood. To examine how condylar mineralization is affected, we performed distraction in 128 one-month-old rapidly and 126 three-month-old slowly growing rats. The rate of distraction was 0.0 mm (sham), 0.2 mm (slow), 0.4 mm (moderate), or 0.6 mm (rapid). From 7 to 9 rats from each rate (n = 29-32) were killed at 4 time periods (D6, D10, D24, and D38) following osteotomy. Calcein and alizarin were injected 6 and 3 days, respectively, prior to death. Methacrylate-embedded sagittal condylar sections were examined under epifluorescence, and mineral apposition rates were measured. Results indicated that: (1) rapidly growing rats showed higher mineral apposition rates (p < 0.01-0.001) than did slowly growing rats; (2) mineral apposition rates were lower in distracted sides at all times in rapidly growing rats (p < 0.05-0.01), while this side-dependency was seen only at D24 in slowly growing rats (p < 0.05); and (3) distraction rates had little effect on mineral apposition rates. Thus, mandibular distraction decreases condylar mineral apposition rates, but only in rapidly growing rats, which is related to surgery and its functional consequences, not to the distraction rate. PMID:16798868

Liu, Z.J.; King, G.J.; Herring, S.W.

2008-01-01

48

Condylar mineralization following mandibular distraction in rats.  

PubMed

The impact of mandibular distraction on condyles is poorly understood. To examine how condylar mineralization is affected, we performed distraction in 128 one-month-old rapidly and 126 three-month-old slowly growing rats. The rate of distraction was 0.0 mm (sham), 0.2 mm (slow), 0.4 mm (moderate), or 0.6 mm (rapid). From 7 to 9 rats from each rate (n = 29-32) were killed at 4 time periods (D6, D10, D24, and D38) following osteotomy. Calcein and alizarin were injected 6 and 3 days, respectively, prior to death. Methacrylate-embedded sagittal condylar sections were examined under epifluorescence, and mineral apposition rates were measured. Results indicated that: (1) rapidly growing rats showed higher mineral apposition rates (p < 0.01-0.001) than did slowly growing rats; (2) mineral apposition rates were lower in distracted sides at all times in rapidly growing rats (p < 0.05-0.01), while this side-dependency was seen only at D24 in slowly growing rats (p < 0.05); and (3) distraction rates had little effect on mineral apposition rates. Thus, mandibular distraction decreases condylar mineral apposition rates, but only in rapidly growing rats, which is related to surgery and its functional consequences, not to the distraction rate. PMID:16798868

Liu, Z J; King, G J; Herring, S W

2006-07-01

49

The Neural Bases of Distraction and Reappraisal  

E-print Network

Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive ...

McRae, Kateri

50

Quantifying distraction and interruption in urological surgery  

PubMed Central

Background To enhance safety in surgery, it is necessary to develop a variety of tools for measuring and evaluating the system of work. One important consideration for safety in any high?risk work is the frequency and effect of distraction and interruption. Aim To quantify distraction and interruption to the sterile surgical team in urology. Methods Observation of the behaviour of the surgical team and their task activity determined distraction and interruption recorded. Using an ordinal scale, an observer rated each salient distraction or interruption observed in relation to the team's involvement. Results The frequency of events and their attached ratings were high, deriving from varying degrees of equipment, procedure and environment problems, telephones, bleepers and conversations. Discussion With further refinement and testing, this method may be useful for distinguishing ordinal levels of work interference in surgery and helpful in raising awareness of its origin for postoperative surgical team debriefing. PMID:17403761

Healey, A N; Primus, C P; Koutantji, M

2007-01-01

51

Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens  

PubMed Central

Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

2014-01-01

52

Metacarpal lengthening by distraction histiogenesis in adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Metacarpal lengthening in the hand is a new application for distraction neo-histiogenesis. Metacarpal lengthening with distraction helps in improvement in pinch function. Thumb lengthening is technically easy in comparison to other metacarpals. We present the operative treatment and post-operative outcome in nine patients with amputations and congenital anomalies. Materials and Methods: Nine patients underwent distraction osteogenesis for the treatment of amputations of the hand and other congenital anomalies. The dominant right hand was operated in eight cases and the left hand in one case. There were six males and three females. Improvement of function was always the aim of surgery. Age range was between 18 and 23 years. Thumb lengthening was performed in five patients and that of the index finger in four patients. Distraction started on the fifth post-operative day at the rate of 0.25 mm/day. Sensory function and bone consolidation was assessed before fixator removal. Results: The mean duration of distraction was 51 days (range, 42–60 days) and the distractor was removed at a mean of 150 days (range, 140 and 160 days) and the bones were lengthened by a mean of 24 mm (range, 20–28 mm) There was improvement of function in all cases. Conclusion: The metacarpal lengthening by distraction histiogenesis in congenital and traumatic amputations is safe and simple method to improve pinch function of hand. PMID:19838389

Das, Sakti Prasad; Mohanty, Ram Narayan; Das, Sanjay Kumar

2009-01-01

53

Classification of maxillary tooth transpositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tooth transposition is a severe disturbance of tooth order and eruptive position, involving certain teeth, that may occur at any of several specific sites in the mouth. Published cases of transposition involving maxillary teeth were gathered from worldwide sources to study, identify, and classify these occurrences of orthodontic interest. With a sample of 201 cases and on the basis of

Sheldon Peck; Leena Peck

1995-01-01

54

Carcinosarcoma of the Maxillary Sinus  

PubMed Central

Carcinosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor characterized by dual malignant histologic differentiation of epithelial and mesenchymal components. The tumor is extremely rare in the sinonasal tract. We report a case of a 62-year-old man with carcinosarcoma involving the maxillary sinus. PMID:23799172

Moon, Jeong-Ki; Chang, Dong-Sik; Park, Kyung-You

2013-01-01

55

Correction of facial asymmetry and maxillary canting with corticotomy and 1-jaw orthognathic surgery.  

PubMed

Although 2-jaw orthognathic surgery is a typical recommendation for the treatment of facial asymmetry, another good treatment alternative is maxillary corticotomy with temporary skeletal anchorage devices followed by mandibular orthognathic surgery. The corticotomy procedure described here can achieve unilateral molar intrusion and occlusal plane canting correction with potentially fewer complications than 2-jaw orthognathic surgery. The approach allows movement of dentoalveolar segments in less time than with conventional dental intrusion using temporary skeletal anchorage devices. A 2-jaw asymmetry with occlusal plane canting might be corrected using maxillary corticotomy and mandibular orthognathics rather than 2-jaw orthognathics. Two patients with facial asymmetry are presented here. In each one, the maxillary cant was corrected over a period of 2 to 3 months with 3.5 mm of intrusion of the unilateral buccal segment. After the preorthognathic cant correction, orthognathic surgery was done to correct the mandibular asymmetry. PMID:25432261

Ahn, Hyo-Won; Seo, Dong Hwi; Kim, Seong-Hun; Lee, Baek-Soo; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

2014-12-01

56

Bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis: mechano-regulation by shear strain and fluid velocity.  

PubMed

Corroboration of mechano-regulation algorithms is difficult, partly because repeatable experimental outcomes under a controlled mechanical environment are necessary, but rarely available. In distraction osteogenesis (DO), a controlled displacement is used to regenerate large volumes of new bone, with predictable and reproducible outcomes, allowing to computationally study the potential mechanisms that stimulate bone formation. We hypothesized that mechano-regulation by octahedral shear strain and fluid velocity can predict the spatial and temporal tissue distributions seen during experimental DO. Variations in predicted tissue distributions due to alterations in distraction rate and frequency could then also be studied. An in vivo ovine tibia experiment evaluating bone-segment transport (distraction, 1 mm/day) over an intramedullary nail was used for comparison. A 2D axisymmetric finite element model, with a geometry originating from the experimental data, was created and included into a previously developed model of tissue differentiation. Cells migrated and proliferated into the callus, differentiating into fibroblasts, chondrocytes or osteoblasts, dependent on the biophysical stimuli. Matrix production was modelled with an osmotic swelling model to allow tissues to grow at individual rates. The temporal and spatial tissue distributions predicted by the computational model agreed well with those seen experimentally. In addition, it was observed that decreased distraction rate (0.5 mm/d vs. 0.25 mm/d) increased the overall time needed for complete bone regeneration, whereas increased distraction frequency (0.5 mm/12 h vs. 0.25 mm/6 h) stimulated faster bone regeneration, as found in experimental findings by others. Thus, the algorithm regulated by octahedral shear strain and fluid velocity was able to predict the bone regeneration patterns dependent on distraction rate and frequency during DO. PMID:17112532

Isaksson, Hanna; Comas, Olivier; van Donkelaar, Corrinus C; Mediavilla, Jesus; Wilson, Wouter; Huiskes, Rik; Ito, Keita

2007-01-01

57

Role of mandibular displacement and airway size in improving breathing after rapid maxillary expansion  

PubMed Central

Background Oral breathing and maxillary deficiency are often associated with steep mandibular plane angle, and retrognathic mandible compared with the faces of healthy controls. Some studies suggested that after rapid maxillary expansion, improvement in nasal breathing and repositioning of mandible with transitory increasing of facial height and, in some cases, spontaneous forward repositioning might occur. The abovementioned mandibular effects could contribute to enlarge oropharynx volume with repositioning of tongue and soft palate with an improvement of upper airway volume after treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate by cone beam computed tomography the role of oropharyngeal volume and mandibular position changes after rapid maxillary expansion in patients showing improved breathing pattern confirmed by polysomnography exam. Methods The final sample of this retrospective study comprised 14 Caucasian patients (mean age 7.6 years) who undergone rapid maxillary expansion with Haas-type expander banded on second deciduous upper molars. Cone beam computed tomography scans and polysomnography exams were collected before placing the appliance (T0) and after 12 months (T1). Mandibular landmarks localization and airway semiautomatic segmentation on cone beam computed tomography scans allowed airway volume computing and measurements. Results No significant differences were found between oropharyngeal airway changes and mandibular displacement after rapid maxillary expansion in growing patients. Conclusions The suggested improvement in upper airway and breathing after rapid maxillary expansion should be further related to different compartments of airway such as rhinopharynx and nasal cavity. PMID:24934328

2014-01-01

58

Distraction osteogenesis in a severe mandibular deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective Distraction osteogenesis is an alternative treatment method for the correction of mandibular hypoplasia. In this case report, distraction with a multidirectional extraoral device was performed to gradually lengthen the corpus and ramus of a patient who had a severe hypoplastic mandible. Materials and methods The patient underwent bilateral extraoral ramus and corpus distraction osteogenesis. After seven days of latency period, distraction was performed 0.5 mm twice a day. Subsequent consolidation period was 12 weeks. Results The patient's mandible was elongated successfully. Cephalometric analysis revealed that ANB angle decreased from 13° to 6°, overjet of 15 mm decreased to 4 mm, corpus length increased from 49 mm to 67 mm, and ramus length increased from 41 mm to 43 mm. Posterior airway space (PAS) also increased due to advancement of the mandible. In stereolithographic model evaluation it was determined that the distances from condylion to gonion and from gonion to pogonion increased. Conclusion Satisfactory results from both aesthetic and functional standpoints were obtained by distraction osteogenesis of the ramus and corpus. PMID:17239254

Ortakoglu, Kerim; Karacay, Seniz; Sencimen, Metin; Akin, Erol; Ozyigit, Aykut H; Bengi, Osman

2007-01-01

59

Distraction osteogenesis: a method to improve facial balance in asymmetric patients.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis is a well-established surgical procedure to elongate the maxillofacial skeleton. The authors propose a new method to balance facial asymmetry by means of distraction of the inferior borders of the mandible, without change of the occlusion, using an alveolar device. Nine patients with asymmetry were treated. Records included panoramic radiographs and computed tomographic scans. Preoperatively, stereolithographic models and virtual-reality surgery were performed to have a precise surgical planning. The surgical procedure was based on segmental inferior osteotomy and simultaneous positioning of the alveolar device upside-down. Postoperative clinical evaluation demonstrated that a very impressive elongation of the inferior bony border with simultaneous expansion of the soft tissues had been achieved, resulting in a satisfying facial balance. The postdistraction radiographs showed the ossification of the gap, and the new bone formation was observed and confirmed by biopsy. Distraction osteogenesis of the inferior border of the mandible and the chin represents a new method to correct facial asymmetry and is a valid alternative to the traditional techniques. In addition, surgical virtual reality and stereolithographic models are, without a doubt, an advantage in defining the vector of distraction and in simulating the final result. PMID:20216446

Robiony, Massimo

2010-03-01

60

Distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Management of mandibular deformities is challenging. Distraction osteogenesis is a relatively new technique with promising results. Materials and Methods: We selected 12 patients. The osteotomy site decided was proximal to the antegonial notch. Latency time was five to seven days. Consolidation period was eight weeks in eleven cases and six weeks in one case. Results: In all the patients, appreciable lengthening of mandible was achieved. Discussion: The greatest advantage of distraction osteogenesis is growth of soft tissue along with the growth of hard tissue. This increases post operative stability PMID:24665178

Karun, Vinayak; Agarwal, Navneet; Singh, Virendra

2013-01-01

61

Effects of rumination and distraction on naturally occurring depressed mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mildly-to-moderately depressed and nondepressed subjects were randomly assigned to spend 8 minutes focusing their attention on their current feeling states and personal characteristics (rumination condition) or on descriptions of geographic locations and objects (distraction condition). Depressed subjects in the rumination condition became significantly more depressed, whereas depressed subjects in the distraction condition became significantly less depressed. Rumination and distraction did

Susan Nolen-hoeksema; Jannay Morrow

1993-01-01

62

Correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe crowding by a specially designed rapid maxillary expander.  

PubMed

To correct an Angle Class II malocclusion or to create spaces in the maxillary arch by nonextraction treatment, distal movement of the maxillary molars is required. Various modalities for distalizing the buccal segment have been reported. Conventional extraoral appliances can be used to obtain maximum anchorage. However, many patients reject headgear wear because of social and esthetic concerns, and the success of this treatment depends on patient compliance. Intraoral appliances, such as repelling magnets, nickel-titanium coils, pendulum appliance, Jones jig appliance, distal jet appliance, and modified Nance appliance, have been introduced to distalize the molars with little or no patient cooperation. However, intraoral appliances can result in anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the maxillary molars. In this case report, we introduce a diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance that was custom designed and fabricated for the treatment of a growing girl with a skeletal Class II malocclusion and severe crowding from a totally lingually positioned lateral incisor. The appliance concomitantly expanded the maxilla transversely and retracted the buccal segment sagittally, distalizing the maxillary molars to reach a Class I relationship and creating the spaces to displace the malpositioned lateral incisor. The uniqueness of this special diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance was highlighted by a series of reconstructions and modifications at different stages of the treatment to reinforce the anchorage. PMID:25636559

Wang, Honghong; Feng, Jing; Lu, Peijun; Shen, Gang

2015-02-01

63

Interference from audio distracters during speechreading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many audio-visual speech experiments have focused on situations where the presence of an incongruent visual speech signal influences the perceived utterance heard by an observer, there are also documented examples of a related effect in which the presence of an incongruent audio speech signal influences the perceived utterance seen by an observer. This study examined the effects that different distracting audio signals had on performance in a color and number keyword speechreading task. When the distracting sound was noise, time-reversed speech, or continuous speech, it had no effect on speechreading. However, when the distracting audio signal consisted of speech that started at the same time as the visual stimulus, speechreading performance was substantially degraded. This degradation did not depend on the semantic similarity between the target and masker speech, but it was substantially reduced when the onset of the audio speech was shifted relative to that of the visual stimulus. Overall, these results suggest that visual speech perception is impaired by the presence of a simultaneous mismatched audio speech signal, but that other types of audio distracters have little effect on speechreading performance.

Brungart, Douglas S.; Simpson, Brian D.

2005-12-01

64

Mandibular distraction of the body and ramus.  

PubMed

With the ever increasing interest in the field of osteodistraction techniques, the mandible is certainly the most studied anatomical site, both experimentally and clinically. Currently, the methods of mandibular distraction can be classified by position (intra- or extraoral), by the direction of distraction and by the site of application (toothborn, boneborn or hybrid fixation). To guarantee good results from the osteodistraction procedure, it is fundamental to have an accurate preoperative plan considering the correct classification and evaluation of the patient combined with a valid project regarding the direction of the distraction vector. One of the most important aspects to consider is the orientation of the distractor, especially if the defect to be corrected is three-dimensional. Regarding the correct planning of the operation, knowing the secondary effects of the distraction on the soft tissues, muscles and nerves, the temporomandibular joint and velopharyngeal functioning is of fundamental importance. It is worth considering particular situations in which osteodistraction is extremely helpful in maxillofacial surgery, for example in the construction of a neocondyle, in bone replacement during oncologic interventions, in obstructive sleep apnea correction and in hemi-mandibular reconstruction. PMID:16971880

Albanese, M; Mercanti, M; Bertelè, G; Stella, F; Trevisiol, L

2006-06-01

65

The etiology of maxillary canine impactions.  

PubMed

The etiology of tooth impactions has long been related to an arch-length deficiency. This is valid for most impactions, but not for palatal impaction of the maxillary canine. This study shows that 85 percent of the palatally impacted canines have sufficient space for eruption. The bud of the maxillary canine is wedged between the nasal cavity, the orbit, and the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus. The buds of the lateral incisor and the first premolar are located behind the canine's palatal surface. An arch-length deficiency will not allow the maxillary canine to "jump" the buds, the nasal cavity, or the sinus in order to reappear in the palate. A canine can be palatally impacted if an extra space is available in the maxillary bone. This space can be provided by (1) excessive growth in the base of the maxillary bone, (2) space created by agenesis or peg-shaped lateral incisors, or (3) stimulated eruption of the lateral incisor or the first premolar. In those conditions the canine is free to "dive" in the bone and to become palatally impacted. A dysplasia in the maxillary-premaxillary suture can also modify the direction of the maxillary canine's eruption. PMID:6576636

Jacoby, H

1983-08-01

66

Dynamics of Driver Distraction: The process of engaging and disengaging.  

PubMed

Driver distraction research has a long history, spanning nearly 50 years, but intensifying over the last decade. The dominant paradigm guiding this research defines distraction in terms of excessive workload and limited attentional resources. This approach largely ignores how drivers come to engage in these tasks and under what conditions they engage and disengage from driving-the dynamics of distraction. The dynamics of distraction identifies breakdowns of interruption management as an important contributor to distraction, leading to describe distraction in terms of failures of task timing, switching, and prioritization. The dynamics of distraction also identifies disengagement in driving (e.g., mind wandering) as a substantial challenge that secondary tasks might exacerbate or mitigate. Increasing vehicle automation accentuates the need to consider these dynamics of distraction. Automation offers drivers more opportunity to engage in distractions and disengage from driving, and can surprise drivers by unexpectedly requiring drivers to quickly re-engage in driving-placing greater importance of interruption management expertise. This review describes distraction in terms of breakdowns in interruption management and problems of engagement, and summarizes how contingency, conditioning, and consequence traps lead to problems of engaging and disengaging in driving and distractions. PMID:24776224

Lee, John D

2014-01-01

67

Dynamics of Driver Distraction: The process of engaging and disengaging  

PubMed Central

Driver distraction research has a long history, spanning nearly 50 years, but intensifying over the last decade. The dominant paradigm guiding this research defines distraction in terms of excessive workload and limited attentional resources. This approach largely ignores how drivers come to engage in these tasks and under what conditions they engage and disengage from driving—the dynamics of distraction. The dynamics of distraction identifies breakdowns of interruption management as an important contributor to distraction, leading to describe distraction in terms of failures of task timing, switching, and prioritization. The dynamics of distraction also identifies disengagement in driving (e.g., mind wandering) as a substantial challenge that secondary tasks might exacerbate or mitigate. Increasing vehicle automation accentuates the need to consider these dynamics of distraction. Automation offers drivers more opportunity to engage in distractions and disengage from driving, and can surprise drivers by unexpectedly requiring drivers to quickly re-engage in driving—placing greater importance of interruption management expertise. This review describes distraction in terms of breakdowns in interruption management and problems of engagement, and summarizes how contingency, conditioning, and consequence traps lead to problems of engaging and disengaging in driving and distractions. PMID:24776224

Lee, John D.

2014-01-01

68

Determinant factors of Yemeni maxillary arch dimensions  

PubMed Central

Objective Information about maxillary arch and palatal dimensions in human populations is important for clinical orthodontics. This study was conducted to assess the determinants of maxillary arch dimensions in a sample of Yemeni individuals aged 18–25 years. Materials and Methods The study sample comprised 214/765 adults (101 women, 113 men) who underwent clinical examination and fulfilled the study criteria. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure maxillary arch and palatal dimensions. Results The majority of mean maxillary arch dimensions were significantly greater in men than in women, with inter–second molar distance showing the greatest difference and palatal depth showing the least difference. Conclusion Measurements of palatal depth and relationships of the canines to one another and to other teeth thus had the widest ranges, implying that these dimensions are the strongest determinants of maxillary arch size. PMID:25544815

Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

2014-01-01

69

Combining cognitive and visual distraction: less than the sum of its parts.  

PubMed

Driver distraction has become a leading cause of motor-vehicle crashes. Although visual and cognitive distraction has been studied extensively, relatively little research has addressed their combined effects on drivers' behavior. To fill this gap, a medium-fidelity simulator study examined the driver behavior before, during and after three types of distraction. Driving without distraction was compared to visual distraction, cognitive distraction, and combined visual and cognitive distraction. The results show that the visual and combined distraction both impaired vehicle control and hazard detection and resulted in frequent, long off-road glances. The combined distraction was less detrimental than visual distraction alone. Cognitive distraction made steering less smooth, but improved lane maintenance. All distractions caused gaze concentration and slow saccades when drivers looked at the roadway, and cognitive and combined distraction increased blink frequency. Steering neglect, under-compensation, and over-compensation were three typical steering failures that were differentially associated with the different distractions: steering neglect and over-compensation with visual distraction and under-compensation with cognitive distraction. Overall, visual distraction interferes with driving performance more than cognitive distraction, and visual distraction dominates the performance decrements during combined distraction. These results suggest that minimizing visual demand is particularly important in the design of in-vehicle systems and in the development of distraction countermeasures. PMID:20380916

Liang, Yulan; Lee, John D

2010-05-01

70

Truncal anaesthesia of the maxillary nerve for outpatient surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.  

PubMed

We present our experience of transcutaneous truncal anaesthesia of the maxillary nerve in association with transmucosal anaesthesia of the sphenopalatine ganglion in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. Twelve patients with a skeletal transverse discrepancy of the maxilla were treated in our department from 1994 to 1995. Maxillary transcutaneous nerve block was done with a Quincke 8 cm spinal needle together with transmucosal anaesthesia of the sphenopalatine ganglion. Mepivacaine without adrenaline and sodium bicarbonate 1/10 was used for truncal anaesthesia and lidocaine-prilocaine cream for transmucosal anaesthesia. A Le Fort I osteotomy, lateral nasal wall osteotomy, pterygomaxillary osteotomy, and a palatal osteotomy were done for all patients before the maxillary expansion. Total anaesthesia of the maxillary area facilitated the operations and appreciably reduced the amount of postoperative pain. The ease of achieving effective anaesthesia before and after operation and the absence of side-effects make this form of anaesthetic particularly useful in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. PMID:9831062

Robiony, M; Demitri, V; Costa, F; Politi, M; Cugini, U

1998-10-01

71

Visual distraction, working memory, and aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, the effects of taxing selective attention processes on the efficiency of working memory processes were\\u000a considered in relation to normal aging. In both experiments, the presence of task-irrelevant information disrupted the efficiency\\u000a of working memory processes, and the effect was generally greater for older than for younger adults. The presence of distracting\\u000a information increased the frequency of

Robert West

1999-01-01

72

Sharing the responsibility for driver distraction across road transport systems: A systems approach to the management of distracted driving.  

PubMed

Distracted driving is acknowledged universally as a large and growing road safety problem. Compounding the problem is that distracted driving is a complex, multifaceted issue influenced by a multitude of factors, organisations and individuals. As such, management of the problem is not straightforward. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and implemented across the globe. The vast majority of these measures have derived from the traditional reductionist, driver-centric approach to distraction and have failed to fully reflect the complex mix of actors and components that give rise to drivers becoming distracted. An alternative approach that is gaining momentum in road safety is the systems approach, which considers all components of the system and their interactions as an integrated whole. In this paper, we review the current knowledge base on driver distraction and argue that the systems approach is not currently being realised in practice. Adopting a more holistic, systems approach to distracted driving will not only improve existing knowledge and interventions from the traditional approach, but will enhance our understanding and management of distraction by considering the complex relationships and interactions of the multiple actors and the myriad sources, enablers and interventions that make up the distracted driving system. It is only by recognising and understanding how all of the system components work together to enable distraction to occur, that we can start to work on solutions to help mitigate the occurrence and consequences of distracted driving. PMID:24767853

Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M

2015-01-01

73

Managing the severely proclined maxillary anteriors by extracting traumatized right maxillary central incisor.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old girl reported with severely proclined maxillary anterior teeth with fractured and discolored right maxillary central incisor with questionable prognosis. Autotransplantation of premolar to replace central incisor was considered a risky option as patient was 14-year-old with presence of advanced root development of premolar. The immediate placement of the prosthetic implant was also not possible because of patient's age. Therefore, it was decided to use the space obtained by extracting questionable maxillary right central incisor for orthodontic purpose and also sacrificing the healthy premolar is invariably an excessive biological cost for a modest functional and aesthetic gain. Hence, the treatment plan for this case includes extraction of right maxillary central incisor and left maxillary first premolar, movement of right maxillary lateral incisor mesially, achieving normal axial inclination of maxillary anteriors with normal overjet and overbite. Mandibular arch was treated nonextraction due to congenitally missing central incisors with presence of normally inclined lower anteriors thereby maintaining Angles class I occlusion. Tipping, usually, seen in Begg mechanotherapy was used for our advantage to correct severely proclined maxillary anteriors with simultaneous bite opening mechanics. Case was completed in 19 months and posttreatment records including photographs, radiographs and study models were made. Begg wrap around the retainer was placed in the maxillary arch allowing natural settling of occlusion. PMID:25395777

Jain, Mahesh; Mogra, Subraya; Chalasani, Srikrishna; D'mello, Kuldeep; Dhakar, Nidhi

2014-10-01

74

How does distraction work in the management of pain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engaging in thoughts or activities that distract attention from pain is one of the most commonly used and highly endorsed\\u000a strategies for controlling pain. The process of distraction appears to involve competition for attention between a highly\\u000a salient sensation (pain) and consciously directed focus on some other information processing activity. In this article, the\\u000a evidence for distraction from pain is

Malcolm H. Johnson

2005-01-01

75

Automated Continuous Distraction Osteogenesis May Allow Faster Distraction Rates: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if automated continuous distraction osteogenesis at rates > 1mm/day would result in clinical and radiographic bone formation in a minipig model. Materials and Methods An automated, continuous, curvilinear distraction device was placed across a mandibular osteotomy in 10 minipigs. After 12 mm of distraction and 24 days fixation, animals were sacrificed and bone healing evaluated. The continuous distraction rates were 1.5 (n=5) and 3 mm/day (n=5). A semiquantitative scale was used to assess ex-vivo clinical appearance of the distraction gap (3= osteotomy not visible; 2= <50%; 1= >50%; 0= 100% visible); stability (3 = no mobility; 2 and 1 = mobility in 2 or 1 plane respectively; 0= mobility in 3 planes); radiographic density (4 = 100% gap opaque, 3= >75%, 2 = 50% – 75%, 1= <50%, or 0 = radiolucent). Groups of 4 minipigs distracted discontinuously at 1, 2, and 4 mm/day served as controls. Results The continuous DO 1.5 mm/day group had significantly higher scores for appearance and radiographic density compared to the discontinuous 4 mm/day group. The continuous DO 3mm/day group had significantly higher scores for appearance and radiographic density compared to the discontinuous 4 mm/day group, and higher stability compared to the discontinuous 2 and 4 mm/day groups. Conclusions Results of this preliminary study indicate that continuous DO at rates of 1.5 and 3.0 mm/day produces better bone formation when compared to discontinuous DO at rates faster than 1mm/day. PMID:23499159

Peacock, Zachary S.; Tricomi, Brad; Murphy, Brian; Magill, John; Kaban, Leonard B.; Troulis, Maria

2013-01-01

76

Maxillary stability after Le Fort I osteotomy with self-setting ?-tricalcium phosphate and an absorbable plate.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare retrospectively postoperative differences in maxillary stability after Le Fort I osteotomy and fixation with an unsintered hydroxyapatite (u-HA)/poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) plate with or without self-setting ?-tricalcium phosphate (Biopex(®)) as interpositional material. Subjects comprised 45 patients diagnosed with mandibular prognathism with maxillary retrognathism and mandibular prognathism with bimaxillary asymmetry. All patients underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy with fixation by uHA/PLLA plates. Patients were divided into 4 groups consisting of 9 maxillary impaction cases with Biopex(®) (group 1) to fill the gap between the bone segments, 14 maxillary advancement cases with Biopex(®) (group 2), 8 maxillary impaction cases without Biopex(®) (group 3) and 14 maxillary advancement cases without Biopex(®) (group 4). Changes in cepahalometric parameters at time intervals (1, 3 and 12 months) between the groups were compared. Results showed that stability did not depend on the use or otherwise of Biopex(®). PMID:23200322

Ueki, K; Okabe, K; Marukawa, K; Mukozawa, A; Moroi, A; Miyazaki, M; Sotobori, M; Ishihara, Y; Yoshizawa, K; Ooi, K; Kawashiri, S

2013-05-01

77

ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE  

PubMed Central

Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

2011-01-01

78

Gradual bone distraction in craniosynostosis. Preliminary results in seven cases.  

PubMed

Seven patients with craniosynostosis (mean age 8 years, Apert syndrome, n = 4, Crouzon's disease, n = 3) underwent lengthening of the skull by gradual bone distraction. Three patients (group A) were treated by coronal craniectomy reaching the orbital fissure and gradual bone distraction. The other four (group B) underwent monobloc craniofacial disjunction and gradual bone distraction. The patients' progress was monitored clinically as well as by radiographs and photographs. The results showed that craniofacial disjunction followed by gradual bone distraction produced complete correction of exophthalmus and an improvement in the functional and aesthetic aspects of the middle third of the face without the need for bone grafts. PMID:9075285

do Amaral, C M; Di Domizio, G; Tiziani, V; Galhardi, F; Buzzo, C L; Rinco, T; Kharmandayan, P; Bueno, M A; Bolzani, N; Sabbatini, R M; Lopes, L D; Lopes, P F; Paiva, B; Paiva, R M; Turchiari, L A

1997-03-01

79

Subtractive fuzzy classifier based driver distraction levels classification using EEG.  

PubMed

[Purpose] In earlier studies of driver distraction, researchers classified distraction into two levels (not distracted, and distracted). This study classified four levels of distraction (neutral, low, medium, high). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty Asian subjects (n=50, 43 males, 7 females), age range 20-35 years, who were free from any disease, participated in this study. Wireless EEG signals were recorded by 14 electrodes during four types of distraction stimuli (Global Position Systems (GPS), music player, short message service (SMS), and mental tasks). We derived the amplitude spectrum of three different frequency bands, theta, alpha, and beta of EEG. Then, based on fusion of discrete wavelet packet transforms and fast fourier transform yield, we extracted two features (power spectral density, spectral centroid frequency) of different wavelets (db4, db8, sym8, and coif5). Mean ± SD was calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. A fuzzy inference system classifier was applied to different wavelets using the two extracted features. [Results] The results indicate that the two features of sym8 posses highly significant discrimination across the four levels of distraction, and the best average accuracy achieved by the subtractive fuzzy classifier was 79.21% using the power spectral density feature extracted using the sym8 wavelet. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that EEG signals can be used to monitor distraction level intensity in order to alert drivers to high levels of distraction. PMID:24259914

Wali, Mousa Kadhim; Murugappan, Murugappan; Ahmad, Badlishah

2013-09-01

80

The biology of distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular and craniomaxillofacial defects: A review  

PubMed Central

Limb lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was first described in 1905. The technique did not gain wide acceptance until Gavril Ilizarov identified the physiologic and mechanical factors governing successful regeneration of bone formation. Distraction osteogenesis is a new variation of more traditional orthognathic surgical procedure for the correction of dentofacial deformities. It is most commonly used for the correction of more severe deformities and syndromes of both the maxilla and the mandible and can also be used in children at ages previously untreatable. The basic technique includes surgical fracture of deformed bone, insertion of device, 5-7 days rest, and gradual separation of bony segments by subsequent activation at the rate of 1 mm per day, followed by an 8-12 weeks consolidation phase. This allows surgeons, the lengthening and reshaping of deformed bone. The aim of this paper is to review the principle, technical considerations, applications and limitations of distraction osteogenesis. The application of osteodistraction offers novel solutions for surgical-orthodontic management of developmental anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton as bone may be molded into different shapes along with the soft tissue component gradually thereby resulting in less relapse. PMID:24688555

Natu, Subodh Shankar; Ali, Iqbal; Alam, Sarwar; Giri, Kolli Yada; Agarwal, Anshita; Kulkarni, Vrishali Ajit

2014-01-01

81

Early treatment of severe mandibular hypoplasia with distraction mesenchymogenesis and bilateral free fibula flaps.  

PubMed

The technique of distraction has revolutionized the treatment of mandibular hypoplasia; however, presently large mandibular defects still require bone grafts. Microvascular grafting is commonly used in adults. Conversely, in pediatric reconstruction, nonvascularized rib grafts remain standard. Unfortunately, resorption of nonvascularized bone remains a major issue, particularly when soft tissue is hypoplastic. This case study represents a combination of techniques in the treatment of severe mandibular deficiency, and introduces the concept of distraction mesenchymogenesis. The patient was a 2 1/2-year-old boy with severe bilateral Pruzansky class III mandibular hypoplasia. He had a permanent open mouth posture, an overjet of 23 mm, and was unable to move the lower mandibular segment. His oropharyngeal airway diameter was 2.2 mm and he was tracheostomy dependent. The patient was treated with distraction of the lower jaw mesenchyme followed by bilateral functional free fibular microvascular flaps containing reinnervated muscle. This created a well-vascularized body, ramus, and condyle bilaterally within an adequate soft-tissue envelope. Postoperatively, the overjet was reduced to 5 mm. The patient can now actively move his mandible. Airway diameter increased to 10 mm, and the patient is able to tolerate intermittent tracheostomy plugging. This innovative combination of techniques allows early intervention, limits graft resorption, and improves airway control. PMID:11482618

Stelnicki, E J; Boyd, J B; Nott, R L; Barnavon, Y; Uecker, C; Henson, T

2001-07-01

82

Distalization pattern of whole maxillary dentition according to force application points  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to observe stress distribution and displacement patterns of the entire maxillary arch with regard to distalizing force vectors applied from interdental miniscrews. Methods A standard three-dimensional finite element model was constructed to simulate the maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar process. The displacement of each tooth was calculated on x, y, and z axes, and the von Mises stress distribution was visualized using color-coded scales. Results A single distalizing force at the archwire level induced lingual inclination of the anterior segment, and slight intrusive distal tipping of the posterior segment. In contrast, force at the high level of the retraction hook resulted in lingual root movement of the anterior segment, and extrusive distal translation of the posterior segment. As the force application point was located posteriorly along the archwire, the likelihood of extrusive lingual inclination of the anterior segment increased, and the vertical component of the force led to intrusion and buccal tipping of the posterior segment. Rotation of the occlusal plane was dependent on the relationship between the line of force and the possible center of resistance of the entire arch. Conclusions Displacement of the entire arch may be dictated by a direct relationship between the center of resistance of the whole arch and the line of action generated between the miniscrews and force application points at the archwire, which makes the total arch movement highly predictable.

Sung, Eui-Hyang; Kim, Sung-Jin; Chun, Youn-Sic; Park, Young-Chel; Yu, Hyung-Seog

2015-01-01

83

Muscle computer interfaces for driver distraction reduction.  

PubMed

Driver distraction is regarded as a significant contributor to motor-vehicle crashes. One of the important factors contributing to driver distraction was reported to be the handling and reaching of in-car electronic equipment and controls that usually requires taking the drivers' hands off the wheel and eyes off the road. To minimize the amount of such distraction, we present a new control scheme that senses and decodes the human muscles signals, denoted as Electromyogram (EMG), associated with different fingers postures/pressures, and map that to different commands to control external equipment, without taking hands off the wheel. To facilitate such a scheme, the most significant step is the extraction of a set of highly discriminative feature set that can well separate between the different EMG-based actions and to do so in a computationally efficient manner. In this paper, an accurate and efficient method based on Fuzzy Neighborhood Discriminant Analysis (FNDA), is proposed for discriminant feature extraction and then extended to the channel selection problem. Unlike existing methods, the objective of the proposed FNDA is to preserve the local geometrical and discriminant structures, while taking into account the contribution of the samples to the different classes. The method also aims to efficiently overcome the singularity problems of classical LDA by employing the QR-decomposition. Practical real-time experiments with eight EMG sensors attached on the human forearm of eight subjects indicated that up to fourteen classes of fingers postures/pressures can be classified with <7% error on average, proving the significance of the proposed method. PMID:23290462

Khushaba, Rami N; Kodagoda, Sarath; Liu, Diaki; Dissanayake, Gamini

2013-05-01

84

Partial maxillary osteotomy following an unsuccessful forced eruption of an impacted maxillary canine: 10 year follow-up. Review and case report.  

PubMed

The maxillary canines are amongst the most frequently impacted teeth, second only to the third molars. Several conservative orthodontic and surgical techniques are available to position the teeth properly in the dental arch, even in severe cases. However, when an extraction is necessary, it often leaves a critical alveolar defect of difficult management. The authors present the technique of partial maxillary osteotomy, in which a dento-alveolar segment is moved mesially, hence closing the remaining space, allowing for the formation of healthy periodontium and resulting in an adequate functional and aesthetic outcome. A case report is presented with a 10 year follow-up, proving the technique's stability in the long term. PMID:23329250

Puricelli, Edela; Morganti, Mário Alexandre; Azambuja, Henrique Voltollini de; Ponzoni, Deise; Friedrisch, Clarice C

2012-01-01

85

Partial maxillary osteotomy following an unsuccessful forced eruption of an impacted maxillary canine - 10 year follow-up. Review and case report  

PubMed Central

The maxillary canines are amongst the most frequently impacted teeth, second only to the third molars. Several conservative orthodontic and surgical techniques are available to position the teeth properly in the dental arch, even in severe cases. However, when an extraction is necessary, it often leaves a critical alveolar defect of difficult management. The authors present the technique of Partial Maxillary Osteotomy, in which a dento-alveolar segment is moved mesially, hence closing the remaining space, allowing for the formation of healthy periodontium and resulting in an adequate functional and aesthetic outcome. A case report is presented with a 10 year follow-up, proving the technique's stability in the long term. PMID:23329250

PURICELLI, Edela; MORGANTI, Mário Alexandre; de AZAMBUJA, Henrique Voltollini; PONZONI, Deise; FRIEDRISCH, Clarice C.

2012-01-01

86

The correction of the relapsed club foot by closed distraction  

PubMed Central

Correction of a relapsed clubfoot deformity by distraction with an external fixator is a recognized alternative to open surgery. Most published series report a good outcome but none are prospective observational studies using the scoring system of the International Clubfoot Study Group (ICFSG). We present a series of 9 relapsed club feet treated with closed gradual distraction using this scoring method. PMID:21286357

Bashoura, Abdo; Berjawi, Ghina; Afeiche, Nadim; Elkattah, Rayan

2010-01-01

87

Neuronal Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27…

Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

2013-01-01

88

Effects of Auditory Distraction on Cognitive Processing of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The effects of interference, competition, and distraction on cognitive processing are unclearly understood, particularly regarding type and intensity of auditory distraction across a variety of cognitive processing tasks. Method: The purpose of this investigation was to report two experiments that sought to explore the effects of types…

LaPointe, Leonard L.; Heald, Gary R.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Kemker, Brett E.; Maurice, Trisha

2007-01-01

89

Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress. Results The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises) stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. Conclusions Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction. PMID:24626249

XUE, Junjie; YE, Niansong; YANG, Xin; WANG, Sheng; WANG, Jing; WANG, Yan; LI, Jingyu; MI, Congbo; LAI, Wenli

2014-01-01

90

A rare presentation of multiple dens invaginatus in maxillary dentition.  

PubMed

Dens invaginatus is a developmental disturbance of the tooth and usually occurs in the maxillary lateral incisor of permanent dentition. In this article, a rare case of dens invaginatus affecting multiple permanent maxillary teeth is described. PMID:25085944

Purani, Jigar M; Purani, Hiral J

2014-01-01

91

Diagnosis and prevention of maxillary cuspid impaction.  

PubMed

Early diagnoses and prevention of maxillary cuspid impactions can save much time when treating patients orthodontically. Effective recognition and interception requires initial diagnosis at the dental age of about eight years. When a cuspid bulge is absent, diagnosis with oriented lateral and frontal radiographs is advocated and has been shown to aid in the positive recognition of lingually positioned unerupted maxillary cuspids at risk for impaction. Recommended treatment is early removal of maxillary deciduous cuspids and perhaps deciduous first premolars. Lateral and frontal radiographs should be taken at six-month intervals to follow the intra-bony eruptive movement of the permanent cuspids until they have entered the oral cavity. Failure to diagnose and intercept the potentially impacted cuspid often leads to serious malpositions that require extensive mechanical therapy for proper alignment and good function. PMID:15839583

Resh, George D

2005-01-01

92

The role of HOM-C genes in segmental transformations: reexamination of the Drosophila Sex combs reduced embryonic phenotype.  

PubMed

Homeotic genes in the Antennapedia Complex of Drosophila specify identity of the posterior head segments; the labial segment requires Sex combs reduced (Scr) for proper development, Deformed (Dfd) specifies maxillary and mandibular identity, and labial is necessary for intercalary segment identity. Although mutations in these genes cause homeotic transformations during imago development, the only obvious homeotic transformation during embryonic head development is found in Scr mutants, where a partial transformation of the labial segment to a more anterior, maxillary identity has been reported. This transformation is unusual because DFD protein does not accumulate in the labial cells of Scr mutants, although DFD is required for development of maxillary structures. Here, we present evidence that casts doubt on whether the labial to maxillary transformation actually exists in embryos lacking Scr. The observed morphological characteristics and gene expression patterns of various mutant embryos indicate a loss of segmental identity rather than a transformation. PMID:8948580

Pederson, J D; Kiehart, D P; Mahaffey, J W

1996-11-25

93

Simultaneous Sinus Lifting and Alveolar Distraction of a Severely Atrophic Posterior Maxilla for Oral Rehabilitation with Dental Implants  

PubMed Central

We retrospectively reviewed a new preimplantation regenerative augmentation technique for a severely atrophic posterior maxilla using sinus lifting with simultaneous alveolar distraction, together with long-term oral rehabilitation with implants. We also analyzed the regenerated bone histomorphologically. This study included 25 maxillary sinus sites in 17 patients. The technique consisted of alveolar osteotomy combined with simultaneous sinus lifting. After sufficient sinus lifting, a track-type vertical alveolar distractor was placed. Following a latent period, patient self-distraction was started. After the required augmentation was achieved, the distractor was left in place to allow consolidation. The distractor was then removed, and osseointegrated implants (average of 3.2 implants per sinus site, 80 implants) were placed. Bone for histomorphometric analysis was sampled from six patients and compared with samples collected after sinus lifting alone as controls (n = 4). A sufficient alveolus was regenerated, and all patients achieved stable oral rehabilitation. The implant survival rate was 96.3% (77/80) after an average postloading followup of 47.5 months. Good bone regeneration was observed in a morphological study, with no significant difference in the rate of bone formation compared with control samples. This new regenerative technique could be a useful option for a severely atrophic maxilla requiring implant rehabilitation. PMID:22792105

Kanno, Takahiro; Mitsugi, Masaharu; Paeng, Jun-Young; Sukegawa, Shintaro; Furuki, Yoshihiko; Ohwada, Hiroyuki; Nariai, Yoshiki; Ishibashi, Hiroaki; Katsuyama, Hideaki; Sekine, Joji

2012-01-01

94

Endoscopic sinus surgery for maxillary sinus mucoceles  

PubMed Central

Background Maxillary sinus mucoceles are relatively rare among all paranasal sinus mucoceles. With the introduction of endoscopic sinus surgical techniques, rhinologic surgeons prefer transnasal endoscopic management of sinus mucoceles. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical presentation of maxillary sinus mucoceles and to establish the efficacy of endoscopic management of sinus mucoceles. Methods Between 2003 and 2005, 14 patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for maxillary sinus mucocele. The presenting sign and symptoms, radiological findings, surgical management and need for revision surgery were reviewed. Results There were eight males and six females with an age range of 14 to 65. Ten patients complained of nasal obstruction, five of nasal drainage, five of cheek pressure or pain and one of proptosis of the eye and cheek swelling. The maxillary sinus and ipsilateral ethmoid sinus involvement on computed tomographic studies was seen in 4 patients. Four patients had history of endoscopic ethmoidectomy surgery for ethmoid sinusitis and one had Caldwell-Luc operation in the past. Ethmoidectomy with middle meatal antrostomy and marsupialization of the mucocele was performed in all patients. Postoperative follow-up ranged between 8 to 48 months. All patients had a patent middle meatal antrostomy and healthy maxillary sinus mucosa. No patients need revision surgery. Conclusion The most common causes of mucoceles are chronic infection, allergic sinonasal disease, trauma and previous surgery. In 64% of the patients of our study cause remains uncertain. Endoscopic sinus surgery is an effective treatment for maxillary sinus mucoceles with a favorable long-term outcome. PMID:16953897

Caylakli, Fatma; Yavuz, Haluk; Cagici, Alper Can; Ozluoglu, Levent Naci

2006-01-01

95

Deferoxamine Expedites Consolidation during Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background A limitation of mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (DO) is the length of time required for consolidation. This drawback subjects patients to possible pin-site infections, as well as a prolonged return to activities of normal daily living. Developing innovative techniques to abridge consolidation periods could be immensely effective in preventing these problematic morbidities. Deferoxamine (DFO) is an angiogenic activator that triggers the HIF-1? pathway through localized iron depletion. We previously established the effectiveness of DFO in enhancing regenerate vascularity at a full consolidation period (28 days) in a murine mandibular DO model. To investigate whether this augmentation in vascularity would function to accelerate consolidation, we progressively shortened consolidation periods prior to ?CT imaging and biomechanical testing (BMT). Materials and Methods Three time points (14d, 21d and 28d) were selected and six groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were equally divided into control (C) and experimental (E) groups for each time period. Each group underwent external fixator placement, mandibular osteotomy, and a 5.1mm distraction. During distraction, the experimental groups were treated with DFO injections into the regenerate gap. After consolidation, mandibles were imaged and tension tested to failure. ANOVA was conducted between groups, and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results At 14 days of consolidation the experimental group demonstrated significant increases in Bone Volume Fraction (BVF), Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Ultimate Load (UL) in comparison to non-treated controls. The benefit of treatment was further substantiated by a striking 100% increase in the number of bony unions at this early time-period (C:4/10 vs. E:8/10). Furthermore, metrics of BVF, BMD, Yield and UL at 14 days with treatment demonstrated comparable metrics to those of the fully consolidated 28d control group. Conclusion Based on these findings, we contend that augmentation of vascular density through localized DFO injection delivers an efficient means for accelerating bone regeneration without significantly impacting bone quality or strength. PMID:23598047

Donneys, Alexis; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Johnson, Kelsey L.; Blough, Jordan T.; Perosky, Joseph E.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Felice, Peter A.; Nelson, Noah S.; Farberg, Aaron S.; Levi, Benjamin; Buchman, Steven R.

2014-01-01

96

Cephalometric evaluation of the pharyngeal airway space after orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis of the jaw bones  

PubMed Central

Objective: Orthognathic surgeries and distraction osteogenesis (DO) of the jaw bones cause a change in the pharyngeal airway space (PAS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the magnitude of changes occurring in the pharyngeal airway after mandibular set-back surgeries and DO of maxilla/mandible. Materials and Methods: The study undertaken was a retrospective cephalometric study. Subjects included in our study had undergone mandibular set-back surgery or DO of maxilla/mandible. Lateral cephalograms of the subjects taken pre-operatively (T0), immediate post-operatively (T1) and after a minimum follow-up period of 6 months (T2) were studied. The cephalograms were traced manually and the following parameters were evaluated: Surface area of the PAS, pharyngeal airway width at the level of the base of the tongue, position of the hyoid bone and the tongue. Repeated measure ANOVA test was done to assess the presence of any significant changes in the proposed parameters at T0, T1 and T2. A correlation analysis was made between the mandibular/maxillary movements and the corresponding changes in the PAS. Results: Surgical movements of maxilla and mandible do have an effect on the pharyngeal airway. Conclusion: It was clearly evident that the effects of mandibular movements on the PAS and the hyoid bone is more significant than the maxillary movements.

Sriram, S. Ganapathy; Andrade, Neelam N.

2014-01-01

97

Distraction by a monotube fixator to achieve limb lengthening: predictive factors for tibia trauma  

PubMed Central

Background Management of post trauma tibia bone gap varied with orthopedic surgeons’ experience and tools available. Study aims to determine predictive factors for distraction by a monotube fixator (DMF) outcome in post tibia trauma limb length discrepancy. Methods A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of post traumatized tibia bone gap and limb length discrepancy patients at tertiary hospitals. Patient’s informed consent and institutional ethical committee approval were obtained. Bio-data, clinical and healing indexes were documented. DMF was applied for patient that met inclusion criteria. The Statistic tests used included the Chi-square, the Student’s two-tailed t test, and the Wilcox on rank-sum test when appropriate. Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for poor outcome potential risk factors were recorded. Bivariate correlation and logistic regression were evaluated. Significance level was set at a p value <0.05. Results Thirty-six patients with mean age, 37.2?±?10.3 year and male/female ratio of 1:1.25 had DMF applied. Motorcycle accident accounted for 50.0% of patients and diaphyseal segment was most commonly affected 25 (69.4%). The mean bone lengthened was 10.1?±?4.0 cm (range: 5-21 cm) and mean duration of bone transport was 105.6?±?38.2 days. The means of rate of distraction, healing index and percentage of lengthening were 0.99?±?0.14 mm/day, 15.6?±?4.3 days/cm and 38.0?±?14.3 respectively. The mean follow up was 9.7 ±4.9 months (range: 2–17.0). Per operative complications varied and outcome was satisfactory in 30 (83.3%). Obesity (p <0.0001), multiple surgery (p?=?0.012) and transfusion (p?=?0.001) correlated to poor outcome. Percentage lengthening???50%, bone gap >10 cm, anemia, blood transfusion, general anesthesia administration, distraction rate >1 mm/day, osteomyelitis and prolong partial weight bearing were significant predictive factors for poor outcome in post traumatic tibia distraction. Conclusion Distraction by a monotube fixator appears effective in achieving correction >38.0% original tibia lengthening following traumatic bone gap. Predictive factors for poor outcome were useful for prognostication. PMID:23672599

2013-01-01

98

Monoaxial distraction of ulna to second metacarpal followed by single bone forearm in massive post infective radial bone loss  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Radial bone loss associated with gross manus valgus deformity can be managed by open reduction internal fixation using intervening strut bone graft, callus distraction using ring or monoaxial fixator, and achieving union by distraction histogenesis. These methods are particularly suitable when bone loss is small. Single or staged procedure is described for congenital as well as in acquired extensive bone loss of radius. Distraction through radial proximal to distal segments, to achieve reduction of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ), is also described in acquired cases. In the present series, functional results of distraction through ulna to 2nd metacarpal is studied alongwith, functional status of hand, stability of wrist, level of patient's satisfaction are also studied. Materials and Methods: 7 unilateral cases of radial loss (M = 5, F = 2) affecting 4 right hands of mean age 17 years (range 9 to 24 years) were included in this study. They were treated by distracting through ulna to 2nd metacarpal to achieve DRUJ alignment in first stage. Subsequently ulna was osteotomised and translated to distal stump of radius. It was then fixed to the distal radial remnant in 30° pronation in dominant and 30° supination non dominant hands. Results: Union was achieved in all cases associated with beneficial cross union of distal ulna. Hand functions improved near to normal, with fully corrected stable wrist joint, hypertrophied ulna and without recurrence. All of them had practically complete loss of forearm rotations, however patients were fully satisfied. Conclusion: This method is particularly suitable when associated with 6 cm or more radial bone loss. But when loss is small, sacrifice of one bone may not be justifiable. PMID:23325973

Pal, Jitendra N; Banik, Rajeeb

2012-01-01

99

[Puncture of the maxillary sinus (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In some texts on operative technique it is recommended, when puncturing the maxillary sinus via the inferior meatus, to aim towards the outer canthus of the eye. It is demonstrated on a skull that aiming at the inner canthus avoids the danger of piercing the premaxillary tissue and in addition the diameter of the sinus is greater at this angle. PMID:965271

Meuser, W

1976-09-01

100

Bacteriological study of chronic maxillary sinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 50 patients (61 sinuses) of chronic maxillary sinusitis and 50 controls were studied. The patients were scanned radiologically (Water's view for PNS) and antral washes cultured aerobically and anaerobically. Pure acrobic growth was obtained from 21 (34%) sinuses, pure anaerobic from 17 (28%) sinuses, mixed from 15 (25%) aspirate, 8 (13%) were sterile. Common aerobic isolates were

Archana Thakur; Anandita Mandai; K. L. Sawhney

1997-01-01

101

Management of an Extremely Displaced Maxillary Canine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case Report: Aligning a displaced maxillary canine into the den- tal arch is one of the most complicated problems in orthodontics. In cases of extremely high displacement, the tooth is frequently removed surgically. Because of the upper canines' significance to dental esthetics and functional occlusion, such a decision is a very serious one. This case report illustrates the treatment of

Torsten Grande; Annemarie Stolze; Heiko Goldbecher

2005-01-01

102

Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Resolves Conflict from Distracting  

E-print Network

toward Relevant Events D.H. Weissman, A. Gopalakrishnan, C.J. Hazlett and M.G. Woldorff Center to resolve conflict from distracting events (Cohen et al., 1990; Banich et al., 2000b; Botvinick et al., 2001

103

Individual differences in distractibility: An update and a model  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the current literature on individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of background sound on visual-verbal task performance. A large body of evidence suggests that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) underpin individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction in most tasks and contexts. Specifically, high WMC is associated with a more steadfast locus of attention (thus overruling the call for attention that background noise may evoke) and a more constrained auditory-sensory gating (i.e., less processing of the background sound). The relation between WMC and distractibility is a general framework that may also explain distractibility differences between populations that differ along variables that covary with WMC (such as age, developmental disorders, and personality traits). A neurocognitive task-engagement/distraction trade-off (TEDTOFF) model that summarizes current knowledge is outlined and directions for future research are proposed.

Sörqvist, Patrik; Rönnberg, Jerker

2014-01-01

104

75 FR 45696 - Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0194] Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions...AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT....

2010-08-03

105

Flux distraction effect on magnetoelectric laminate sensors and gradiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetic flux distraction effect caused by a nearby metallic material was investigated for Metglas/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 laminated magnetoelectric (ME) sensors. Using flux distraction, a ME sensor can perform an accurate search for metallic targets of different dimensions at various distances. Detection results and simulations were in good agreement. The findings demonstrate an effective means to employ stationary ME sensors and gradiometers for magnetic search applications.

Shen, Ying; Gao, Junqi; Wang, Yaojin; Hasanyan, Davresh; Finkel, Peter; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.

2013-10-01

106

Bone resorption and complications in alveolar distraction osteogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distraction osteogenesis presents an alternative procedure for augmentation of atrophic alveolar bone prior to inserting dental\\u000a implants. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate complications of this method with specific focus on bone resorption\\u000a during the consolidation period and the follow-up period after dental implant insertion into distracted bone. Thirty partially\\u000a edentulous patients underwent a total of 36

Tobias Ettl; Till Gerlach; Thomas Schüsselbauer; Martin Gosau; Torsten E. Reichert; Oliver Driemel

2010-01-01

107

Implementation intentions and test anxiety: Shielding academic performance from distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students whose test anxiety was measured completed a working memory-intensive math exam with televised distractions. Students were provided with implementation intentions (if–then plans; Gollwitzer, 1999) designed to either help them ignore the distractions (i.e., temptation-inhibiting plans) or focus more intently on the math exam (i.e., task-facilitating plans). Regression analyses showed that as test anxiety increased, the effectiveness of temptation-inhibiting

Elizabeth J. Parks-Stamm; Peter M. Gollwitzer; Gabriele Oettingen

2010-01-01

108

Memory load modulates graded changes in distracter filtering  

PubMed Central

Our ability to maintain small amounts of information in mind is critical for successful performance on a wide range of tasks. However, it remains unclear exactly how this maintenance is achieved. One possibility is that it is brought about using mechanisms that overlap with those used for attentional control. That is, the same mechanisms that we use to regulate and optimize our sensory processing may be recruited when we maintain information in visual short-term memory (VSTM). We aimed to test this hypothesis by exploring how distracter filtering is modified by concurrent VSTM load. We presented participants with sequences of target items, the order and location of which had to be maintained in VSTM. We also presented distracter items alongside the targets, and these distracters were graded such that they could be either very similar or dissimilar to the targets. We analyzed scalp potentials using a novel multiple regression approach, which enabled us to explore the neural mechanisms by which the participants accommodated these variable distracters on a trial-to-trial basis. Critically, the effect of distracter filtering interacted with VSTM load; the same graded changes in perceptual similarity exerted effects of a different magnitude depending upon how many items participants were already maintaining in VSTM. These data provide compelling evidence that maintaining information in VSTM recruits an overlapping set of attentional control mechanisms that are otherwise used for distracter filtering. PMID:25610387

Shimi, Andria; Woolrich, Mark W.; Mantini, Dante; Astle, Duncan E.

2015-01-01

109

Dental and Skeletal Changes Following Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Anterior-posterior Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lengthening the maxillary dental arch as a treatment approach for patients with maxillary deficiency and dental crowding is seldom reported. The pur- pose of this study was to assess dental and skeletal changes in the maxilla in the correction of maxillary deficiency associated with a retruded maxillary arch using a surgically assisted rapid maxillary anterior-posterior expansion appliance. Methods: Predistraction

Cheng-Ting Ho; Lun-Jou Lo; Eric JW Liou; Chiung Shing Huang

110

Modification of the maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy in cleft-orthognathic surgery: the bilateral cleft lip and palate deformity.  

PubMed

The adolescent with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) undergoing orthognathic surgery may have multiple residual clefting problems, including a mobile, dysplastic premaxilla and hypoplastic lateral maxillary segments, with each segment misaligned in three dimensions. These problems are commonly compounded by residual oronasal fistulas, bony defects, soft-tissue scarring from previous surgery, and the congenital absence of the maxillary lateral incisor teeth with resulting cleft-dental gaps. This article describes modifications of the Le Fort I osteotomy that allow for the simultaneous routine and safe management of these deformities. Results of this operation on 22 consecutive patients are reported, with findings of follow-up ranging from 1 to 5 years. The long-term parameters reviewed include closure of residual oronasal fistulas, stabilization of the premaxilla, cleft-dental gap closure, maintenance of attached gingiva at the cleft site, maintenance of a positive overjet and overbite, the need for prosthetics to complete dental rehabilitation, and surgical morbidity. PMID:8419569

Posnick, J C; Tompson, B

1993-01-01

111

Comparison of two protocols for maxillary protraction: bone anchors versus face mask with rapid maxillary expansion  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the active treatment effects for maxillary advancement induced by bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) and the active treatment effects for face mask in association with rapid maxillary expansion (RME/FM). Materials and Methods This is a study on consecutively treated patients. The changes in dentoskeletal cephalometric variables from start of treatment (T1) to end of active treatment (T2) with an average T1–T2 interval of about 1 year were contrasted in a BAMP sample of 21 subjects with a RME/FM sample of 34 patients. All subjects were prepubertal at T1. Statistical comparison was performed with t-tests for independent samples. Results The BAMP protocol produced significantly larger maxillary advancement than the RME/FM therapy (with a difference of 2 mm to 3 mm). Mandibular sagittal changes were similar, while vertical changes were better controlled with BAMP. The sagittal intermaxillary relationships improved 2.5 mm more in the BAMP patients. Additional favorable outcomes of BAMP treatment were the lack of clockwise rotation of the mandible as well as a lack of retroclination of the lower incisors. Conclusions The hypothesis is rejected. The BAMP protocol produced significantly larger maxillary advancement than the RME/FM therapy. PMID:20578848

Cevidanes, Lucia; Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A.; De Clerck, Hugo

2010-01-01

112

Volumetric upper airway assessment in patients with transverse maxillary deficiency after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.  

PubMed

Transverse maxillary deficiency is commonly found in patients with sleep apnea and is also related to abnormal breathing patterns. Maxillary expansion procedures promote widening of the nasal floor and reduce the resistance to airflow, and have a positive influence on nasopharynx function. In order to evaluate volume changes in the upper airway, 15 adult patients with transverse maxillary deficiency underwent surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (RME) until a slight overcorrection of the crossbite was obtained. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) volumetric images were obtained at three predefined time points. The mean age of the patients was 30.2 (±7.4) years; nine were females and six were males. The area, volume, and the smallest transverse section area of the airway were assessed using Dolphin Imaging 3D software. Statistical comparisons were made of the changes between time periods. No statistically significant differences were found for volume or area. However a significant difference was found between the preoperative and immediate postoperative smallest transverse section area (P<0.05). Maxillary expansion, as an isolated procedure, does not result in a statistically significant improvement in the airway dimensions and results in an inferior relocation of the smallest transverse section area. PMID:24361243

Pereira-Filho, V A; Monnazzi, M S; Gabrielli, M A C; Spin-Neto, R; Watanabe, E R; Gimenez, C M M; Santos-Pinto, A; Gabrielli, M F R

2014-05-01

113

Infantile Maxillary Sinus Osteomyelitis Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis  

PubMed Central

Periorbital soft tissue swelling may result due to primary orbital pathology or from adjacent facio-maxillary or sino-nasal inflammatory causes. Osteomyelitis of maxilla in the pediatric age group is a rare entity in this era of antibiotics. We present an 11-month-old female infant who was brought with peri-orbital selling and purulent nasal discharge. Computed Tomography showed erosions of the walls of maxillary sinus suggestive of osteomyelitis. Culture of sinus scraping showed Staphylococcus aureus growth and the child improved with intravenous cloxacillin therapy. This case is presented due to the rarity of its presentation in this age group and for awareness to consider this entity in children having fever and peri-orbital swelling. PMID:25191055

Krishnan, Nagarajan; Ramamoorthy, Nathan; Panchanathan, Suresh; Balasundaram, Jothiramalingam S

2014-01-01

114

Impact of distracted driving on safety and traffic flow.  

PubMed

Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16-25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) Poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner that impacts safety and traffic flow negatively when distracted. PMID:23465745

Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L; Garner, Annie A; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C; Ball, Karlene K; Sisiopiku, Virginia P; Fine, Philip R

2013-12-01

115

Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow  

PubMed Central

A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma. PMID:22788782

2012-01-01

116

Juvenile angiofibroma of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Juvenile angiofibromas are benign fibro-vascular tumours of the nasopharynx that develop in prepubertal and adolescent males. Typical symptoms are longstanding unilateral nasal obstruction occasionally followed by epistaxes and frequent severe intraoperative haemorrhage of the discovered mass. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy histologically diagnosed with a juvenile angiofibroma in spite of the atypical localisation of the polyploid mass of the left maxillary sinus. PMID:23397786

Malvi?, Goran; Manestar, Dubravko; Krstulja, Mira; Corak, Davor; Candrli?, Barbara; Kujundzi?, Milodar; Velepic, Marko; Starcevi?, Radan

2012-11-01

117

Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies  

PubMed Central

Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

2014-01-01

118

Distraction-induced intestinal growth: the role of mechanotransduction mechanisms in a mouse model of short bowel syndrome.  

PubMed

Novel strategies are needed to address the problem of patients with short bowel syndrome. We previously demonstrated a three-fold lengthening of pig bowel after 2 weeks of applied distractive forces, but we have not elucidated the mechanisms facilitating this growth. We used a mouse model of distraction-induced enterogenesis. High molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) osmotically stretched an isolated small bowel segment (PEG-stretch). Significant increases in villus height and crypt depth and in intestinal epithelial cell length and numbers suggested epithelial remodeling in addition to proliferation during enterogenesis. LC-MS/MS analysis showed a two-fold upregulation of ?-actinin-1 and -4. We also demonstrated that p-focal adhesion kinase (FAK), FAK, ?-actinin, and Rac1 were significantly upregulated and that F-actin was relocalized in PEG-stretch versus controls. Blockade of the phosphotidyl inositol 3' kinase pathway failed to influence the increase in proliferation or decline in apoptosis after stretch, suggesting alternative signaling pathways are used, including MEK and P38MAPK, which were both upregulated during enterogenesis. Our data suggests that several known mechanotransduction pathways drive distraction-induced enterogenesis. PMID:24070252

Sueyoshi, Ryo; Woods Ignatoski, Kathleen M; Okawada, Manabu; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

2014-02-01

119

Stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in maxillary advancement: review of the literature.  

PubMed

Stability of the skeletal segments repositioned during orthognathic surgery is still a concern in maxillofacial surgery. In an attempt to establish a consensus about one of the most frequently performed repositioning surgeries, the literature from 1985 to 1999 concerning stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in maxillary advancement was reviewed. There have been many problems in interpreting the results of the analysis because of differences in the design of the studies and the multifactorial nature of the disorder. For this reason each problem that emerged in the literature is analyzed and discussed. PMID:10686845

Costa, F; Robiony, M; Politi, M

1999-01-01

120

The Effects of Interactive and Passive Distraction on Cold Pressor Pain in Preschool-aged Children  

PubMed Central

Objective?Using a mixed model design, this study examined the effects of interactive versus passive distraction on healthy preschool-aged children’s cold pressor pain tolerance.?Methods?Sixty-one children aged 3–5 years were randomly assigned to one of the following: interactive distraction, passive distraction, or no distraction control. Participants underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by interactive distraction trial, passive distraction trial, or second baseline trial. One or two additional trials followed. Children originally assigned to distraction received the alternate distraction intervention. Controls participated in both interactive and passive distraction trials in counterbalanced order.?Results?Participants showed significantly higher pain tolerance during both interactive and passive distraction relative to baseline. The two distraction conditions did not differ.?Conclusions?Interactive and passive video game distraction appear to be effective for preschool-aged children during laboratory pain exposure. Future studies should examine whether more extensive training would enhance effects of interactive video game distraction. PMID:21278378

Dahlquist, Lynnda M.; Wohlheiter, Karen

2011-01-01

121

Relationships between tissue dilatation and differentiation in distraction osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Mechanical factors modulate the morphogenesis and regeneration of mesenchymally derived tissues via processes mediated by the extracellular matrix (ECM). In distraction osteogenesis, large volumes of new bone are created through discrete applications of tensile displacement across an osteotomy gap. Although many studies have characterized the matrix, cellular and molecular biology of distraction osteogenesis, little is known about relationships between these biological phenomena and the local physical cues generated by distraction. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to characterize the local physical environment created within the osteotomy gap during long bone distraction osteogenesis. Using a computational approach, we quantified spatial and temporal profiles of three previously identified mechanical stimuli for tissue differentiation–pressure, tensile strain and fluid flow–as well as another candidate stimulus–tissue dilatation (volumetric strain). Whereas pressure and fluid velocity throughout the regenerate decayed to less than 31% of initial values within 20 min following distraction, tissue dilatation increased with time, reaching steady state values as high as 43% strain. This dilatation created large reductions and large gradients in cell and ECM densities. When combined with previous findings regarding the effects of strain and of cell and ECM densities on cell migration, proliferation and differentiation, these results indicate two mechanisms by which tissue dilatation may be a key stimulus for bone regeneration: (1) stretching of cells and (2) altering cell and ECM densities. These results are used to suggest experiments that can provide a more mechanistic understanding of the role of tissue dilatation in bone regeneration. PMID:16330195

Morgan, Elise F.; Longaker, Michael T.; Carter, Dennis R.

2007-01-01

122

Is Susceptibility to Distraction Related to Mental Ability?  

E-print Network

In order to assess the effects of individual differences in attentional focus on measures of mental skills, 272 university undergraduates were tested. Distractibility was determined in a speeded visual search task by comparing performance in the presence and absence of extraneous auditory and visual stimuli. Mental ability was measured using tests of crystallized intelligence and verbal ability. Although mental abilities were measured under normal (no distraction) conditions, high-distractible subjects on average were 9.4 percentile points lower than low-distractible subjects on the cognitive skills measures. This suggests that perceptual/attentional factors are an important aspect of measured intelligence. A prevailing belief among researchers studying mental skills is that the ability to focus attention is fundamental to efficient cognitive functioning (e.g., Eysenck, 1982; Jensen, 1985). Extreme examples that support his viewpoint can be seen in attention deficit disorders and learning disabilities, where the inability to sustain attention (high distractibility) results in poor cognitive performance (Douglas, 1983). Sternberg and

Deborah J. Aks; Stanley Coren

123

A moving goalkeeper distracts penalty takers and impairs shooting accuracy.  

PubMed

When facing penalty kicks in football (soccer), goalkeepers frequently incorporate strategies that are designed to distract the kicker. However, no direct empirical evidence exists to ascertain what effect such visual distractions have on the attentional control, and performance, of footballers. Eighteen experienced footballers took five penalty kicks under counterbalanced conditions of threat (low vs. high) and goalkeeper movement (stationary vs. waving arms) while wearing eye-tracking equipment. Results suggested that participants were more distracted by a moving goalkeeper than a stationary one and struggled to disengage from a moving goalkeeper under situations of high threat. Significantly, more penalties were saved on trials when the goalkeeper was moving and shots were also generally hit closer to the goalkeeper (centrally) on these trials. The results provide partial support for the predictions of attentional control theory and implications for kickers and goalkeepers are discussed. PMID:20568032

Wood, Greg; Wilson, Mark R

2010-07-01

124

New-onset craniosynostosis after posterior vault distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to document the incidence of new-onset craniosynostosis (NOC) after posterior vault distraction osteogenesis (PVDO), to determine risk factors for the development of NOC, and to deduce the cranial ramifications of NOC. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review of all patients who underwent PVDO at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was performed. Demographics, perioperative data, as well as preoperative and postoperative three-dimensional computed tomographic scans were analyzed. Suture patency preoperatively and postoperatively was recorded.Thirty patients underwent PVDO for suspected increased intracranial pressure and/or severe turribrachicephaly from 2008 to 2013. Twenty-four patients had syndromic diagnoses. The average age at the time of PVDO was 2.03 years. Distraction distances ranged from 19 to 40 mm, with an average of 28.7 mm. Among the 19 patients who had patent lambdoid sutures before PVDO, new-onset lambdoid fusion was seen in 17 patients after PVDO (89.5%), whereas the suture remained open in 2 patients (10.5%). New-onset lambdoid fusion was not significantly associated with age at distraction (P = 0.28), sex (P = 0.47), length of distraction (P = 0.93), or diagnosis (P = 0.61). Similarly, new-onset sagittal synostosis was not associated with age at distraction (P = 0.06), sex (P = 0.64), length of distraction (P = 0.83), or diagnosis (P = 0.25). None of the patients who developed NOC had characteristic head shape changes such as mastoid bulges or scaphocephaly. New-onset lambdoid and sagittal synostoses occur frequently after PVDO. Although the diagnosis of NOC is obvious radiographically, the clinical importance of the diagnosis morphometrically, neurodevelopmentally, and in cranial growth has yet to be fully investigated. PMID:25469894

Tahiri, Youssef; Paliga, James Thomas; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

2015-01-01

125

Soft tissue distraction in hand surgery: the “pentagonal frame” technique  

PubMed Central

Soft tissue distraction (STD) is an increasingly accepted operation in all fields of hand surgery from elbow contracture release to PIP joint release. Current techniques reported lack the ability to distract the joints of the fingers or the hand, maintain the length of released contractures, and hold them in a position while active and passive physiotherapy is possible. We describe a technique by which STD of the hand and fingers is done with no joint or tendon involvement overcoming the aforementioned drawbacks. Thirty-three patients with hand contractures were treated. In this method, a thin 1–1.5-mm Kirschner wire was passed horizontally at the proximal head of the distal phalanx and bent like a frame around the finger, forming a pentagonal shape for anchorage. The distal distraction was exerted at the distal phalanx. Various forms of external fixation were then used to distract a finger, several fingers, or the hand by placing tension on this frame; the distraction was either static (with a wire exerting pressure) or dynamic (using a rubber band to adjust the tension). After obtaining the desired result, the wire or rubber band was temporarily freed to commence active and passive physiotherapy. We maintained the frame for 3–6 weeks. All 33 patients were successfully treated. No major complications were encountered during the follow-up period (3–5 years). The pentagonal frame allows for effective distraction of soft tissues and joint ligaments and maintains the space needed for healing of fractures of the metacarpals and phalanges. PMID:19319651

Nazerani, Shahram

2009-01-01

126

Analytics For Distracted Driver Behavior Modeling in Dilemma Zone  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present the results obtained and insights gained through the analysis of TRB contest data. We used exploratory analysis, regression, and clustering models for gaining insights into the driver behavior in a dilemma zone while driving under distraction. While simple exploratory analysis showed the distinguishing driver behavior patterns among different popu- lation groups in the dilemma zone, regression analysis showed statically signification relationships between groups of variables. In addition to analyzing the contest data, we have also looked into the possible impact of distracted driving on the fuel economy.

Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL] [ORNL; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL; Thakur, Gautam [ORNL] [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

127

Project Aura: Toward Distraction-Free Pervasive Computing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the April-June 2002 special issue of the IEEE Pervasive Computing journal, a team from Carnegie Mellon University contributed with a discussion of their Project Aura. The project's goal is to increase computing efficiency, particularly in wireless environments, so that "distractions such as poor performance and failures" are minimized. With greater system reliability and fewer distractions, users can make better use of their time and focus on the task at hand. This article describes the specifics of Project Aura, bringing together many areas that are being studied to accomplish the team's goals. The Aura home page gives further insights into research and additional papers.

Garlan, David.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.; Steenkiste, Peter A.

2002-01-01

128

The effects of an oral distraction on cattle during a painful procedure.  

PubMed

An oral distraction was investigated as a way to reduce struggle and heart rate of beef cattle undergoing freeze branding. Oral distraction reduced the struggle of steers, regardless of branding treatment. No effect on heart rate was found. Distractions may provide a way to reduce struggle by animals during restraint. PMID:24155450

Aitken, Brooke L; Stookey, Joseph M; Noble, Scott; Watts, Jon; Finlay, Don

2013-06-01

129

Pain catastrophizing influences the use and the effectiveness of distraction in schoolchildren.  

PubMed

Distraction is an intuitive way of coping with pain and is often used in children's pain treatment programs. However, empirical evidence concerning the effectiveness of distraction is equivocal. One potential explanation might be that distraction does not work for everyone in every situation. In the current series of studies, we examined the role of pain catastrophizing as an influencing factor of distraction effectiveness. In the first study, we investigated the use of pain coping strategies (including distraction) in schoolchildren (N?=?828, aged 8-18 years) by means of a questionnaire. Results indicated that children with higher levels of pain catastrophizing reported using less distraction strategies in daily life than children with lower levels of pain catastrophizing. In the second study, a subsample (N?=?81, aged 9-18 years) performed a painful cold pressor task (CPT) (12?°C). Participants were randomly assigned to a distraction group, in which an attention-demanding tone-detection task was performed during the CPT, or a control group, in which no distraction task was performed. Results showed that participants in the distraction group were engaged in the distraction task, and reported to have paid less attention to pain than participants in the control group. However, distraction was ineffective in reducing cold pressor pain, and even intensified the pain experience in high catastrophizing children. Caution may be warranted in using distraction as a 'one size fits all' method, especially in high catastrophizing children. PMID:22323378

Verhoeven, K; Goubert, L; Jaaniste, T; Van Ryckeghem, D M L; Crombez, G

2012-02-01

130

Pain catastrophizing influences the use and the effectiveness of distraction in schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distraction is an intuitive way of coping with pain and is often used in children’s pain treatment programs. However, empirical evidence concerning the effectiveness of distraction is equivocal. One potential explanation might be that distraction does not work for everyone in every situation. In the current series of studies, we examined the role of pain catastrophizing as an influencing factor

Katrien Verhoeven; Liesbet Goubert; Tiina Jaaniste; Dimitri M. L. Van Ryckeghem; Geert Crombez

131

Mindfulness and Coping with Dysphoric Mood: Contrasts with Rumination and Distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has shown that rumination exacerbates dysphoric mood whereas distraction attenuates it. This research examined whether the practice of mindfulness meditation could reduce dysphoric mood even more effectively than distraction. A dysphoric mood was induced in 139 female and 38 male participants who were then randomly assigned to a rumination, distraction, or meditation condition. As predicted, participants instructed to

Patricia C. Broderick

2005-01-01

132

Distraction osteogenesis of the mandible:A ten-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandibular distraction has been performed at the authors' institution for the past 10 years on a variety of craniofacial anomalies. This article reviews the experience with distraction and outlines the authors' treatment algorithms based on patient age and pathology. The roles of distraction versus conventional orthognathic surgery are reviewed. The need for preoperative surgical planning and postoperative orthodontic therapy is

Joseph G. McCarthy; Eric J. Stelnicki; Barry K. Grayson

1999-01-01

133

Age-Related Differences in Cognition: The Role of Distraction Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to ignore or control the processing of distracting information may underlie many age-related and individual differences in cognitive abilities. Using a large sample of adults aged 18 to 87 years, this article presents data examining the mediating role of distraction control in the relationship between age and higher order cognition. The reading with distraction task (Connelly, Hasher, &

Emily S. Darowski; Elizabeth Helder; Rose T. Zacks; Lynn Hasher; David Z. Hambrick

2008-01-01

134

The Color-Word Interference Test and Its Relation to Performance Impairment under Auditory Distraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to resist distraction is an important requirement for air traffic controllers. The study examined the relationship between performance on the Stroop color-word interference test (a suggested measure of distraction susceptibility) and impairment under auditory distraction on a task requiring the subject to generate random sequences of…

Thackray, Richard I.; And Others

135

Real-Time Detection of Driver Cognitive Distraction Using Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As use of in-vehicle information systems (IVISs) such as cell phones, navigation systems, and satellite radios has increased, driver distraction has become an important and growing safety concern. A promising way to overcome this problem is to detect driver distraction and adapt in-vehicle systems accordingly to mitigate such distractions. To realize this strategy, this paper applied support vector machines (SVMs),

Yulan Liang; Michelle L. Reyes; John D. Lee

2007-01-01

136

Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

2010-01-01

137

Autogenous bone grafts in the rabbit maxillary sinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This study involving rabbits was undertaken to establish an experimental model for the sinus lift procedure and to clarify the repair of autogenous grafted bone in the maxillary sinus. Study design. A corticocancellous bone block was grafted into the maxillary sinus of each of 18 rabbits. Each animal was killed at 2, 4, or 8 weeks after grafting and

Kazuyo Watanabe; Atsushi Niimi; Minoru Ueda

1999-01-01

138

Complications after apicoectomy in maxillary premolar and molar teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to enumerate the number of perforations to the maxillary sinus while performing apicoectomy on maxillary premolar and molar teeth and to evaluate possible complications as a result of these perforations. A total of 472 apicoectomies were performed in 440 patients; perforations occurred in 10.4% of teeth, 23% in molars, 13% in second premolars and 2% in

Alan Freedman; Isack Horowitz

1999-01-01

139

Clinicopathologic features of dentigerous cysts in the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Dentigerous cyst (DC) in the maxillary sinus is extremely rare. This study evaluated the clinical features, etiologic factors, imaging, treatment, and signs and symptoms of this type of DC. Clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, surgical methods, and histopathologic findings of 4 patients with DCs in the maxillary sinus were evaluated. In addition, we reviewed the literature reports of DCs in the maxillary sinus over the past 40 years. Our 4 patients with DC in the maxillary sinus showed the following results: (1) all the patients were males at first 3 decades of age, (2) swelling and/or yellow-green pus discharges from pharyngeal cavity were common symptoms, (3) the involved teeth in the DC were the maxillary third molar teeth and supernumerary teeth, and (4) Caldwell-Luc approach was performed in these 4 patients. The patients with DC in the maxillary sinus should be evaluated thoroughly by extraoral and intraoral examinations, proper diagnostic imaging procedures, and pathologic examination to avoid misdiagnosis of maxillary sinusitis. The standard treatment for DC in the maxillary sinus is often removed by Caldwell-Luc approach. Furthermore, marsupialization or functional endoscopic sinus surgery may be performed because of the size, location of the cysts, or the age of the patients. PMID:22627441

Xu, Guang-zhou; Jiang, Qian; Yang, Chi; Yu, Chuang-qi; Zhang, Zhi-yuan

2012-05-01

140

Maxillary tooth transpositions: Characteristic features and accompanying dental anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transposition is a dental anomaly manifested by a positional interchange of 2 permanent teeth. The maxillary permanent canine usually transposes with the first premolar and occasionally with the lateral incisor. The records of 65 orthodontically treated individuals with maxillary tooth transpositions (40 females and 25 males) with an age range of 9 to 25 years (mean age, 13.4 years) were

Yehoshua Shapira; Mladen M. Kuftinec

2001-01-01

141

Ectopic tooth in maxillary sinus: Case series  

PubMed Central

Ectopic eruption of a tooth within the dentate region of the jaws is often noticed in clinical practice and is well documented in the literature. But the ectopic eruption into the non dentate region is rare and scantly documented. The maxillary sinus is one such a non dentate region, apart from nasal septum, mandibular condyle, coronoid process and the palate, to accommodate such ectopic eruptions of teeth. Due to its rarity and lack of consensus over its management, the incidence deserves to be added to the literature and discussed. Early surgical intervention for removal of ectopic tooth along with enucleation of the associated cyst, if any, is the treatment of choice. PMID:23662268

Ramanojam, Shandilya; Halli, Rajshekhar; Hebbale, Manjula; Bhardwaj, Smita

2013-01-01

142

Treatment options of untreatable traumatized anterior maxillary teeth for future use of dental implantation.  

PubMed

The anterior maxilla is the most traumatized region during childhood. Posttraumatic complications occasionally lead to tooth loss as well as the need for future implants. Unfortunately, it is contraindicated to place dental implants during childhood. A waiting period of approximately 8 to 10 years before completion of growth is required. For this patient to become a candidate for future dental implants, it is necessary to ensure the continuous growth and to preserve the dimensions of the alveolar process until growth has ceased from time of injury until joint maturation. To achieve these goals, it is essential to coordinate the treatment sequence at the time of trauma. After loss of a traumatized anterior permanent maxillary incisor in young adults, treatment options are limited: orthodontic closure of the gap and reshaping the adjacent teeth, or tooth extraction and maintaining the gap with a temporary restoration. Orthodontic space closure has limited indications and requires prosthetic restoration of at least 2 teeth. Extraction and temporary restoration will usually lead to bone augmentation before implantation. Other possible treatment options include orthodontic extrusion of the root remnant (in cases of untreatable root fracture or complicated crown-root fracture) and a temporary crown to serve the patient until the completion of growth and development, autogenous tooth transplantation, intentional extraction and immediate tooth replantation, distraction osteogenesis, and decoronation. Because general rules do not apply, individual treatment plans are necessary. PMID:15017299

Schwartz-Arad, Devorah; Levin, Liran; Ashkenazi, Malka

2004-03-01

143

Treatment options of untreatable traumatized anterior maxillary teeth for future use of dental implantation.  

PubMed

The anterior maxilla is the most traumatized region during childhood. Posttraumatic complications occasionally lead to tooth loss as well as the need for future implants. Unfortunately, it is contraindicated to place dental implants during childhood. A waiting period of approximately 8 to 10 years before completion of growth is required. For this patient to become a candidate for future dental implants, it is necessary to ensure the continuous growth and to preserve the dimensions of the alveolar process until growth has ceased from time of injury until joint maturation. To achieve these goals, it is essential to coordinate the treatment sequence at the time of trauma. After loss of a traumatized anterior permanent maxillary incisor in young adults, treatment options are limited: orthodontic closure of the gap and reshaping the adjacent teeth, or tooth extraction and maintaining the gap with a temporary restoration. Orthdontic space closure has limited indications and requires prosthetic restoration of at least 2 teeth. Extraction and temporary restoration will usually lead to bone augmentation before implantation. Other possible treatment options include orthodontic extrusion of the root remnant (in cases of untreatable root fracture or complicated crown-root fracture) and a temporary crown to serve the patient until the completion of growth and development, autogenous tooth transplantation, intentional extraction and immediate tooth replantation, distraction osteogenesis, and decoronation. Because general rules do not apply, individual treatment plans are necessary. PMID:15179087

Schwartz-Arad, Devorah; Levin, Liran; Ashkenazi, Malka

2004-06-01

144

Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors  

PubMed Central

This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

2015-01-01

145

The costly filtering of potential distraction: evidence for a supramodal mechanism.  

PubMed

When dealing with significant sensory stimuli, performance can be hampered by distracting events. Attention mechanisms lessen such negative effects, enabling selection of relevant information while blocking potential distraction. Recent work shows that preparatory brain activity, occurring before a critical stimulus, may reflect mechanisms of attentional control aimed to filter upcoming distracters. However, it is unknown whether the engagement of these filtering mechanisms to counteract distraction in itself taxes cognitive-brain systems, leading to performance costs. Here we address this question and, specifically, seek the behavioral signature of a mechanism for the filtering of potential distraction within and between sensory modalities. We show that, in potentially distracting contexts, a filtering mechanism is engaged to cope with forthcoming distraction, causing a dramatic behavioral cost in no-distracter trials during a speeded tactile discrimination task. We thus demonstrate an impaired processing caused by a potential, yet absent, distracter. This effect generalizes across different sensory modalities, such as vision and audition, and across different manipulations of the context, such as the distracter's sensory modality and pertinence to the task. Moreover, activation of the filtering mechanism relies on both strategic and reactive processes, as shown by its dynamic dependence on probabilistic and cross-trial contingencies. Crucially, across participants, the observed strategic cost is inversely related to the interference exerted by a distracter on distracter-present trials. These results attest to a mechanism for the monitoring and filtering of potential distraction in the human brain. Although its activation is indisputably beneficial when distraction occurs, it leads to robust costs when distraction is actually expected but currently absent. PMID:22984954

Marini, Francesco; Chelazzi, Leonardo; Maravita, Angelo

2013-08-01

146

U.S. State and Federal Laws Targeting Distracted Driving  

PubMed Central

Distracted driving has burgeoned with the proliferation of cell phones, global positioning systems and other in-vehicle and personal electronic devices. Annually more than 3,300 people are killed and an additional 400,000 are injured in the United States in distracted driving crashes. The United States (U.S.) federal and state governments have responded to this public health problem with policies and laws; however, a more comprehensive and more effective approach is still needed. Some restrictions on the use of electronic devices while driving by federal employees and some voluntary guidelines and recommendations have been issued. Public opinion polls show support for addressing the issue of distracted driving with state laws. The majority of states have laws banning text messaging while driving and prohibiting the use of an electronic device by teenage or novice drivers. Some states prohibit all drivers from using a hand-held cellphone. Currently no state has a total ban on the use of personal electronic devices while driving. Successful past traffic safety campaigns changing driver behavior have demonstrated the necessity to adopt a “three Es” approach of Enactment of a law, Education of the public about the law, and rigorous Enforcement of the law. Experience reveals that this approach, along with future federal regulation of in-vehicle electronic devices and the employment of technology to limit the use of electronic devices while driving, is needed to alter personal behavior in order to reduce distractions and keep drivers focused on the driving task. PMID:24776229

Catherine Chase, J.D.

2014-01-01

147

Distraction and Facilitation--Two Faces of the Same Coin?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unexpected and task-irrelevant sounds can capture our attention and may cause distraction effects reflected by impaired performance in a primary task unrelated to the perturbing sound. The present auditory-visual oddball study examines the effect of the informational content of a sound on the performance in a visual discrimination task. The…

Wetzel, Nicole; Widmann, Andreas; Schroger, Erich

2012-01-01

148

[Central cable system--fully automatic, continuous distraction osteogenesis for the lengthening treatment of large bone defects].  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis involving bone transport enables the reconstruction of large bone defects. The main bone fragments are usually stablilised externally, an intermediate bone segment is separated and moved through the defect at a rate of about 1 mm/day. New high-quality bone is built up in the constantly enlarging osteotomy gap. A major problem associated with the method is the fact that the fixation pins are also moved over the same distance, and cut through the soft tissue, often resulting in painful pin tract infections and ugly scars. An automatic motorized bone transport system employing a single central cable now eliminates this problem. The system can be combined with any external fixateur, since the relevant implanted parts for bone transport are independent of the external stabilizer. The surgical procedure, which is easy on the patient, consists of bone segment separation, central cable fixation, and stabilisation of the main fragments, and requires the use of numerous special tools. The distraction itself results in significantly less soft tissue irritation and pain. Pin tract infections are rare, so that changeover to internal fixation after completion of bone transport carries little risk of infection. This article details the technical features of the stabilizing system and the transport and the control systems, and describes the clinical application in a patient. PMID:15481408

Baumgart, R; Hinterwimmer, S; Krammer, M; Mutschler, W

2004-08-01

149

Using iPads for Distraction to Reduce Pain During Immunizations.  

PubMed

Objective. To determine if using an iPad as a distraction technique reduces the parent's perception of their child's pain and distress during immunizations. Study Design. A total of 103 parents completed a survey regarding their perception of their child's pain during immunizations. Fifty-seven patients were in the group receiving no distraction intervention, and 46 patients were in the group that were allowed to use an iPad for distraction while receiving their vaccines. Results. Regression analysis showed that the use of iPad distraction significantly reduced the parent's perception of their child's level of anxiety, need for being held, and amount of crying during immunizations compared to no distraction. Conclusions. Distraction by using an iPad during immunizations reduces the parent's perception of their child's pain and distress. This type of distraction tool can also improve the parent's satisfaction with the pain control provided for their child while receiving their vaccines. PMID:25165071

Shahid, Ramzan; Benedict, Christina; Mishra, Seetal; Mulye, Milan; Guo, Rong

2015-02-01

150

A case of impacted maxillary central incisor and its management  

PubMed Central

Impaction of maxillary permanent central incisor is not a frequently reported case in dental practice, but its treatment is challenging because of its importance to facial esthetics. Early detection of such teeth is most important if complications are to be avoided. We report a case of a 14-year-old female with an impacted central incisor tooth in the maxillary anterior region. The impacted supernumerary tooth which was preventing the eruption of permanent incisor was surgically removed. Combined approach with surgical exposure and the application of an orthodontic force brought the impacted left maxillary central incisor down to its proper position in the dental arch. PMID:23066245

Kannan, Prem Kumar Karupanna Pillai Subbiah; Palanisamy, Senthil Kumar Kullam Palayam; Kumar, Tamizharasi Senthil

2012-01-01

151

Distraction-induced intestinal enterogenesis: Preservation of intestinal function and lengthening after re-implantation into normal jejunum  

PubMed Central

Background Significant bowel lengthening can occur in an isolated intestinal segment with the use for linearly directed distractive forces; resulting in increased surface area and epithelial cell proliferation. We hypothesized that re-implantation of this lengthened intestine into normal jejunum would preserve this gain in intestinal length and function similar to normal jejunum. Methods An intestinal lengthening device was inserted into isolated jejunal segments in pigs, and fully expanded over 8 days. Lengthened segment were then re-implanted into normal intestinal continuity. Pigs were studied after another 28days. Function was assessed by motility, mucosal enzyme activity, barrier function and intestinal ion transport. Results Lengthened segments were significantly longer than control segments, and had nearly 2-fold greater surface area. Bowel lengthening was maintained 4 weeks after re-implantation. Motility after re-implantation was similar to non-operated pigs. Barrier function, mucosal disaccharidase levels and electrophysiologic measures declined immediately after lengthening, but returned to nearly normal levels 28 days after re-implantation. Conclusion Bowel lengthening results in a transient decline in mucosal absorptive function and smooth muscle contractility. However, function approaches that of normal bowel after re-implantation into enteric flow. These data may support the use of this technique as a potential new option for the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome. PMID:21997804

Koga, Hiroyuki; Sun, Xiaoyi; Yang, Hua; Nose, Keisuke; Somara, Sita; Bitar, Khalil N; Owyang, Chung; Okawada, Manabu; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

2011-01-01

152

Attention and working memory in elderly: the influence of a distracting environment.  

PubMed

The present work investigated the effect of a distracting environment in the performance of attentional and working memory (WM) tasks in elderly participants. To this end, forty elderly performed two attentional tasks (simple reaction time and go/no-go tasks), and three WM tasks (arithmetic, memory for digits and sequences of letters and numbers). Each participant performed the tasks in a distracting and a non-distracting environment, with an interval of 14-21 days between sessions. The results revealed better performance in the attentional tasks when these were done in the non-distracting environment, as compared to when they were done in the distracting environment. Specifically, participants provided more accurate responses, fewer false alarms and omissions when responding in the non-distracting environment than when responding in the distracting environment. Participants were also faster at providing correct responses in the go/no-go task when it was performed in the non-distracting environment. As for the memory tasks, the effect of type of environment was significant only in the memory for digits in a forward direction task. Our data suggest the need to consider the potential damaging consequences of distracting environments when the elderly have to perform tasks that demand their attention. Specific examples of such situations are presented in the discussion (e.g., distracting effect of environment on medical and on psychological evaluations). PMID:25117544

Rodrigues, Pedro F S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S

2015-02-01

153

ZHANG, YU. Visual and Cognitive Distraction Effects on Driver Behavior and an Approach to Distraction State Classification. (Under the direction of Dr. David B. Kaber).  

E-print Network

to Distraction State Classification. (Under the direction of Dr. David B. Kaber). Contemporary in-vehicle devices showed adaptation to such distraction and maintained their situation awareness for safety, particularly to limit adaptive behaviors, even under an operational control mode. Beyond contributing to understanding

Kaber, David B.

154

Motion Versus Fixed Distraction of the Joint in the Treatment of Ankle Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background: Initial reports have shown the efficacy of fixed distraction for the treatment of ankle osteoarthritis. We hypothesized that allowing ankle motion during distraction would result in significant improvements in outcomes compared with distraction without ankle motion. Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing the outcomes for patients with advanced ankle osteoarthritis who were managed with anterior osteophyte removal and either (1) fixed ankle distraction or (2) ankle distraction permitting joint motion. Thirty-six patients were randomized to treatment with either fixed distraction or distraction with motion. The patients were followed for twenty-four months after frame removal. The Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) was the main outcome variable. Results: Two years after frame removal, subjects in both groups showed significant improvement compared with the status before treatment (p < 0.02 for both groups). The motion-distraction group had significantly better AOS scores than the fixed-distraction group at twenty-six, fifty-two, and 104 weeks after frame removal (p < 0.01 at each time point). At 104 weeks, the motion-distraction group had an overall mean improvement of 56.6% in the AOS score, whereas the fixed-distraction group had a mean improvement of 22.9% (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Distraction improved the patient-reported outcomes of treatment of ankle osteoarthritis. Adding ankle motion to distraction showed an early and sustained beneficial effect on outcome. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22637202

Saltzman, Charles L.; Hillis, Stephen L.; Stolley, Mary P.; Anderson, Donald D.; Amendola, Annunziato

2012-01-01

155

Wnt6 is required for maxillary palp formation in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background Wnt6 is an evolutionarily ancient member of the Wnt family. In Drosophila, Wnt6 loss-of-function animals have not yet been reported, hence information about fly Wnt6 function is lacking. In wing discs, Wnt6 is expressed at the dorsal/ventral boundary in a pattern similar to that of wingless, an important regulator of wing size. To test whether Wnt6 also contributes towards wing size regulation, we generated Wnt6 knockout flies. Results Wnt6 knockout flies are viable and have no obvious defect in wing size or planar cell polarity. Surprisingly, Wnt6 knockouts lack maxillary palps. Interestingly, Wnt6 is absent from the genome of hemipterans, correlating with the absence of maxillary palps in these insects. Conclusions Wnt6 is important for maxillary palp development in Drosophila, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that loss of Wnt6 may also have led to loss of maxillary palps on an evolutionary time scale. PMID:24090348

2013-01-01

156

Bilateral postoperative maxillary cysts after orthognathic surgery: A case report.  

PubMed

Postoperative maxillary cysts are locally aggressive lesions, usually developing as delayed complications many years after radical antral surgery. This report describes a case of bilateral postoperative maxillary cysts following orthognathic surgery performed approximately 21 years previously. The patient complained of stinging pain on her right cheek. Radiographic examination revealed low-attenuation lesions on both maxillary sinuses with discontinuously corticated margins without distinct expansion or bone destruction. The cysts were enucleated with the removal of metal plates and screws for pain relief. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of postoperative maxillary cysts lined by ciliated, pseudostratified columnar cells. The patient has remained asymptomatic thus far, and there was no evidence of local recurrence at 21 months of postoperative follow-up. PMID:25473641

Lee, Jung-Hye; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

2014-12-01

157

Adaptive training diminishes distractibility in aging across species.  

PubMed

Aging is associated with deficits in the ability to ignore distractions, which has not yet been remediated by any neurotherapeutic approach. Here, in parallel auditory experiments with older rats and humans, we evaluated a targeted cognitive training approach that adaptively manipulated distractor challenge. Training resulted in enhanced discrimination abilities in the setting of irrelevant information in both species that was driven by selectively diminished distraction-related errors. Neural responses to distractors in auditory cortex were selectively reduced in both species, mimicking the behavioral effects. Sensory receptive fields in trained rats exhibited improved spectral and spatial selectivity. Frontal theta measures of top-down engagement with distractors were selectively restrained in trained humans. Finally, training gains generalized to group and individual level benefits in aspects of working memory and sustained attention. Thus, we demonstrate converging cross-species evidence for training-induced selective plasticity of distractor processing at multiple neural scales, benefitting distractor suppression and cognitive control. PMID:25467987

Mishra, Jyoti; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Merzenich, Michael; Gazzaley, Adam

2014-12-01

158

Driver distraction in long-haul truck drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on driver distraction has typically been conducted by means of epidemiology or experimental testing. The study presented here uses a naturalistic approach, where real-world driving data were collected from truck drivers as they worked their normal delivery runs. Crash, near-crash, and crash-relevant conflict data from 41 long-haul truck drivers, driving approximately 140,000 miles, were examined. Of the 2737 crashes,

Richard J. Hanowski; Miguel A. Perez; Thomas A. Dingus

2005-01-01

159

Preliminary clinical research on epiphyseal distraction in osteosarcoma in children  

PubMed Central

Background The feasibility of distal femur epiphysis preservation through epiphyseal distraction by external fixator in childhood osteosarcoma was explored. Methods Between July 2007 and May 2011, 10 children who were suffering from distal femur osteosarcoma received epiphyseal distraction by external fixator, combined with tumor resection and repair with massive allograft bone to preserve the epiphysis of the distal femur and knee function. There were six male and four female patients, 9- to 14-years old (average 10.5 years old). The tumors were staged clinically according to the Enneking staging method: six cases were classified as stage in IIA and four cases as stage in IIB. All patients were diagnosed by biopsy, then received chemotherapy before and after surgery. All patients received tumor bone resection and the defects of the bone were repaired with massive allograft bone that was fixed by intramedullary nails; the distracted epiphysis and allograft bone were fixed with cancellous screws. Results All cases received follow-up from 15 to 56 months (average 38.5 months). There were no local recurrences. One case died of lung metastasis and one case had poor incision healing for rejection of allograft bone. According to the functional evaluation criteria of the International Society of Limb Salvage (ISOLS) after operation, five cases were rated excellent, four cases good and one case fair. The ratio of excellent or good was 90.0%. There was no statistically significant difference in length between the operated and the normal lower limbs during the last review. Conclusions Epiphyseal distraction by external fixator can result in satisfactory limb length and joint function for children with a malignant bone tumor. PMID:25099460

2014-01-01

160

Endodontic treatment of maxillary lateral incisors with anatomical variations  

PubMed Central

Maxillary lateral incisors usually exhibit a single root with a single canal. However, maxillary lateral incisor teeth with unusual morphology of root canal system are frequently reported. These cases of variable root canal anatomy can be treated well by nonsurgical endodontic methods. A detailed description of root canal morphology is fundamental for successful endodontic treatment. Treatment using an operating microscope, radiographs from different angles, and cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) can produce more predictable endodontic outcomes. PMID:24303362

Lee, Moon-Hwan; Ha, Jung-Hong; Jin, Myoung-Uk; Kim, Young-Kyung

2013-01-01

161

Knowledge of sequence structure prevents auditory distraction: an ERP study.  

PubMed

Infrequent, salient stimuli often capture attention despite their task-irrelevancy, and disrupt on-going goal-directed behavior. A number of studies show that presenting cues signaling forthcoming deviants reduces distraction, which may be a "by-product" of cue-processing interference or the result of direct preparatory processes for the forthcoming distracter. In the present study, instead of "bursts" of cue information, information on the temporal structure of the stimulus sequence was provided. Young adults performed a spatial discrimination task where complex tones moving left or right were presented. In the predictable condition, every 7th tone was a pitch-deviant, while in the random condition the position of deviants was random with a probability of 1/7. Whereas the early event-related potential correlates of deviance-processing (N1 and MMN) were unaffected by predictability, P3a amplitude was significantly reduced in the predictable condition, indicating that prevention of distraction was based on the knowledge about the temporal structure of the stimulus sequence. PMID:24657900

Volosin, Márta; Horváth, János

2014-06-01

162

Distraction in a continuous-stimulation detection task.  

PubMed

Event-related potential (ERP) correlates of distraction are usually investigated in the oddball paradigm following a discrete, trial-by-trial stimulation protocol. In this design, participants perform a discrimination task while oddball stimuli deviate in a task-irrelevant stimulus feature. In our experiment, participants detected gaps in a continuous tone while infrequent frequency glides served as distracting events. Glides preceding a gap by 150ms delayed the response to the gap and elicited the ERP sequence of N1, probably MMN, P3a, and reorienting negativity, suggesting that these responses reflect distraction-related processes which are neither task- nor stimulation-specific. When participants watched a silent movie and the auditory stimulation was task-irrelevant, glides preceding a gap by 150ms enhanced the amplitude of the gap-elicited N1. However, when the auditory stimulation was task-relevant, the gap-elicited N1 was attenuated. These results show that the glides drew attention away from the ongoing task, both from watching the silent movie and from detecting gaps. PMID:20064580

Horváth, János; Winkler, István

2010-03-01

163

Concealed by conspicuousness: distractive prey markings and backgrounds  

PubMed Central

High-contrast markings, called distractive or dazzle markings, have been suggested to draw and hold the attention of a viewer, thus hindering detection or recognition of revealing prey characteristics, such as the body outline. We tested this hypothesis in a predation experiment with blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and artificial prey. We also tested whether this idea can be extrapolated to the background appearance and whether high-contrast markings in the background would improve prey concealment. We compared search times for a high-contrast range prey (HC-P) and a low-contrast range prey (LC-P) in a high-contrast range background (HC-B) and a low-contrast range background (LC-B). The HC-P was more difficult to detect in both backgrounds, although it did not match the LC-B. Also, both prey types were more difficult to find in the HC-B than in the LC-B, in spite of the mismatch of the LC-P. In addition, the HC-P was more difficult to detect, in both backgrounds, when compared with a generalist prey, not mismatching either background. Thus, we conclude that distractive prey pattern markings and selection of microhabitats with distractive features may provide an effective way to improve camouflage. Importantly, high-contrast markings, both as part of the prey coloration and in the background, can indeed increase prey concealment. PMID:19324754

Dimitrova, Marina; Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H. Martin; Merilaita, Sami

2009-01-01

164

Age-related hearing loss increases cross-modal distractibility.  

PubMed

Recent electrophysiological studies have provided evidence that changes in multisensory processing in auditory cortex cannot only be observed following extensive hearing loss, but also in moderately hearing-impaired subjects. How the reduced auditory input affects audio-visual interactions is however largely unknown. Here we used a cross-modal distraction paradigm to investigate multisensory processing in elderly participants with an age-related high-frequency hearing loss as compared to young and elderly subjects with normal hearing. During the experiment, participants were simultaneously presented with independent streams of auditory and visual input and were asked to categorize either the auditory or visual information while ignoring the other modality. Unisensory sequences without any cross-modal input served as control conditions to assure that all participants were able to perform the task. While all groups performed similarly in these unisensory conditions, hearing-impaired participants showed significantly increased error rates when confronted with distracting cross-modal stimulation. This effect could be observed in both the auditory and the visual task. Supporting these findings, an additional regression analysis indicted that the degree of high-frequency hearing loss significantly modulates cross-modal visual distractibility in the auditory task. These findings provide new evidence that already a moderate sub-clinical hearing loss, a common phenomenon in the elderly population, affects the processing of audio-visual information. PMID:25080386

Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Bendixen, Alexandra; Thiel, Christiane M

2014-10-01

165

Multi-modal distraction: Insights from children's limited attention.  

PubMed

How does the multi-sensory nature of stimuli influence information processing? Cognitive systems with limited selective attention can elucidate these processes. Six-year-olds, 11-year-olds and 20-year-olds engaged in a visual search task that required them to detect a pre-defined coloured shape under conditions of low or high visual perceptual load. On each trial, a peripheral distractor that could be either compatible or incompatible with the current target colour was presented either visually, auditorily or audiovisually. Unlike unimodal distractors, audiovisual distractors elicited reliable compatibility effects across the two levels of load in adults and in the older children, but high visual load significantly reduced distraction for all children, especially the youngest participants. This study provides the first demonstration that multi-sensory distraction has powerful effects on selective attention: Adults and older children alike allocate attention to potentially relevant information across multiple senses. However, poorer attentional resources can, paradoxically, shield the youngest children from the deleterious effects of multi-sensory distraction. Furthermore, we highlight how developmental research can enrich the understanding of distinct mechanisms controlling adult selective attention in multi-sensory environments. PMID:25497524

Matusz, Pawel J; Broadbent, Hannah; Ferrari, Jessica; Forrest, Benjamin; Merkley, Rebecca; Scerif, Gaia

2015-03-01

166

Stability of Cleft maxilla in Le Fort I Maxillary advancement  

PubMed Central

Context: Le Fort 1 maxillary osteotomy in operated patients of cleft lip and cleft palate (CLCP). Aims: To study stability of Le Fort 1 maxillary osteotomy in operated patients of CLCP by two-dimensional evaluation using cephalometric analysis. Settings and Design: Prospective study conducted at Army Dental Centre (Research and Referral) from May 2009-May 2012. Materials and Methods: Subjects included nine consecutively operated patients of CLCP with maxillary hypoplasia. Maxillary advancement by Le Fort 1 maxillary step osteotomy was performed. There were four males and five females with an age range of 16-18 years and follow-up range was 12-36 months. Presurgical and postsurgical changes were compared using cephalometrics for orthognathic surgery (COGS) system to determine stability of maxillary movement and quantify amount of relapse at 15 days and 12 months. Statistical Analysis: Student's t-test. Results: Mean linear horizontal advancement achieved along nasion (N) to anterior nasal spine (ANS) with reference to true vertical plane at 15 days and 12 months was 5.17 and 3.91 mm, respectively. The mean relapse in anteroposterior dimension was 21.63%. The mean vertical displacement observed along nasion and ANS with reference to true horizontal plane at 15 days and 12 months was 5.21 mm and 3.2, respectively with a resultant relapse of 41.54%. Conclusions: Based on clinical and COGS analysis, it is evident that Le Fort 1 advancement in operated cases of CLCP has inherent potential for relapse. PMID:24205472

Kumari, Pushpa; Roy, S. K.; Roy, I. D.; Kumar, Prasanna; Datana, Sanjeev; Rahman, Serat

2013-01-01

167

Eye movements of young and older adults while reading with distraction.  

PubMed

The authors used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' online performance in the reading in distraction paradigm. Participants read target sentences and answered comprehension questions following each sentence. In some sentences, single-word distracters were presented in either italic or red font. Distracters could be related or unrelated to the target text. Online measures, including probability of fixation, fixation duration, and number of fixations to distracting text, revealed no age differences in text processing. However, young adults did have an advantage over older adults in overall reading time and text comprehension. These results provide no support for an inhibition deficit account of age differences in the reading in distraction paradigm, but are consistent with J. Dywan and W. E. Murphy's (1996) suggestion that older adults are less able than the young to distinguish target and distracter information held in working memory. PMID:16594789

Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Kramer, Art

2006-03-01

168

The Influence of Expansion Rates on Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis: A Computational Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandibular distraction osteogenesis is a clinical procedure used for modifying the mandibular geometry when problems of dental\\u000a overcrowding and arch shrinkage occur. The objective of this study is to use a computational model of tissue differentiation\\u000a to examine the influence of the rate of distraction on bone re-growth within the fracture callus of a human mandible submitted\\u000a to symphyseal distraction

A. Boccaccio; C. Pappalettere; D. J. Kelly

2007-01-01

169

Comparative characterization of maxillary expansion and alternate maxillary expansions and constrictions in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the cranial and circumaxillary sutures react differently to maxillary expansion (ME) and alternate maxillary expansions and constrictions (Alt-MEC) in a rat model. Twenty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old) were used and divided into three groups. In ME group (n=9), an expander was activated for 5 days. In Alt-MEC group (9 animals), an alternate expansion and constriction protocol (5-day expansion and 5-day constriction for one cycle) was conducted for 2.5 cycles (25 days total). The control group comprised 4 animals with no appliances used, each of two sacrificed on day 5 and day 25 respectively. Midpalatal suture expansion or constriction levels were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by bite-wing X-rays and cast models. Distances between two central incisors and two maxillary first molars were measured on cast models after each activation. Circumaxillary sutures (midpalatal, maxillopalatine, premaxillary, zygomaticotemporal and frontonasal suture) in each group were characterized histologically. Results showed that midpalatal suture was widened and restored after each expansion and constriction. At the end of activation, the widths between both central incisors and first molars in Alt-MEC group were significantly larger than those in ME group (P<0.05). Histologically, all five circumaxillary sutures studied were widened in multiple zones in Alt-MEC group. However, only midpalatal suture was expanded with cellular fibrous tissue filling in ME group. Significant osteoclast hyperplasia was observed in all circumaxillary sutures after alternate expansions and constrictions, but osteoclast count increase was only observed in midpalatal suture in ME group. These results suggested that cranial and circumaxillary sutures were actively reconstructed after Alt-MEC, while only midpalatal suture had active reaction after ME. PMID:25480594

Feng, Guang-Yao; Zou, Bing-Shuang; Zeng, Xiang-Long

2014-12-01

170

Mandibular lengthening by distraction osteogenesis in the setting of osteogenesis imperfecta.  

PubMed

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited disorder characterized by bone fragility and deformity. The craniofacial skeleton may be involved either primarily or by result of a concomitant diagnosis. Distraction osteogenesis has emerged as a versatile reconstructive option for many craniofacial deformities. Mandibular lengthening by distraction has not been reported in a patient with OI. We present a patient in whom mandibular lengthening was successfully performed twice for hemifacial microsomia. Bilateral lengthening was initially performed with successful airway improvement. This was followed by transport distraction on the more severely affected side for condylar reconstruction. Successful mandibular lengthening by distraction is possible in the setting of OI. PMID:25565236

Black, Jonathan S; Denny, Arlen D

2015-01-01

171

Esthetics with prosthetics in case of maxillary canine transposition: a clinical report.  

PubMed

Transposition is a dental anomaly manifested by a positional interchange of two permanent teeth. The maxillary permanent canine usually transposes with the first premolar and occasionally with the lateral incisor. These are mainly genetically governed and are treated orthodontically if complete segment of tooth is present; in case of missing teeth, participation of cosmetic dentist is must. The present case report describes a situation where left canine to lateral incisor complete transposition was present along with a missing left central incisor. Esthetic rehabilitation of the "smile zone" was the major concern. Scrupulous treatment planning to esthetically contour transposed teeth according to their normal positions, i.e., transposed left canine to lateral incisor and transposed left lateral incisor to canine with replacement of missing tooth, was a challenge. PMID:22437104

Yadav, S; Sheorain, A K; Madan, N; Bajaj, P

2012-01-01

172

[Compression-distraction osteosynthesis in pseudarthroses of long tubular bones].  

PubMed

An experience of the clinic with treatment of pseudarthrosis of tubular bones in 163 patients, using compression-distraction osteosynthesis is reported. In their anatomical localization pseudarthroses were distributed as follows: the femur-22, the crus-112, the shoulder-22, the forearm-7. The Ilizarov and Gudushauri compression apparatus was employed in 143 patients, compression osteosynthesis after Greifensteiner was performed in 20 patients. The results of treatment were studied in 155 patients within the terms from 10 months to 5 years. Good issues were obtained in 95 (61.3%) patients, satisfactory- in 45 (29%), poor--in 15 (9.7%). PMID:960506

Shumada, I V; Zhila, Iu S; Rybachuk, O I

1976-04-01

173

Regulating responses to anger: Effects of rumination and distraction on angry mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found that self-focused rumination maintains or increases depressed mood, whereas distraction decreases depressed mood (S. Nolen-Hoeksema & J. Morrow, 1993; S. Nolen- Hoeksema, J, Morrow, & B. L. Fredrickson, 1993). The present series of experiments examined these mood regulation strategies in the context of an angry mood. In Experiments 1 and 3, rumination increased anger, whereas distraction

Cheryl L. Rusting; Susan Nolen-Hoeksema

1998-01-01

174

Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N=27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders were trained along with their parents to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Distraction produced significant positive effects for observer-rated distress scores for the low hypnotizable children. Discusses…

Smith, Julien T.; And Others

1996-01-01

175

Predicting Homework Distraction at the Secondary School Level: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Students continue to struggle with homework distraction well into the secondary school years. Recently, the concern over homework distraction has been growing, as new electronic media have offered diverse and nearly ubiquitous forms of diversion to students while they are doing homework. It is surprising to note, however, that a…

Xu, Jianzhong

2010-01-01

176

Rumination and Distraction Among Chronic Depressives in Treatment: A Structural Equation Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response Styles Theory hypothesizes that rumination about one's symptoms amplifies and prolongs depressed mood, whereas distraction has the opposite effect. Response styles are also hypothesized to be trait-like dispositions. The generalizability of Response Styles Theory, as well as the linkages that may account for correlations between rumination, distraction, and depression, were explored with structural equation modeling in a sample of

Bruce A. Arnow; Diane Spangler; Daniel N. Klein; David D. Burns

2004-01-01

177

Object-Based Attention Overrides Perceptual Load to Modulate Visual Distraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to ignore task-irrelevant information and overcome distraction is central to our ability to efficiently carry out a number of tasks. One factor shown to strongly influence distraction is the perceptual load of the task being performed; as the perceptual load of task-relevant information processing increases, the likelihood that…

Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

2012-01-01

178

How Positive Affect Modulates Cognitive Control: Reduced Perseveration at the Cost of Increased Distractibility  

E-print Network

, an organism would suffer from distract- ibility and impulsivity; without the ability to flexibly reconfigure of increased distractibility and impulsivity. The detri- mental consequences of the dysregulation, we argue that affective states play an important role in the mod- ulation of this stability­flexibility

Schubart, Christoph

179

Maxillary chronic osteomyelitis caused by domestic violence: a diagnostic challenge.  

PubMed

Maxillary osteomyelitis is a rare condition defined as inflammation of the bone primarily caused by odontogenic bacteria, with trauma being the second leading cause. The present report documents a rare case of maxillary osteomyelitis in a 38-year-old female who was the victim of domestic violence approximately a year prior to presentation. Intraoral examination revealed a lesion appearing as exposed bony sequestrum, with significant destruction of gingiva and alveolar mucosa in the maxillary right quadrant, accompanied by significant pain, local edema, and continued purulence. Teeth numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 were mobile, not responsive to percussion, and nonvital. Treatment included antibiotic therapy for seven days followed by total enucleation of the necrotic bone tissue and extraction of the involved teeth. Microscopic findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis of chronic suppurative osteomyelitis. Six months postoperatively, the treated area presented complete healing and there was no sign of recurrence of the lesion. PMID:25610667

Oliveira, Tamyris Inácio; de Carli, Marina Lara; Ribeiro Junior, Noé Vital; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa

2014-01-01

180

Neurofibroma of the maxillary antrum: A rare case  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromas are benign tumors of peripheral nerve tissue, frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Their isolated occurrence in the maxillary antrum is rare, with only 6 cases described in the English literature to the best of our knowledge. Primary neurogenic tumors in the maxillary sinus are unusual entities. The majority of the reported cases that have dealt with neurilemmomas and isolated neurofibromas are extremely rare. Here, a case of neurofibroma of the maxillary sinus. We present the case of a 60-year-old female patient with the chief complain of growth in the upper right back region of the jaw, which was preceded by exfoliation of teeth in the same region 1 month back. PMID:24808710

Jain, Deepali; Chaudhary, Minal; Patil, Swati

2014-01-01

181

Maxillary Chronic Osteomyelitis Caused by Domestic Violence: A Diagnostic Challenge  

PubMed Central

Maxillary osteomyelitis is a rare condition defined as inflammation of the bone primarily caused by odontogenic bacteria, with trauma being the second leading cause. The present report documents a rare case of maxillary osteomyelitis in a 38-year-old female who was the victim of domestic violence approximately a year prior to presentation. Intraoral examination revealed a lesion appearing as exposed bony sequestrum, with significant destruction of gingiva and alveolar mucosa in the maxillary right quadrant, accompanied by significant pain, local edema, and continued purulence. Teeth numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 were mobile, not responsive to percussion, and nonvital. Treatment included antibiotic therapy for seven days followed by total enucleation of the necrotic bone tissue and extraction of the involved teeth. Microscopic findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis of chronic suppurative osteomyelitis. Six months postoperatively, the treated area presented complete healing and there was no sign of recurrence of the lesion. PMID:25610667

Oliveira, Tamyris Inácio; de Carli, Marina Lara; Ribeiro Junior, Noé Vital; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa; Tatakis, Dimitris N.; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa

2014-01-01

182

Management of Unerupted Maxillary Deciduous Central Incisor: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Failure of eruption of primary teeth can be considered rare, especially in maxillary anterior teeth. The problem can be either mechanical obstruction of eruption or a failure of the eruption mechanism. This case report presents failure of eruption of the maxillary right deciduous central incisor in a 4-year-old girl. The unerupted primary tooth was removed surgically. The histological finding revealed fibroma with reactive giant cells. Periodic follow-up visits were advised to monitor the developing dentition and to ensure enough space for the permanent incisor. How to cite this article: Shakra KA. Management of Unerupted Maxillary Deciduous Central Incisor: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):58-60. PMID:25206241

2014-01-01

183

Clinical evaluation of a patient with single maxillary central incisor.  

PubMed

Hypodontia in permanent dentition is the most common developmental anomaly and frequently found in the second premolar and maxillary lateral incisor In the primary dentition, however, hypodontia appears to be less frequent, with the exception of cases such as ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip and palate. We report a child with one primary maxillary central incisor at midline. The presence of a single permanent maxillary central incisor was also confirmed by radiological examination. Other intraoral abnormalities were detected including absence of upper labial frenulum and abnormal palatal structure, but no other facial or brain anomalies. Although the condition is exceedingly rare, a thorough examination for more serious anomalies should be conducted since it is suggested to be the mildest feature of holoprosencephaly. PMID:11874011

Youko, Kamasaki; Satoshi, Fukumoto; Kubota, Kazumi; Goto, George

2002-01-01

184

Maxillary osteosarcoma in a prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).  

PubMed

To date, few tumors have been identified in prairie dogs, with odontoma being the most common. Osteosarcoma has been documented in a wide range of species, including a number of rodents. In this case, a locally invasive maxillary osteosarcoma was diagnosed in a prairie dog. Gross examination revealed a pale, tan, lobulated, sessile maxillary mass extending ventrally into the oral cavity from the hard palate and the gingiva surrounding the upper right cheek teeth. The mass invaded the right nasal cavity and retrobulbar space causing exophthalmia. Microscopically, the mass consisted of densely packed spindle-shaped cells with occasional multinucleated giant cells. Brightly eosinophilic osteoid was multifocally scattered in the tumor mass. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented report of maxillary osteosarcoma in a prairie dog. PMID:16789726

Mouser, Pamela; Cole, Alex; Lin, Tsang Long

2006-05-01

185

Post-traumatic impaction of maxillary incisors: diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim To provide clinicians with useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors due to trauma. Methods We present a case of post-traumatic impaction of a central right maxillary incisor in a young patient. The treatment plan consisted in the interceptive management (surgical and orthodontic), the valuation of the necessary space to move the impacted tooth in the normal position and the biomechanical approach for anchorage, avoiding prosthetic/implants replacement. Results The therapy of an impacted maxillary incisor due to trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach: orthodontic, surgical, endodontic and periodontal considerations are essential for successful treatment. Conclusions Surgical exposure and orthodontic traction is the treatment most often used in case of posttraumatic impacted incisor: this technique in fact can lead to suitable results at the periodontal, occlusal and esthetics levels at an early stage and more definitively than with other treatment options. PMID:23991268

Paoloni, Valeria; Pavoni, Chiara; Mucedero, Manuela; Bollero, Patrizio; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

2013-01-01

186

Treatment of a crowded Class II malocclusion with significant maxillary incisor protrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case report of a 10-year-old girl with a skeletal and dental Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is presented. There was marked arch length deficiency in the mandibular arch and significant maxillary incisor protrusion. The patient was treated with maxillary premolar extractions and early maxillary treatment for incisor retraction. The treatment was completed nonsurgically with full treatment later and a

David M. Meyer

1995-01-01

187

Neither state or trait anxiety alter the response to distracting emotionally neutral sounds.  

PubMed

Attentional control theory suggests that heightened anxiety, whether due to trait or state factors, causes an increased vulnerability to distraction even when the distracters are emotionally neutral. Recent passive oddball studies appear to support this theory in relation to the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds. However such studies have manipulated emotional state via the content of task stimuli, thus potentially confounding changes in emotion with differences in task demands. To identify the effect of anxiety on the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds, 50 participants completed a passive oddball task requiring emotionally neutral sounds to be ignored. Crucially, state anxiety was manipulated independent of the task stimuli (via unrelated audiovisual stimuli) thus removing confounds relating to task demands. Neither state or trait anxiety was found to influence the susceptibility to distraction by emotionally neutral sounds. These findings contribute to the ongoing debate concerning the impact of emotion on attention. PMID:25217343

Hoskin, Robert; Hunter, Mike D; Woodruff, Peter W R

2015-01-01

188

Active and Passive Distraction Using a Head-Mounted Display Helmet: Effects on Cold Pressor Pain in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The current study tested the effectiveness of interactive versus passive distraction that was delivered via a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Design: Forty children, aged 5 to 13 years, underwent 1 or 2 baseline cold pressor trials followed by interactive distraction and passive distraction trials in counterbalanced order. Main Outcome Measures: Pain

Lynnda M. Dahlquist; Kristine D. McKenna; Katia K. Jones; Lindsay Dillinger; Karen E. Weiss; Claire Sonntag Ackerman

2007-01-01

189

MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS: A CASE REPORT  

PubMed Central

The maxillary first premolar is the most commonly bi- rooted tooth with occasional presentation of three roots system; it is a transitional tooth between incisors and molars. Although it usually has two canals, it may rarely have three and this third canal can easily be missed. Thus meticulous knowledge of tooth morphology, careful interpretation of angled radiographs, proper access cavity preparation and a detailed exploration of the interior of the tooth is needed to ensure a proper endodontic treatment. This article reports a rare finding of three canals in a maxillary first premolar with non well defined root outline radiographically during an elective root canal treatment. PMID:25161429

Sulaiman, A.O; Dosumu, O.O; Amedari, McKing

2013-01-01

190

Interdisciplinary approach for the management of bilaterally impacted maxillary canines.  

PubMed

Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. This case report describes the orthodontic management of a 16-year-old adolescent female patient with bilateral labially impacted maxillary canines. The problems associated with impacted maxillary canines and the biomechanical interventions used for this patient are discussed. The treatment protocol involved surgical intervention, followed by sequential traction of the impacted teeth. An interdisciplinary approach to treatment with different mechanical strategies led to the achievement of the desired esthetic, functional, and occlusal treatment goals. PMID:25395776

Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

2014-10-01

191

Endodontic Management of a Maxillary Molar with Three Mesiobuccal Canals  

PubMed Central

It is imperative that the clinician should have comprehensive knowledge about the normal anatomy and its variations of the teeth as the deviations from the usual are very common. An increased awareness of unusual anatomy and a better understanding of the root canal system guide the clinician in accurate diagnosis and treatment of such variations in order to achieve a successful endodontic outcome. The maxillary first molar has been shown to have a wide variation in respect to the number of canals specifically noted in the mesiobuccal root. The current case report shows the successful management of a maxillary molar in which the mesiobuccal root had three canals. PMID:25505997

Gundam, Sirisha; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

2014-01-01

192

Capillary Hemangioma in Maxillary Anterior Region: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Hemangiomas are relatively common benign proliferative lesion of vascular tissue origin. They are often present at birth and may become more apparent throughout life. They are seen on facial skin, tongue, lips, buccal mucosa and palate as well as muscles. Hemangiomas occur more common in females than males. This case report presents a case of capillary hemangioma in maxillary anterior region in a 10-year-old boy. How to cite this article: Satish V, Bhat M, Maganur PC, Shah P, Biradar V. Capillary Hemangioma in Maxillary Anterior Region: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):144-147. PMID:25356016

Bhat, Manohar; Maganur, Prabhadevi C; Shah, Parth; Biradar, Vijay

2014-01-01

193

Interdisciplinary approach for the management of bilaterally impacted maxillary canines  

PubMed Central

Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. This case report describes the orthodontic management of a 16-year-old adolescent female patient with bilateral labially impacted maxillary canines. The problems associated with impacted maxillary canines and the biomechanical interventions used for this patient are discussed. The treatment protocol involved surgical intervention, followed by sequential traction of the impacted teeth. An interdisciplinary approach to treatment with different mechanical strategies led to the achievement of the desired esthetic, functional, and occlusal treatment goals. PMID:25395776

Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P.; Tandon, Pradeep

2014-01-01

194

Exploring inattention and distraction in the SafetyNet Accident Causation Database.  

PubMed

Distraction and inattention are considered to be very important and prevalent factors in the causation of road accidents. There have been many recent research studies which have attempted to understand the circumstances under which a driver becomes distracted or inattentive and how distraction/inattention can be prevented. Both factors are thought to have become more important in recent times partly due to the evolution of in-vehicle information and communication technology. This study describes a methodology that was developed to understand when factors such as distraction and inattention may have been contributors to crashes and also describes some of the consequences of distraction and inattention in terms of subsequent driver actions. The study uses data relating to distraction and inattention from the SafetyNet Accident Causation Database. This database was formulated as part of the SafetyNet project to address the lack of representative in-depth accident causation data within the European Union. Data were collected in 6 European countries using 'on-scene' and 'nearly on-scene' crash investigation methodologies. 32% of crashes recorded in the database, involved at least one driver, rider or pedestrian, who was determined to be 'Inattentive' or 'Distracted'. 212 of the drivers were assigned 'Distraction' and 140 drivers were given the code 'Inattention'. It was found that both distraction and inattention often lead to missed observations within the driving task and consequently 'Timing' or 'Direction' become critical events in the aetiology of crashes. In addition, the crash types and outcomes may differ according to the type and nature of the distraction and inattention as determined by the in-depth investigations. The development of accident coding methodology is described in this study as is its evolution into the Driver Reliability and Error Analysis Model (DREAM) version 3.0. PMID:24176106

Talbot, Rachel; Fagerlind, Helen; Morris, Andrew

2013-11-01

195

Sex differences in the response to emotional distraction: an event-related fMRI investigation.  

PubMed

Evidence has suggested that women have greater emotional reactivity than men. However, it is unclear whether these differences in basic emotional responses are also associated with differences in emotional distractibility, and what the neural mechanisms that implement differences in emotional distractibility between women and men are. Functional MRI recording was used in conjunction with a working memory (WM) task, with emotional distraction (angry faces) presented during the interval between the memoranda and the probes. First, we found an increased impact of emotional distraction among women in trials associated with high-confidence responses, in the context of overall similar WM performance in women and men. Second, women showed increased sensitivity to emotional distraction in brain areas associated with "hot" emotional processing, whereas men showed increased sensitivity in areas associated with "cold" executive processing, in the context of overall similar patterns of response to emotional distraction in women and men. Third, a sex-related dorsal-ventral hemispheric dissociation emerged in the lateral PFC related to coping with emotional distraction, with women showing a positive correlation with WM performance in left ventral PFC, and men showing similar effects in the right dorsal PFC. In addition to extending to men results that have previously been reported in women, by showing that both sexes engage mechanisms that are similar overall in response to emotional distraction, the present study identifies sex differences in both the response to and coping with emotional distraction. These results have implications for understanding sex differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders, in which basic emotional responses, emotional distractibility, and coping abilities are altered. PMID:23293019

Iordan, Alexandru D; Dolcos, Sanda; Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Florin

2013-03-01

196

Do advertisements at the roadside distract the driver?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment. More and more cars are on the road. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio and navigation system, the environment outside the car has also become more and more complex. Hoardings, advertising pillars, shop fronts and video screens are just a few examples. For this reason the potential risk of driver distraction is rising. But in which way do the advertisements at the roadside influence the driver's attention? The investigation which is described is devoted to this topic. Various kinds of advertisements played an important role, like illuminated and non-illuminated posters as well as illuminated animated ads. Several test runs in an urban environment were performed. The gaze direction of the driver's eye was measured with an eye tracking system. The latter consists of three cameras which logged the eye movements during the test run and a small-sized scene camera recording the traffic scene. 16 subjects (six female and ten male) between 21 and 65 years of age took part in this experiment. Thus the driver's fixation duration of the different advertisements could be determined.

Kettwich, Carmen; Klinger, Karsten; Lemmer, Uli

2008-04-01

197

Posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis: evolution of technique.  

PubMed

The rapid growth of the brain in the first few years of life drives the expansion of the cranial vault. This expansion occurs primarily at the cranial sutures; premature fusion of these results in growth restriction perpendicular to the axis of the suture. The result of this is physical deformation of the cranial and facial skeleton, as well as the distortion of the underling brain and its physiology. These patients can present with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, neurodevelopmental delay, as well as the morphological features of craniosynostosis. Acquired conditions such as the slit ventricle syndrome may also result in cephalocranial disproportion with these clinical features. Traditional vault remodeling surgery is able to correct the physical abnormalities as well as correcting cephalocranial disproportion. Its limitations include the degree of scalp expansion achievable as well as resulting defects in the bone. The use of distraction osteogenesis of the cranial vault permits a controlled expansion in a predetermined vector in a gradual manner. When used in the calvarium, this combines the benefits of tissue expansion on the scalp, as well as stimulating the production of new bone, reducing the defects resulting from expansion. In this review, the authors describe some of the surgical considerations important to the use of this technique. This includes the relevant anatomy and technical aspects illustrated with the use of clinical cases. Finally, they present a summary of their experience and discuss the complications associated with cranial vault distraction osteogenesis. PMID:25383052

Ong, Juling; Harshbarger, Raymond J; Kelley, Patrick; George, Timothy

2014-11-01

198

Olfactory Identification Test Using Familiar Distracters for Koreans  

PubMed Central

Objectives Odors used in an odor identification test should be familiar to the subject, but there are some unfamiliar distracters in Korean version of Sniffin' stick (KVSS) II identification test. In this study, we used the results of the original version of KVSS II identification to modify the KVSS II identification test. Methods Eighty-three participants took an original version of KVSS II identification test and a visual analogue scale of subjective odor function. KVSS II identification which has 16 items was performed to choose one out of four odors items. And visual analogue scale was checked from 0 to 10 points of their subjective olfactory function. Two weeks later they took the modified version of KVSS II identification test. Hyposmic or anosmic patients were excluded. Results The mean score of the original version of KVSS II identification and modified version of KVSS II identification were 11.3 and 12.5, respectively (P<0.05). The KVSS II identification test and subjective olfactory function were positively correlated (r=0.247, P<0.05), as were the modified KVSS II identification test and subjective olfactory function (r=0.329, P<0.05). Conclusion After modification of distracters, KVSS II identification test appears to be suited for assessment of olfactory function. PMID:24587876

Kim, Jae-Myung; Jeong, Mi Soon; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Seol, Jeong-Hun; Hong, Seok-Chan; Cho, Jae Hoon

2014-01-01

199

Accurate expectancies diminish perceptual distraction during visual search  

PubMed Central

The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively “spills-over” to task-irrelevant information. The spill-over of perceptual processing capacity increases the likelihood that task-irrelevant information will impair performance. In two visual search experiments, we tested the automaticity of the allocation of perceptual processing resources by measuring the extent to which the processing of task-irrelevant distracting stimuli was modulated by both perceptual load and top-down expectations using behavior, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and electrophysiology. Expectations were generated using a trial-by-trial cue that provided information about the likely load of the upcoming visual search task. When the cues were valid, behavioral interference was eliminated and the influence of load on frontoparietal and visual cortical responses was attenuated relative to when the cues were invalid. In conditions in which task-irrelevant information interfered with performance and modulated visual activity, individual differences in mean blood oxygenation level dependent responses measured from the left intraparietal sulcus were negatively correlated with individual differences in the severity of distraction. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a top-down biasing mechanism interacts with perceptual load to support filtering of task-irrelevant information. PMID:24904374

Sy, Jocelyn L.; Guerin, Scott A.; Stegman, Anna; Giesbrecht, Barry

2014-01-01

200

Immediate implants in anterior maxillary arch  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the osseo-integration and soft tissue status of the endosseous implants placed in immediate extraction socket. Methodology: Seven patients (4 males and 3 females) aged 20-30 years were selected for the study. Nine implants were placed in seven patients in the maxillary arch. All the patients were clinically ?nd thoroughly examined. Under local anesthesia, the indicated tooth was extracted. The extracted socket was prepared using standard drills with palatal wall as guide. The longest and widest implants were placed (Hi-Tec Implants). All implants showed good primary stability. The implants used in the study were tapered design endosseous implants with Threaded implants (TI) unit plasma-sprayed surface. Surgical re-entry (secondary surgery) was performed to remove the healing cap after 6 months for supra crestal fabrication. All patients were reviewed periodically at 3rd and 6th month interval and the following clinical parameters including modified plaque index (mPlI), modified bleeding index (mBI), probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL), and distance between the implant shoulder and mucosal margin (DIM), distance between the implant shoulder and first bone-implant contact, and Clinical Mobility Index were recorded. The results were computed and subjected to statistical evaluation. Results: The mPlI, mBI, PD, AL, and DIM were evaluated around the implants at baseline, 3rd and 6th month intervals and analyzed statistically by Friedman T-test. The results of the above were shown to be statistically non-significant. The distance between the implant shoulder and first bone implant contact was evaluated around the implants at base line, 3rd and 6th month intervals. The results proved to be statistically significant (0.01) implying that there was a bone apposition around the implants. Conclusion: During the course of the study, soft tissue status around implants was found to be healthy. Osseointegration as assessed by clinical and radiographic findings was found to be sound. PMID:24678203

Anitha, K.; Kumar, S. Senthil; Babu, M. R. Ramesh; Candamourty, Ramesh; Thirumurugan

2014-01-01

201

Treatment of Pseudoaneurysm of Internal Maxillary Artery: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Pseudoaneurysms are rare lesions secondary to blunt or penetrating trauma, temporomandibular joint surgery, or orthognathic surgery. Nonsurgical interventions are the treatment of choice for pseudoaneurysms. In the case reported here, endovascular injection of acrylic glue was successful in the treatment of a pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery secondary to fracture of the zygomatic bone. PMID:22110821

Barbalho, Jimmy Charles Melo; Santos, Eliardo Silveira; Menezes, José Maria Sampaio; Gonçalves, Fabricio Rocha; Chagas, Otacilio Luiz

2010-01-01

202

Treatment of pseudoaneurysm of internal maxillary artery: a case report.  

PubMed

Pseudoaneurysms are rare lesions secondary to blunt or penetrating trauma, temporomandibular joint surgery, or orthognathic surgery. Nonsurgical interventions are the treatment of choice for pseudoaneurysms. In the case reported here, endovascular injection of acrylic glue was successful in the treatment of a pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery secondary to fracture of the zygomatic bone. PMID:22110821

Barbalho, Jimmy Charles Melo; Santos, Eliardo Silveira; Menezes, José Maria Sampaio; Gonçalves, Fabricio Rocha; Chagas, Otacilio Luiz

2010-06-01

203

Maxillary incisor impaction and its relationship to canine displacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine the eruption status of unerupted maxillary permanent canines in patients who also had an impacted central incisor. Seventy-five unilateral cases of the incisor anomaly were retrospectively examined. Using the initial panoramic films, we assessed the positions of the ipsilateral and contralateral canines and the lateral incisors and the timing (eruption progress) of the canines. The

Stella Chaushu; Yerucham Zilberman; Adrian Becker

2003-01-01

204

Extraction of Maxillary Central Incisors: An Orthodontic-Restorative Treatment  

PubMed Central

Malformed central incisors with poor prognosis could be candidates for extraction especially in crowded dental arches. This case report refers to a 12-year-old boy who suffered from malformed upper central incisors associated with severe attrition. Upper lateral incisors were positioned palatally and canines were rotated and positioned in the high buccal area. The patient had class II malocclusion and space deficiency in both dental arches. Due to incisal wear and malformed short maxillary central incisors and the need for root canal therapy with a major crown build-up, these teeth were extracted. The maxillary lateral incisors were substituted. Thus the maxillary canines were substituted for lateral incisors and the first premolars were substituted for canines. In the lower dental arch the first bicuspids were extracted. Composite resin build-up was performed on the maxillary lateral incisors and canines. This allowed for the crowding and the malocclusion to be corrected. Subsequent gingivectomy improved the patient's gingival margins and smile esthetics one month after orthodontic therapy. PMID:25400954

Hedayati, Zohreh; Zare, Maryam; Bahramnia, Fateme

2014-01-01

205

Inverted Impacted Primary Maxillary Incisors: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Tooth impaction rarely occurs in primary dentition. Most of the primary teeth impactions are seen in second molars. The purpose of this article is to present a 4-year-old girl with bilateral impaction of inverted primary maxillary central incisors which trauma had displaced their tooth germ before erupting. PMID:23066483

Seraj, B.; Ghadimi, S.; Mighani, G.; Zare, H.; Rabbani, M.

2012-01-01

206

Virtual-reality distraction and cold-pressor pain tolerance: does avatar point of view matter?  

PubMed

This study tested the effects of distraction using virtual-reality (VR) technology on acute pain tolerance in young adults. Forty-one undergraduate students, aged 18-23 years, used a VR head-mounted display helmet, steering wheel, and foot pedal to play an auto racing video game while undergoing exposure to very cold water (cold pressor set at 1 °C). Two different game views were tested that were hypothesized to affect the degree to which participants felt "present" in the virtual environment: a first-person view, in which the participant saw the virtual environment through the eyes of the game character being manipulated; and a third-person view, in which the participant viewed the game character from a distance. The length of time participants tolerated the cold-water exposure (pain tolerance) under each distraction condition was compared to a baseline (no distraction) trial. Subjects also rated the degree to which they felt "present" in the virtual environment after each distraction trial. Results demonstrated that participants had significantly higher pain tolerance during both VR-distraction conditions relative to baseline (no distraction) trials. Although participants reported a greater sense of presence during the first-person condition than the third-person condition, pain-tolerance scores associated with the two distraction conditions did not differ. The types of VR applications in which presence may be more or less important are discussed. PMID:20950186

Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Herbert, Linda J; Weiss, Karen E; Jimeno, Monica

2010-10-01

207

Distraction osteogenesis enhances remodeling of remote bones of the skeleton: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Bone injuries have a systemic influence on the remodeling of bone. This effect has not been examined concerning its extent and duration. We measured the systemic effect of distraction osteogenesis on the remodeling of bones of the axial skeleton by means of the mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate in an animal experiment. Distraction osteogenesis was performed on the tibiae of 24 mature Yucatan minipigs. After a 4-day latency period, the tibiae were distracted 2 mm/day for 10 days. The ensuing consolidation phase lasted 10 days. Three fluorescent labeling substances were applied intravenously: calcein green at the second postoperative day, tetracycline 1 day after the end of the distraction phase, and xylene orange 2 days before sacrifice. We prepared ground sections from the ninth right ribs. The mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate were measured histomorphometrically on labeled osteons. The median mineral apposition rate during distraction was 2.39 microm/day (2.12-2.62 microm/day), which was higher than the rate during consolidation (median, 1.62 microm/day; 1.54-1.84 microm/day). The median bone formation rate confirmed this result and was 840.51 microm(2)/day (744.20-1148.26 microm(2)/day) during distraction and 384.25 microm(2)/day (330.84-467.71 microm(2)/day) during consolidation. Thus, a short period of distraction osteogenesis appears to have an anabolic effect on the mineral apposition rate of remote cortical bone. PMID:19475465

Funk, Julia F; Krummrey, Gert; Perka, Carsten; Raschke, Michael J; Bail, Hermann J

2009-12-01

208

The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain.  

PubMed

This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness. Sixty-two children (6-13 years old) underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered both with and without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found. Children's coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles. PMID:23184062

Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Thompson, Caitlin; Hahn, Amy; Herbert, Linda; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan

2014-02-01

209

Automating skeletal expansion: An implant for distraction osteogenesis of the mandible  

PubMed Central

Background Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a technique of bone lengthening that makes use of the body’s natural healing capacity. An osteotomy is created and a rigid distraction device is attached to the bone. After a latency period, the device is activated 2–4 times per day for a total of 1 mm/day of bone lengthening. This technique is used to correct a variety of congenital and acquired deformities of the mandible, midface and long bones. To shorten the treatment period and to eliminate the complications of patient activation of the device, an automated continuous distraction device would be desirable. It has been reported that continuous distraction generates adequate bone with lengthening at a rate of 2 mm/day, thereby reducing the treatment time. Method of Approach The device we describe here uses miniature high-pressure hydraulics, position feedback, and a digital controller to achieve closed-loop control of the distraction process. The implanted actuator can produce up to 40N of distraction force on linear trajectories as well as curved distraction paths. In the paper we detail the spring-powered hydraulic reservoir, controller, and user interface. Results Experiments to test the new device design were performed in a porcine cadaver head and in live pigs. In the cadaver head, the device performed an 11-day/11 mm distraction with a root-mean-squared position error of 0.09 mm. The device functioned for periods of several days in each of five live animals, though some component failures occurred, leading to design revisions. Conclusions The test series showed that the novel design of this system provides the capabilities necessary to automate distraction of the mandible. Further developments will focus on making the implanted position sensor more robust and then carrying out clinical trials. PMID:20740071

Magill, John C.; Byl, Marten F.; Goldwaser, Batya; Papadaki, Maria; Kromann, Roger; Yates, Brent; Morency, Joseph R.; Kaban, Leonard B.; Troulis, Maria J.

2010-01-01

210

Specific or general? The nature of attention set changes triggered by distracting auditory events.  

PubMed

Distraction is a disruption of a selective attention set triggered by infrequent, unpredictable events. In the present study, two hypotheses on the nature of this attention change were contrasted in the auditory domain: (1) distraction is a specific attention-switch: attention is diverted from the task-relevant to the distracting information or (2) distraction is a general attention resetting, that is, a transition to a general attention set in which the organism is more capable of facing any event. The general attention resetting hypothesis predicts that any infrequent, unpredictable stimulus would trigger distraction, whereas the specific attention-switch hypothesis predicts that such a stimulus triggers distraction only if it deviates in a task-irrelevant stimulus aspect. To test this, a sequence of tone-pairs was presented. The participants' task was to respond according to the direction of within-pair pitch-change. Deviant trials were presented occasionally (10%). In the Relevant Deviance condition, the deviation concerned the task-relevant stimulus aspect (larger within-pair pitch-difference); in the Irrelevant Deviance condition the deviance occurred in a task-irrelevant stimulus aspect (spectral width of the second tone of the pair). In the Double Deviance condition, deviants featured both a larger pitch-difference and a spectral width difference. The elicitation pattern of the N2b/MMN, P3a and late negative components favors the specific attention-switch hypothesis, that is, distraction comprises an involuntary attention shift from the task-relevant information to the distracting one. The presence of deviance-related response time delay in the Relevant Deviance condition suggests that other effects unrelated to distraction also occurred. PMID:18634759

Horváth, János; Roeber, Urte; Bendixen, Alexandra; Schröger, Erich

2008-09-10

211

A revised method for measuring distraction by tactile stimulation  

PubMed Central

Sensory hypersensitivity (SH) refers to the tendency to attend to subtle stimuli, to persist in attending to them, and to find them noxious. SH is relatively common in several developmental disorders including Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder (TS/CTD). This study was an attempt to quantify the extent to which a mild tactile stimulus distracts one’s attention in TS/CTD. Fourteen adults with TS/CTD and 14 tic-free control subjects completed questionnaires regarding SH and ADHD, and TS/CTD subjects completed self-report measures of current and past tic disorder symptoms and of current obsessions and compulsions. All subjects performed a sustained attention choice reaction time task during alternating blocks in which a mildly annoying stimulus (von Frey hair) was applied to the ankle (“ON”) or was not applied (“OFF”). We present here the clinical and cognitive task data for each subject. PMID:25285209

Schechter, Jacqueline R.; Greene, Deanna J.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Black, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

212

A revised method for measuring distraction by tactile stimulation.  

PubMed

Sensory hypersensitivity (SH) refers to the tendency to attend to subtle stimuli, to persist in attending to them, and to find them noxious. SH is relatively common in several developmental disorders including Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder (TS/CTD). This study was an attempt to quantify the extent to which a mild tactile stimulus distracts one's attention in TS/CTD. Fourteen adults with TS/CTD and 14 tic-free control subjects completed questionnaires regarding SH and ADHD, and TS/CTD subjects completed self-report measures of current and past tic disorder symptoms and of current obsessions and compulsions. All subjects performed a sustained attention choice reaction time task during alternating blocks in which a mildly annoying stimulus (von Frey hair) was applied to the ankle ("ON") or was not applied ("OFF"). We present here the clinical and cognitive task data for each subject. PMID:25285209

Schechter, Jacqueline R; Greene, Deanna J; Koller, Jonathan M; Black, Kevin J

2014-01-01

213

Simultaneous unicoronal and sagittal distraction osteogenesis for the treatment of nonsyndromic multisutural craniosynostosis.  

PubMed

We present a case of multiplanar distraction osteogenesis for the simultaneous treatment of sagittal and unicoronal craniosynostosis in a nonsyndromic 2-month-old boy. Unilateral fronto-orbital advancement and sagittal suturectomy were performed. Distracters were fixed orthogonally in the sagittal and coronal positions to distract the affected coronal and sagittal sutures. The devices achieved 20 and 22 mm of advancement in the coronal and sagittal locations. A total intracranial volume increase of 62% was noted at 6 months' follow-up. This preliminary report demonstrates the procedure's short-term safety; future investigation is needed over the long term to determine its efficacy. PMID:25478977

Paine, Kaitlyn Marie; Tahiri, Youssef; Paliga, J Thomas; Taylor, Jesse A

2015-01-01

214

Distracting the Mind Improves Performance: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Background When a second target (T2) is presented in close succession of a first target (T1), people often fail to identify T2, a phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB). However, the AB can be reduced substantially when participants are distracted during the task, for instance by a concurrent task, without a cost for T1 performance. The goal of the current study was to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of this paradoxical effect. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants successively performed three tasks, while EEG was recorded. The first task (standard AB) consisted of identifying two target letters in a sequential stream of distractor digits. The second task (grey dots task) was similar to the first task with the addition of an irrelevant grey dot moving in the periphery, concurrent with the central stimulus stream. The third task (red dot task) was similar to the second task, except that detection of an occasional brief color change in the moving grey dot was required. AB magnitude in the latter task was significantly smaller, whereas behavioral performance in the standard and grey dots tasks did not differ. Using mixed effects models, electrophysiological activity was compared during trials in the grey dots and red dot tasks that differed in task instruction but not in perceptual input. In the red dot task, both target-related parietal brain activity associated with working memory updating (P3) as well as distractor-related occipital activity was significantly reduced. Conclusions/Significance The results support the idea that the AB might (at least partly) arise from an overinvestment of attentional resources or an overexertion of attentional control, which is reduced when a distracting secondary task is carried out. The present findings bring us a step closer in understanding why and how an AB occurs, and how these temporal restrictions in selective attention can be overcome. PMID:21124833

Wierda, Stefan M.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels A.; Martens, Sander

2010-01-01

215

Driver distraction: a perennial but preventable public health threat to adolescents.  

PubMed

Although public health efforts have made some progress in reducing risk of adolescent motor vehicle crashes over the last three decades, new technologies and evolving behavior patterns have focused attention on the risk of distracted driving. For many of the same reasons that alcohol-impaired driving represents a distinct risk for adolescents, distracted driving has an elevated impact on this age group. Similarly, many of the strategies used to reduce alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents might be applied to driver distraction, including adults serving as role models with high standards of behavior. The unique challenge posed by the proliferation of new technological distractions may accelerate this risk behavior and may lend itself to innovative prevention efforts. PMID:24759438

Bingham, C Raymond

2014-05-01

216

The Relationship of Rhythmic and Melodic Perception with Background Music Distraction in College Level Students  

E-print Network

This study investigated relationships among the ability to audiate musical stimuli, background music condition, familiarity, gender, general academic achievement, age, and frequency of use on the level of distraction caused by background music...

Dove, Michael Karl

2009-04-27

217

De-Emphasis of Distracting Image Regions Using Texture Power Maps  

E-print Network

A major obstacle in photography is the presence of distracting elements that pull attention away from the main subject and clutter the composition. In this article, we present a new image-processing technique that reduces ...

Su, Sara L.

2005-04-12

218

77 FR 11199 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...this project using a multiple-target detection task to assess the distraction...lateral vehicle control, target detection, and visual performance, were...combines car following and visual target detection, can be used with...

2012-02-24

219

Eye movements of young and older adults while reading with distraction  

E-print Network

The authors used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' online performance in the reading in distraction paradigm. Participants read target sentences and answered comprehension questions following each sentence. In some sentences...

Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Kramer, Art

2006-03-01

220

Perspective Resilience in ecology: Abstraction, distraction, or where the action is?  

E-print Network

Perspective Resilience in ecology: Abstraction, distraction, or where the action is? Rachel J: Biodiversity conservation Ecological resilience Environmental policy Recovery Restoration goals Threshold a b are viewed as being dependent on the `resilience' of the system. Although the term `resilience

221

An Assessment of the Relationship between the Maxillary Sinus Floor and the Maxillary Posterior Teeth Root Tips Using Dental Cone-beam Computerized Tomography  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary posterior teeth root tips using dental cone-beam CT. Methods: A total of 87 right and 89 left maxillary sinus regions from 92 patients were examined using dental cone-beam CT. Images were analyzed by a specialist in oral and maxillofacial radiology. Perpendicular lines were drawn on the cross-sectional images between the deepest point of the maxillary sinus floor and the root tips of the maxillary first and second premolars and first, second and third molars, and the distances were measured using built-in measurement tools. Means, standard deviations and minimum and maximum values were calculated for all right and left premolars and molars. T-tests were used to compare measurements between left and right sides and between female and male patients. Results: The distance between sinus floor and root tip was longest for the first premolar root tip and shortest for the second molar buccodistal root tip for both right and left sides. No statistically significant differences were found between the right and left side measurements or between female and male patients (P>.05). Conclusions: Knowledge of the anatomical relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary posterior teeth root tips is important for the preoperative treatment planning of maxillary posterior teeth. PMID:20922167

Kilic, Cenk; Kamburoglu, Kivanc; Yuksel, Selcen Pehlivan; Ozen, Tuncer

2010-01-01

222

Bottom-Up Influences on Working Memory: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Distraction Varies with Distractor Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates bottom-up effects serving the optimal balance between focusing attention on relevant information and distractibility by potentially significant events outside the focus of attention. We tested whether distraction, indicated by behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures, varies with the strength of task-irrelevant deviances. Twenty subjects performed a tone-duration discrimination task (200 or 400 ms sinusoidal tones

Stefan Berti; Urte Roeber; Erich Schröger

2004-01-01

223

Hemispheric lateralization of posterior alpha reduces distracter interference during face matching.  

PubMed

Previous M/EEG studies on visuospatial attention have shown that attending to one hemifield, while ignoring the other, leads to a decrease in occipito-parietal alpha power contralateral to the target and a concurrent ipsilateral alpha increase. Here, we tested whether this alpha modulation facilitates the processing of attended faces in the presence of distracters. Face processing was tested in a match-to-sample task, in which participants matched a target face in a cued hemifield to a previously seen sample face. The target faces in the cued hemifield were presented together with a distracter face (intact or scrambled faces) in the other hemifield. The behavioral data indicated a larger impairment of matching performance when the distracter was another face, rather than a scrambled face. We hypothesized that enhanced alpha power contralateral to the distracter would enhance target matching by decreasing the interference from similar distracters. We found this effect, but only in the left hemisphere. Moreover, we found that with targets contralateral from the left hemisphere, a down-regulation of relative alpha power in the left hemisphere also correlated with increased target matching performance. Hence, the left hemisphere could protect the target from distracter interference either by decreasing alpha power in response to a contralateral target, or increasing alpha power to a contralateral distracter. Remarkably, alpha power in the right hemisphere was not predictive for matching performance. These findings support the hypothesis that alpha modulations contribute to the suppression of task-irrelevant information, but suggest a dominant role herein of the left hemisphere during face matching in the presence of distracters. PMID:25285891

Okazaki, Yuka O; De Weerd, Peter; Haegens, Saskia; Jensen, Ole

2014-11-24

224

Informational masking of speech in children: Effects of ipsilateral and contralateral distracters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a closed-set speech recognition paradigm thought to be heavily influenced by informational masking, auditory selective attention was measured in 38 children (ages 4-16 years) and 8 adults (ages 20-30 years). The task required attention to a monaural target speech message that was presented with a time-synchronized distracter message in the same ear. In some conditions a second distracter message or a speech-shaped noise was presented to the other ear. Compared to adults, children required higher target/distracter ratios to reach comparable performance levels, reflecting more informational masking in these listeners. Informational masking in most conditions was confirmed by the fact that a large proportion of the errors made by the listeners were contained in the distracter message(s). There was a monotonic age effect, such that even the children in the oldest age group (13.6-16 years) demonstrated poorer performance than adults. For both children and adults, presentation of an additional distracter in the contralateral ear significantly reduced performance, even when the distracter messages were produced by a talker of different sex than the target talker. The results are consistent with earlier reports from pure-tone masking studies that informational masking effects are much larger in children than in adults.

Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

2005-11-01

225

TVAR modeling of EEG to detect audio distraction during simulated driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. The objective of our current study was to look for the EEG correlates that can reveal the engaged state of the brain while undertaking cognitive tasks. Specifically, we aimed to identify EEG features that could detect audio distraction during simulated driving. Approach. Time varying autoregressive (TVAR) analysis using Kalman smoother was carried out on short time epochs of EEG data collected from participants as they undertook two simulated driving tasks. TVAR coefficients were then used to construct all pole model enabling the identification of EEG features that could differentiate normal driving from audio distracted driving. Main results. Pole analysis of the TVAR model led to the visualization of event related synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) patterns in the form of pole displacements in pole plots of the temporal EEG channels in the z plane enabling the differentiation of the two driving conditions. ERS in the EEG data has been demonstrated during audio distraction as an associated phenomenon. Significance. Visualizing the ERD/ERS phenomenon in terms of pole displacement is a novel approach. Although ERS/ERD has previously been demonstrated as reliable when applied to motor related tasks, it is believed to be the first time that it has been applied to investigate human cognitive phenomena such as attention and distraction. Results confirmed that distracted/non-distracted driving states can be identified using this approach supporting its applicability to cognition research.

Dahal, Nabaraj; (Nanda Nandagopal, D.; Cocks, Bernadine; Vijayalakshmi, Ramasamy; Dasari, Naga; Gaertner, Paul

2014-06-01

226

A Mobile App Offering Distractions and Tips to Cope With Cigarette Craving: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite considerable effort, most smokers relapse within a few months after quitting due to cigarette craving. The widespread adoption of mobile phones presents new opportunities to provide support during attempts to quit. Objective To design and pilot a mobile app "DistractMe" to enable quitters to access and share distractions and tips to cope with cigarette cravings. Methods A qualitative study with 14 smokers who used DistractMe on their mobiles during the first weeks of their quit attempt. Based on interviews, diaries, and log data, we examined how the app supported quitting strategies. Results Three distinct techniques of coping when using DistractMe were identified: diversion, avoidance, and displacement. We further identified three forms of engagement with tips for coping: preparation, fortification, and confrontation. Overall, strategies to prevent cravings and their effects (avoidance, displacement, preparation, and fortification) were more common than immediate coping strategies (diversion and confrontation). Tips for coping were more commonly used than distractions to cope with cravings, because they helped to fortify the quit attempt and provided opportunities to connect with other users of the application. However, distractions were important to attract new users and to facilitate content sharing. Conclusions Based on the qualitative results, we recommend that mobile phone-based interventions focus on tips shared by peers and frequent content updates. Apps also require testing with larger groups of users to assess whether they can be self-sustaining. PMID:25099632

Smith, Wally; Pearce, Jon; Borland, Ron

2014-01-01

227

The Molecular and Cellular Events That Take Place during Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary: Gradual bone lengthening using distraction osteogenesis principles is the gold standard for the treatment of hypoplastic facial bones. However, the long treatment time is a major disadvantage of the lengthening procedures. The aim of this study is to review the current literature and summarize the cellular and molecular events occurring during membranous craniofacial distraction osteogenesis. Mechanical stimulation by distraction induces biological responses of skeletal regeneration that is accomplished by a cascade of biological processes that may include differentiation of pluripotential tissue, angiogenesis, osteogenesis, mineralization, and remodeling. There are complex interactions between bone-forming osteoblasts and other cells present within the bone microenvironment, particularly vascular endothelial cells that may be pivotal members of a complex interactive communication network in bone. Studies have implicated number of cytokines that are intimately involved in the regulation of bone synthesis and turnover. The gene regulation of numerous cytokines (transforming growth factor-?, bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor-1, and fibroblast growth factor-2) and extracellular matrix proteins (osteonectin, osteopontin) during distraction osteogenesis has been best characterized and discussed. Understanding the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate membranous distraction osteogenesis may guide the development of targeted strategies designed to improve distraction osteogenesis and accelerate bone regeneration that may lead to shorten the treatment duration. PMID:25289295

Rachmiel, Adi

2014-01-01

228

Intraoral Mass Presenting as Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. It is of unknown etiology, and occurs more commonly in the elderly men, with a routinely shown aggressive behavior and poor prognosis for survival. Radiographically, it looks like severe osteomyelitis. Histopathologic study is essential to confirm diagnosis, and the undifferentiated histologic appearance often necessitates immunohistochemical studies for differentiation from other high-grade neoplasms. We present an 83-year-old man complaining of pain and unilateral swelling on the left side of the face due to a rare malignant tumor of maxillary sinus origin, a sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. He underwent hemimaxillectomy and radiotherapy, but refused chemotherapy. Maxillary sinus malignancy may be presented with unspecific symptoms mimicking sinusitis or dental pain. Coming across such symptoms, the physician or dentist must consider malignancies as well, and carry out medical and dental workups. PMID:24910668

Mahdavi, Omid; Boostani, Najmehalsadat; Karimi, Sharareh; Tabesh, Adel

2013-01-01

229

Esthetic periodontal surgery for impacted dilacerated maxillary central incisors.  

PubMed

Clinicians do not frequently see impacted dilacerated maxillary incisors in their patients. When they do, there are several diagnostic and management challenges for correcting root dilacerations. An unfavorable esthetic outcome might occur as a result of soft-tissue complications during surgical eruption procedures. We present 2 patients with an impacted and dilacerated maxillary central incisor. Computed tomography scans with 3-dimensional reformation were used to accurately assess the positions of the dilacerated teeth, the degree of dilaceration, and the stage of root formation. The therapy primarily involved 2-stage crown exposure surgery combined with orthodontic traction. An apicoectomy was performed on 1 dilacerated tooth; the other exhibited pulp vitality. This article highlights the periodontal surgical strategies for the esthetic management of inverted crowns. Through periodontal plastic surgery and interdisciplinary cooperation, the impacted dilacerated central incisors were properly aligned, and successful esthetic results were achieved. PMID:22999678

Wei, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yi-Chun; Kaung, Shou-Shin; Yang, Shue-Fen; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin

2012-10-01

230

Fragment Reattachment after Atypical Crown Fracture in Maxillary Central Incisor  

PubMed Central

Background. Fracture by trauma is one of the most common types of dental injury in the permanent dentition among children and teenagers. Aim. The aim of this study was to report the treatment performed to an atypical dental trauma case in a maxillary central incisor of a young patient by means of reattachment of the tooth fragment. Case Description. A 12-year-old male patient suffered a vertical crown fracture to the maxillary right central incisor. After clinical and radiographic examinations, a conservative restorative treatment which consisted in the reattachment of the tooth fragment with flow resin was performed in order to preserve the dental element and to obtain maximum aesthetics. Conclusion. The reattachment of fractured fragment is a fast and easy technique that can be used successfully as an option to restore dental element which suffered trauma. Clinical Significance. This technique restores the aesthetics and function of the dental element with minimal discomfort to the patient. PMID:25610663

Vaz, Vanessa Torraca Peraro; Presoto, Cristina Dupim; Jordão, Keren Cristina Fagundes; Paleari, André Gustavo; Dantas, Andrea Abi-Rached; Segalla, José Claudio Martins; de Oliveira Junior, Osmir Batista

2014-01-01

231

Patient-specific abutments for anterior maxillary implants.  

PubMed

Many factors influence the long-term functional and esthetic success of implant-supported restorations. This article reviews recent findings related to several of these factors, including the implant-abutment junction, bacterial adhesion to implant surfaces, and the esthetic and functional consequences of implant and abutment material choices, particularly titanium-nitride-coated abutments. Restoration of a failed maxillary central incisor using a platformswitched implant and titanium-nitride-coated abutment is presented. PMID:25188214

Ramsey, Christopher D; Leal, Karina F; Lyle, Deborah M

2014-06-01

232

Survival and success of maxillary canine autotransplantation: a retrospective investigation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate survival and success rates following autotransplantation of permanent maxillary canine teeth. Sixty-three cases of maxillary canine autotransplantation from 49 subjects (mean age at transplantation 21.8 years, range 13-42.1 years) undertaken between 1977 and 2003 were collected as part of an audit project of transplantation success. All maxillary canines had complete root development at the time of transplantation. The sample was divided into two groups, a matched case-control study to compare 27 unilateral transplanted canines with the non-transplanted canine on the contralateral side, and all 63 transplanted canines with no controls. Teeth were assessed clinically using established criteria for success: tooth presence for survival and resorption, mobility, probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival bleeding, vitality, and colour. Radiographic investigation for success assessed internal and external inflammatory resorption (including the amount) bone levels and any signs of pathology. Data were described with descriptive statistics and analytical tests were used to assess frequencies of occurrence. The survival rate was 83 per cent with an average duration of 14.5 years in situ. Thirty-eight per cent of the transplants were deemed successful. There were statistically significant associations between the transplanted and non-transplanted teeth in PPD (P = 0.006), gingival bleeding (P = 0.006), vitality (P = 0.004), and colour (P = 0.002). Autotransplantation of impacted maxillary canines can be successful in the long term and may be indicated in selected cases. Although the rate for complete success in this study was low (no signs of resorption, mobility, and sound periodontal tissues), the survival rate can be considered favourable when evaluating autotransplantation as a treatment option for grossly malpositioned canines with little scope for orthodontic alignment. PMID:20819783

Patel, Sonal; Fanshawe, Tom; Bister, Dirk; Cobourne, Martyn T

2011-06-01

233

Alterations in Maxillary Sinus Volume among Oral and Nasal Breathers  

PubMed Central

Background Oral breathing causes many changes in the facial anatomical structures in adult patients. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of long-term oral breathing (>5 years) on the maxillary sinus volumes among adult male patients. Material/Methods We accessed medical records of 586 patients who had undergone cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for any reason between September 2013 and April 2014. Patients who had undergone cone-beam dental volumetric tomography scans for any reason and who had answered a questionnaire about breathing were screened retrospectively. Cone beam dental volumetric tomography (I-Cat, Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA) was used to take the images of the maxillo-facial area at a setting of 120 kVp and 3.7 mA. This study involved male patients older than 21 years of age. Results The study included a total of 239 male patients, of which 68 were oral breathers and 171 were nasal breathers. The mean age of the oral breathers was 48.4 years and that of the nasal breathers was 46.7 years and the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The mean maxillary sinus volumes of the oral and nasal breathers were 9043.49±1987.90 and 10851.77±2769.37, respectively, and the difference in maxillary sinus volume between the 2 groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions The volume of maxillary sinus in oral breathers (>5 years) was significantly lower than in nasal breathers, but it remains unclear whether this is due to malfunctioning of the nasal cavity or due to the underlying pathological condition. PMID:25553770

Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Gulsun, Belgin; Koparal, Mahmut; Atalay, Yusuf; Aksoy, Orhan; Adiguzel, Ozkan

2015-01-01

234

[Maxillary sequels in labial-alveolar-velopalatine clefts. Orthodontic management].  

PubMed

Routine othodontic management is unavoidable in all patients with cleft lip and palate after primary surgery. This management combines dental arch alignment with maxillary expansion of the lesser fragment before alveolar bone grafting. To treat dental arch asymmetry, the space of the missing lateral incisor is preserved until the age of dental implant. Otherwise, dento-orthopedic treatment attempts to normalize transversal dental dimension once alveolar bone grafting is done in order to prepare the surgical advancement of the maxilla. PMID:17681570

Duret, A; Delcampe, P; Peron, J-M

2007-09-01

235

Skeletal features in patient affected by maxillary canine impaction  

PubMed Central

Objective: To analyze the skeletal features of patients with maxillary canine impaction. Material and Methods: The complete pre-treatment records of 1674 orthodontic patients were examined. From the subjects with maxillary impacted canine 12 patients were excluded , remaining 108. The subjects with maxillary impacted canine were divided into two study groups: a palatally displaced canine group (PDCG) (77 patients) and a buccally displaced canine group (BDCG) (31 patients). The values of the skeletal features measured on the lateral cephalometric radiograph were compared with a control group (CG) of 121 subjects randomly selected from the initial sample without maxillary canine impaction. The statistical analysis of the difference between the study groups and the CG was tested using ?2 test and Fisher’s exact test. The level of significance was set at P ?0.05. Results: The CG was characterized by increased values of A point-Nasion-B point angle (ANB) and by a retro-positioned or smaller lower jaw. PDCG patients showed normal skeletal features compared to the CG, presenting mainly I class and lower rank of II and III sagittal skeletal features. PDCG subjects presented also normal values of the Steiner vertical skeletal relationship angles with normal facial divergence compared to the CG. PDCG cases were also characterized by horizontal and prognathic growth. BDCG did not present significant differences in skeletal features compared to the CG, except for an increased ANB. Conclusions: Palatally displaced canine (PDC) was frequently the only orthodontic problem of patients and was not associated whit altered skeletal features. The frequent absence of malocclusion in PDC patients explains the delayed identification of this problem. BDCG patients did not present significant differences in skeletal features with respect to the orthodontic population. The presence of both buccally displaced canine (BDC) and malocclusion makes the patient with BDC both aware of the need for, and motivated to undergo, orthodontic treatment. Key words:Canine impaction, palatal displacement, buccal displacement, skeletal features. PMID:23722128

Mercuri, Emanuele; Cavallini, Costanza; Vicari, Donatella; Leonardi, Rosalia; Barbato, Ersilia

2013-01-01

236

Maxillary expansion with the memory screw: a preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a newly developed rapid maxillary expansion screw-the memory screw-over 6 months. Methods Five subjects, aged between 11.7 and 13.75 years, were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent placement of a maxillary expansion appliance containing superelastic nickel-titanium open-coil springs in its screw bed. The parents of the patients and/or the patients themselves were instructed to activate the expansion screw by 2 quarter-turns 3 times a day (morning, midday, and evening; 6 quarter-turns a day). The mean expansion period was 7.52 ± 1.04 days. Dentoskeletal effects of the procedure, including dentoalveolar inclination, were evaluated. Measurements of all the parameters were repeated after 6 months of retention in order to check for relapse. Results Sella-Nasion-A point (SNA) and Sella-Nasion/Gonion-Menton angles increased, and Sella-Nasion-B point (SNB) angle decreased in all the subjects during the expansion phase. However, they approximated to the initial values at the end of 6 months. On the other hand, the increments in maxillary apical base (Mxr-Mxl) and intermolar widths was quite stable. As expected, some amount of dentoalveolar tipping was observed. Conclusions The newly developed memory expansion screw offers advantages of both rapid and slow expansion procedures. It widens the midpalatal suture and expands the maxilla with relatively lighter forces and within a short time. In addition, the resultant increments in the maxillary apical base and intermolar width remained quite stable even after 6 months of retention. PMID:23112935

Halicio?lu, Koray; Kiki, Ali

2012-01-01

237

Alterations in Maxillary Sinus Volume among Oral and Nasal Breathers.  

PubMed

Background Oral breathing causes many changes in the facial anatomical structures in adult patients. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of long-term oral breathing (>5 years) on the maxillary sinus volumes among adult male patients. Material and Methods We accessed medical records of 586 patients who had undergone cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for any reason between September 2013 and April 2014. Patients who had undergone cone-beam dental volumetric tomography scans for any reason and who had answered a questionnaire about breathing were screened retrospectively. Cone beam dental volumetric tomography (I-Cat, Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA) was used to take the images of the maxillo-facial area at a setting of 120 kVp and 3.7 mA. This study involved male patients older than 21 years of age. Results The study included a total of 239 male patients, of which 68 were oral breathers and 171 were nasal breathers. The mean age of the oral breathers was 48.4 years and that of the nasal breathers was 46.7 years and the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The mean maxillary sinus volumes of the oral and nasal breathers were 9043.49±1987.90 and 10851.77±2769.37, respectively, and the difference in maxillary sinus volume between the 2 groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions The volume of maxillary sinus in oral breathers (>5 years) was significantly lower than in nasal breathers, but it remains unclear whether this is due to malfunctioning of the nasal cavity or due to the underlying pathological condition. PMID:25553770

Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Gulsun, Belgin; Koparal, Mahmut; Atalay, Yusuf; Aksoy, Orhan; Adiguzel, Ozkan

2015-01-01

238

Forced eruption of maxillary incisor teeth from the lingual side.  

PubMed

A major disadvantage in using the forced eruption technique is the necessity for the placement of an unesthetic orthodontic appliance, especially when the tooth involved is a maxillary incisor. The aim of this article is to present two alternative simple, specific task-oriented devices that may be placed on the lingual side of the teeth and may be used in the anterior of the mouth without compromising appearance. PMID:15202587

Chaushu, Stella; Zahavi, Thomas; Becker, Adrian

2004-06-01

239

Primary Small Cell Undifferentiated (Neuroendocrine) Carcinoma of the Maxillary Sinus  

PubMed Central

Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) of the paranasal sinuses is an extremely rare and distinctive tumor with aggressive clinical behavior. Moreover, SNECs originating in the head and neck region have been reported to be highly aggressive and to have a poor prognosis. This report describes a patient with a maxillary sinus SNEC who was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy. PMID:24639904

Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Shetty, Premalatha

2014-01-01

240

Primary small cell undifferentiated (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) of the paranasal sinuses is an extremely rare and distinctive tumor with aggressive clinical behavior. Moreover, SNECs originating in the head and neck region have been reported to be highly aggressive and to have a poor prognosis. This report describes a patient with a maxillary sinus SNEC who was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy. PMID:24639904

Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Shetty, Premalatha

2014-01-01

241

Correction of deep overbite and gummy smile by using a mini-implant with a segmented wire in a growing Class II Division 2 patient.  

PubMed

A boy, aged 10.5 years, with a Class II molar relationship and a very deep overbite, complaining of a gummy smile and anterior crowding, was treated nonextraction with a mini-implant and Twin-block and edgewise fixed appliances. Severely extruded and retroclined maxillary incisors were intruded and proclined with a nickel-titanium closed-coil spring anchored to a mini-implant and segmented wires; this resolved the gummy smile and deep overbite efficiently without extruding the maxillary molars or opening the mandible. The mandibular incisors were proclined without direct orthodontic force during intrusion of the maxillary incisors; this helped the nonextraction treatment of mandibular incisor crowding. The Twin-block appliance with high-pull headgear promoted mandibular growth, restrained maxillary growth, and changed the canine and molar relationship from Class II to Class I. The patient's overbite and overjet were overtreated, and, 1 year postretention, the patient maintained a good overbite and overjet. PMID:17110268

Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Hyewon; Lee, Shin-Jae

2006-11-01

242

Myoepithelial carcinoma arising in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in maxillary sinus  

PubMed Central

Myoepithelial carcinoma is characterized by nearly exclusive myoepithelial differentiation and evidence of malignancy. It may arise de novo or in preexisting benign tumors including pleomorphic adenoma and benign myoepithelioma. A 39-year-old lady presented with painless progressive swelling on the right cheek and right side of palate. On surgery, there was a mass in right maxillary sinus which was surgically excised and diagnosed on histopathology as pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequently, there were two recurrences. The first recurrence was in the right maxilla after 2 years that was removed surgically and diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. One year later, she came with rapidly progressive swelling in bilateral cheeks and face. Intraoperatively, there was a large tumor in both maxillary sinuses with extensive local infiltration. Histologically, it was diagnosed as myoepithelial carcinoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is usually a high grade malignancy. It occurs most commonly in parotid gland followed by submandibular glands, minor salivary glands and occasionally in sublingual gland. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of myoepithelial carcinoma arising in a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in the maxillary sinus. PMID:24574666

Gupta, Ashumi; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Michael, Rajiv

2013-01-01

243

A Maxillary Second Molar with Two Separate Palatal Roots: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Variations of dental root canals were reported by different authors. One of the rare variations is the presence of two separate palatal roots of maxillary molars, especially second maxillary molars. This case study reported a maxillary second molar with two separate palatal roots and a palatal bifurcation which was found during the periodontal flap surgery. Although these variations are rare, awareness of their presence would help in successful periodontal and endodontic treatment. PMID:24724127

Fakhari, E; Shokraneh, A

2013-01-01

244

Humeral lengthening by distraction osteogenesis: a safe procedure?  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the safety of humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame. We retrospectively reviewed 26 humeral segments in 17 patients that were lengthened at our department between 1993 and 2011. There were varying aetiologies including achondroplasia, epiphyseal dysplasia, Oilier disease, trauma or infection of the proximal humeral growth-plate, unicameral bone cyst and brachial plexus injury. Mean age at start of surgery was 17.05 years (range : 5-40). The mean lengthening achieved was 8.85 (3-13) cm. Mean lengthening percentage was 353% (range : 10-48). Average healing index was 30.56 days/cm (range : 17.46-4232). There was a significant difference in healing index between achondroplasia patients (28.79 days/cm) compared to others (33.41 days/cm). Minor problems included pin tract infection (14 segments). More important obstacles were temporary elbow flexion contracture (7 segments), premature consolidation (6 segments), radial nerve dysaesthesia (6 segments) and loosening of a Schanz screw (1 segment). Complications included one fracture and one progressive bowing after frame removal. One planned lengthening was not completely achieved. Despite a lot of obstacles, humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame provided a reliable method to treat the functional or cosmetic problems of upper limb shortening. PMID:24563967

Ruette, Peter; Lammens, Johan

2013-12-01

245

Complications in 54 frontofacial distraction procedures in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis.  

PubMed

Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis manifest midfacial hypoplasia often treated by midfacial advancement. Benefits of midfacial advancement by distraction osteogenesis have been well studied; little is known about the perioperative morbidity of these procedures, specifically relating to device selection. This study compares the perioperative complications between semiburied- and halo-type distraction osteogenesis of the midface. A retrospective review was performed on all patients with syndromic craniosynostosis who underwent midface distraction with semiburied- or halo-type external distractors. Demographic information and operative/postoperative course were reviewed. Complications were categorized as hardware-related, infectious, and either as major (requiring additional intervention) or minor (requiring medication only). Chi-squared and Fisher exact test were used to compare variables.From 1999 to 2012, a total of 54 patients underwent midface distraction osteogenesis, including 23 patients with Apert syndrome, 19 patients with Crouzon syndrome, 10 patients with Pfeiffer syndrome, and 2 patients with other craniofacial syndromes. Thirty-three patients underwent a total of 34 subcranial Le Fort III distraction procedures and 21 underwent 21 monobloc distraction procedures. The mean age during surgery was 8.0 (range, 4.0-17.7) years, whereas the mean time between distractor placement and removal was 102.9 days. Thirty procedures were performed with external halo-type distractors (18 Le Fort III and 12 monobloc distractions), whereas 25 were performed with buried midface distractors (16 Le Fort III and 9 monobloc distractions). There were no significant differences in diagnoses or interventions between the distraction devices. Of the 19 distractor-related complications, there were a total of 10 (18.2%) in the halo group including 5 (9.1%) requiring separate operative intervention as well as 9 (16.4%) in the buried distractor group including 6 (10.1%) requiring separate operative intervention. Major infections were more common in the buried distractor group (n = 8) compared with the halo distractor group (n = 3) (P = 0.048). There were 4 (7.3%) patients in the halo group who had malposition or transcranial pin migration related to postoperative positioning or falls and required operative repositioning. Frontofacial distraction is an important technique in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. Higher rates of halo displacement requiring surgery are offset with lower rates of infections compared with buried distractors. PMID:25569391

Goldstein, Jesse A; Thomas Paliga, James; Taylor, Jesse A; Bartlett, Scott P

2015-01-01

246

Stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in maxillary inferior repositioning: review of the literature.  

PubMed

Inferior repositioning of the maxilla to correct vertical maxillary deficiency has been one of the more unstable orthognathic procedures performed. This kind of maxillary movement is the logical correction of short face syndrome due to maxillary vertical deficiency, but in spite of the esthetic improvement that it produces, a great tendency to relapse was observed. Unfortunately, the procedure is relatively rare, and this is reflected in the small sample of the studies. The literature concerning the stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in maxillary inferior repositioning was reviewed to analyze and discuss the stability of the surgical techniques proposed. PMID:11307199

Costa, F; Robiony, M; Politi, M

2000-01-01

247

Three-dimensional linear and volumetric analysis of maxillary sinus pneumatization  

PubMed Central

Considering the anatomical variability related to the maxillary sinus, its intimate relation to the maxillary posterior teeth and because of all the implications that pneumatization may possess, three-dimensional assessment of maxillary sinus pneumatization is of most usefulness. The aim of this study is to analyze the maxillary sinus dimensions both linearly and volumetrically using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to assess the maxillary sinus pneumatization. Retrospective analysis of 30 maxillary sinuses belonging to 15 patients’ CBCT scans was performed. Linear and volumetric measurements were conducted and statistically analyzed. The maximum craniocaudal extension of the maxillary sinus was located around the 2nd molar in 93% of the sinuses, while the maximum mediolateral and antroposterior extensions of the maxillary sinus were located at the level of root of zygomatic complex in 90% of sinuses. There was a high correlation between the linear measurements of the right and left sides, where the antroposterior extension of the sinus at level of the nasal floor had the largest correlation (0.89). There was also a high correlation between the Simplant and geometric derived maxillary sinus volumes for both right and left sides (0.98 and 0.96, respectively). The relations of the sinus floor can be accurately assessed on the different orthogonal images obtained through 3D CBCT scan. The geometric method offered a much cheaper, easier, and less sophisticated substitute; therefore, with the availability of software, 3D volumetric measurements are more facilitated.

Hamdy, Reham M.; Abdel-Wahed, Nagla’a

2013-01-01

248

Distraction osteogenesis for cleft palate closure: A finite element analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Current methods of closure of the cleft palate result in the formation of scars and impairment of growth. Distraction osteogenesis (DO) might be an effective means to repair or at least reduce the size of wide clefts. This study investigates the biomechanical aspects of this process. Materials and Methods: DO simulation was applied to reduce the size of a unilateral hard palate cleft on a three-dimensional (3D) model of the maxilla. For the position of osteotomy lines, two different models were assumed, with the osteotomy line on the affected side in model A and on the intact side in model B. In each model, DO screws were placed on two different positions, anteriorly (models A1 and B1) and posteriorly (models A2 and B2). Displacement pattern of the bony island in each of the four models, reaction forces at DO locations, and von Mises stress were estimated. Mesh generation and data processing were carried out in the 3D finite element analysis package (ABAQUS V6.7-1; Simulia Corp., Providence, RI, USA). Results: In model B2, the island moved almost evenly, assuring a more complete closure of the cleft. The most uniform stress distribution was found in model B1. Conclusion: The results suggest that the best positions for the DO screw and the osteotomy line for closure of the cleft palate are posteriorly and on the intact side, respectively. PMID:24688567

Ghasemianpour, Majid; Ehsani, Sara; Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Bayat, Mohammad; Ghorbanpour, Maedeh; Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Mirhashemi, Fatemeh Sadat

2014-01-01

249

Propolis accelerates the consolidation phase in distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of propolis on new bone formation after distraction osteogenesis (DO). This study examined 3 groups: control group, P100, and P200. Rabbits underwent DO of the left mandible after an osteotomy between the first molar and the mental foramen. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were evaluated using dual-energy x-ray absorption 1 and 4 weeks after the procedure. The volume of connective tissue and new bone and the number of capillaries were measured using stereologic analysis after the subjects were killed. Dual-energy x-ray absorption showed that the bone mineral content and bone mineral density were higher in the groups treated with propolis by week 4, and these parameters were higher in the P200 group. Stereologic analysis showed no significant differences in connective tissue volume and number of capillaries among the groups. New bone volume was lowest in the P200 group. We concluded that propolis accelerates bone formation and may shorten the consolidation phase with DO. PMID:25203585

Bereket, Cihan; Özan, Fatih; ?ener, ?smail; Tek, Mustafa; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Semirgin, Sibel Uçak; ?enel, Erman; Özdemir, Muhsin

2014-09-01

250

The development and pathologic processes that influence maxillary sinus pneumatization.  

PubMed

The maxillary sinus is universally described as a pyramidal-shaped cavity in the maxilla. Hypoplasia, which can occur unilaterally or bilaterally, is graded by the authors by the degree of failure of descent below the nasal floor in achieving its position adjacent to the posterior dentition in the adult. Unlike early studies using plain X-rays, which considered pneumatization into the zygomatic recess and dental alveolus as criteria, the authors have adopted the above-cited parameters based on computed tomography (CT) imaging, which reveals that even when smaller the sinus retains a pyramidal configuration, although truncated. Rarely, the sinus is excessively pneumatized in the nonpathologic state. Review of the literature failed to reveal a comprehensive study of the conditions that alter maxillary sinus volume and configuration. Based on a retrospective review of 6,000 high resolution CT scans of the paranasal sinuses, the types and relative incidences of these conditions have been determined, and a classification system proposed. The mixed-sex sample group (= 2,540) was comprised of nonpediatric (adolescent and adult) and was of a polyethnic composition. Results showed that enlargement of the sinus is uncommonly encountered, and is produced by air (pneumocele) and mucus (mucocele) entrapment, or by benign tumors which have arisen in the sinus or adjacent maxilla and have grown intracavitarily, with the sinus walls expanding and remodeling to accommodate them. Reduction in size and volume is more frequent. Heredo-familial syndromic conditions reduce sinus size by impaired facial growth centers, or obliteration by dense osteosclerosis. Irradiation for neoplastic disease in the pediatric population similarly, directly effect growth centers, or impairs pituitary function. Another iatrogenic cause, direct surgical intervention (Caldwell-Luc procedure) almost universally alters sinus volume and shape by osteoneogenesis. Midfacial fractures involving the sinus also produce distortion by sclerosis as well as by malpositioning of bone fragments. The principal systemic disorders, sickle cell anemia and osteopetrosis, which diffusely effect medullary bone, do so either through compensatory marrow proliferation or sclerotic new bone formation, thus serving to produce maxillary enlargement and sinus obliteration. The greatest source of maxillary sinus distortion and destruction are neoplasms. Malignant sinonasal and oral cavity tumors produce bony erosion of the sinus walls, whereas benign odontogenic cysts remain external to the sinuses and compress it as they enlarge. Most odontogenic tumors produce external compression and remodeling. Fibro-osseous disorders similarly produce size and shape distortions by external impingement. Although diverse developmental and pathological conditions influence maxillary sinus morphology, there is a limited range of biologic response. PMID:18951496

Lawson, William; Patel, Zara M; Lin, Fred Y

2008-11-01

251

The cognitive determinants of behavioral distraction by deviant auditory stimuli: a review.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have demonstrated that rare and unexpected changes in an otherwise repetitive or structured sound sequence ineluctably break through selective attention and impact negatively on performance in an unrelated task. While the electrophysiological responses to unexpected sounds have been extensively studied, behavioral distraction has received relatively less attention until recently. In this paper, I review work examining the cognitive underpinnings of behavioral distraction by deviant sounds and highlight some of its key determinants. Evidence indicates that deviance distraction (1) derives from the time penalty associated with the involuntary orientation of attention to and away from the deviant sound and from resulting effects such as the reactivation of the relevant task set upon the presentation of the target stimulus; and (2) is mediated by a number of factors (some increasing distraction, such as aging or induced emotions; some decreasing it, such as a memory load or cognitive control). Contrary to the received view that deviants ineluctably elicit distraction, recent work demonstrates that it is contingent upon auditory distractors acting as unspecific warning signals in the service of goal-oriented behavior, and that deviants do not elicit distraction because they are rare but because they violate the cognitive system's predictions (which can be manipulated through implicit rule learning or explicit cueing). Evidence is also presented indicating that the capture of attention by spoken deviant sounds is followed by an involuntary evaluation of their semantic properties, the outcome of which can be robust enough to linger in working memory and interfere with subsequent behavior. Finally, I review studies suggesting that behavioral deviance distraction is not the mere byproduct of the mismatch negativity, P3a and re-orientation negativity electrophysiological responses and highlight a number of outstanding questions for future research. PMID:24363092

Parmentier, Fabrice B R

2014-05-01

252

Visual and cognitive distraction metrics in the age of the smart phone: A basic review.  

PubMed

Sources of distraction are numerous and varied, and defining and measuring distraction and attention is complicated. The driving task requires constant adjustments and reallocation of attention to cognitive, motor, and visual processes. While it is fairly straightforward to measure distraction in an experimental situation (e.g., simulator, closed course), driver distraction in the real world is highly contextual. While no single metric is capable of capturing the complexities of distraction, several have proved useful in helping researchers gain fuller understanding of it. Few have reached a level of consensus among researchers and user interface designers. ISO and SAE may be considered the 'gold standard' for providing mechanisms through which open scientific consensus-based standards can be achieved.While there are a number of metrics used in predicting distraction, three have been studied closely and are going through the SAE and ISO standards process. They are (1) 'the occlusion method'; (2) the Lane Change Test (LCT); and (3) the Detection Response Task (DRT). The metrics described here apply generally to the experimental context where driving is tightly controlled. Like any method, there are limitations with each-and they don't necessarily agree with one another.Experimental methods and analyses are different than those in naturalistic driving (ND). ND relies more on data mining versus traditional experimental manipulation. ND data are a challenge precisely in that they lack experimental control.In future, driver metrics will go beyond specific measurement of task load, and will include how drivers self regulate when they choose to be distracted. PMID:24776223

McGehee, Daniel V

2014-01-01

253

Five years follow-up of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation on a patient after mandibular ameloblastoma removal and ridge reconstruction by fibula graft and bone distraction  

PubMed Central

This case report presents a combination of surgical and prosthetic solutions applied to a case of oral implant rehabilitation in post-oncologic reconstructed mandible. Bone resection due to surgical treatment of large mandibular neoplasm can cause long-span defects. Currently, mandibular fibula free flap graft is widely considered as a reliable technique for restoring this kind of defect. It restores the continuity of removed segment and re-establishes the contour of the lower jaw. However, the limited height of grafted fibula does not allow the insertion of regular length implants, therefore favouring vertical distraction osteogenesis as an important treatment choice. This report presents a patient affected by extensive mandibular ameloblastoma who underwent surgical reconstruction by fibula free flap because of partial mandibular resection. Guided distraction osteoneogenesis technique was applied to grafted bone, in order to obtain adequate bone height and to realize a prosthetically guided placement of 8 fixtures. After osseointegration, the patient was rehabilitated with a full arch, screw-retained prosthetic restoration. At five-years follow up, excellent integration of grafted tissue, steady levels of bone around the fixtures and healthy peri-implant tissues were reported. PMID:22623943

Oteri, Giacomo; Ponte, Francesco Saverio De; Pisano, Michele; Cicciù, Marco

2012-01-01

254

Application of orthodontic mini-implants and ligation for absolute skeletal anchorage to the intraoral labiolingual appliance: midface distraction osteogenesis cases treated with the RED System.  

PubMed

Patients with cleft and several craniofacial syndromes usually show skeletal class III malocclusion with midface hypoplasia. Although the Rigid External Distraction (RED) System (KLS Martin, LP, Jacksonville, FL) has been used widely, bowing of the external traction hooks (ETHs) and tooth-borne anchorage for the intraoral labiolingual appliance (ILA) can result in inappropriate change of force application level and vector control, eventually improper rotation of the osteotomized bony segment and unwanted dentoalveolar effect. Instead of the ETH and ILA, direct fixation of the skeletal plate on the maxilla can be another option. However, it also has some disadvantages including inflammation, fixation failure, and the need for a second surgery to remove the plates. These phenomena could be minimized by the addition of rigidity to the ETHs and fortification of absolute skeletal anchorage to the ILA. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to introduce application orthodontic mini-implants on the buccal attached gingiva and palate areas and ligation for absolute skeletal anchorage to the ILA in midface distraction osteogenesis cases treated with the RED System. In cases that need a large amount of advancement and bodily translation or clockwise rotation of the midface and that have oligodontia or anchorage problem for the ILA, application of the orthodontic mini-implants and ligation for absolute skeletal anchorage to the ILA can be a highly effective fixation approach to obtain more accurate vector control. PMID:21403527

Baek, Seung-Hak; Seo, Yu-Jin

2011-03-01

255

Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique  

PubMed Central

Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

2014-01-01

256

Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique.  

PubMed

Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

2014-01-01

257

Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment.  

PubMed

Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses), yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor). Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., "uh" or "umm") and filler words (e.g., "like" or "you know"). Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods. PMID:24904488

Hsu, Kean J; Babeva, Kalina N; Feng, Michelle C; Hummer, Justin F; Davison, Gerald C

2014-01-01

258

The Relationship between Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), Working Memory and Distraction – A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Approach  

PubMed Central

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) have been reported to have memory enhancement effects in humans. A neuro-stimulatory action and an anti-cortisol mechanism of action may contribute to that relation. In order to study DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol relations to working memory and distraction, we recorded the electroencephalogram of 23 young women performing a discrimination (no working memory load) or 1-back (working memory load) task in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. We measured salivary DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol both before each task and at 30 and 60 min. Under working memory load, a higher baseline cortisol/DHEA ratio was related to higher distraction as indexed by an enhanced novelty P3. This suggests that cortisol may lead to increased distraction whereas DHEA may hinder distraction by leading to less processing of the distractor. An increased DHEA production with consecutive cognitive tasks was found and higher DHEA responses attributed to working memory load were related to enhanced working memory processing as indexed by an enhanced visual P300. Overall, the results suggest that in women DHEA may oppose cortisol effects reducing distraction and that a higher DHEA response may enhance working memory at the electrophysiological level. PMID:25105970

do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Gomes, Ana Coelho; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

2014-01-01

259

The association of distraction and caution displayed by pedestrians at a lighted crosswalk.  

PubMed

The rates of deaths and injuries among pedestrians have fallen in recent years, but still remain public health problems as about 5000 pedestrians die each year. Because pedestrians have been shown to be responsible or partially responsible for many of the crashes in which they are involved, we sought to assess the relationship of distracted walking and performing routine cautionary behaviors of pedestrians crossing a busy street in a southwestern city at an intersection, adjacent a university. The behavior of 866 individuals was recorded by trained observers as pedestrians walked across a 105-foot wide street served by a stop light and zebra painted crosswalk. We defined distracted pedestrians as those wearing headphones, talking on a cell phone, eating, drinking, smoking or talking as they crossed the street. Caution was measured by looking left and right, and entering the crosswalk only when the white proceed light was illuminated. We found that only 13.5% of walkers looked left and right and entered the crosswalk while the white light was flashing. Approximately 20% of walkers were distracted as they crossed the street. Regression analysis indicated that distraction was negatively, but weakly associated with displaying cautious pedestrian behaviors. Because traffic lights were routinely ignored and lack of caution was predicted by distraction, we suggest that inexpensive education efforts target pedestrians near college campuses. PMID:15989209

Bungum, Timothy J; Day, Charlene; Henry, L Jean

2005-08-01

260

Psychological factors for driver distraction and inattention in the Australian and New Zealand rail industry.  

PubMed

A signal passed at danger (SPAD) event occurs when a train moves past a stop signal into a section of unauthorised track. SPAD events are frequently attributed to driver distraction and inattention, but few studies have explored the failure mode from the perspective of task demand and the ability of the driver to self-regulate in response to competing activities. This study aimed to provide a more informed understanding of distraction, inattention and SPAD-risk in the passenger rail task. The research approach combined focus groups with a generative task designed to stimulate situational insight. Twenty-eight train drivers participated from 8 different rail operators in Australia and New Zealand. Data were analysed thematically and revealed several moderating factors for driver distraction. Time-keeping pressure and certain aspects of the driver-controller dynamic were considered to distort performance, and distractions from station dwelling and novel events increased SPAD-risk. The results are conceptualised in a succinct model of distraction linking multiple factors with mechanisms that induced the attentional shift. The commonalities and inter-dynamics of the factors revealed insight into driving anxiety in the passenger rail mode, and suggested that SPAD-risk was intensified when three or more factors converged. The paper discusses these issues in the context of misappropriated attention, taxonomic implications, and directions for future research. PMID:24076301

Naweed, Anjum

2013-11-01

261

Effect of distraction frequency on bone formation during bone lengthening: a study in chickens.  

PubMed

We compared the effects of two distraction frequencies on bone formation during tibial lengthening by evaluating radiographs, bone mineral density, and histological findings. In 15 mature White Leghorn chickens, both tibiae were distracted at a rate of 0.75 mm/day for 10 days. The distraction frequency was 2 steps (0.375 mm/12 hour) by hand on the right side and 120 steps (0.00625 mm/12 min) by autodistractor on the left. Serial radiographs showed faster bone formation on the 120-step side than on the 2-step side. Bone mineral density on the 120-step side was also higher than that on the 2-step side at all times. On the 2-step side, endochondral ossification was marked in the early stage of distraction; then intramembranous ossification became the main mechanism of bone formation. On the 120-step side, however, intramembranous bone formation predominated throughout the study. Our findings support the contention that, at least in skeletally mature chickens, an increase in the distraction frequency improves osteogenesis during bone lengthening. PMID:14763703

Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Eiichi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Kudo, Satoshi; Takagi, Katsumasa

2003-12-01

262

Midface distraction without osteotomies in an infant with upper respiratory obstruction.  

PubMed

Midface hypoplasia is a common craniofacial anomaly and may manifest as part of a wider syndrome or as an isolated finding. Underlying this condition is a complex morphology, resulting from development across multiple interacting suture systems. Current treatment relies on various combinations of osteotomies and distraction using internal or external devices. Such procedures, while often successful, involve significant morbidity and trauma to the very young patients whom comprise the majority of the treatment group. The present article describes the successful development of a technique for midfacial distraction without osteotomies. In a case study representing a series of 11 patients, a 4-month-old baby girl with midface hypoplasia and respiratory obstruction requiring nasopharyngeal intubation underwent this 2-stage procedure. After 72-day distraction, upper incisor-posterior clinoid process distance had increased 18.4 mm, and by 4 months after removal of the distraction devices, it had increased a further 2.6 mm. Craniofacial morphology was markedly improved combined with complete resolution of her respiratory obstruction. No blood transfusion or intensive care facility was required. This innovation demonstrates a procedure with similar efficacy but significantly reduced morbidity and cost compared with existing methods. Interestingly, continued growth after the distraction period may allude to a different mechanism of induced osteogenesis than previously described. PMID:19098561

Graewe, Frank R; Morkel, Jean A; Hartzenberg, Henry B; Ross, Richard J; Zuehlke, Alexander E

2008-11-01

263

Brain activation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction in internet gaming disorder.  

PubMed

We evaluated neural substrates related to the loss of control in college students with internet gaming disorder (IGD). We hypothesized that deficit in response inhibition under gaming cue distraction was the possible mechanism for the loss of control internet use. Eleven cases of IGD and 11 controls performed Go/NoGo tasks with/without gaming distraction in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. When the gaming picture was shown as background while individuals were performing Go/NoGo tasks, the IGD group committed more commission errors. The control group increased their brain activations more over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal lobe under gaming cue distraction in comparison with the IGD group. Furthermore, brain activation of the right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe were negatively associated with performance of response inhibition among the IGD group. The results suggest that the function of response inhibition was impaired under gaming distraction among the IGD group, and individuals with IGD could not activate right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe to keep cognitive control and attention allocation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction. This mechanism should be addressed in any intervention for IGD. PMID:24388058

Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen; Ko, Chih-Hung

2014-01-01

264

Structural and functional differences in medial prefrontal cortex underlies distractibility and suppression deficits in aging  

PubMed Central

Older adults experience deficits in working memory (WM) that are acutely exacerbated by the presence of distracting information. Human neurophysiological studies have revealed that these changes are accompanied by a diminished ability to suppress visual cortical activity associated with task-irrelevant information. Although this is often attributed to deficits in top-down control from a prefrontal cortical source, this has not yet been directly demonstrated. Here we evaluate the neural basis of distraction’s negative impact on WM and the impairment in neural suppression in older adults by performing structural and functional MRIs while older participants engage in tasks that require remembering relevant visual stimuli in the context of overlapping irrelevant stimuli. Analysis supports both an age-related distraction effect and neural suppression deficit, and extends our understanding by revealing an alteration in functional connectivity between visual cortices and a region in the default network, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Moreover, within the older population, the magnitude of WM distractibility and neural suppression are both associated with individual differences in cortical volume and activity of the mPFC, as well as its associated white-matter tracts. PMID:24979364

Chadick, James Z.; Zanto, Theodore P.; Gazzaley, Adam

2014-01-01

265

Growth rate after limb deformity correction by the Ilizarov method with or without knee joint distraction  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Growth inhibition and stimulation have both been reported after juvenile limb lengthening. Distraction of a joint usually suspends and unloads the growth plate and may stimulate growth. We investigated the influence of knee joint distraction on the speed of growth after limb lengthening. Methods In a retrospective study, growth patterns were analyzed in 30 children mean 61 (24–109) months after limb lengthening with the Ilizarov method, each child having more than 2 years of remaining growth. In 14 patients with knee joint instability, the knee was bridged over during lengthening for joint stabilization. Whether or not joint bridging and distraction would affect patterns of growth of the lengthened limb by unloading the growth plate was evaluated with a repeated measurements analysis of variance. Results After lengthening procedures, the proportionate leg-length discrepancy was found to decrease in 16 children, suggesting increased growth rate in the lengthened limbs. A statistically significantly faster growth rate was seen in 8 of 14 patients with knee distraction as compared to patients with single bone frame configurations. Interpretation Further research is required to investigate whether growth stimulation is due to the surgical technique and whether joint distraction should be recommended during limb lengthening in growing children. PMID:19857182

Brand, Ronald; van Roermund, Peter M

2009-01-01

266

Denervation impairs bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis in rabbit tibia lengthening  

PubMed Central

Background and purposes The nervous system plays an important role in bone metabolism. However, the effect of denervation on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis (DO) remains unclear. We studied neural influence on bone regeneration during DO in a rabbit model. Methods 24 New Zealand male white rabbits underwent left tibial osteodistraction. Before distraction, the animals were randomly divided into group R (resected left sciatic nerve) and group I (intact left sciatic nerve). 8 weeks after completion of distraction, the animals were killed and the lengthened tibias were harvested for radiography, micro-CT, histological evaluation, and mechanical testing. Results New regenerated bone was present in the distraction gaps of all animals at the end of the study, as revealed by radiography, micro-CT, and histology. However, less new bone formation and a lower degree of mineralization were observed in group R. The mechanical strength of the distraction gap in group I was 1.3-fold greater than that in group R when measured using the 3-point bending test. Interpretation The results suggest that the nervous system plays an essential role during DO: the denervation appears to have an inhibitory effect on bone formation. PMID:22880710

2012-01-01

267

Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment  

PubMed Central

Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses), yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor). Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., “uh” or “umm”) and filler words (e.g., “like” or “you know”). Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods. PMID:24904488

Hsu, Kean J.; Babeva, Kalina N.; Feng, Michelle C.; Hummer, Justin F.; Davison, Gerald C.

2014-01-01

268

Dancing to distraction: mediating 'docile bodies' in 'Philippine Thriller video'.  

PubMed

This essay examines the conditions behind the 'Philippine Prison Thriller' video, a YouTube spectacle featuring the 1,500 inmates of Cebu Provincial Detention and Rehabilitation Centre (CPDRC) dancing to Michael Jackson's hit song 'Thriller'. The video achieved viral status after it was uploaded onto the video-sharing platform in 2007, and sparked online debates as to whether this video, containing recorded moving images of allegedly forced dancing, was a form of cruel and inhumane punishment or a novel approach to rehabilitation. The immense popularity of the video inspired creative responses from viewers, and this international popularity caused the CPDRC to host a monthly live dance show held in the prison yard, now in its seventh year. The essay explores how seemingly innocuous products of user-generated-content are imbued with ideologies that obscure or reduce relations of race, agency, power and control. By contextualising the video's origins, I highlight current Philippine prison conditions and introduce how video-maker/programme inventor/prison warden Byron Garcia sought to distance his facility from the Philippine prison majority. I then investigate the 'mediation' of 'Thriller' through three main issues. One, I examine the commodification and transformation from viral video to a thana-tourist destination; two, the global appeal of 'Thriller' is founded on public penal intrigue and essentialist Filipino tropes, mixed with a certain novelty factor widely suffused in YouTube formats; three, how dance performance and its mediation here are conducive to creating Foucault's docile bodies, which operate as a tool of distraction for the masses and ultimately serve the interests of the state far more than it rehabilitates(unconvicted and therefore innocent) inmates. PMID:24480892

Mangaoang, Áine

2013-01-01

269

Students distracted by electronic devices perform at the same level as those who are focused on the lecture  

PubMed Central

Background. Little is known about the characteristics of internet distractions that students may engage in during lecture. The objective of this pilot study is to identify some of the internet-based distractions students engage in during in-person lectures. The findings will help identify what activities most commonly cause students to be distracted from the lecture and if these activities impact student learning. Methods. This study is a quasi-experimental pilot study of 26 students from a single institution. In the current study, one class of third-year students were surveyed after a lecture on special needs dentistry. The survey identified self-reported utilization patterns of “smart” devices during the lecture. Additionally, twelve quiz-type questions were given to assess the students’ recall of important points in the lecture material that had just been covered. Results. The sample was comprised of 26 students. Of these, 17 were distracted in some form (either checking email, sending email, checking Facebook, or sending texts). The overall mean score on the test was 9.85 (9.53 for distracted students and 10.44 for non-distracted students). There were no significant differences in test scores between distracted and non-distracted students (p = 0.652). Gender and types of distractions were not significantly associated with test scores (p > 0.05). All students believed that they understood all the important points from the lecture. Conclusions. Every class member felt that they acquired the important learning points during the lecture. Those who were distracted by electronic devices during the lecture performed similarly to those who were not. However, results should be interpreted with caution as this study was a small quasi-experimental design and further research should examine the influence of different types of distraction on different types of learning. PMID:25279260

Nalliah, Romesh P.

2014-01-01

270

Students distracted by electronic devices perform at the same level as those who are focused on the lecture.  

PubMed

Background. Little is known about the characteristics of internet distractions that students may engage in during lecture. The objective of this pilot study is to identify some of the internet-based distractions students engage in during in-person lectures. The findings will help identify what activities most commonly cause students to be distracted from the lecture and if these activities impact student learning. Methods. This study is a quasi-experimental pilot study of 26 students from a single institution. In the current study, one class of third-year students were surveyed after a lecture on special needs dentistry. The survey identified self-reported utilization patterns of "smart" devices during the lecture. Additionally, twelve quiz-type questions were given to assess the students' recall of important points in the lecture material that had just been covered. Results. The sample was comprised of 26 students. Of these, 17 were distracted in some form (either checking email, sending email, checking Facebook, or sending texts). The overall mean score on the test was 9.85 (9.53 for distracted students and 10.44 for non-distracted students). There were no significant differences in test scores between distracted and non-distracted students (p = 0.652). Gender and types of distractions were not significantly associated with test scores (p > 0.05). All students believed that they understood all the important points from the lecture. Conclusions. Every class member felt that they acquired the important learning points during the lecture. Those who were distracted by electronic devices during the lecture performed similarly to those who were not. However, results should be interpreted with caution as this study was a small quasi-experimental design and further research should examine the influence of different types of distraction on different types of learning. PMID:25279260

Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

2014-01-01

271

A new method of morphological comparison for bony reconstructive surgery: maxillary reconstruction using scapular tip bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

esthetic appearance is one of the most important factors for reconstructive surgery. The current practice of maxillary reconstruction chooses radial forearm, fibula or iliac rest osteocutaneous to recreate three-dimensional complex structures of the palate and maxilla. However, these bone flaps lack shape similarity to the palate and result in a less satisfactory esthetic. Considering similarity factors and vasculature advantages, reconstructive surgeons recently explored the use of scapular tip myo-osseous free flaps to restore the excised site. We have developed a new method that quantitatively evaluates the morphological similarity of the scapula tip bone and palate based on a diagnostic volumetric computed tomography (CT) image. This quantitative result was further interpreted as a color map that rendered on the surface of a three-dimensional computer model. For surgical planning, this color interpretation could potentially assist the surgeon to maximize the orientation of the bone flaps for best fit of the reconstruction site. With approval from the Research Ethics Board (REB) of the University Health Network, we conducted a retrospective analysis with CT image obtained from 10 patients. Each patient had a CT scans including the maxilla and chest on the same day. Based on this image set, we simulated total, subtotal and hemi palate reconstruction. The procedure of simulation included volume segmentation, conversing the segmented volume to a stereo lithography (STL) model, manual registration, computation of minimum geometric distances and curvature between STL model. Across the 10 patients data, we found the overall root-mean-square (RMS) conformance was 3.71+/- 0.16 mm

Chan, Harley; Gilbert, Ralph W.; Pagedar, Nitin A.; Daly, Michael J.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

2010-02-01

272

Rapid maxillary expansion in the deciduous and mixed dentition evaluated through posteroanterior cephalometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an agreement among orthodontists that a posterior crossbite relationship should be treated early. The Haas expansion appliance is frequently chosen whenever a maxillary skeletal constriction exists in the deciduous, mixed, or permanent dentition. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of rapid maxillary expansion for 32 children between 5 and 11 years of age, by inspection of anteroposterior

Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho; Luciana Andrade do Prado Montes; Luiz Flores Torelly

1995-01-01

273

Apical leakage in maxillary type IV premolars with three different endodontic treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability in orthogradely filled, apicoectomised and retrogradely filled maxillary premolars with two canals and two separate apical foramina. The root canals of 51 extracted maxillary premolars of type IV were uniformly shaped and filled by means of lateral condensation and subsequently randomly divided into three groups of 17 teeth each.

K. Staribratova-Reister; J. P. Reister; T. Attin; P. Martus; A. M. Kielbassa

2003-01-01

274

Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma with concurrent prolonged foreign body impaction.  

PubMed

Several elements in the maxillary sinus are reported to be carcinogenic. Also, foreign body reaction can cause cancer in any part of the body. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma at the site in the maxillary sinus where a bullet splinter, analyzed as iron afterward, was inserted during the Korean War, approximately 60 years earlier. PMID:22446444

Kim, Young-Ha; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Kwang Jae; Kim, Joohwan

2012-03-01

275

Periodontal response to early uncovering, autonomous eruption, and orthodontic alignment of palatally impacted maxillary canines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in periodontal status, root length, and visual assessment in patients with palatally impacted maxillary canines that were surgically exposed, allowed to erupt freely into the palate, and orthodontically aligned. Methods: Clinical examinations of the maxillary lateral incisors, canines, and adjacent premolars were performed on 16 patients with unilaterally impacted canines

Andrew D. Schmidt; Vincent G. Kokich

2007-01-01

276

WNT10A mutations also associated with agenesis of the maxillary permanent canines, a separate entity.  

PubMed

Agenesis or isolated hypodontia of the maxillary permanent canines is a very rare dental anomaly. We report on nine unrelated Thai patients with this condition. Three of them had one affected parent. Three heterozygous missense mutations (p.Arg171Cys; p.Gly213Ser; and IVS2+1G>A) were identified in WNT10A in six patients. The p.Gly213Cys mutation was found in four patients. One of the patients who had p.Gly213Ser mutation also had peg-shaped (microdontia of the) maxillary lateral incisors with dens invaginatus. The mothers of two patients who carried the same mutation as their affected sons (p.Gly213Ser and p.Arg171Cys) had microdontia of the maxillary permanent lateral incisor. Our study has demonstrated for the first time that agenesis of the maxillary permanent canines is a distinct entity, associated with mutations in WNT10A. Inheritance appears to be autosomal dominant. Agenesis of the maxillary permanent canines may accompany by microdontia of the maxillary permanent lateral incisors and dens invaginatus of the maxillary permanent lateral incisors. Mutations could not be identified in the coding exons of WNT10A in three patients. They might be located outside the coding exons, including the promoter regions. However, it is likely that agenesis of the maxillary permanent canines is a heterogeneous disorder. PMID:24311251

Kantaputra, P; Kaewgahya, M; Kantaputra, W

2014-02-01

277

Cleft lip and palate management with maxillary expansion and space opening for a single tooth implant.  

PubMed

An adult Class I malocclusion with a unilateral cleft lip and palate is presented. The maxillary transverse deficiency was managed with orthopedic expansion and the missing lateral incisor with space opening, bone grafting, and single tooth implant. The mild maxillary retrognathia and deficient lip support was managed with dental compensation. PMID:10672214

Sabri, R

2000-02-01

278

A rare case of carcinosarcoma of the maxillary sinus with osteosarcomatous differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique case of carcinosarcoma in the maxillary sinus is reported. A 47-year-old man visited our hospital with complaints of right nasal obstruction and bloody rhinorrhea. Examination revealed a hemorrhagic mass with necrosis in the maxillary sinus that infiltrated the right nasal cavity. Histologically, the tumor was composed of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Nests of squamous cell carcinoma and

Yasushi Furuta; Takayuki Nojima; Naoaki Terakura; Satoshi Fukuda; Yukio Inuyama

2001-01-01

279

Peripheral odontogenic myxoma of maxillary gingiva: A rare clinical entity.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma comprises 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxomas are relatively rare benign mesenchymal tumors found exclusively in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaw and are usually located centrally in the mandible. Soft-tissue localization is rarely seen and is classified as peripheral myxoma. Peripheral myxoma is slow growing and less aggressive, as compared to the central myxoma. It has a low recurrence rate. Till date, only few cases of maxillary gingival myxomas are reported in the literature. Here, we present an unusual case of primary peripheral odontogenic myxoma occurring in the gingiva of anterior maxilla in a 41-year-old female patient. PMID:24174762

Jain, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Soundarya Narayana

2013-09-01

280

Massive juvenile ossifying fibroma of maxillary sinus with orbital involvement.  

PubMed Central

A 14-year-old black girl had painless, progressive proptosis and upward displacement of the left eye for approximately six months. Computed tomography showed a massive tumour involving the maxillary sinus with extension into the sphenoid sinus, ethmoid sinus, and orbit. The mass was excised surgically and proved histopathologically to be a juvenile ossifying fibroma. The clinical and histopathological features of this uncommon orbital tumour are discussed and its place in the spectrum of fibro-osseous tumours of the orbital region is considered. Images PMID:3994958

Shields, J A; Peyster, R G; Handler, S D; Augsburger, J J; Kapustiak, J

1985-01-01

281

A Large Ameloblastic Fibro-odontoma of the Maxillary Sinus  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma is a rare, benign, asymptomatic tumor. The term ameloblastic fibro-odontoma was first used by Hooker in 1967 as a separate lesion from ameloblastic odontoma. Case Report: This case report describes an eleven years old female with large ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in the right maxillary sinus. Conclusion: There is a low potential for recurrence after complete Enucleation of ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, but due to the risk of ameloblastic sarcoma after recurrence, the surgery should be perfect along with a careful follow up. PMID:24745000

Banihashem Rad, Seyed Ali; Mortazavi, Hamed; Eshghpour, Majid; Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Shahakbari, Reza

2014-01-01

282

Complete Bilateral Gemination of Maxillary Incisors with Separate Root Canals  

PubMed Central

Developmental anomalies in the hard tissue are seen frequently in dental practice. Gemination and fusion are the most commonly encountered anomalies, and distinction between the two is always challenging. Gemination, also called double tooth, is an anomaly exhibiting two joined crowns and usually a single root. It represents an incomplete attempt of a single tooth germ to split. It is considered multifactorial in etiology, with genetic and environmental causes. This paper discusses a rare example of bilateral gemination (prevalence 0.04%) of maxillary central incisors with completely separated roots. Multidisciplinary care ensured a successful esthetic and functional outcome. PMID:25254121

Mahendra, Lodd; Govindarajan, Sujatha; Jayanandan, Muruganandhan; Shamsudeen, Shaik Mohammed; Kumar, Nalin; Madasamy, Ramasamy

2014-01-01

283

Surgical management of an erupted complex odontoma occupying maxillary sinus  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of complex odontomas is not considered to be rare in the jaws. But the occurence of large odontomas obscuring the maxillary sinus, or erupting into the oral cavity are considered to be rare. The prognosis is good with surgical excision and recurrence is nil. Most of the times the surgical site can be closed primarily, but sometimes requires local flaps to achieve tension free closure. Here, we report such a case treated by surgical excision trans orally followed soft tissue defect reconstruction with pedicled palatal island flap. PMID:23482681

Arunkumar, K. V.; Vijaykumar; Garg, Nitin

2012-01-01

284

Pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery following mandibular condylar fracture  

PubMed Central

Pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery is a rare occurrence. A well-organized pulsatile mass that develops after a traumatic event indicates a pseudoaneurysm. Such lesions are commonly misdiagnosed for an abscess or a hematoma. Pulsations and audible bruit are diagnostic features of an aneurysm. Rupture of such false aneurysms cause significant morbidity. Management is either surgical resection or embolization. Endovascular embolization is indicated in deep seated lesions or lesions with high morbidity. Though surgical resection is an invasive procedure, it is considered to be an alternative to embolization. PMID:25593875

Katakol, Basavaraj; Govindaraj, E.

2014-01-01

285

Timing of exchange of the maxillary deciduous and permanent teeth in boys with three types of orofacial clefts.  

PubMed

Timing of exchange of the deciduous and permanent maxillary teeth was investigated using dental plaster casts of 163 boys with total unilateral cleft (UCLP), 82 boys with bilateral cleft (BCLP), and 97 boys with isolated cleft palate (CP). All patients were treated at the Prague Plastic Surgery Clinic. The results were compared with a control group of 294 schoolboys. To evaluate the course of eruption, the proportion of each erupted teeth in each year of age was employed. In boys with UCLP, eruption of the permanent maxillary lateral incisors and the permanent maxillary second molar was retarded on the cleft side. On the non-affected side, no delay of eruption was observed, but earlier eruption was found in the permanent maxillary canine and in the permanent maxillary first and second premolars. In boys with BCLP, the highest retardation of eruption was found in the permanent maxillary lateral incisor and in the permanent maxillary first molar. The permanent maxillary canine and both permanent maxillary premolars erupted earlier than in the control group. In boys with CP, only the permanent maxillary central incisors erupted earlier. The maxillary deciduous canines and the second molars were both lost early. We conclude that the developmental disturbances of the maxillary jaw and teeth in patients with orofacial clefts are also associated with alteration of timing of dental exchange. PMID:8827389

Peterka, M; Peterková, R; Likovský, Z

1996-07-01

286

Stress distribution produced by correction of the maxillary second molar in buccal crossbite.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution produced in the dentoalveolar system by a maxillary posterior crossbite appliance used for the correction of maxillary second molars in buccal crossbite. A photoelastic model was fabricated using a photoelastic material (PL-3) to simulate alveolar bone and ivory-colored resin teeth. The model was anteriorly and posteriorly observed with a circular polariscope and photographically recorded before and after activation of the maxillary posterior crossbite appliance. An uncontrolled palatal tipping and a rotating force were generated when the traction force was applied on the palatal surface of the maxillary second molar. A controlled tipping and an intrusive force were generated when the traction force was applied on the buccal surface of the maxillary second molar. PMID:12401047

Yoon, Young-Jooh; Jang, Sung-Ho; Hwang, Gab-Woon; Kim, Kwang-Won

2002-10-01

287

Progressive immediate loading of a perforated maxillary sinus dental implant: a case report  

PubMed Central

The displacement of a dental implant into the maxillary sinus may lead to implant failure due to exposure of the apical third or the tip of the implant beyond the bone, resulting in soft tissue growth. This case report discusses dental implant placement in the upper first molar area with maxillary sinus involvement of approximately 2 mm. A new technique for progressive implant loading was used, involving immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus perforation and low primary stability. Follow-up was performed with resonance frequency analysis and compared with an implant placed adjacent in the upper second premolar area using a conventional delayed loading protocol. Implants with maxillary sinus involvement showed increasing stability during the healing period. We found that progressive implant loading may be a safe technique for the placement of immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus involvement.

Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

2015-01-01

288

Spiral computed tomographic evaluation and endodontic management of a maxillary canine with two canals  

PubMed Central

Aberrations in the root canal system can pose a considerable challenge to the endodontist during root canal treatment. These anatomical variations are more commonly seen in maxillary molars and mandibular teeth, but only a few cases have been reported with alteration in the internal canal anatomy of maxillary canine. The present report describes the diagnosis of bilateral occurrence of two root canals in maxillary canines with single root and the endodontic management of the right maxillary canine with the aid of spiral computed tomography (CT). The CT images revealed the presence of Vertucci's type-III canal configuration in the right maxillary canine. The same canal pattern was found in the contra-lateral canine, which was absolutely healthy; and also all the mandibular anterior teeth and first premolars showed bifid canal pattern. PMID:23833466

Subha, N; Prabu, M; Prabhakar, V; Abarajithan, M

2013-01-01

289

Propranolol reduces emotional distraction in working memory: A partial mediating role of propranolol-induced cortisol increases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noradrenalin modulates prefrontal function, such as working memory (WM), and is associated with enhanced distractibility, and enhanced memory for emotional events and stimuli. The beta-blocker propranolol has been shown to reduce memory for emotional stimuli. Herein we describe investigations aimed at assessing whether the administration of propranolol would reduce the interference by emotional distractions during WM performance. In a between-subjects

Nicole Y. L. Oei; Marieke S. Tollenaar; Bernet M. Elzinga; Philip Spinhoven

2010-01-01

290

This was printed from Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal Add iPods to things that distract  

E-print Network

This was printed from Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal Add iPods to things that distract drivers Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal Date: Thursday, December 15, 2011, 6:08am PST RelatedPods to things that distract drivers - Silicon Valley / San Jo... http://www.bizjournals.com/sanjose/news/2011

Salvucci, Dario D.

291

Impact of social and technological distraction on pedestrian crossing behaviour: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of the present work was to study the impact of technological and social distraction on cautionary behaviours and crossing times in pedestrians. Methods Pedestrians were observed at 20 high-risk intersections during 1 of 3 randomly assigned time windows in 2012. Observers recorded demographic and behavioural information, including use of a mobile device (talking on the phone, text messaging, or listening to music). We examined the association between distraction and crossing behaviours, adjusting for age and gender. All multivariate analyses were conducted with random effect logistic regression (binary outcomes) and random effect linear regression (continuous outcomes), accounting for clustering by site. Results Observers recorded crossing behaviours for 1102 pedestrians. Nearly one-third (29.8%) of all pedestrians performed a distracting activity while crossing. Distractions included listening to music (11.2%), text messaging (7.3%) and using a handheld phone (6.2%). Text messaging, mobile phone use and talking with a companion increased crossing time. Texting pedestrians took 1.87 additional seconds (18.0%) to cross the average intersection (3.4 lanes), compared to undistracted pedestrians. Texting pedestrians were 3.9 times more likely than undistracted pedestrians to display at least 1 unsafe crossing behaviour (disobeying the lights, crossing mid-intersection, or failing to look both ways). Pedestrians listening to music walked more than half a second (0.54) faster across the average intersection than undistracted pedestrians. Conclusions Distracting activity is common among pedestrians, even while crossing intersections. Technological and social distractions increase crossing times, with text messaging associated with the highest risk. Our findings suggest the need for intervention studies to reduce risk of pedestrian injury. PMID:23243104

Thompson, Leah L; Rivara, Frederick P; Ayyagari, Rajiv C; Ebel, Beth E

2013-01-01

292

Correction of Mandibular Retrognathia and Laterognathia by Distraction Osteogenesis: Follow up of 5 cases  

PubMed Central

This article evaluates the use of distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of mandibular retrognathia and laterognathia and the long term treatment results of the patients treated with this technique. The procedure was carried out in 5 subjects (3 males and 2 females, mean age 18.4 years) aged between 14 years and 27 years. In patients treated with bilateral mandibular distraction, it was observed that the ANB angle decreased by a mean of 5°, the mandibular corpus length increased by a mean of 14.5 mm and the overjet decreased by a mean of 12.2 mm after treatment. In patients treated with unilateral mandibular distraction, a mean of 3.5° reduction was achieved in ANB angle, the mandibular corpus length increased by a mean of 5.5 mm and a mean of 7 mm correction was achieved in relation to craniofacial midline with treatment. One of these patients showed an increase of 10 mm in ramus height on the affected side and a decrease of 5° in gonial angle whereas the other one showed an increase of 12.5° in gonial angle and an increase of 11 mm in ramus height on the affected side after treatment. The most significant long term relapse was observed in one of the patients treated with bilateral mandibular distraction. Long term relapse seen in the rest of the patients was within clinically acceptable limits. It can be concluded that distraction of the deformed mandible is a feasible and effective technique for treating mandibular retrognathia and laterognathia. However, it must be borne in mind that accurate placement of the distractors and determining the correct distraction vector are crucial factors that have an influence on long term clinical success. PMID:19826608

Dolanmaz, Dogan; Karaman, Ali Ihya; Gurel, Hakan Gurcan; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucukkolbasi, Hasan; Usumez, Serdar

2009-01-01

293

Correction of Mandibular Retrognathia and Laterognathia by Distraction Osteogenesis: Follow up of 5 cases.  

PubMed

This article evaluates the use of distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of mandibular retrognathia and laterognathia and the long term treatment results of the patients treated with this technique. The procedure was carried out in 5 subjects (3 males and 2 females, mean age 18.4 years) aged between 14 years and 27 years. In patients treated with bilateral mandibular distraction, it was observed that the ANB angle decreased by a mean of 5 degrees , the mandibular corpus length increased by a mean of 14.5 mm and the overjet decreased by a mean of 12.2 mm after treatment. In patients treated with unilateral mandibular distraction, a mean of 3.5 degrees reduction was achieved in ANB angle, the mandibular corpus length increased by a mean of 5.5 mm and a mean of 7 mm correction was achieved in relation to craniofacial midline with treatment. One of these patients showed an increase of 10 mm in ramus height on the affected side and a decrease of 5 degrees in gonial angle whereas the other one showed an increase of 12.5 degrees in gonial angle and an increase of 11 mm in ramus height on the affected side after treatment. The most significant long term relapse was observed in one of the patients treated with bilateral mandibular distraction. Long term relapse seen in the rest of the patients was within clinically acceptable limits. It can be concluded that distraction of the deformed mandible is a feasible and effective technique for treating mandibular retrognathia and laterognathia. However, it must be borne in mind that accurate placement of the distractors and determining the correct distraction vector are crucial factors that have an influence on long term clinical success. PMID:19826608

Dolanmaz, Dogan; Karaman, Ali Ihya; Gurel, Hakan Gurcan; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucukkolbasi, Hasan; Usumez, Serdar

2009-10-01

294

Effects of cell-phone and text-message distractions on true and false recognition.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of electronic communication distractions, including cell-phone and texting demands, on true and false recognition, specifically semantically related words presented and not presented on a computer screen. Participants were presented with 24 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists while manipulating the concurrent presence or absence of cell-phone and text-message distractions during study. In the DRM paradigm, participants study lists of semantically related words (e.g., mother, crib, and diaper) linked to a non-presented critical lure (e.g., baby). After studying the lists of words, participants are then requested to recall or recognize previously presented words. Participants often not only demonstrate high remembrance for presented words (true memory: crib), but also recollection for non-presented words (false memory: baby). In the present study, true memory was highest when participants were not presented with any distraction tasks during study of DRM words, but poorer when they were required to complete a cell-phone conversation or text-message task during study. False recognition measures did not statistically vary across distraction conditions. Signal detection analyses showed that participants better discriminated true targets (list items presented during study) from true target controls (items presented during study only) when cell-phone or text-message distractions were absent than when they were present. Response bias did not vary significantly across distraction conditions, as there were no differences in the likelihood that a participant would claim an item as "old" (previously presented) rather than "new" (not previously presented). Results of this study are examined with respect to both activation monitoring and fuzzy trace theories. PMID:21198365

Smith, Theodore S; Isaak, Matthew I; Senette, Christian G; Abadie, Brenton G

2011-06-01

295

Vertebral Distraction during Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Causes Postoperative Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective Vertebral distraction is routinely performed during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Overdistraction can injure the facet joints and may cause postoperative neck pain consequently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of distraction force during ACDF. Methods This study included 24 consecutive patients with single level cervical disc disease undergoing single level ACDF. We measure the maximum torque just before the the arm of the Caspar retractor was suspended by the rachet mechanism by turning the lever on the movable arm using a torque meter. In order to turn the lever using the torque driver, we made a linear groove on the top of the lever. We compared the neck disability index (NDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores between the high torque group (distraction force>6 kgf·cm) and the low torque group (distraction force?6 kgf·cm) at routine postoperative intervals of 1, 3, 5 days and 1, 3, 6 months. Results The VAS scores for posterior neck pain had a linear correlation with torque at postoperative 1st and 3rd days (y=0.99×-1.1, r2=0.82; y=0.77×-0.63, r2=0.73, respectively). VAS scores for posterior neck pain were lower in the low torque group than in the high torque group on both 1 and 3 days postoperatively (3.1±1.3, 2.6±1.0 compared with 6.0±0.6, 4.9±0.8, p<0.01). However, the difference in NDI scores was not statistically significant in all postoperative periods. Conclusion Vertebral distraction may cause posterior neck pain in the immediate postoperative days. We recommend not to distract the intervertebral disc space excessively with a force of more than 6.0 kgf·cm. PMID:23908702

Ha, Seung Man; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Oh, Seung Hun; Song, Ji Hwan; Kim, Hyoung Ihl

2013-01-01

296

The effect of distracters on student performance on the Force Concept Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have compared students' responses on four multiple-choice force concept inventory (FCI) questions with similar responses to equivalent open-ended questions. Our results indicate a good agreement between the percentages of correct responses in each of the two formats, indicating that distracters on the FCI do not adversely affect performance as measured by the number of correct answers. However, a significant percentage of the open-ended responses fall into categories that are not included in the FCI multiple choices. When these alternative categories were presented to the students as distracters in a revised multiple-choice format, a significant percentage of the students chose these alternative responses.

Rebello, N. S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2005-10-21

297

Changing skeletal pattern by means of osteogenesis distraction: a new therapeutic approach to patients with dysmorphism.  

PubMed

The correction of class II high-angle open-bite in patients is difficult to achieve by traditional and conventional techniques in occlusal stability and function. The authors propose a new approach to a patient with dysmorphism (class II, short ramus, and open bite) using distraction osteogenesis to change the skeletal pattern of patients with high-angle class II to low-angle class III before undergoing traditional orthognathic surgery. This new approach is based on osteogenesis distraction, emphasizing planning and surgical procedures. PMID:20818251

Robiony, Massimo; Tenani, Giulia; Bocchino, Tecla; Cengarle, Marianna

2010-09-01

298

Central nicotinic receptor agonists ABT-418, ABT-089, and (–)-nicotine reduce distractibility in adult monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased distractibility is associated with both Alzheimer’s disease and attention deficit disorder. The present study examined\\u000a the effects of (–)-nicotine and the novel central nicotinic receptor (nAChR) agonists ABT-418 [(S)-3-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)isoxazole] and ABT-089 [2-methyl-3-(2-(S)-pyrrolindinylmethoxy)- pyridine dihydrochloride] on the delayed recall accuracy of adult monkeys exposed to distracting\\u000a stimuli. Unpredictable exposure to a random visual array produced marked decrements in recall accuracy

Mark A. Prendergast; William J. Jackson; Alvin V. Terry Jr.; Michael W. Decker; Stephen P. Arneric; Jerry J. Buccafusco

1998-01-01

299

Preventing distraction: assessing stimulus-specific and general effects of the predictive cueing of deviant auditory events.  

PubMed

Rare irregular sounds (deviants) embedded into a regular sound sequence have large potential to draw attention to themselves (distraction). It has been previously shown that distraction, as manifested by behavioral response delay, and the P3a and reorienting negativity (RON) event-related potentials, could be reduced when the forthcoming deviant was signaled by visual cues preceding the sounds. In the present study, we investigated the type of information used in the prevention of distraction by manipulating the information content of the visual cues preceding the sounds. Cues could signal the specific variant of the forthcoming deviant, or they could just signal that the next tone was a deviant. We found that stimulus-specific cue information was used in reducing distraction. The results also suggest that early P3a and RON index processes related to the specific deviating stimulus feature, whereas late P3a reflects a general distraction-related process. PMID:21310210

Horváth, János; Sussman, Elyse; Winkler, István; Schröger, Erich

2011-04-01

300

Preventing distraction: Assessing stimulus-specific and general effects of the predictive cueing of deviant auditory events  

PubMed Central

Rare irregular sounds (deviants) embedded into a regular sound sequence have large potential to draw attention to themselves (distraction). It has been previously shown that distraction, as manifested by behavioral response delay, and the P3a and reorienting negativity (RON) event-related potentials, could be reduced when the forthcoming deviant was signaled by visual cues preceding the sounds. In the present study, we investigated the type of information used in the prevention of distraction by manipulating the information content of the visual cues preceding the sounds. Cues could signal the specific variant of the forthcoming deviant, or they could just signal that the next tone was a deviant. We found that stimulus-specific cue information was used in reducing distraction. The results also suggest that early P3a and RON index processes related to the specific deviating stimulus feature, whereas late P3a reflects a general distraction-related process. PMID:21310210

Horváth, János; Sussman, Elyse; Winkler, István; Schröger, Erich

2011-01-01

301

Propranolol reduces emotional distraction in working memory: a partial mediating role of propranolol-induced cortisol increases?  

PubMed

Noradrenalin modulates prefrontal function, such as working memory (WM), and is associated with enhanced distractibility, and enhanced memory for emotional events and stimuli. The beta-blocker propranolol has been shown to reduce memory for emotional stimuli. Herein we describe investigations aimed at assessing whether the administration of propranolol would reduce the interference by emotional distractions during WM performance. In a between-subjects design, 48 young, healthy men received 80 mg propranolol (n=25) or placebo (n=23), before performing an "emotional Sternberg task" with neutral and negatively arousing distracters. Compared to placebo, propranolol impaired WM at low load, however, it also reduced the interference by emotional distracters at high load. Furthermore, an explorative moderated-mediation analysis indicated that the observed propranolol effects on emotional distraction were partially mediated by cortisol. In future non-clinical and clinical memory studies using propranolol administration, cortisol elevations should be monitored to further investigate the potential mediating role of cortisol. PMID:20018249

Oei, Nicole Y L; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Elzinga, Bernet M; Spinhoven, Philip

2010-03-01

302

[Treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis with oral penicillin (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The present study was performed in order to pinpoint whether or not the oral penicillin treatment of the acute purulent maxillary sinusitis, which represents a common treatment modality in general practice, is in fact effective. The efficacy of penicillin V was tested in 32 patients under controlled conditions. In 24 out of 32 cases, which have been treated by administration of 4 X 1 tablet of Ospen 1500 per day, the acute signs and symptoms disappeared completely within a period of 7.4 +/- 2.02 days. The values obtained 4-5 hours after administration of 1 tablet of Ospen 1500 were significantly higher than the minimal inhibitory penicillin concentration for the bacteria tested. The plasma and sinus secret pencillin concentration time curves were found to be parallel. This implies similar kinetics of penicillin V in the plasma and the sinus secret. Since the present study shows that after oral administration penicillin is present in the nasal sinus secret in sufficient concentrations, oral penicillin therapy has been proven a necessful treatment of acute purulent maxillary sinusitis. PMID:143570

Gschnait, I

1977-09-01

303

Endoscopic lift of the maxillary sinus floor in Beagles.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to introduce a modified endoscopic lift of the floor of the maxillary sinus in Beagles. Twelve operations (bilateral and randomly chosen) were done in 6 Beagles each in the test group (modified endoscopic operation), and the control group, in which the operation was done with an osteotome. All operations were evaluated by two indices of safety (perforation of the sinus membrane and nasal bleeding) and 3 effective indices (the intraoperative height after lifting, volume of bone grafts, and dislocation of the sinus grafts). The sinus membrane was not perforated and there were no nasal bleeds in either group. The intraoperative height after lifting was 13.7 (0.8) mm in the test group and 9.1 (0.5) mm in the control group, so it was significantly higher in the test group than the control group (p=0.0001). Similarly, the volume of bone graft was 0.9 (0.04) ml in the test group and 0.5 (0.02) ml in the control group (p=0.0001). The volume of the anterior and posterior bone grafts in the implant cavity in the test group did not differ significantly (p=0.102), while there were significant differences in the control group (p=0.002). Endoscopic lifting of the floor of the maxillary sinus is a safe and effective approach based on direct observation in Beagles. PMID:25174319

Zheng, JiSi; Zhang, ShanYong; Lu, ErYi; Yang, Chi; Zhang, WenJie; Zhao, JingYang

2014-11-01

304

Older driver distraction: a naturalistic study of behaviour at intersections.  

PubMed

This study examined older driver engagement in distracting behaviours (secondary activities) at intersections using naturalistic driving data from a larger study based in Melbourne, Australia. Of interest was whether engagement in secondary activities at intersections was influenced by factors such as driver gender and situational variables, in particular, those relating to the complexity of the driving environment. Specifically we expected that when making left/right turns, older drivers would reduce the proportion of time engaged in secondary behaviours at intersections which required gap judgements (partly controlled or uncontrolled) compared with intersections that were fully controlled by traffic signals. Consideration was given to engagement in secondary activity with hands off the wheel and when the vehicle was moving versus stationary. Older drivers aged between 65 and 83 years drove an instrumented vehicle (IV) on their regular trips for approximately two weeks. The IV was equipped with a video camera system, enabling recording of the road environment and driver and a data acquisition unit, enabling recording of trip distance, vehicle speed, braking, accelerating, steering and indicator use. Driving experience and demographics were collected and functional abilities were assessed using the Useful Field of View (UFOV), Trail Making Test B, Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. The study yielded a total of 371 trips with 4493 km (99.8 h) of naturalistic driving data including 1396 left and right turns. Trips were randomly selected from the dataset and in-depth analysis was conducted on 200 intersection manoeuvres (approximately 50% left turns, 50% right turns). The most frequently observed secondary activities were scratching/grooming (42.5%), talking/singing (30.2%) and manipulating the vehicle control panel (12.2%). Glances "off road" 2s or longer were associated with reading, reaching and manipulation of the vehicle control panel. Hands off the wheel was associated with reading. Key parameters associated with the percent of intersection time that drivers engaged in secondary activities were intersection complexity, vehicle status (moving vs. stationary) and traffic density. In conclusion, older drivers appeared to engage selectively in secondary activities according to roadway/driving situations, supporting the notion that drivers self-regulate by engaging in secondary tasks less frequently when the driving task is more challenging compared with less challenging manoeuvres. PMID:23332726

Charlton, Judith L; Catchlove, Matthew; Scully, Michelle; Koppel, Sjaan; Newstead, Stuart

2013-09-01

305

Segmented testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fraction of faults detected for a digital network is frequently high for the first few input combinations applied out of a set of test vectors. When the particular ordering of test patterns does not appreciably change the shape of the coverage curve, there appears to be an advantage to splitting the test into segments which are applied at different times. It is shown that the expected time to error detection and the probability of an undetected double error can be reduced. The amount of reduction is dependent on the shape of the fault coverage curve. It is conjectured that such a reduction can be obtained for VLSI networks.

Robinson, J. P.

1985-01-01

306

Segmented testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fraction of faults detected for a digital network is frequently high for the first few input combinations applied out of a set of test vectors. When the particular ordering of test patterns does not appreciably change the shape of the coverage curve, there appears to be an advantage to splitting the test into segments which are applied at different times. It is shown that the expected time to error detection and the probability of an undetected double error can be reduced. The amount of reduction is dependent on the shape of the fault coverage curve. It is conjectured that such a reduction can be obtained for VLSI networks.

Robinson, J. P.

1984-01-01

307

Segmental neurofibromatosis  

PubMed Central

Segmental neurofibromatosis or type V neurofibromatosis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by neurofibromas, café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas limited to a circumscribed body region. The disease may be associated with systemic involvement and malignancies. The disorder has not been reported yet in the Polish medical literature. A 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 20-year history of multiple, flesh colored, dome-shaped, soft to firm nodules situated in the right lumbar region. A histopathologic evaluation of three excised tumors revealed neurofibromas. No neurological and ophthalmologic symptoms of neurofibromatosis were diagnosed. PMID:25610358

Dobosz-Kawa?ko, Magdalena; Michaj?owski, Igor; P?ksa, Rafa?; Nowicki, Roman

2014-01-01

308

Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N = 27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders and their parents were trained to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Measures of pain and anxiety were obtained from the children and their parents. Independent raters also judged participants' video-taped distress responses. Data were collected during

Julien T. Smith; Arreed Barabasz; Marianne Barabasz

1996-01-01

309

77 FR 15452 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Vehicle Research and Test Center, NHTSA...e.g., audio-visuals, computer slideshows...non-driving-related visual-manual tasks...Guidelines specify a test method for measuring...aspects of NHTSA's Visual-Manual Driver Distraction...Vehicle Research and Test Center. NHTSA...

2012-03-15

310

Internal mandibular distraction to relieve airway obstruction in children with severe micrognathia.  

PubMed

Congenital craniofacial malformations such as Pierre Robin sequence or Treacher Collins syndrome are associated with mandibular micrognathia, resulting in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) due to a decreased pharyngeal airway; in severe cases this leads to tracheostomy dependence. We present a series of 18 patients in whom we performed mandibular lengthening using internal distraction devices to relieve airway obstruction. Seven were tracheostomy-dependent and 11 were respiratory distressed without tracheostomy. The mandible was distracted at a rate of 1mm per day. Following 3 months of consolidation for bony maturation, the distraction devices were removed. Results demonstrated forward mandibular elongation of a mean 22mm (range 20-25mm) and an increase in SNB angle and in pharyngeal airway. All patients with tracheostomies were decannulated, and there was an improved airway with resolution of signs and symptoms of OSA and elimination of oxygen requirement in all patients. We conclude that mandibular distraction using internal devices is a useful and comfortable method for younger children to expand the mandible forward and increase the pharyngeal airway. PMID:25052572

Rachmiel, A; Emodi, O; Rachmiel, D; Aizenbud, D

2014-10-01

311

Age dependent changes of distractibility and reorienting of attention revisited: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Adults of three age groups (18-27, 39-45, and 59-66 years) performed an auditory duration discrimination task with short (200 ms) or long (400 ms) sinusoidal tones. Performance was highly accurate and reaction times were on the same level in all groups, indicating no differences in auditory duration processing. Task irrelevant rare changes of the frequency of the stimuli were introduced to check whether the subjects, firstly, were distracted by changes in the environment while focusing on the task relevant information (indicated by prolonged responses), and, secondly, could re-focus on the relevant task after distraction. The results show that a distraction effect is present in all groups. Importantly, the 59-66 years group showed a behavioral distraction effect nearly twice as high as the other groups. The event-related brain potentials (ERPs) show mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and reorienting negativity (RON) elicited by deviants which are present in all groups. Aging effects on these ERP components were observable in all three components but a revealed a weak significant effect for the MMN only. Taken together, the behavioral and ERP results suggest that the function of balancing the processing of task irrelevant changes in the stimulation while focusing on task relevant information is effective during adulthood until the 7th decade of life. PMID:23159833

Berti, Stefan; Grunwald, Martin; Schröger, Erich

2013-01-23

312

Speech Perception by 6- to 8-Month-Olds in the Presence of Distracting Sounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of selective attention in infant phonetic perception was examined using a distraction masker paradigm. We compared perception of /bu/ versus /gu/ in 6- to 8-month-olds using a visual fixation procedure. Infants were habituated to multiple natural productions of 1 syllable type and then presented 4 test trials (old-new-old-new). Perception…

Polka, Linda; Rvachew, Susan; Molnar, Monika

2008-01-01

313

The association of distraction and caution displayed by pedestrians at a lighted crosswalk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of deaths and injuries among pedestrians have fallen in recent years, but still remain public health problems as about 5000 pedestrians die each year. Because pedestrians have been shown to be responsible or partially responsible for many of the crashes in which they are involved, we sought to assess the relationship of distracted walking and performing routine cautionary

Timothy J. Bungum; Charlene Day; L. Jean Henry

2005-01-01

314

'What's in a name?' 'No more than when it's mine own'. Evidence from auditory oddball distraction.  

PubMed

Research of the distractor value of hearing the own name has shown that this self-referring stimulus captures attention in an involuntary fashion and create distraction. The behavioral studies are few and the outcomes are not always clear cut. In this study the distraction by own name compared to a control name was investigated by using a cross-modal oddball task in two experiments. In the first experiment, thirty-nine participants were conducting a computerized categorization task while exposed to, to-be ignored own and matched control names (controlling for familiarity, gender and number of syllables) as unexpected auditory deviant stimulus (12.5% trials for each name category) and a sine wave tone as a standard stimulus (75% of the trials). In the second experiment, another group of thirty-nine participants completed the same task but with the additional deviant stimulus of an irrelevant word added (10% trials for each deviant type and 70% trials with the standard stimulus). Results showed deviant distraction by exposure to both the irrelevant word, own and the control name compared to the standard tone but no differences were found showing that the own name captured attention and distracted the participants more than an irrelevant word or a control name. The results elucidate the role of the own name as a potent auditory distractor and possible limitations with its theoretical significance for general theories of attention are discussed. PMID:24880979

Ljungberg, Jessica K; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Jones, Dylan M; Marsja, Erik; Neely, Gregory

2014-07-01

315

Parenting the Gifted: Balancing a Culture of Distraction with Guided Attention for Gifted Exploration and Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking for relevant material for the Adolescent Psychology course she teaches, the author's attention was drawn to a book by Thomas Cottle, "Mind Fields: Adolescent Consciousness in a Culture of Distraction" (2001). Robert Frost's quotation, "Grant me intention, purpose, and design--That's near enough for me to the Divine," in the frontispiece…

Haensly, Patricia

2003-01-01

316

Cranial Vault Expansion: A Comparison of Magnetic Coupled Distraction to Traditional Surgical Repositioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effectiveness of transcutaneously activated magnetic distraction of an osteotomized cranial bone flap to surgical repositioning of the flap with immediate, rigid internal fixation. Thirty immature rabbits were studied. All 30 rabbits underwent complete circumferential osteotomies of both parietal bones and postoperatively all were fitted with head frames. The rabbits were divided into 4 groups. The experimental magnetic

Clinton Baird; Paul Fewings; Anantha Manepalli; Thomas Pittman; Gregory Rinehart

2000-01-01

317

Bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis: Mechano-regulation by shear strain and fluid velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corroboration of mechano-regulation algorithms is difficult, partly because repeatable experimental outcomes under a controlled mechanical environment are necessary, but rarely available. In distraction osteogenesis (DO), a controlled displacement is used to regenerate large volumes of new bone, with predictable and reproducible outcomes, allowing to computationally study the potential mechanisms that stimulate bone formation. We hypothesized that mechano-regulation by octahedral shear

Hanna Isaksson; Olivier Comas; Corrinus C. van Donkelaar; Jesus Mediavilla; Wouter Wilson; Rik Huiskes; Keita Ito

2007-01-01

318

Brain activity during driving with distraction: an immersive fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Non-invasive measurements of brain activity have an important role to play in understanding driving ability. The current study aimed to identify the neural underpinnings of human driving behavior by visualizing the areas of the brain involved in driving under different levels of demand, such as driving while distracted or making left turns at busy intersections. Materials and Methods: To capture brain activity during driving, we placed a driving simulator with a fully functional steering wheel and pedals in a 3.0 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) system. To identify the brain areas involved while performing different real-world driving maneuvers, participants completed tasks ranging from simple (right turns) to more complex (left turns at busy intersections). To assess the effects of driving while distracted, participants were asked to perform an auditory task while driving analogous to speaking on a hands-free device and driving. Results: A widely distributed brain network was identified, especially when making left turns at busy intersections compared to more simple driving tasks. During distracted driving, brain activation shifted dramatically from the posterior, visual and spatial areas to the prefrontal cortex. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the distracted brain sacrificed areas in the posterior brain important for visual attention and alertness to recruit enough brain resources to perform a secondary, cognitive task. The present findings offer important new insights into the scientific understanding of the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of driving behavior and lay down an important foundation for future clinical research. PMID:23450757

Schweizer, Tom A.; Kan, Karen; Hung, Yuwen; Tam, Fred; Naglie, Gary; Graham, Simon J.

2013-01-01

319

Students Use of Laptops in Large Lecture Classes: Distraction, Partial Attention or Productive Use?  

E-print Network

Students Use of Laptops in Large Lecture Classes: Distraction, Partial Attention or Productive Use@igw.tuwien.ac.at Key words: large classes, laptops in class, task-based approaches Abstract: An increasing number of students are bringing personal laptops to their classes and are using laptops during lectures

320

Distractions N' Driving: video game simulation educates young drivers on the  

E-print Network

Distractions N' Driving: video game simulation educates young drivers on the dangers of texting. The demonstration included a PlayStation®2 video game console equipped with a Genius Twin Vibration Feedback Racing Wheel and Foot Pedals (Figure 1). Both the video game system and controls Work 41 (2012) 5877-5879 DOI

Parasuraman, Raja

321

Mechanobiology of mandibular distraction osteogenesis: experimental analyses with a rat model  

E-print Network

on postoperative days (POD) 5, 7, 10, 13, and 41. Load-displacement curves were then recorded for ex vivo in the load/displacement curves. Taken together, our interpretation of these data is that daily distractions to the applied tension vector. This new bone forms centripetally from the osteotomized bone edges toward

Stanford University

322

Mandibular midline distraction using a tooth-borne device and a minimally invasive surgical procedure.  

PubMed

In this technical note we share our experience of mandibular midline distraction, a powerful tool in orthognathic surgery. The use of a tooth-borne distractor and a minimally invasive surgical procedure to perform the midline osteotomy is discussed. PMID:25487564

Nadjmi, N; Stevens, S; Van Erum, R

2014-12-01

323

Distraction for children of different ages who undergo repeated needle sticks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distraction intervention for pain management and behavioral distress was implemented for six children with chronic illnesses and their parents as the children underwent repeated needle sticks. The children ranged in age from two to eight years. Several different cognitive distractors were used for the children based on their respective developmental levels. The needle stick procedures during which treatment was

Lynnda M. Dahlquist; Suzanne M. Busby; Keith J. Slifer; Cindy L. Tucker; Stephanie Eischen; Lisa Hilley; Wendy Sulc

2002-01-01

324

Ear-catching? Real-world distractibility scores predict susceptibility to auditory attentional capture.  

PubMed

Although many of the everyday distractions that we encounter are auditory, most research on distractor processing to date has focused on the visual domain. A common measure of everyday distractibility is the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ; Broadbent, Cooper, FitzGerald, & Parkes British Journal of Clinical Psychology 21: 1-16, 1982), which has previously been successfully linked with performance on controlled visual-attention tasks (e.g., Forster & Lavie Psychological Science 18: 377-381, 2007; Kanai, Dong, Bahrami, & Rees Journal of Neuroscience 31: 6620-6626, 2011; Tipper & Baylis Personality and Individual Differences 8: 667-675, 1987), such that high scorers tend to display greater distractor interference than do low scorers. We examined whether the same relationship would hold in hearing. Participants performed an auditory attentional-capture task, by responding to a target sound while ignoring an irrelevant singleton distractor (presented on half of the trials). We found that CFQ score successfully predicted distractor interference, since participants who reported being more distractible in everyday life produced more errors in the presence of the irrelevant singleton than did low scorers on the CFQ. This finding is the first to demonstrate a relationship between auditory distractor interference and everyday distractibility, and it confirms that performance on this type of laboratory-based attentional-capture task can successfully be related to behavior outside the laboratory. PMID:24563416

Murphy, Sandra; Dalton, Polly

2014-10-01

325

Transitional Emotions: Boredom and Distraction in Hong Sang-su's Travel Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the cultural significance of boredom and distraction in postmodern Korea by focusing on Hong Sang-su's holiday films. It posits that Hong's films about characters attempting to escape from the banalities of urban life can be seen to reveal, stylistically and thematically, the emotions and anxieties unleashed by excessive leisure in neoliberal Korea. By re-casting the absence of

Youngmin Choe

2009-01-01

326

Transitional Emotions: Boredom and Distraction in Hong Sang-su's Travel Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This article explores the cultural significance of boredom and distraction in postmodern Korea by focusing on Hong Sang-su's holiday films. It posits that Hong's films about characters attempting to escape from the banalities of urban life can be seen to reveal, stylistically and thematically, the emotions and anxieties unleashed by excessive leisure in neoliberal Korea. By re-casting the absence of

Youngmin Choe

2009-01-01

327

The effects of nicotine dose expectancy and motivationally relevant distracters on vigilance.  

PubMed

The imminence of drug use (i.e., drug availability) has been found to be related to intensity of drug craving, but its effects on attentional bias to drug cues are unclear. This study investigated the effects of nicotine availability on attentional bias to smoking, affective, and neutral cues in a sample of adult smokers during a vigilance task. At the beginning of each of 4 laboratory sessions, overnight nicotine-deprived smokers (n = 51) were instructed that they would smoke a cigarette containing either nicotine (Told-NIC) or no nicotine (Told-DENIC) after completing the rapid visual information processing task with central emotional distracters (RVIP-CED). The RVIP-CED presented digits at a rapid pace, with participants instructed to respond with button presses to every third consecutive even or odd digit. Some digits were preceded by smoking, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral distracter slides. During Told-NIC conditions, participants produced significantly longer reaction time (RT) latency than during Told-DENIC conditions. RT sensitivity (d'), a measure of the ability to discriminate true positives from false positives, was significantly lower during the Told-NIC than during the Told-DENIC conditions to targets following cigarette distracters. These results suggest that nicotine-deprived smokers expecting to imminently smoke a cigarette experience greater distraction, particularly to smoking-related stimuli, than when expecting to smoke a denicotinized cigarette. PMID:24841184

Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffery M; Cui, Yong; Versace, Francesco; Waters, Andrew J; Gilbert, David G; Gritz, Ellen R; Cinciripini, Paul M

2014-09-01

328

Guided tissue regeneration enhances osteogenesis in a rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) utilizes barrier materials to create environments that favor tissue regeneration. In the current study, we applied the principle of GTR to our rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) model in an attempt to enhance bone regeneration.Methods: Osteoconductive Gore Resolut XT membranes (a co-polymer of polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid) were used in this study. Twelve (n

Tony D. Fang; Randall Nacamuli; HanJoon Song; Kenton Fong; Stephen Warren; Michael T. Longaker

2004-01-01

329

Mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis with stepwise osteotomy in adult skeletal class III patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical note reports the use of symphyseal distraction with stepwise osteotomy in a case of lower anterior crowding and rotation in the incisor area. This technique allows for easy dental decompensation and reduced presurgical orthodontic time in skeletal class III cases.

K. C. Tae; K. W. Kang; S. C. Kim; S. K. Min

2006-01-01

330

Amygdala hyperactivation during symptom provocation in obsessive–compulsive disorder and its modulation by distraction  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders have been linked to a hyperactivated cortico-amygdalar circuitry. Recent findings highlight the amygdala's role in mediating elevated anxiety in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). However, modulation of amygdala hyperactivation by attentional distraction – an effective emotion regulation strategy in healthy individuals – has not yet been examined. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging twenty-one unmedicated OCD patients and 21 controls performed an evaluation and a distraction task during symptom provocation with individually tailored OCD-relevant pictures. To test the specificity of responses, additional aversive and neutral stimuli were included. Significant group-by-picture type interactions were observed within fronto–striato–limbic circuits including the amygdala. In these regions patients showed increased BOLD responses during processing of OCD triggers relative to healthy controls. Amygdala hyperactivation was present across OCD symptom dimensions indicating that it represents a common neural correlate. During distraction, we observed dampening of patients' amygdala hyperactivity to OCD-relevant stimuli. Augmented amygdala involvement in patients during symptom provocation, present across OCD symptom dimensions, might constitute a correlate of fear expression in OCD linking it to other anxiety disorders. Attentional distraction seemed to dampen emotional processing of disorder-relevant stimuli via amygdala downregulation. The clinical impact of this strategy to manage anxiety in OCD should be further elucidated. PMID:24818080

Simon, Daniela; Adler, Nele; Kaufmann, Christian; Kathmann, Norbert

2014-01-01

331

Brain systems underlying attentional control and emotional distraction during working memory encoding.  

PubMed

Goal-directed behavior requires that cognitive operations can be protected from emotional distraction induced by task-irrelevant emotional stimuli. The brain processes involved in attending to relevant information while filtering out irrelevant information are still largely unknown. To investigate the neural and behavioral underpinnings of attending to task-relevant emotional stimuli while ignoring irrelevant stimuli, we used fMRI to assess brain responses during attentional instructed encoding within an emotional working memory (WM) paradigm. We showed that instructed attention to emotion during WM encoding resulted in enhanced performance, by means of increased memory performance and reduced reaction time, compared to passive viewing. A similar performance benefit was also demonstrated for recognition memory performance, although for positive pictures only. Functional MRI data revealed a network of regions involved in directed attention to emotional information for both positive and negative pictures that included medial and lateral prefrontal cortices, fusiform gyrus, insula, the parahippocampal gyrus, and the amygdala. Moreover, we demonstrate that regions in the striatum, and regions associated with the default-mode network were differentially activated for emotional distraction compared to neutral distraction. Activation in a sub-set of these regions was related to individual differences in WM and recognition memory performance, thus likely contributing to performing the task at an optimal level. The present results provide initial insights into the behavioral and neural consequences of instructed attention and emotional distraction during WM encoding. PMID:24185015

Ziaei, Maryam; Peira, Nathalie; Persson, Jonas

2014-02-15

332

Management of Late Onset Perthes: Evaluation of Distraction by External Fixator—5-Year Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Background. Hip distraction in Perthes' disease unloads the joint, which negates the harmful effect of the stresses on the articular surfaces, which may promote the sound healing of the area of necrosis. We have examined the effect of arthrodiastasis on the preservation of the femoral head in older children with Perthes' disease. Methods and Materials. Twelve children with age more than 8 years with Perthes' disease of less than one year were treated with hip distraction by a hinged monolateral external fixator. Observation and Results. Mean duration of distraction was 13.9 days. These children were evaluated by clinicoradiological parameters for a mean period of 32.4 months. There was a significant improvement in the range of movements and mean epiphyseal index, but the change in the percentage of uncovered head femur was insignificant. There was significant improvement in Harris Hip score. Conclusions. Hip distraction by hinged monolateral external fixator seems to be a valid treatment option in cases with Perthes' disease in the selected group of patients, where poor results are expected from conventional treatment. PMID:25580302

Srivastava, Rajeshwar N.; Shukla, Prashant; Pushkar, Amit; Ali, Sabir

2014-01-01

333

77 FR 24764 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Safety Administration, Vehicle Research and Test Center...Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices...distracting devices in vehicles. These NHTSA Guidelines...required to operate the vehicle safely and that are...Test Track Studies; Driver Eye Glance Behavior During...

2012-04-25

334

Cognitive/Attentional Distraction in the Control of Conditioned Nausea in Pediatric Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated use of cognitive/attentional distraction (via commercially available video games) to control conditioned nausea in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Video game-playing resulted in significantly less nausea. The introduction and withdrawal of the opportunity to play video games produced significant changes (reduction…

Redd, William H.; And Others

1987-01-01

335

Validation of in vivo assessment of facial soft-tissue volume changes and clinical application in midfacial distraction: a technical report.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to validate the assessment of visible volume changes of the facial soft tissue with an optical three-dimensional sensor and to introduce new parameters for the evaluation of the soft-tissue shape achieved from three-dimensional data of selected cases of midfacial distraction. Images of a truncated cone of known volume were assessed repeatedly with an optical three-dimensional sensor based on phase-measuring triangulation to calculate the volume. Two cubic centimeters of anesthetic solution was injected into the right malar region of 10 volunteers who gave their informed consent. Three-dimensional images were assessed before and immediately after the injections for the assessment of the visible volume change. In five patients who underwent midfacial distraction after a high quadrangular Le Fort I osteotomy, three-dimensional scans were acquired before and 6 and 24 months after the operation. The visible soft-tissue volume change in the malar-midfacial area and the mean distance of the accommodation vector that transformed the preoperative into the postoperative surface were calculated. The volume of the truncated cone was 235.26 +/- 1.01 cc, revealing a measurement uncertainty of 0.4 percent. The injections of anesthetic solution into the malar area resulted in an average visible volume change of 2.06 +/- 0.06 cc. The measurement uncertainty was 3 percent. In the five patients, the average distance of maxillary advancement was 6.7 +/- 2.3 mm after 6 months and 5.4 +/- 3.0 mm after 2 years. It was accompanied by a mean visible volume increase of 8.92 +/- 5.95 cc on the right side and 9.54 +/- 4.39 cc on the left side after 6 months and 3.54 +/- 3.70 cc and 4.80 +/- 3.47 cc, respectively, after 2 years. The mean distance of the accommodation vector was 4.41 +/- 1.94 mm on the right side and 4.74 +/- 1.32 mm on the left side after 6 months and 1.62 +/- 1.96 mm and 2.16 +/- 1.52 mm, respectively, after 2 years. The assessment of visible volume changes by optical three-dimensional images can be carried out with considerable accuracy. The determination of volume changes and accompanying accommodation vectors completes the cephalometric analysis during the follow-up of patients undergoing midfacial distraction. The new parameters will help to assess normative soft-tissue data on the basis of three-dimensional imaging with a view to an improved three-dimensional prediction of the operative outcome of orthognathic surgery. PMID:12900593

Nkenke, Emeka; Langer, Astrid; Laboureux, Xavier; Benz, Michaela; Maier, Tobias; Kramer, Manuel; Häusler, Gerd; Kessler, Peter; Wiltfang, Jörg; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm

2003-08-01

336

Iatrogenic absence of maxillary canines: Bolton discrepancy treated with mandibular incisor extraction.  

PubMed

This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with iatrogenic absence of the maxillary canines, moderate maxillary and severe mandibular dental crowding, a Bolton discrepancy with a large mandibular anterior excess, a maxillary right lateral incisor crossbite, and Angle Class II molar relationships. The treatment consisted of fixed appliance therapy, mandibular incisor extraction, tooth bleaching, and dental recontouring. This method of treatment maintained the patient's good facial appearance, improved the dental esthetics, and provided a good functional occlusion, eliminating the arch length and Bolton discrepancies and providing a good outcome with minimal undesirable effects. PMID:23631973

Simão, Tassiana Mesquita; Valladares-Neto, José; Rino-Neto, José; de Paiva, João Batista

2013-05-01

337

Distraction and pedestrian safety: how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music impact crossing the street.  

PubMed

As use of handheld multimedia devices has exploded globally, safety experts have begun to consider the impact of distraction while talking, text-messaging, or listening to music on traffic safety. This study was designed to test how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music may influence pedestrian safety. 138 college students crossed an interactive, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian street. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups: crossing while talking on the phone, crossing while texting, crossing while listening to a personal music device, or crossing while undistracted. Participants distracted by music or texting were more likely to be hit by a vehicle in the virtual pedestrian environment than were undistracted participants. Participants in all three distracted groups were more likely to look away from the street environment (and look toward other places, such as their telephone or music device) than were undistracted participants. Findings were maintained after controlling for demographics, walking frequency, and media use frequency. Distraction from multimedia devices has a small but meaningful impact on college students' pedestrian safety. Future research should consider the cognitive demands of pedestrian safety, and how those processes may be impacted by distraction. Policymakers might consider ways to protect distracted pedestrians from harm and to reduce the number of individuals crossing streets while distracted. PMID:22269509

Schwebel, David C; Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Davis, Tiffany; O'Neal, Elizabeth E; de Jong, Desiree

2012-03-01

338

Hinged external fixation distraction for treatment of first metatarsophalangeal joint arthritis.  

PubMed

Treatment for hallux rigidus varies from joint preservation to joint destructive procedures. The objective of the present study was to report an alternative method of treatment of hallux rigidus using hinged external fixation distraction of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and to present our surgical technique. Ten distractions were performed in 9 patients (9 female feet [90%] and 1 male foot [10%]). The mean age at surgery was 41.0 (range 20 to 64) years. All patients had stage II or III hallux rigidus on the Regnauld classification system for hallux rigidus. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after the distraction treatment. The mean period of fixation was 16.40 (range 7 to 21) weeks. Six of the patients (60%) with distraction experienced pin tract infections that were treated with oral antibiotics. The reported mean preoperative categorical pain score in 7 patients (7 feet) was 8.2 (range 5 to 10), and the postoperative score was 0.83 (range 0 to 2; p = .001). Of the 6 patients (6 feet) who responded to the remaining portion of the survey, 4 (66.67%) were very satisfied with their results, and 2 (33.33%) were satisfied with their surgical result. None of the patients required additional surgical treatment during the mean 2.2 (range 1.2 to 3.3) years of follow-up. Hinged first metatarsophalangeal joint distraction with external fixation has been shown to be a viable treatment option for joint preservation for stage II and III hallux rigidus in the short term. PMID:22749986

Abraham, Jossie S; Hassani, Hummira; Lamm, Bradley M

2012-01-01

339

Assessment of distraction callus in rabbits by monitoring of the electrical impedance of bone  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Evaluation of distraction callus is important for determination of the optimal time for removal of external fixation. We attempted to determine whether there might be a relationship between the electrical impedance of bone and callus maturation, with a view to using impedance as a way of knowing when to remove a fixator. Methods We applied an external lengthener to the right tibia of 24 rabbits and performed distraction at 1 mm/day for 10 days. Radiographs were taken and measurement of overall impedance between fixation pins was performed weekly after distraction. At weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 after distraction (n = 6 each), resistivity of the bone to electrical conductivity was measured before killing. Cross-sectional area of the conduction pathway in callus and maximum bending stress were measured after excision of the tibia. Results The overall impedance increased statistically significantly from 1 to 6 weeks after completion of distraction. The resistivity of bone decreased over 4 weeks and the cross-sectional area of callus decreased significantly over 6 weeks, while the maximum bending stress increased significantly over the same time. We observed a negative correlation between the cross-sectional area of callus and maximum bending stress. Interpretation The impedance values, which are related to changes in electrical conductivity and the conduction pathway, increased due to the changes in the cross-sectional area of callus, despite the reduction in bone resistivity. Since the cross-sectional area of callus was correlated with maximum bending stress and the impedance values increased with the callus-remodeling process, we suggest that temporal increases in overall impedance reflect callus maturation. PMID:20860454

2010-01-01

340

Local injection of substance P increases bony formation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis in rats.  

PubMed

Substance P is a neuropeptide that is distributed in those sensory nerve fibres that innervate the medullary tissues of bone. It is a potent accelerator of proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro. However, its capacity for promoting repair of mandibular defects is not known. We have investigated the osteogenic effects of local injections of substance P during mandibular distraction osteogenesis in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n = 10 in each): substance P 10(-7) mmol/l in normal saline 0.2ml was injected into the experimental group, and saline alone into the controls. The mandibular distraction rate was 0.2mm every 12hours for 10 days. Daily injections of substance P or saline were given during the distraction period. Regeneration of bone was assessed quantitatively on days 15 and 29 using microcomputed tomography (microCT), and histological analysis. The rate of bony union in the group treated with substance P was significantly higher than that in the saline alone group on day 29 (p=0.001) The microCT images and quantitation showed more callus and more mature cortical bone when substance P was given than with control. Histological examination showed that cartilaginous tissues had formed in the middle of the distraction gaps in both groups. Bony bridges were seen only in the substance P group at the final time point (day 29). Injection of substance P into the gap of a rat mandible during mandibular distraction improved formation of good-quality bone and accelerated bony union. PMID:25069690

Zhang, Ya-bo; Wang, Lei; Jia, Sen; Du, Zhao-jie; Zhao, Ying-hua; Liu, Yan-pu; Lei, De-lin

2014-10-01

341

Bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines: Review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Oligodontia, or agenesis of six or more teeth, excluding third molars, which involves canine agenesis is rare, and restorative management can be challenging. Bilateral agenesis of a permanent canine in the general population often indicates a several missing adult teeth. The most common sign of it is the primary canine retention beyond its exfoliation age. The multistage restorative management includes the early diagnosis, excluding associated medical problems as well as assessment of patient's malocclusion and facial skeletal pattern, life span of deciduous teeth, possibility of premolar substitution, minimum required number of prosthetic units, patient's preferences, and the cost of treatment. A 10-year-old boy with bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is described. Some thoughts on the multidisciplinary restorative management of this case are discussed. PMID:25657989

Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

2015-01-01

342

Eruption disturbances of the maxillary incisors: a literature review.  

PubMed

Eruption disturbances can be broadly classified as disturbances related to time and disturbances related to position. Time related disturbances include premature eruption, delayed eruption or impactions. A common feature of these is a significant deviation in eruption time within the established norms for a particular age, sex, race or ethnicity. Although root development represents the fundamental biologic parameter for tooth eruption, chronological age at presentation is used as the first criteria in the establishment of the diagnosis of prematurity or a delay in eruption. Eruption disturbances related to position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. Positional deviations too can cause a delay in eruption time, however more commonly the involved tooth erupts within the expected time frame with an abnormality in position. The focus of this paper is to present a systematic review of the literature including classification, etiology and treatment modalities available for eruption disturbances of the maxillary incisors. PMID:18524273

Huber, Kristin L; Suri, Lokesh; Taneja, Parul

2008-01-01

343

Automatic finite element mesh generation for maxillary second premolar.  

PubMed

Developing three dimensional finite element mesh models for irregular geometric objects requires a large amount of manual efforts, hence limiting the three dimensional approach for dental structure analyses. An automatic procedure which can be used to generate a three dimensional finite element mesh for the maxillary second premolar was developed in this study. Firstly, a embedded second premolar was sliced and scanned parallel to the occlusal surface. A self-developed image processing system was employed to detect the boundaries of different materials within each section. An automatic mesh generation program was used on these boundaries to create tetrahedral elements based on moving nodes of uniform cube approach. Six mesh models of the second premolar with different element sizes using linear and quadratic elements were analyzed. Strain energy and von Mises stresses were reviewed for convergence in the crown regions. PMID:10386768

Lin, C L; Chang, C H; Cheng, C S; Wang, C H; Lee, H E

1999-06-01

344

Postretention stability after orthodontic closure of maxillary interincisor diastemas  

PubMed Central

Anterior spaces may interfere with smile attractiveness and compromise dentofacial harmony. They are among the most frequent reasons why patients seek orthodontic treatment. However, midline diastema is commonly cited as a malocclusion with high relapse incidence by orthodontists. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the stability of maxillary interincisor diastemas closure and the association of their relapse and interincisor width, overjet, overbite and root parallelism. Material and Methods Sample comprised 30 patients with at least a pretreatment midline diastema of 0.5 mm or greater after eruption of the maxillary permanent canines. Dental casts and panoramic radiographs were taken at pretreatment, posttreatment and postretention. Results Before treatment, midline diastema width was 1.52 mm (SD=0.88) and right and left lateral diastema widths were 0.55 mm (SD=0.56) and 0.57 mm (SD=0.53), respectively. According to repeated measures analysis of variance, only midline diastema demonstrated significant relapse. In the overall sample the average relapse of midline diastema was 0.49 mm (SD=0.66), whilst the unstable patients showed a mean space reopening of 0.78 mm (SD=0.66). Diastema closure in the area between central and lateral incisors showed great stability. Multivariate correlation tests showed that only initial diastema width (?=0.60) and relapse of overjet (?=0.39) presented association with relapse of midline diastema. Conclusions Midline diastema relapse was statistically significant and occurred in 60% of the sample, while lateral diastemas closure remained stable after treatment. Only initial diastema width and overjet relapse showed association with relapse of midline diastema. There was no association between relapse of interincisor diastema and root parallelism. PMID:24918661

de MORAIS, Juliana Fernandes; de FREITAS, Marcos Roberto; de FREITAS, Karina Maria Salvatore; JANSON, Guilherme; CASTELLO BRANCO, Nuria

2014-01-01

345

Direct Restorative Treatment of Missing Maxillary Laterals with Composite Laminate Veneer: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

This clinical report describes a direct composite laminate veneer restoration of the maxillary anterior teeth in one chair time to produce a better esthetic appearance in a patient with diastemata and missing laterals. PMID:19088889

Bagis, Bora; Aydo?an, Elif; Bagis, Yildirim H.

2008-01-01

346

Orthodontic tooth movement through the maxillary sinus in an adult with multiple missing teeth.  

PubMed

This case report describes the successful orthodontic tooth movement through the maxillary sinus in an adult patient. A 41-year-old Asian woman had severe lip protrusion and multiple missing posterior teeth. Her orthodontic treatment included the extraction of 2 teeth, maximum retraction of the incisors using the extraction spaces and the existing spaces from the missing molars, and closure of all remaining spaces. Even though the treatment time was extended because of the anatomic and biologic challenges associated with moving posterior teeth over a long distance through the maxillary sinus, a successful outcome was obtained, with significant bone modeling of the maxillary sinus. The results demonstrate that a carefully selected force system can overcome the anatomic limitations of moving tooth against the cortical bone of the maxillary sinus wall in adult patients. PMID:25263152

Oh, Heesoo; Herchold, Kiri; Hannon, Stephanie; Heetland, Kelly; Ashraf, Golnaz; Nguyen, Vince; Cho, Heon Jae

2014-10-01

347

Loss of reflex tearing after maxillary orthognathic surgery: a report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Background Few reports have described the ophthalmic complications that occur after maxillary orthognathic surgery. Since cases of decreased reflex tearing after maxillary orthognathic surgery are extremely rare, we describe 2 cases of loss of reflex tearing after maxillary orthognathic surgery. Case presentation Two Asian women, an 18-year-old and a 32-year-old, suffered from unilateral dryness and irritation caused by maxillary orthognathic surgery. In both patients, Schirmer test (II) showed reduced reflex tearing in 1 eye. Computed tomography showed that the pterygoid plate had been fractured in both patients. Conclusions The pterygopalatine ganglion and its associated fibers in the pterygopalatine fossa may be injured during Le Fort osteotomy. PMID:24673800

2014-01-01

348

Cholesteatoma of the maxillary sinus: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Cholesteatoma is a relatively common disease entity within the middle ear cavity, but it is rarely found in the paranasal sinuses. We describe a rare case of cholesteatoma in the maxillary sinus of an elderly man presenting with recurrent sinus infections and nasal obstruction refractory to medical treatment. The patient was treated using functional endoscopic sinus surgery with successful removal of the cholesteatoma. He has no recurrence of the cholesteotoma at a 13year follow-up. We review the literature and history on maxillary cholesteatomas and discuss the theories on the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma formation. We propose functional endoscopic sinus surgery with maxillary antrostomy and marsupialization of the cholesteatoma as a primary treatment option for a maxillary cholesteatoma. PMID:25459312

Sozansky, Jeanie; Josephson, Jordan S

2015-01-01

349

Total distalization of the maxillary arch in a patient with skeletal Class II malocclusion.  

PubMed

In nongrowing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion, premolar extraction or maxillary molar distalization can be used as camouflage treatment. Orthodontic miniscrew implants are widely used for this purpose because they do not produce undesirable reciprocal effects and do not depend on the patient's cooperation. This article reports on maxillary molar distalization by using miniscrew implants to correct a Class II problem. The main considerations of molar distalization treatment with miniscrew implants are discussed. PMID:21640890

Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Jong-Suk; Cha, Jung-Yul; Park, Young-Chel

2011-06-01

350

The influence of varying maxillary lateral incisor dimensions on perceived smile aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The aim of this study was to determine the influence of varying the dimensions of the maxillary lateral incisors on perceived smile aesthetics.Design Clinical study.Setting Postgraduate dental teaching hospital.Methods A photograph of a female smile displaying only the lips and teeth was digitally altered. First, the width of the maxillary lateral incisors, in proportion to the central incisor, was

S. M. N. Bukhary; D. S. Gill; D. R. Moles; C. J. Tredwin

2007-01-01

351

A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Comparison of Articaine and Lidocaine for Maxillary Infiltrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in maxillary lateral incisors and first molars. Eighty subjects randomly received, in a double-blind manner, maxillary lateral incisor and first molar infiltrations of one cartridge of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 2%

Grace Evans; John Nusstein; Melissa Drum; Al Reader; Mike Beck

2008-01-01

352

Unusual maxillary first molar with 2 palatal canals within a single root: a case report.  

PubMed

A case report is presented regarding a maxillary first molar with 5 canals. The morphology is atypical because it is characterized by a single palatal root with 2 canals with separate orifices joining in the apical third. A literature review pertaining to the morphology of maxillary first molars is discussed. Modifications to the normal access opening and examination of the pulpal floor for additional canals are stressed. PMID:11370279

Johal, S

2001-04-01

353

Multidisciplinary Approach for the Treatment of Horizontal Root-Fractured Maxillary Anterior Teeth  

PubMed Central

Dental trauma can lead to a wide range of injuries of which crown and root fractures are examples. Crown-root fractures often need complex treatment planning. This case report describes the use of MTA in the multidisciplinary management of a patient with a horizontally fractured central incisor and luxation in a different central incisor. A 42-year-old female patient presented within 1?h of receiving direct trauma to her maxillary area. Clinical examination revealed that the right and left maxillary central incisors presented mobility and sensitivity to percussion and palpation but no sensitivity to thermal stimulations. Occlusal displacement with extrusion in the left maxillary central incisor and luxation in the right maxillary central incisor was observed. Radiographic examination revealed horizontal root fracture at the apical third of the left maxillary central incisor. Root fracture in the right maxillary incisor was not observed. Endodontic and aesthetic restorative treatments were completed. MTA showed a good long-term outcome when used in root-fractured and luxated teeth. In addition, composite resin restoration provided satisfactory aesthetic results even after 15 months. PMID:25485158

Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Demirel, Gulbike; Sevimay, Semra

2014-01-01

354

The impact of frenulum height on strains in maxillary denture bases  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The midline fracture of maxillary complete dentures is a frequently encountered complication. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of frenulum height on midline strains of maxillary complete dentures. MATERIALS AND METHODS A removable maxillary complete denture was fabricated and duplicated seven times. Four different labial frenulum heights were tested for stresses occurring on the palatal cameo surface. The strains were measured with strain gauges placed on 5 different locations and the stresses were calculated. To mimic occlusal forces bilaterally 100 N of load was applied from the premolar and molar region. RESULTS A statistically significant association between the height of the labial frenulum and the calculated stresses and strains was shown (P<.05) predominantly on the midline and especially on the incisive papilla. The results showed that stress on the anterior midline of the maxillary complete denture increases with a higher labial frenulum. CONCLUSION Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that the stress on the anterior midline of the maxillary complete denture increases with a higher labial frenulum. Surgical or mechanical precautions should be taken to prevent short-term failure of maxillary complete dentures due to stress concentration and low cycle fatigue tendency at the labial frenulum region. PMID:24353878

Bilhan, Hakan; Baysal, Gokhan; Sunbuloglu, Emin; Bozdag, Ergun

2013-01-01

355

Characterizing the BMP pathway in a wild type mouse model of distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a well established surgical technique for limb lengthening and replacement of bone loss due to trauma, infection or malignancies. Although the technique is widely used, one of its limitations is the long period of time required for the newly formed bone to consolidate. We have previously shown that exogenous application of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) can increase bone formation during DO, however, exogenous BMPs have many drawbacks. An alternative method for accelerating the rate of bone formation may be to modulate the intrinsic BMP signaling pathway. The aim of the current study was to analyze the expression of various genes involved in the BMP pathway at various time periods during DO in order to identify potential targets for therapeutic manipulation. DO was applied to the right tibia of 80 adult wild type mice. Distraction began after a latency period of 5 days at a rate of 0.2 mm/12 h for 2 weeks. Mice were sacrificed in groups of 12 at the following times post surgery: day 5 (latency), days 11 and 17 (distraction) and days 34 and 51 (consolidation). Specimens were examined using radiology, microCT, histology, RT(2)PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western analysis. Genes involved in the BMP pathway including the BMP ligands, receptors, antagonists and downstream effectors were examined. A significant upregulation of BMPs 2, 4 and 6 was observed using both PCR and immunohistochemistry during the distraction phase. The expression of BMP7 remained constant throughout the distraction and consolidation process. Surprisingly, the only receptors which were upregulated significantly were the Activin Receptor Type 1 (ActR1) during distraction and Activin Receptor Type 2b (ActR2b) during consolidation. Most interestingly, simultaneously with the ligands, an increase in the expression of the antagonists, Noggin, Chordin, Inhibin and BMP3 was observed. This study provides a clearer understanding of expression patterns during DO, which is a valuable resource for finding therapeutic options to stimulate bone formation. The results suggest that blocking BMP inhibitors may be a possible method for increasing the function of intrinsic growth factors involved in bone regeneration. PMID:18372226

Haque, Tasima; Hamade, Fares; Alam, Norine; Kotsiopriftis, Maria; Lauzier, Dominique; St-Arnaud, Rene; Hamdy, Reggie C

2008-06-01

356

Histologic Comparison of Regenerate Bone Produced from Dentate Versus Edentulous Transport Discs in Bone Transport Distraction Osteogenesis  

E-print Network

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to quantify the number of blood vessels and nerves and mineral apposition rate (MAR) in native bone and compare it to the regenerate bone produced by bone transport distraction osteogenesis (BTDO...

Sevilla Gaitan, Carlos

2013-12-10

357

Prevalence of tooth agenesis and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor associated with palatally displaced canine (PDC) anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-eight nonsyndromic North American white orthodontic patients with palatal displacement of one or both maxillary canine teeth were studied for associated tooth agenesis and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors. Agenesis of permanent teeth was identified by x-ray film analysis. Conical crown-size reduction (peg-shape anomaly) of the maxillary lateral incisor (I2) was determined by direct observation. Increases in absence of third molars

Sheldon Peck; Leena Peck; Matti Kataja

1996-01-01

358

External mandibular distraction in unusual pediatric syndromes with micrognathia and airway obstruction.  

PubMed

Mandibular hypoplasia is a craniofacial malformation that can cause airway obstruction and may affect the eating process. This anomaly is common in many polimalformed Syndromes, including the Pierre Robin Sequence and the Moebius Syndrome. It is also common in cases related to the dysgenesis of the brainstem. In order to avoid tracheostomy, or to allow for early decannulation in severely affected children, external distraction devices were employed in 3 clinical cases to repair mandibular deficiencies. A successful external mandibular distraction induces the removal of the airway obstruction, allowing spontaneous ventilation without devices, an independent eating process with no need of nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes, apart from the linguistic and facial asymmetry improvement. PMID:24431888

Oliveira, Ricardo Horta; Marques, Marisa; Amarante, José Manuel; Silva, Alvaro

2013-12-01

359

Successful management of a childhood osteosarcoma with epiphysiolysis and distraction osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

In an 11-year-old boy with osteosarcoma in the proximal tibia (type iii), 2 cycles of dia chemotherapy (cisplatin, ifosfamide, doxorubicin) were administered preoperatively while epiphysiolysis was performed. Clinical response was determined to be complete by radiography and histopathology. Marginal excision was then performed with preservation of the proximal tibial epiphysis. Metaphyseal reconstruction was performed using distraction osteogenesis. Six cycles of dia chemotherapy were administered postoperatively. Twenty months later, the patient had developed no complications and experienced full bone healing, with no limb discrepancy. In selected adolescent patients with osteosarcoma, in whom the tumour is in full contact with the epiphysis, epiphyseal preservation by epiphysiolysis and reconstruction by distraction osteogenesis can provide an excellent outcome, resulting in a stable reconstruction that functionally restores the native limb. PMID:25089114

Xu, S.F.; Yu, X.C.; Xu, M.; Chen, X.

2014-01-01

360

Contrasting Effects of Changing Rhythm and Content on Auditory Distraction in Immediate Memory.  

PubMed

Across 5 experiments, the temporal regularity and content of an irrelevant speech stream were varied and their effects on a serial recall task examined. Variations of the content, but not the rhythm, of the irrelevant speech stimuli reliably disrupted serial recall performance in all experiments. Bayesian analyses supported the null hypothesis over the hypothesis that irregular rhythms would disrupt memory to a greater extent than regular rhythms. Pooling the data in a combined analysis revealed that regular presentation of the irrelevant speech was significantly more disruptive to serial recall than irregular presentation. These results are consistent with the idea that auditory distraction is sensitive to both intraitem and interitem relations and challenge an orienting-based account of auditory distraction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25485459

Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Beaman, C Philip

2014-12-01

361

Distraction control processes in free recall: Benefits and costs to performance.  

PubMed

How is semantic memory influenced by individual differences under conditions of distraction? This question was addressed by observing how participants recalled visual target words-drawn from a single category-while ignoring spoken distractor words that were members of either the same or a different (single) category. Working memory capacity (WMC) was related to disruption only with synchronous, not asynchronous, presentation, and distraction was greater when the words were presented synchronously. Subsequent experiments found greater negative priming of distractors among individuals with higher WMC, but this may be dependent on targets and distractors being comparable category exemplars. With less dominant category members as distractors, target recall was impaired-relative to control-only among individuals with low WMC. The results highlight the role of cognitive control resources in target-distractor selection and the individual-specific cost implications of such cognitive control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25329080

Marsh, John E; Sörqvist, Patrik; Hodgetts, Helen M; Beaman, C Philip; Jones, Dylan M

2015-01-01

362

Osteoactivin attenuates skeletal muscle fibrosis after distraction osteogenesis by promoting extracellular matrix degradation/remodeling.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether osteoactivin attenuated skeletal muscle fibrosis caused by distraction osteogenesis. Tibial osteotomies were performed on wild-type and osteoactivin-transgenic (OA-Tg) mice, and tibiae were distracted for 2 weeks. Ankle plantar flexion torque and the gastrocnemius muscles were analyzed. The amount and area of collagenous tissue and the passive torque were reduced in the OA-Tg group at 8 weeks after osteotomy. Transcript levels of matrix metalloprotease (mmp)-3 and MMP-9 were upregulated, and MMP-3 and MMP-9 proteins were increased in the OA-Tg group. Osteoactivin-mediated increase in MMPs may attenuate skeletal muscle fibrosis. PMID:25405936

Tonogai, Ichiro; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Yukata, Kiminori; Sato, Ryosuke; Nikawa, Takeshi; Yasui, Natsuo; Sairyo, Koichi

2014-11-17

363

The interrupt distraction procedure: a brief hypnotic intervention for belief change and diminishing distress.  

PubMed

The Interrupt Distraction Procedure (IDP) is a brief therapeutic technique for cognitive and emotional change. It is comprised of a hypnotic induction, several 20-sec iterations during which the person concentrates on distressing thoughts or imagery or a thought they would like to believe, as well as on a neutral distracting image. It is simple to administer for clinicians familiar with other hypnotic techniques. IDP is useful when a change in beliefs is desired by a client, but some internal process is preventing such a change, and it lessens concomitant distress. It appears to be a simple therapeutic intervention that decreases emotional reactions that accompany certain thoughts or imagery providing some alleviation of symptoms in somatoform, mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:10570850

Laidlaw, T M

1999-07-01

364

Texture Based Image Segmentation  

E-print Network

Texture Based Image Segmentation Jason Chang Massachusetts Institute of Technology Master's Degree / Improvements· Extensions / Improvements ­ Bias Field Estimation ­ Texture Based Segmentation #12;Image Segmentation · Separate the image into separate regions · Focus on Binary Segmentation (two regions, one curve

Willsky, Alan S.

365

Association between energy intake and viewing television, distractibility, and memory for advertisements12345  

PubMed Central

Background: The effect of television viewing (TVV) with and without advertisements (ads) on energy intake is unclear. Objective: The objectives were to test 1) the effect of TVV, with and without ads, on energy intake compared with a control and reading condition and 2) the association of distractibility and memory for ads with energy intake and body weight. Design: Forty-eight (26 female) adults (age: 19–54 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 20–35 completed this laboratory-based study. All participants completed 4 buffet-style meals in random order in the following conditions: 1) control, 2) while reading, 3) while watching TV with food and nonfood ads (TV-ads), and 4) while watching TV with no ads (TV-no ads). Energy intake was quantified by weighing foods. Distractibility and memory for ads in the TV-ads condition were quantified with a norm-referenced test and recognition task, respectively. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that energy and macronutrient intake did not differ significantly among the 4 conditions (P > 0.65). Controlling for sex, memory for ads was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) and energy intake but only when viewing TV (r = 0.39, P < 0.05 during the TV-no ads condition, and r = 0.29, P = 0.06 during the TV-ads condition). Controlling for sex, distractibility was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) but not energy intake. Distractibility, however, accounted for 13% of the variance in men's energy intake (P = 0.11). Conclusions: TVV did not affect energy intake, but individual characteristics (memory for ads) were associated with body weight and energy intake in certain conditions. These characteristics should be considered in food intake and intervention studies. PMID:19056603

Martin, Corby K; Coulon, Sandra M; Markward, Nathan; Greenway, Frank L; Anton, Stephen D

2009-01-01

366

Posterior vertebral injury; is this a burst fracture or a flexion-distraction injury?  

PubMed

In thoracolumbar spinal fractures with posterior column injury for applying proper management, it is important to distinguish a flexion-distraction injury (FDI) from a three column burst fracture (BF) as in clinical examination, both may have a similar significant tenderness on direct spinal palpation. Careful attention to the comprehensive clinical examination and detailed imaging features are essential in making an accurate diagnosis and thus appropriate treatment. PMID:25207330

Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

2014-06-01

367

Posterior Vertebral Injury; Is This a Burst Fracture or a Flexion-Distraction Injury?  

PubMed Central

In thoracolumbar spinal fractures with posterior column injury for applying proper management, it is important to distinguish a flexion-distraction injury (FDI) from a three column burst fracture (BF) as in clinical examination, both may have a similar significant tenderness on direct spinal palpation. Careful attention to the comprehensive clinical examination and detailed imaging features are essential in making an accurate diagnosis and thus appropriate treatment. PMID:25207330

Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

2014-01-01

368

The role of distraction osteogenesis in the management of craniofacial syndromes  

PubMed Central

Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has been established as a useful technique in the correction of skeletal anomalies of the long bones for several decades. However, the use of DO in the management of craniofacial deformities has been evolving over the past 20 years, with initial experience in the mandible, followed by the mid-face and subsequently, the cranium. This review aims to provide an overview of the current role of DO in the treatment of patients with craniofacial anomalies. PMID:23662252

Heggie, Andrew A.; Kumar, Ricky; Shand, Jocelyn M.

2013-01-01

369

Auditory distraction by duration and location deviants: a behavioral and event-related potential study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auditory distractibility was investigated using four noise stimuli that differed in their duration and\\/or sound source. In the duration-task\\/location-deviant condition, participants were asked to discriminate between equiprobable short and long stimuli. Mostly, stimuli were presented from one location (Standards), but, infrequently, a stimulus was presented from another location (Deviant). In the location-task\\/duration-deviant condition, participants had to discriminate between stimuli presented

Urte Roeber; Andreas Widmann; Erich Schröger

2003-01-01

370

Bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis: Mechano-regulation by shear strain and fluid velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Corroboration of mechano-regulation algorithms is difficult, partly because repeatable experimental outcomes under a controlled mechanical environment are necessary, but rarely available. In distraction osteogenesis (DO), a controlled displacement is used to regenerate large volumes of new bone, with predictable and reproducible outcomes, allowing to computationally study the potential mechanisms,that stimulate bone,formation. We hypothesized,that mechano-regulation by octahedral shear strain and

Hanna Isaksson; Olivier Comas; Corrinus C. Van Donkelaar; Jesus Mediavilla; Wouter Wilson; Rik Huiskes; Keita Ito

371

Total hip replacement in congenital high hip dislocation following iliofemoral monotube distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate our single-centre one- and five-year results of anatomically correct cementless\\u000a total hip arthroplasty in unilateral and bilateral Crowe type IV high hip dislocations in ten hips following iliofemoral monotube\\u000a soft tissue distraction. Six consecutive patients (five females and one male) with unilateral and two female patients with\\u000a bilateral high hip dislocation

Johannes Holinka; Martin Pfeiffer; Jochen G. Hofstaetter; Richard Lass; Rainer I. Kotz; Alexander Giurea

2011-01-01

372

Transitional Emotions: Boredom and Distraction in Hong Sang-su's Travel Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the cultural significance of boredom and distraction in postmodern Korea by focusing on Hong Sang-su’s holiday films. It posits that Hong’s films about characters attempting to escape from the banalities of urban life can be seen to reveal, stylistically and thematically, the emotions and anxieties unleashed by excessive leisure in neoliberal Korea. By re-casting the absence of

Youngmin Choe

2009-01-01

373

Carotid Artery Dissection and Stroke Complicating Treatment of Post-mandibular distraction Ankylosis: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Mandibular distraction osteogenesis is an increasingly accepted treatment option for severe upper airway obstruction in grade 3 Robin sequence. Complications are rarely reported but can include fracture, pin dislodgement, tooth bud damage, and temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Operative correction of these complications can carry inherent risks of their own. We present a patient who incurred carotid artery dissection and stroke after release of postdistraction coronoid-zygomatic ankylosis for the treatment of mandibular micrognathia. PMID:25489770

Arnspiger, Sarah A; Felder, John M; Wood, Benjamin C; Rogers, Gary F; Oh, Albert K

2014-12-01

374

Long-term skeletal and dental effects of mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis using a tooth-borne expansion device. The sample included 20 Hispanic nonsyndromic patients (11 males and 9 females) between 13.5 years and 37.3 years of age. Predistraction (1.5 months before surgery), postdistraction (1 month after surgery), and long-term follow-up (1.3 year after surgery) records included posteroanterior,

Marinho Del Santo; Cesar A. Guerrero; Peter H. Buschang; Jeryl D. English; Mikhail L. Samchukov; William H. Bell

2000-01-01

375

Imperfect in-vehicle collision avoidance warning systems can aid distracted drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a type of in-vehicle collision avoidance warning system (IVCAWS) under conditions of driver distraction. Forty-three participants responded to an imperfect warning system while simultaneously driving a simulator and performing a visual\\/cognitive task. The major concerns were whether drivers would be more inclined to rely on such a system when

Masha Maltz; David Shinar

2007-01-01

376

Tracheostomy versus mandibular distraction osteogenesis in infants with Robin sequence: a comparative cost analysis.  

PubMed

Many treatments have been described for infants with Robin sequence and severe respiratory distress, but there have not been many comparative studies of outcome and cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to compare the cost and complications of two common interventions - mandibular distraction osteogenesis and tracheostomy. Nine patients with isolated Robin sequence (mandibular distraction osteogenesis, n=5, and tracheostomy, n=4) were included in the analyses. Predetermined costs and complications were obtained retrospectively from medical records and by questionnaires to the parents over a 12-month period. Overall direct costs (admission to hospital, diagnostics, surgery, and homecare) were 3 times higher for tracheostomy (€105.523 compared with €33.482, p=0.02). Overall indirect costs (absence from work) were almost 5 times higher (€2.543 compared with €543, p=0.02). There was a threefold increase in overall total cost/patient (both direct and indirect) for tracheostomy (€108.057 compared with 34.016, p=0.02) and 4 times more complications were encountered. This study shows that mandibular distraction osteogenesis in infants diagnosed with Robin sequence costs significantly less and results in fewer complications than tracheostomy, and this contributes to our current knowledge about the ideal approach for infants with Robin sequence and might provide a basis for institutional protocols in the future. PMID:24388657

Paes, Emma C; Fouché, James J; Muradin, Marvick S M; Speleman, Lucienne; Kon, Moshe; Breugem, Corstiaan C

2014-03-01

377

Increased Gamma Oscillations Evoked by Physically Salient Distracters are Associated with Schizotypy.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in aberrant salience as a precursor of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. The present study investigates the neurophysiology of attentional capture by salient stimuli in the visual modality. Evoked oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range (40 Hz) was assessed during visual processing of physically salient distracters and evaluated in relation to schizotypy and its positive, negative and disorganized dimension. The early evoked visual gamma-band response (GBR) was assessed for 24 healthy participants using EEG time-frequency analysis. Physical salience was constituted by colored stimuli diverting from an ongoing baseline condition. schizotypal personality traits were measured by the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ; Raine in Schizophr Bull 17:555-564, 1991). The early evoked visual GBR was significantly pronounced in the physically salient distracter condition. GBR signal power was significantly correlated with positive schizotypal personality traits (r = 0.588; p = 0.024*). Our results indicate that the early evoked GBR in visual processing of physically salient distracters is associated with schizotypy. These findings refer to the phenomenology of aberrant salience by bridging the gap to neurophysiological research on early sensory selection and attentional capture in the schizophrenia spectrum. PMID:25421170

Kornmayer, Laura; Leicht, Gregor; Mulert, Christoph

2015-01-01

378

Anthropogenic noise affects risk assessment and attention: the distracted prey hypothesis.  

PubMed

Many studies have focused on the effects of anthropogenic noise on animal communication, but only a few have looked at its effect on other behavioural systems. We designed a playback experiment to test the effect of noise on predation risk assessment. We found that in response to boat motor playback, Caribbean hermit crabs (Coenobita clypeatus) allowed a simulated predator to approach closer before they hid. Two hypotheses may explain how boat noise affected risk assessment: it masked an approaching predator's sound; and/or it reallocated some of the crabs' finite attention, effectively distracting them, and thus preventing them from responding to an approaching threat. We found no support for the first hypothesis: a silent looming object still got closer during boat motor playbacks than during silence. However, we found support for the attentional hypothesis: when we added flashing lights to the boat motor noise to further distract the hermit crabs, we were able to approach the crabs more closely than with the noise alone. Anthropogenic sounds may thus distract prey and make them more vulnerable to predation. PMID:20164080

Chan, Alvin Aaden Yim-Hol; Giraldo-Perez, Paulina; Smith, Sonja; Blumstein, Daniel T

2010-08-23

379

Correction of upper airway obstruction in the newborn with internal mandibular distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Tracheostomy for management of neonatal airway obstruction may be life saving but is associated with complications and developmental problems. As an alternative, the effectiveness of internal mandibular distraction osteogenesis was investigated in select neonatal patients with micrognathia and upper airway obstruction. Preoperative tests (sleep study, direct laryngobronchoscopy, and "milk scan" for GI reflux) were used to select appropriate candidates for the procedure. Excluded were patients with 1) central apnea, 2) severe reflux, 3) other airway lesions, and 4) mild to moderate obstruction controlled by positioning. Of 44 newborns (aged <3 weeks) with upper airway obstruction and micrognathia seen in the neonatal intensive care unit, 19 underwent tracheostomy, 10 were discharged with home monitoring and positional instructions, and 15 underwent bilateral mandibular lengthening with microdistractors. Of those who underwent mandibular distraction, a tracheostomy was avoided in 14 of 15 patients. Relative improvement in the posterior airway space was seen on 3D CT scans, cephalograms, and laryngobronchoscopies obtained preoperatively, postoperatively, and during follow-up evaluation. One of these 15 patients required a tracheostomy for postoperative central apnea. In an average of just 4.5 days following completion of distraction, patients were discharged home with improved oral feeding and no feeding tube. This study suggests that for selected newborns, the use of internal microdistractors allows for avoidance of a tracheostomy and improved oral feeding. PMID:12867862

Izadi, Keyoumars; Yellon, Robert; Mandell, David L; Smith, Meghan; Song, Sung Y; Bidic, Sean; Bradley, James P

2003-07-01

380

[Effect of bFGF on regeneration of distracted mandibles after radiation].  

PubMed

The potential of distraction osteogenesis in mandibular reconstruction has been limited by its questionable efficacy in previously irradiated bone. The possible osteogenetic effect of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on lengthening of irradiated mandibles was investigated in beagle dogs. We studied nine adult dogs which underwent a full course of external beam radiation therapy (60 Gy/30 fractions). Six months after completion of radiotherapy, the molars were extracted bilaterally followed by bone lengthening of the mandible using an intraoral device. On postoperative day 3 and 7 we injected 10 micrograms bFGF into the osteotomy site of each right hemimandible. The left sides were used as controls. The time course in ossification of the distracted area was evaluated at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after completion of bone lengthening. The radiographs of the newly formed bone tissue were measured by digital image analysis. Corresponding to the radiographic findings, the histological examination of the removed jaws showed an earlier and more intensive bone formation in the treated side after 2, 4, and 6 weeks compared to the control side. We conclude that bFGF promotes the ossification of distracted mandibles after radiation therapy in dogs. PMID:11094509

Hasse, A; Pörksen, M; Schultze, S; Engel, A; Feyerabend, T

2000-09-01

381

Effect of distracting faces on visual selective attention in the monkey.  

PubMed

In primates, visual stimuli with social and emotional content tend to attract attention. Attention might be captured through rapid, automatic, subcortical processing or guided by slower, more voluntary cortical processing. Here we examined whether irrelevant faces with varied emotional expressions interfere with a covert attention task in macaque monkeys. In the task, the monkeys monitored a target grating in the periphery for a subtle color change while ignoring distracters that included faces appearing elsewhere on the screen. The onset time of distracter faces before the target change, as well as their spatial proximity to the target, was varied from trial to trial. The presence of faces, especially faces with emotional expressions interfered with the task, indicating a competition for attentional resources between the task and the face stimuli. However, this interference was significant only when faces were presented for greater than 200 ms. Emotional faces also affected saccade velocity and reduced pupillary reflex. Our results indicate that the attraction of attention by emotional faces in the monkey takes a considerable amount of processing time, possibly involving cortical-subcortical interactions. Intranasal application of the hormone oxytocin ameliorated the interfering effects of faces. Together these results provide evidence for slow modulation of attention by emotional distracters, which likely involves oxytocinergic brain circuits. PMID:25472846

Landman, Rogier; Sharma, Jitendra; Sur, Mriganka; Desimone, Robert

2014-12-16

382

Extent of maxillary deficiency in patients with complete UCLP and BCLP  

PubMed Central

Objectives Primary surgery in patients with complete unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate restricts transverse and sagittal maxillary growth. Additional surgical maxillary advancement might become necessary after completion of growth. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of maxillary deficiency at an early stage during the transitory dentition, and to identify factors that might indicate the need for a later maxillary advancement. Materials and methods Lateral head films and casts of 40 non-syndromatic patients with complete UCLP (n?=?29) and BCLP (n?=?11) were evaluated. This retrospective evaluation included measurements of casts and lateral head films from all patients at the beginning of orthodontic treatment during the transitory dentition (T1), after completion of orthodontic treatment (T2) and after completion of growth (T3). The statistic analysis comprised t-tests (Anova) and correlation analyses (Pearson). Results SNA decreased significantly between T1 and T2. At T3, 27.5% of the patients showed a sagittal maxillary deficiency with need for osteotomy. There were no statistical differences between patients with UCLP and BCLP. Significant positive correlations occurred between SNA and WITS-appraisal (+0.62), and significant negative correlations between SNA and NL/NS (?0.66). Conclusions During craniofacial growth patients with complete UCLP and BCLP experience sagittal growth inhibition of the maxilla after primary surgery. A later need for maxillary advancement after completion of growth occurs equally in both cleft types. There are no correlations regarding the need for osteotomy with gender or number of primary surgical measures. It is impossible to predict a need for later maxillary osteotomy during the transitory dentition. Clinical relevance Patients with clefts typically receive long-term treatment. The present results provide useful information for treatment planning and implementation. PMID:24951050

2014-01-01

383

Novel transcripts in the maxillary venom glands of advanced snakes.  

PubMed

Venom proteins are added to reptile venoms through duplication of a body protein gene, with the duplicate tissue-specifically expressed in the venom gland. Molecular scaffolds are recruited from a wide range of tissues and with a similar level of diversity of ancestral activity. Transcriptome studies have proven an effective and efficient tool for the discovery of novel toxin scaffolds. In this study, we applied venom gland transcriptomics to a wide taxonomical diversity of advanced snakes and recovered transcripts encoding three novel protein scaffold types lacking sequence homology to any previously characterised snake toxin type: lipocalin, phospholipase A2 (type IIE) and vitelline membrane outer layer protein. In addition, the first snake maxillary venom gland isoforms were sequenced of ribonuclease, which was only recently sequenced from lizard mandibular venom glands. Further, novel isoforms were also recovered for the only recently characterised veficolin toxin class also shared between lizard and snake venoms. The additional complexity of snake venoms has important implications not only for understanding their molecular evolution, but also reinforces the tremendous importance of venoms as a diverse bio-resource. PMID:22465490

Fry, Bryan G; Scheib, Holger; de L M Junqueira de Azevedo, Inacio; Silva, Debora Andrade; Casewell, Nicholas R

2012-06-01

384

Tissue characteristics of root resorption areas in transplanted maxillary canines.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to describe some histopathologic features of tissues collected from root resorption areas of maxillary canines after transalveolar transplantation surgery. In 8 of 101 transplanted canines, complications including cervical root resorption occurred between 6 and 11 years after treatment. The resorptive processes were located at the supra-alveolar portions of the distal and/or mesial aspects of the teeth and were scheduled for treatment involving surgical exploration. The resorption cavities, which extended from the cementoenamel junction to a position immediately below the bone crest, were filled with a granulation tissue. In four of the diagnosed complication cases, this granulation tissue was carefully excised concomitant with the adjacent gingival tissue after flap elevation and placed in a buffered fixative. After proper soft-tissue healing, the cavities were filled with a glass-ionomer material. The collected biopsy specimens were, after fixation and, in one case, decalcification in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, dehydrated and embedded in Epon. Sections 3 microns thick were produced, stained in periodic acid-Schiff and toluidine blue, and used for histometric and morphometric analyses. The histologic analysis showed that the dissected tissue harbored well-encapsulated areas of inflammatory infiltrates. The lesions comprised a relatively low volume of collagen and a large number of inflammatory cells, predominantly lymphocytes. PMID:9298162

Berglundh, T; Thilander, B; Sagne, S

1997-08-01

385

Maxillary and orbital brown tumor of primary hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Brown tumors have rarely been described as involving the orbital bones. In this article we present the radiological and clinical properties, diagnosis and treatment of an orbital brown tumor case with primary HPT caused by parathyroid adenoma. Case Report: A 38-year-old woman presented with left-sided facial pain and history of leg pain from 1.5 years before that time, with walking difficulties. In imaging, left maxillary erosion was found. She underwent an excisional biopsy and the mass was diagnosed histologically as eosinophilic granuloma. A few months later the patient had right-sided facial pain again and progressive visual loss. In images, fluid-fluid level was noted in the cystic component of the mass. Right side exophthalmus and downward deviation of the globe was seen. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined extra-conal complex mass, with hypointense on T-1 and hyperintense on T-2 weighted images with fluid-fluid levels. Postoperatively the patients vision improved dramatically. Excision of the parathyroid adenoma normalized her metabolic status. Conclusions: Brown tumor is an extremely rare manifestation of primary HPT. Delay in diagnosis can result in unnecessary complications. The management is multi-disciplinary, and therapeutic options should target the underlying cause. PMID:23569524

Bahrami, Eshagh; Alireza, Tabibkhooie; Ebrahim, Hejazian; Mohammadreza, Saatian

2012-01-01

386

Identification of genetic risk factors for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis.  

PubMed

Tooth agenesis affects 20% of the world population, and maxillary lateral incisors agenesis (MLIA) is one of the most frequent subtypes, characterized by the absence of formation of deciduous or permanent lateral incisors. Odontogenesis is a complex mechanism regulated by sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, controlled by activators and inhibitors involved in several pathways. Disturbances in these signaling cascades can lead to abnormalities in odontogenesis, resulting in alterations in the formation of the normal teeth number. Our aim was to study a large number of genes encoding either transcription factors or key components in signaling pathways shown to be involved in tooth odontogenesis. We selected 8 genes-MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA, SPRY2, TGFA, SPRY4, and WNT10A-and performed one of the largest case-control studies taking into account the number of genes and variants assessed, aiming at the identification of MLIA susceptibility factors. We show the involvement of PAX9, EDA, SPRY2, SPRY4, and WNT10A as risk factors for MLIA. Additionally, we uncovered 3 strong synergistic interactions between MLIA liability and MSX1-TGFA, AXIN2-TGFA, and SPRY2-SPRY4 gene pairs. We report the first evidence of the involvement of sprouty genes in MLIA susceptibility. This large study results in a better understanding of the genetic components and mechanisms underlying this trait. PMID:24554542

Alves-Ferreira, M; Pinho, T; Sousa, A; Sequeiros, J; Lemos, C; Alonso, I

2014-05-01

387

Maxillary protraction using a hybrid hyrax-facemask combination  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this in study was the evaluation of treatment outcomes after using a hybrid hyrax-facemask combination in growing class III patients. Methods Treatment of 16 children (mean age 9.5 ± 1.3 years) was investigated clinically and by means of pre- and post-treatment cephalograms. Changes in sagittal and vertical, and dental and skeletal values were evaluated and tested for statistically significant differences. Results All mini-implants remained stable during treatment. Mean treatment duration was 5.8 ± 1.7 months. There was a significant improvement in skeletal sagittal values: SNA, +2.0°; SNB, -1.2°; ANB, +3.2°; WITS appraisal, +4.1 mm and overjet, +2.7 mm. No significant changes were found concerning vertical skeletal relationships and upper incisor inclination. In relation to A point, the upper first molars moved mesially about 0.4 mm (P = 0.134). Conclusions The hybrid hyrax-facemask combination seems to be effective for orthopaedic treatment in growing class III patients. Unwanted maxillary dental movements can be avoided due to stable skeletal anchorage. PMID:24325812

2013-01-01

388

Stability of skeletal Class III malocclusion after combined maxillary and mandibular procedures.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the skeletal stability and time course of postoperative changes after surgical correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion. Combined maxillary and mandibular procedures were performed in 40 consecutive patients. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy stabilized with wire osteosynthesis for mandibular setback and low-level Le Fort I osteotomy stabilized with plates and screws for maxillary advancement were performed. Maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) was in place for 6 weeks. Lateral cephalograms were taken before surgery, immediately postoperatively, 8 weeks after surgery, and 1 year postoperatively. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to vertical maxillary movement at surgery: a maxilla-up group with upward movement of the posterior nasal spine of 2 mm or more (group 1, n = 22), and a minimal vertical change group with less than 2 mm of vertical repositioning (group 2, n = 18). The results indicate that surgical correction of Class III malocclusion with combined maxillary and mandibular osteotomies appears to be fairly stable. One year postsurgery, maxillary stability was excellent, with a mean horizontal relapse at point A that represented 10.7% of maxillary advancement in group 1 and 13.4% in group 2. In the vertical plane, maxillary stability was also excellent, with a mean of 0.18 mm of superior repositioning at point A for group 1 and 1.19 mm for group 2. The mandible relapsed a mean of 2.97 mm horizontally at pogonion in group 1 (62% of mandibular setback) and 3.41 mm (49.7% of setback) in group 2. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with wire osteosynthesis and MMF was not as stable as maxillary advancement and accounted for most of the total horizontal relapse (almost 85%) observed. A trend to relapse was observed for maxillary advancement greater than 6 mm, while the single variable accounting for mandibular relapse in group 1 was the amount of surgical setback. Clockwise rotation of the ascending ramus at surgery was not correlated with mandibular relapse in relation to the type of fixation performed and therefore does not seem to be responsible for relapse. PMID:12387609

Costa, F; Robiony, M; Sembronio, S; Polini, F; Politi, M

2001-01-01

389

Ultrasound bone cutting for surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion under local anesthesia. Preliminary results.  

PubMed

Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) is a well-established therapy for correction of maxillary transverse deficiency in adults, when consolidation of sutures has just been completed. It can be performed either under general or under local anesthesia and it can be accomplished with many surgical techniques. One of the most critical steps of SARME is the detachment of the pterygo-maxillary junction, due to the risks connected to such procedure. When required to obtain specific expansion patterns, the pterygo-maxillary separation has been suggested until now only for interventions under general anesthesia, due to the dangerousness and the rawness of this surgical step in awake patients. The authors introduce the use of an ultrasonic bone-cutting device to perform all osteotomic steps of SARME under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis, including pterygo-maxillary detachment. This ultrasonic device is unique in that the osteotomic action occurs only when the tool is employed on mineralized tissues, while it stops on soft tissues. It works in a linear pattern of vibration and it allows precise osteotomies without producing any heat damage to osteotomic surfaces and without any dangerous hammer-related stroke. Due to its precision and safety, this device named Piezosurgery, allows patients to undergo all the steps of SARME under local anesthesia, also without hospitalization. PMID:17625493

Robiony, M; Polini, F; Costa, F; Zerman, N; Politi, M

2007-06-01

390

Protocols for Late Maxillary Protraction in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the protocols used at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) to protract the maxilla during early adolescence. It is a modification of techniques introduced by Eric Liou with his Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (ALT-RAMEC) technique. The main differences between the CHLA protocol and previous maxillary protraction protocols are the age the protraction is attempted, the sutural loosening by alternating weekly expansion with constriction and the use of Class III elastics to support and redirect the protraction by nightly facemask wear. The CHLA protocol entirely depends on patient compliance and must be carefully taught and monitored. In a cooperative patient, the technique can correct a Class III malocclusion that previously would have been treated with LeFort 1 maxillary advancement surgery. Thus, it is not appropriate for patients requiring 2 jaw surgeries to correct mandibular prognathism, occlusal cants or facial asymmetry. The maxillary protraction appears to work by a combination of skeletal advancement, dental compensation and rotation of the occlusal planes. Microscrew/microimplant/temporary anchorage devices have been used with these maxillary protraction protocols to assist in expanding the maxilla, increasing skeletal anchorage during protraction, limiting dental compensations and reducing skeletal relapse. PMID:21765629

Yen, Stephen L-K

2011-01-01

391

Segment alignment control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.

1988-01-01

392

Nosocomial maxillary sinusitis during mechanical ventilation: A prospective comparison of orotracheal versus the nasotracheal route for intubation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nosocomial maxillary sinusitis during mechanical ventilation may cause life-threatening complications in ICU patients. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the incidence of maxillary sinusitis according to the route of intubation. 111 consecutive adult patients (mean age: 53, mean SAPS: 12) were randomly assigned to receive either orotracheal (n=53) or nasotracheal (n=58) intubation. All had a nasogastric feeding

F. Salord; P. Gaussorgues; J. Marti-Flich; M. Sirodot; C. Allimant; D. Lyonnet; D. Robert

1990-01-01

393

Observation of maxillary sinus septa and bony bridges using dry skulls between Hellman's dental age of IA and IIIC.  

PubMed

Maxillary sinus septa and bony bridges were observed using dry skulls in childhood, classified based on Hellman's dental age, to clarify maxillary sinus septum formation. Eighty-eight maxillary sinuses of 44 dry skulls and a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit were used. The locations of the septum, defined as a pointed bony structure originating from the inferior wall, and bony bridge, defined as a bony structure between the maxillary sinus wall and dental germ, were antero-posteriorly recorded, and the superoinferior distance, distance from the bony palate, and angle to the median palatine suture were measured. The rate of septum presence in the maxillary sinus was high (41.7%) in IIIC, and the septa were located in the deciduous molars, premolars, and molars. Also, all bony bridges were related to the median maxillary sinus wall, and the rate of the maxillary sinus showing a bony bridge was high in IIA and IIIA. Septum presence in the maxillary sinus was observed in IIA, IIC, IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC of Hellman's dental age. Also, bony bridges were observed in IC, IIA, IIC, IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC of Hellman's dental age. PMID:20882766

Naitoh, Munetaka; Suenaga, Yutaka; Gotoh, Kenichi; Ito, Masaki; Kondo, Shintaro; Ariji, Eiichiro

2010-08-01

394

Maxillary first molar with an O-shaped root morphology: report of a case.  

PubMed

This case report is to present a maxillary first molar with one O-shaped root, which is an extended C-shaped canal system. Patient with chronic apical periodontitis in maxillary left first molar underwent replantation because of difficulty in negotiating all canals. Periapical radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) were taken. All roots were connected and fused to one root, and all canals seemed to be connected to form an O-shape. The apical 3 mm of the root were resected and retrograde filled with resin-modified glass ionomer. Intentional replantation as an alternative treatment could be considered in a maxillary first molar having an unusual O-shaped root. PMID:24008268

Shin, Yooseok; Kim, Yemi; Roh, Byoung-Duck

2013-12-01

395

Maxillary first molar with an O-shaped root morphology: report of a case  

PubMed Central

This case report is to present a maxillary first molar with one O-shaped root, which is an extended C-shaped canal system. Patient with chronic apical periodontitis in maxillary left first molar underwent replantation because of difficulty in negotiating all canals. Periapical radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) were taken. All roots were connected and fused to one root, and all canals seemed to be connected to form an O-shape. The apical 3 mm of the root were resected and retrograde filled with resin-modified glass ionomer. Intentional replantation as an alternative treatment could be considered in a maxillary first molar having an unusual O-shaped root. PMID:24008268

Shin, Yooseok; Kim, Yemi; Roh, Byoung-Duck

2013-01-01

396

Biomechanical evaluation of maxillary Lefort ? fracture with bioabsorbable osteosynthesis internal fixation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to apply biomechanical analysis model to evaluate the effects of bioabsorbable internal fixation devices on maxillary Lefort ? fracture. CT scan technology and the finite element software (ansys) were used to establish three-dimensional finite element models of five resorbable internal fixation devices in maxillary Lefort ? fractures. We used the model to calculate the stress of the upper jaw and internal fixation. We further analyzed the stability of fixation under four occlusions. The fixation using two bioabsorbable plates was not stable. The zygomaticomaxillary pillars fixation is more stable than other fixations. The stability of fracture fixation was influenced with the molar occlusion. The current study developed a functional three-dimensional finite element model of bioabsorbable internal fixation and compared the stability of five fixation methods for maxillary Lefort ? fractures. The results would facilitate the application of bioabsorbable materials in dental clinic. PMID:25146129

Wu, Wei; Zhou, Jiang; Xu, Chong-Tao; Zhang, Jie; Jin, Yan-Jiao; Sun, Geng-Lin

2014-12-01

397

Life cycle of the fish parasite Gnathia maxillaris (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidae).  

PubMed

The taxonomic classification of some parasitic isopods of the family Gnathiidae has been revised in the last years. However, their biological cycles have been described only partially or incompletely. Gnathia maxillaris (Montagu, 1804) is one of the most studied species, but certain aspects of its life cycle are still poorly known. A detailed study on the life cycle of G. maxillaris was carried out over several years by sampling larvae from an infestation of large volume aquaria at the Aquarium of Barcelona. At the same time, a system of in vitro cultivation of G. maxillaris was developed, which provided new data to complete the description of its life cycle. Periods of incubation, fertilization, planktonic stages, the attachment site on the fish host and biometric characteristics of larval forms were detailed. The new information may help better control health state of marine fish in aquaculture. PMID:25065135

Hispano, Coral; Bultó, Patrici; Blanch, Anicet R

2014-06-01

398

Maxillary sinus perforation with presence of an antral pseudocyst, repaired with platelet rich fibrin  

PubMed Central

The maxillary sinus lifting procedure is an important preprosthetic surgical procedure for the creation of adequate bone volume in the edentulous posterior maxilla for the placement of dental implants. The presence of a maxillary sinus cyst has been considered a contraindication for this operation. Perforation of the membrane and hence the elongation of the healing time for implant placement is the most common complication in this type of procedure. The purpose of the case is to show the safely repair of the large sinus perforation during the sinus lifting with presence of the antral pseudocyst. In this case, we present a patient who had a maxillary sinus lifting procedure in the presence of antral pseudocysts. No complications were seen during follow-up periods and all implants are functioning successfully. Platelet-rich fibrin may be used safely when large perforation occurs during the sinus lifting with the presence of an antral pseudocyst.

Baykul, Timuçin; F?nd?k, Yavuz

2014-01-01

399

Concomitant solitary median maxillary central incisor and fused right mandibular incisor in primary dentition.  

PubMed

Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a unique developmental anomaly in primary dentition. It involves central incisor tooth germs and may or may not be associated with other anomalies. Its presence, concomitant with fusion of right mandibular incisors has not previously been reported. A 5-year-old girl was presented with a single symmetrical primary maxillary incisor at the midline, with the absence of labial frenulum, an indistinct philtrum and a prominent midpalatal ridge. There was an associated fused tooth in the right incisor region and radiographic examination confirmed only one maxillary central incisor in both the dentitions. Family history revealed that the father of the girl also had a similar anomaly providing probable evidence of etiological role for heredity in SMMCI. PMID:23230364

Shilpa, G; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Gokhale, Niraj; Yamini, V

2012-09-01

400

Endodontic management of a maxillary molar with formation supradentalis: A case report  

PubMed Central

Anatomic variations may be observed in the crown or in the roots of maxillary molars. In rare instances, crown and root morphology, both show variations. Occurrence of paramolar cusp on the occlusal surface as central cusp or on the buccal surface as parastyle has been frequently reported in maxillary molars. However, presence of paramolar cusp on the palatal surface has not been reported. ‘Formation supradentalis’ is a condition in which supernumerary cusp is associated with a supernumerary root in a molar. The occurrence of such concomitant corono-radicular morphology is multifactorial, that is primary polygenic with secondary environmental influences. This case reports the diagnosis and endodontic management of Formation-supradentalis that had six cusps and four roots in the maxillary first molar. The tooth exhibited a prominent paramolar palatal cusp and cusp of Carabelli along with a supernumerary palatal root. To the best of author's knowledge, this is the first documentation of endodontic management of Formation supradentalis. PMID:25298653

Shah, Dipali Y.; Jadhav, Ganesh R.

2014-01-01

401

Sudden rupture of the internal maxillary artery causing pseudoaneurysm (mandibular part) secondary to subcondylar mandible fracture.  

PubMed

The mandible is one of the most frequently fractured bones of the face. Condylar fractures are the most common mandibular fractures in adults. The potential complications of mandibular fractures are infection, paresthesia, malunion, nonunion, asymmetry, and long-term functional and growth disturbances. In this article, we report an uncommon case of life-threatening pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery secondary to subcondylar fracture. We believe that the subcondylar fracture on the vertical vector and oblique direction can damage vital tissues such as the internal maxillary artery, and this injury was, to our knowledge, the first reported acute pseudoaneurysm, which occurred just after the injury at the initial part of the maxillary artery. PMID:19816273

Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kapi, Emin; Karakol, Percin; Yorgancilar, Ediz

2009-09-01

402

Treatment of severe rotations of maxillary central incisors with whip appliance: Report of three cases  

PubMed Central

The routine treatment for rotated maxillary incisor is a fixed appliance, but in some instance the use of this method is impossible. In addition, in only limited cases of rotation, removable appliance is applicable. In this study, the use of a semi-removable appliance is presented, which has some benefits over the other methods. In this study, the corrections of about 70-90° rotation of the maxillary central incisors in different phases of mixed dentition were performed in three patients using whip appliance. This method was performed using a simple removable appliance such as Hawley appliance and whip spring that forced the couple to derotate the tooth. In all cases, treatment was successfully completed in relative short duration. Whip appliance can be recommended as an effective method to correct rotation of maxillary incisor in mixed dentition with several advantages like rapid correction. PMID:24688574

Parisay, Iman; Boskabady, Marzie; Abdollahi, Mojtaba; Sufiani, Mostafa

2014-01-01

403

Endodontic Management of Maxillary Second Molar with Two Palatal Roots: A Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Endodontic treatment may sometimes fail because morphological features of the tooth adversely affect the treatment protocol. Maxillary second molars are recognized as usually having a single palatal root with a single palatal canal. The incidence of second palatal root in the maxillary second molar is very rare. Two cases are presented in this paper describing the endodontic management of a four-rooted maxillary second molar with two distinct palatal roots and canals and two distinct buccal roots and canals. Clinical examination and radiographs showed the presence of two palatal roots during the root canal procedure. The canals were biomechanically prepared with crown-down technique and obturated using lateral condensation technique with AH-Plus sealer. PMID:23304565

2012-01-01

404

Sipunculans and segmentation  

PubMed Central

Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups—Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata—use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral nervous system form in anterior-posterior progression. Contrary to traditional belief, loss of segmentation may have occurred more often than commonly assumed, as exemplified in the sipunculans, which show remnants of segmentation in larval stages but are unsegmented as adults. The developmental plasticity and potential evolutionary lability of segmentation nourishes the controversy of a segmented bilaterian ancestor versus multiple independent evolution of segmentation in respective metazoan lineages. PMID:19513266

Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

2009-01-01

405

Segmented trapped vortex cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

2010-01-01

406

Evaluation of maxillary anterior teeth and their relation to the golden proportion in malaysian population  

PubMed Central

Background The maxillary anterior teeth are important in achieving pleasing dental aesthetics. Various methods are used to measure the size and form of them, including the golden proportion between their perceived widths, and the width-to-height ratio, referred to as the golden standard. The purpose of this study was conducted to evaluate whether consistent relationships exist between tooth width and height of the clinical crown dimensions; and to investigate the occurrence of the golden proportion of the maxillary anterior teeth. Methods Dental casts of the maxillary arches were made in this cross-sectional study from MAHSA University College students who met the inclusion criteria. The 49 participants represented the Malaysian population main ethnics. The dimensions of the anterior teeth and the perceived width of anterior teeth viewed from front were measured using a digital caliper. Results Comparison of the perceived width ratio of lateral to central incisor and canine to lateral incisor with the golden proportion of 0.618 revealed there were a significant statistical difference (p?maxillary anterior teeth. No golden standard were detected for the width-to-height proportions of maxillary incisors. Specific population characteristics and perception of beauty must be considered. However, ethnicity has no association with the proportions of maxillary anterior teeth. PMID:23347800

2013-01-01

407

Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Patients with Maxillary Defects in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital  

PubMed Central

Background: Maxillary defects are managed by prosthodontic rehabilitation using obturators. This rehabilitation goes through various stages, which invariably affects the quality-of-life of the patients. Aim: This study aims to analyze the types and design of obturators used in the rehabilitation of maxillary defects at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all patients with maxillary defects treated at a tertiary institution between the period of October 2010 and May 2013. The data of interest collected from the patient's register and case notes include age, gender, type of defects, design of obturators and conditions for which treatment was offered. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0 (Chicago, Illinois, 2010) and result presented in frequencies and tables. Results: A total of 19 case notes were retrieved. The age range was 5-73 years with the mean age of 46.37 ± 19.02 and peak age incidence at 41-60 years. The male: female ratio was 1:1.4. Surgical defects were the most common type of maxillary defects seen; accounting for 89.5% (17/19) of the cases, which were mostly associated with malignant tumors. Immediate surgical obturators were provided for 63.2% (12/19) of the subjects. Majority 70.6% (12/17) of those with surgical defects received immediate surgical obturators while all those with congenital defect were given feeding plate. There was a statistically significant association between the type of maxillary defect and type of obturator provided (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that majority of the obturators fabricated for patients with maxillary defect at the Tertiary health institution in Nigeria were immediate surgical obturators. Pre-surgical patient education and follow-up care is advocated. PMID:25221718

Omo, JO; Sede, MA; Enabulele, JE

2014-01-01

408

Divergent requirements for FGF signaling in zebrafish maxillary barbel and caudal fin regeneration  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish maxillary barbel is an integumentary organ containing skin, glands, pigment cells, taste buds, nerves, and endothelial vessels. The maxillary barbel can regenerate (LeClair & Topczewski, 2010); however, little is know about its molecular regulation. We have studied FGF-related signaling molecules during barbel regeneration, comparing these to a well-known regenerating appendage, the zebrafish caudal fin. Multiple FGF ligands (fgf20a, fgf24), receptors (fgfr1–4) and downstream targets (pea3, il17d) are expressed in normal and regenerating barbel tissue, confirming FGF activation. To test if specific FGF pathways were required for barbel regeneration, we performed simultaneous barbel and caudal fin amputations in two temperature-dependent zebrafish lines. Zebrafish homozygous for a point mutation in fgf20a, a factor essential for caudal fin blastema formation, regrew maxillary barbels normally, indicating that the requirement for this ligand is appendage-specific. Global overexpression of a dominant negative FGF receptor, Tg(hsp70l:dn-fgfr1:EGFP)pd1 completely blocked fin outgrowth but only partially inhibited barbel outgrowth, suggesting reduced requirements for FGFs in barbel tissue. Maxillary barbels expressing dn-fgfr1 regenerated peripheral nerves, dermal connective tissue, endothelial tubes, and a glandular epithelium; in contrast to a recent report in which dn-fgfr1 overexpression blocks pharyngeal taste bud formation in zebrafish larvae (Kapsimali et al., 2011), we observed robust formation of calretinin-positive tastebuds. These are the first experiments to explore the molecular mechanisms of maxillary barbel regeneration. Our results suggest heterogeneous requirements for FGF signaling in the regeneration of different zebrafish appendages (caudal fin vs. maxillary barbel) and taste buds of different embryonic origin (pharyngeal endoderm vs. barbel ectoderm). PMID:23350700

Duszynski, Robert J.; Topczewski, Jacek; LeClair, Elizabeth E.

2013-01-01

409

Concomitant dilaceration, transposition, and intraosseous migration: report of a patient treated with maxillary canine-central incisor substitution.  

PubMed

This case report describes the multidisciplinary treatment of a male with a dilacerated maxillary left central incisor and transposition of the ipsilateral maxillary canine and lateral incisor. The initial treatment plan involved removal of the dilacerated incisor with mechanical eruption and alignment of the ectopic left canine, aiming to substitute the lateral incisor for the missing central incisor. However, the plan was modified to include eruption of the canine in the central incisor region in response to progressive ectopic development and mesial transmigration of the maxillary left canine. Although substitution of a maxillary canine for a central incisor is comparatively rare, the canines offer a relatively favorable template to simulate a central incisor. For this growing patient with a combination of dental trauma and developmental anomalies, maxillary canine-central incisor replacement was a viable option, offering excellent esthetic results without recourse to prosthetic replacement. PMID:25263154

Campbell, Ciara M; DiBiase, Andrew; Fleming, Padhraig S

2014-10-01

410

Segmentation of Color Textures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to perceptual segmentation of color image textures. A multiscale representation of the texture image, generated by a multiband smoothing algorithm based on human psychophysical measurements of color appearance is used as the input. Initial segmentation is achieved by applying a clustering algorithm to the image at the coarsest level of smoothing. The segmented clusters are

Majid Mirmehdi; Maria Petrou

2000-01-01

411

Multiresolution Color Image Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image segmentation is the process by which an original image is partitioned into some homogeneous regions. In this paper, a novel multiresolution color image segmentation (MCIS) algorithm which uses Markov random fields (MRF's) is proposed. The proposed approach is a relaxation process that converges to the MAP (maximum a posteriori) estimate of the segmentation. The quadtree structure is used to

Jianqing Liu; Yee-hong Yang

1994-01-01

412

Biomedical Image Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segmentation of biomedical images separates scenes into their components based on recognition of locally similar patterns of intensity, color, texture or other features, with or without use of a priori knowledge regarding the objects or “camera” used to acquire the images. Segmented images are required for most types of object models, labeling, morphometry and geometrical investigations on imaged structures. Segmentation

Michael W. Vannier; John W. Haller

1998-01-01

413

Audio Segmentation and Classification  

E-print Network

Audio Segmentation and Classification Abdillahi Hussein Omar Kgs. Lyngby 2005 #12;Preface The work describes the work done on the development of an audio segmentation and classification system. Many existing works on audio classification deal with the problem of classifying known homogeneous audio segments

414

Premolar transplantation in a patient with solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome.  

PubMed

This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an 11-year-old girl with solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome, a presumed microform of holoprosencephaly. Because both second premolars were missing in the maxilla, deciduous molar extraction and orthodontic space opening were performed, moving the solitary median maxillary central incisor electively off-center. A mandibular second premolar was transplanted to replace the missing incisor. The resulting spaces could be orthodontically closed in both arches. Prosthodontic reshaping of the transplanted tooth after debonding completed the dental treatment. PMID:25432260

Pseiner, Bernhard C

2014-12-01

415

Computed Tomography Findings of an Unusual Maxillary Sinus Mass: Brown Tumor Due to Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Brown tumor is a non-neoplastic bone lesion that develops secondary to hyperparathyroidism and it is very rare in the maxillofacial region. We report the case of a 59-year-old man who presented with pain and a swelling in the left cheek. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an expansile and radioluscent lesion in the left maxillary sinus. Incisional biopsy was performed, and the diagnosis was Brown tumor. Brown tumor must be considered in the differential diagnosis of expansile lesions of maxillary sinus. PMID:24404414

Altay, Canan; Erdo?an, Nezahat; Eren, Erdem; Altay, Sedat; Karasu, ?ebnem; Uluç, Engin

2013-01-01

416

Andrew's bridge system: an aesthetic and functional option for rehabilitation of compromised maxillary anterior dentition.  

PubMed

Summary A patient with several missing teeth in the anterior aesthetic region along with severe ridge defect poses a greater challenge for prosthodontic rehabilitation. In such cases treatment using fixed partial denture (FPD) may not be feasible because of the extent of edentulous span and the periodontal conditions of the abutment teeth. To present a case of multiple missing maxillary anterior teeth with class III ridge defect rehabilitated using FPD-removable partial denture. A 38-year-old female patient was successfully rehabilitated using Andrew's bridge system in the maxillary anterior region. The fixed-removable Andrew's bridge system provides a good prognosis if diagnosed and planned meticulously. PMID:25035444

Tambe, Abhijit; Patil, Sanjayagouda B; Bhat, Sudhakara; Badadare, Mokshada M

2014-01-01

417

E.coli Associated Extensive Bilateral Maxillary Osteomyelitis: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

With the advent of broad spectrum antibiotics, chronic osteomyelitis of jaw, especially of maxilla, has become a rare lesion. Osteomyelitis of jaw is associated with a complex microbiota, the most common oral microorganism being, Staphylococcus sp. Reported cases of jaw osteomyelitis caused by enteric bacteria are very few in literature. Hereby, we are reporting a case of E.coli associated osteomyelitis in a diabetic individual who had presented with very aggressive bilateral maxillary necrosis. After extensive literature search, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of maxillary osteomyelitis associated with E.coli which we have come across. PMID:24298536

Padhiary, Subrat Kumar; Srivastava, Gunjan; Panda, Swagatika; Subudhi, Santosh; Lenka, Sthitaprajna

2013-01-01

418

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in the maxillary antrum: A rare case entity  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon benign tumor of odontogenic origin. It occurs in the second decade of life. Females are more commonly affected than males. AOT has a striking tendency to occur in the anterior maxilla; however, very few cases have been reported to occur in the maxillary antrum. This is a case report of a 17-year-old male presented with a large radiolucent lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted canine located in the right maxillary antrum, which was clinically diagnosed as dentigerous cyst. The histopathological examination revealed the presence of AOT. PMID:25210372

Krishnamurthy, Kavitha; Balaji, Ranjith Singh; Devadiga, Sumana; Prasad, Rame Gowda Rajendra

2014-01-01

419

Orthodontic treatment of unilateral cleft lip and alveolus patient with maxillary lateral incisor missing: case report.  

PubMed

The esthetics of a patient with a cleft lip and alveolus and missing maxillary lateral incisor is important. A girl, aged 9 years 3 months with repaired left unilateral cleft of primary palate only was referred for orthodontic evaluation of her anterior tooth-crowding. She was unhappy with the unattractive appearance of her maxillary anterior teeth, which were behind her mandibular anterior teeth. Alveolar bone grafting along with canine substitution to replace her missing lateral incisor were recommended for this patient. The post-treatment results were excellent with good occlusion, acceptable profile, and remained stable one year after conclusion of active treatment. PMID:24386758

Pisek, Poonsak; Manosudprasit, Montian; Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee; Pasasuk, Apaporn; Somsuk, Thanatpiya

2013-09-01

420

Multiple supernumerary teeth associated with an impacted maxillary central incisor: Surgical and orthodontic management  

PubMed Central

Various anomalies in the size, shape, number, structure and eruption of the teeth are often observed clinical conditions. Supernumerary teeth can be found in almost any region of the dental arch, and most of the times they are asymptomatic, and are routinely found during radiographic evaluation. The most common cause of impacted maxillary incisors is the presence of the supernumerary teeth. This paper describes a case of multiple supernumerary teeth associated with an impacted permanent maxillary central incisor in an 11-year old child along with its surgical and orthodontic management. PMID:22919229

Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Hegde, Manjunath; Baliga, Sudhindra; Munshi, Autar Krishen

2012-01-01

421

Bilateral presence of two root canals in maxillary central incisors: A rare case study  

PubMed Central

Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning and shaping followed by complete obturation of the canal system. Therefore, endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy, and its variations in presentation. The internal anatomy of the maxillary central incisor is well-known and usually presents one root canal system. This case report describes an endodontic treatment of traumatized both maxillary central incisors with two canal systems. Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for proper endodontic practice. When root canal treatment is performed, the clinician should be aware that both external and internal anatomy may be abnormal. PMID:24963266

Kavitha, M.; Gokul, Kannan; Ramaprabha, B.; Lakshmi, Amudha

2014-01-01

422

Giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the maxillary sinus and zygoma: A case report.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), formally known as odontogenic keratocysts, are benign developmental tumors that are found primarily in the mandibular molar region and ascending ramus. The disease is characterized by aggressive growth and a high recurrence rate following surgical treatment. The present study reports the rare case of a 25-year-old male with a giant KCOT involving the right zygoma, maxillary bone and maxillary sinus. The tumor was removed using a modified treatment of enucleation, grinding and cryotherapy. Recurrence has not been observed within the eight-month follow-up period. The present study discusses the clinical features and surgical management of this case. PMID:25364448

Zhou, Jianhua; Wang, Lili; Chen, Zhenggang; Qiu, Jianzhong; Dong, Quanjiang

2014-12-01

423

Short-term treatment effects of quad-helix on maxillomandibular expansion in patients with maxillary incisor crowding.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the maxillary arch expansion on maxillomandibular arch widths in patients treated with the quad-helix versus untreated controls. The treatment group consisted of 50 consecutive patients treated for maxillary incisor crowding with a quad-helix appliance in the early mixed dentition. Lateral cephalograms and dental casts taken at the start (T0) and end (T1) of the quad-helix treatment were obtained. The control group consisted of 50 untreated patients with the same type of malocclusion. Two consecutive lateral cephalograms and dental casts of each untreated patient were taken at about the same time as T0 and T1. All these study materials were analyzed for comparison between the two groups. The mean ages at T0 and T1 in the two groups were about the same. The maxillary first molars moved and tipped distally in the treatment group and mesially in the control group. The quad-helix treatment actually expanded the mandibular and maxillary arches concurrently. The more the maxillary arch widths were expanded and the less the maxillary first molars were inclined distally, the more the mandibular arch widths were expanded. The quad-helix activation caused lingual tipping and mesiobuccal rotation of the maxillary first molars. The mesiobuccal rotation of the maxillary first molars could turn molar occlusal relationships for the better from Class II to Class I. The quad-helix treatment gives rise to spontaneous expansion of the mandibular arch concurrent with maxillary expansion in the early mixed dentition patients with maxillary incisor crowding. PMID:21674183

Shundo, Isao; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Endo, Toshiya

2012-01-01

424

A parametric duration model of the reaction times of drivers distracted by mobile phone conversations.  

PubMed

The use of mobile phones while driving is more prevalent among young drivers-a less experienced cohort with elevated crash risk. The objective of this study was to examine and better understand the reaction times of young drivers to a traffic event originating in their peripheral vision whilst engaged in a mobile phone conversation. The CARRS-Q advanced driving simulator was used to test a sample of young drivers on various simulated driving tasks, including an event that originated within the driver's peripheral vision, whereby a pedestrian enters a zebra crossing from a sidewalk. Thirty-two licensed drivers drove the simulator in three phone conditions: baseline (no phone conversation), hands-free and handheld. In addition to driving the simulator each participant completed questionnaires related to driver demographics, driving history, usage of mobile phones while driving, and general mobile phone usage history. The participants were 21-26 years old and split evenly by gender. Drivers' reaction times to a pedestrian in the zebra crossing were modelled using a parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) duration model with a Weibull distribution. Also tested where two different model specifications to account for the structured heterogeneity arising from the repeated measures experimental design. The Weibull AFT model with gamma heterogeneity was found to be the best fitting model and identified four significant variables influencing the reaction times, including phone condition, driver's age, license type (provisional license holder or not), and self-reported frequency of usage of handheld phones while driving. The reaction times of drivers were more than 40% longer in the distracted condition compared to baseline (not distracted). Moreover, the impairment of reaction times due to mobile phone conversations was almost double for provisional compared to open license holders. A reduction in the ability to detect traffic events in the periphery whilst distracted presents a significant and measurable safety concern that will undoubtedly persist unless mitigated. PMID:24129320

Haque, Md Mazharul; Washington, Simon

2014-01-01

425

Long-term skeletal effects of mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis. An implant study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term skeletal effects of mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis (MSDO) with a tooth- and bone-borne distraction device, analysed using the metallic implant method. The study sample comprised 20 patients between 15.8 and 25 years of age, with a mean age of 20.01 +/- 2.25 years at the start of treatment. In 12 subjects, titanium implants were inserted in the mandible to analyse mandibular skeletal changes in the short and long term. A custom-made intraoral, tooth- and bone-borne distractor was designed and used. After a latency period of 7 days, the distractor was activated twice daily, by a total amount of 1 mm. Postero-anterior (PA) cephalograms were obtained at the start of distraction and at the end of consolidation (94.95 +/- 5.79 days after surgery) and follow-up periods (21.5 +/- 4.6 months after consolidation). The data were analysed statistically using paired t-tests. The mean amount of screw activation was 8.10 +/- 1.68 mm. The inter-symphyseal and inter-molar implant distances and the bimolar width significantly increased during the consolidation period (P < 0.001) and were maintained at the end of the follow-up. On the other hand, the bicondylar width was markedly decreased (P < 0.05), while no significant skeletal changes were observed in bigonion and biantigonion widths, inter-ramal implant distance, or inter-ramal and implant angles at the end of the consolidation period. The long-term findings of this study indicate that MSDO provides an efficient and stable non-extraction treatment alternative, mainly by increasing the anterior mandibular skeletal and dental arches. PMID:16043467

Iseri, Haluk; Malkoç, Siddik

2005-10-01

426

External versus Internal Distraction Devices in Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Craniofacial Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea is often associated with congenital craniofacial malformations due to hypoplastic mandible and decreased pharyngeal airway. In this study, we will compare external and internal distraction devices for mandibular lengthening in terms of effectiveness, results, patient comfort, and complications. Methods: Thirty-seven patients were treated by bilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis for obstructive sleep apnea: 20 with external and 17 with internal distraction devices. Results: Lengthening of the mandible and increase of the pharyngeal airway were obtained in all patients. Using the external devices, the average mandibular elongation was 30 mm versus 22 mm with the internal devices; however, after 1 year, the results were more stable with internal devices. External devices carried greater risk for pin tract infection than the internal devices (27.5% vs 5.88%). In addition, pin loosening in 22.5% required pin replacement or led to reduced retention period. Internal devices had a precise and predictable vector of lengthening and left less visible scars at the submandibular area but carried the disadvantage of requiring a second operation for device removal. In very young children with severe micrognathia, it was impossible to place internal devices, and external devices were used. Conclusions: Internal devices should be the first choice because they are more comfortable to the patients, more predictable vector of lengthening, are less vulnerable to dislodgement, and leave reduced scarring, with the great disadvantage of second operation for removal. However, external devices still should be considered mainly in severely hypoplastic cases, and the surgeon should be prepared for both options. PMID:25426371

Nseir, Saleh; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror

2014-01-01

427

Correction of inverted nipple: an alternative method using continuous elastic outside distraction.  

PubMed

Inverted nipple, which is defined as a nipple located on a plane lower than the areola, presents both functional and cosmetic problems. It is a source of repeated irritation and inflammation and interferes with nursing. In addition, its abnormal appearance may cause psychologic distress. With consideration of its underlying pathophysiologic components and severity, a number of techniques have been introduced for correction of this anomaly. Most of these techniques involve extensive skin incision around the nipple that may jeopardize the blood and nerve supply to the nipple or create much scar tissue that is esthetically objectionable. For correcting the inverted nipple, the authors introduce an alternative, simple method using continuous elastic outside distraction. Compared with other methods using outside distraction, the authors used an adjustable elastic instrument made of steel wire, spring, and plastic syringe; continuous distraction of the inverted nipples; and sustaining 3 to 6 months. From August 2002 to December 2003, 14 patients (26 nipples) were treated. 12 patients had bilateral inverted nipples. Patient age at operation ranged from 14 to 40 years (mean age, 24 years). All nipples were congenital, and they had no previous operation. Six nipples were grade I, 9 nipples were grade II, and 11 nipples were grade III according to the classification of inverted nipple by Han and Hong. The mean follow-up period was 7.3 months (range, 3-12 months). Follow-up examinations revealed no evidence of recurrence of inversion. There was no complication associated with surgery, such as infection, hematoma, permanent sensory disturbance, or nipple necrosis. All patients were satisfied with their results. The authors conclude that their procedure is reliable, a simple, safe, and effective method for correction inverted nipple. But a long-term follow-up is needed. This technique can be applied to any type of inverted nipple as a primary surgical procedure. PMID:15655458

Teng, Li; Wu, Guo-Ping; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Lu, Jian-Jian; Ding, Bo; Ren, Min; Ji, Ying; Jin, Xiao-Lei

2005-02-01

428

Effects of virtual reality immersion and audiovisual distraction techniques for patients with pruritus  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Virtual reality immersion (VRI), an advanced computer-generated technique, decreased subjective reports of pain in experimental and procedural medical therapies. Furthermore, VRI significantly reduced pain-related brain activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Resemblance between anatomical and neuroendocrine pathways of pain and pruritus may prove VRI to be a suitable adjunct for basic and clinical studies of the complex aspects of pruritus. OBJECTIVES: To compare effects of VRI with audiovisual distraction (AVD) techniques for attenuation of pruritus in patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis vulgaris. METHODS: Twenty-four patients suffering from chronic pruritus – 16 due to atopic dermatitis and eight due to psoriasis vulgaris – were randomly assigned to play an interactive computer game using a special visor or a computer screen. Pruritus intensity was self-rated before, during and 10 min after exposure using a visual analogue scale ranging from 0 to 10. The interviewer rated observed scratching on a three-point scale during each distraction program. RESULTS: Student’s t tests were significant for reduction of pruritus intensity before and during VRI and AVD (P=0.0002 and P=0.01, respectively) and were significant only between ratings before and after VRI (P=0.017). Scratching was mostly absent or mild during both programs. CONCLUSIONS: VRI and AVD techniques demonstrated the ability to diminish itching sensations temporarily. Further studies on the immediate and late effects of interactive computer distraction techniques to interrupt itching episodes will open potential paths for future pruritus research. PMID:19714267

Leibovici, Vera; Magora, Florella; Cohen, Sarale; Ingber, Arieh

2009-01-01

429

Video Segmentation by MAP Labeling of Watershed Segments  

E-print Network

Video Segmentation by MAP Labeling of Watershed Segments Ioannis Patras, Student Member, IEEE, E-temporal segmentation of video sequences. An initial intensity segmentation method (watershed segmentation) provides and temporal interactions are expressed on the basis of the initial watershed segments. The labeling criterion

Patras, Ioannis "Yiannis"

430

Distraction: an assessment of smartphone usage in health care work settings  

PubMed Central

Smartphone use in health care work settings presents both opportunities and challenges. The benefits could be severely undermined if abuse and overuse are not kept in check. This practice-focused research paper examines the current panorama of health software applications. Findings from existing research are consolidated to elucidate the level and effects of distraction in health care work settings due to smartphone use. A conceptual framework for crafting guidelines to regulate the use of smartphones in health care work settings is then presented. Finally, specific guidelines are delineated to assist in creating policies for the use of smartphones in a health care workplace. PMID:22969308

Gill, Preetinder S; Kamath, Ashwini; Gill, Tejkaran S

2012-01-01

431

Acetabular distraction: an alternative for severe acetabular bone loss and chronic pelvic discontinuity.  

PubMed

Acetabular bone loss is a challenging problem facing the revision total hip replacement surgeon. Reconstruction of the acetabulum depends on the presence of anterosuperior and posteroinferior pelvic column support for component fixation and stability. The Paprosky classification is most commonly used when determining the location and degree of acetabular bone loss. Augments serve the function of either providing primary construct stability or supplementary fixation. When a pelvic discontinuity is encountered we advocate the use of an acetabular distraction technique with a jumbo cup and modular porous metal acetabular augments for the treatment of severe acetabular bone loss and associated chronic pelvic discontinuity. PMID:25381406

Sheth, N P; Melnic, C M; Paprosky, W G

2014-11-01

432

Sleepiness/fatigue and distraction/inattention as factors for fatal versus nonfatal commercial motor vehicle driver injuries.  

PubMed

A retrospective population-based case-control study was conducted to determine whether driver sleepiness/fatigue and inattention/distraction increase the likelihood that a commercial motor vehicle collision (CVC) will be fatal. Cases were identified as CVC drivers who died (fatal) and controls were drivers who survived (nonfatal) an injury collision using the Kentucky Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) electronic database from 1998-2002. Cases and controls were matched on unit type and roadway type. Conditional logistic regression was performed. Driver sleepiness/fatigue, distraction/inattention, age of 51 years of age and older, and nonuse of safety belts increase the odds that a CVC will be fatal. Primary safety belt law enactment and enforcement for all states, commercial vehicle driver education addressing fatigue and distraction and other approaches including decreased hours-of-service, rest breaks and policy changes, etc. may decrease the probability that a CVC will be fatal. PMID:15921653

Bunn, T L; Slavova, S; Struttmann, T W; Browning, S R

2005-09-01

433

Management of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome secondary to temporomandibular joint ankylosis by mandibular elongation using distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with repetitive nocturnal upper airway obstruction leading to daytime sleepiness, cardiovascular derangements, and can be a debilitating, even life-threatening condition. The most favorable treatment for patients with OSAS is multidisciplinary care by a team that represents various dental and medical disciplines. Prescribed therapies might include weight loss, behavior modification, oral appliances, soft tissue surgery, skeletal surgery, or some co