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Sample records for maxillary segmental distraction

  1. Anterior maxillary segmental distraction in the treatment of severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongliang; Dai, Jiewen; Si, Jiawen; Zhang, Jianfei; Wang, Minjiao; Shen, Steve Guofang; Yu, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Anterior maxillary segmental distraction (AMSD) is an effective surgical procedure in the treatment of maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate. Its unique advantage of preserving velopharyngeal function makes this procedure widely applied. In this study, the application of AMSD was described and its long-term stability was explored. Eight patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP were included in this study. They were treated with AMSD using rigid external distraction (RED) device. Cephalometric analysis was performed twice at three time points for evaluation: before surgery (T1), after distraction (T2), and 2 years after treatment (T3). One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the differences statistically. All the distractions completed smoothly, and maxilla was distracted efficiently. The value of SNA, NA-FH, Ptm-A, U1-PP, overjet and PP (ANS-PNS) increased significantly after the AMSD procedure (P < 0.05), with the mean overjet increased by 14.28 mm. However, comparison of cephalometric analysis between T2 and T3 showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Changes of palatopharyngeal depth and soft palatal length were insignificant. AMSD with RED device provided an effective way to correct maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP, extended the palatal and arch length, avoided damage on velopharyngeal closure function and reduced the relapse rate. It is a promising and valuable technique in this potentially complicated procedure. PMID:26629107

  2. Rapid maxillary canine retraction by dental distraction: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Chitharanjan, Arun; Kailasam, Vignesh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to perform rapid maxillary canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament and investigate the rate and amount of canine retraction, amount of anchor loss, the nature of tooth movement achieved, and radiographic changes in the periodontal ligament region during and after canine distraction. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 10 distractions ranging in age from 14 years to 25 years who needed canine retraction and first premolar extraction in the maxillary arch. Ten canine distractions were carried out with custom-made, tooth-borne intra-oral distraction device. Results: The results indicate that the periodontal ligament can be distracted just like the mid-palatal suture in rapid palatal expansion and the maxillary canines are retracted rapidly into the first premolar extraction space at the rate of about 2.53 mm/week. Conclusion: Though this study indicates that the periodontal ligament can be distracted to elicit rapid tooth movement, the long-term effects of canine distraction are not well known and need close monitoring. PMID:25298710

  3. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis using Le Fort I osteotomy without intraoperative down-fracture.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, K; Mitsugi, M; Takahashi, T

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present a technique for maxillary distraction osteogenesis using Le Fort I osteotomy without down-fracture. Six cleft-related patients suffering from severe midfacial deficiency were treated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. The RED II system was chosen as the extraoral device and the Leipzig retention plate system to anchor the maxillary segment. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis was successful in all cases. Cephalometric and clinical evaluation after an average follow-up period of 1 year showed stable results with respect to skeletal and dental relationships. The SNA angle increased from 72.3 degrees to 81.4 degrees and the ANB angle increased by 11.0 degrees immediately after removing the distraction device. After 1 year, the sagittal bone gain remained and the SNA angle had decreased by 0.8 degrees . This technique seems to minimize the risk of the surgical procedure and shorten the operation time. It may become an alternative method for the treatment of patients with severe midfacial hypoplasia. PMID:16513321

  4. Perpendicular serial maxillary distraction osteogenesis in cleft lip and palate patients

    PubMed Central

    Ylikontiola, Leena P.; Sándor, George K.; Harila, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip and palate patients often have a retruded maxilla with a severely narrowed deficient maxillary arch. This report aims to describe the management of severe maxillary retrusion and constriction in cleft lip and palate patients using distraction osteogenesis applied in serial sequence in two directions perpendicular to each other. Materials and Methods: Two adult male cleft lip and palate patients were treated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in two stages. In the first stage, surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion with a tooth-borne device was performed to significantly expand the maxillary arch in the transverse dimension. After the teeth were orthodontically aligned, the horizontal distraction of the maxilla was made by two internal maxillary distraction devices. Results: In the first patient, the maxilla was initially widened by 11 mm and then distracted forward by 20 mm. Despite the breakage of the shaft of one of the two distractors at the end of distraction, a satisfactory occlusion was found at the time of distractor device removal. The maxillary position has remained stable through 8 years of follow-up. In the second patient, the palate was widened by 14 mm and the maxilla was distracted forward by 22 mm. The maxillary position has remained stable through 3 years of follow-up. Conclusion: Sequential serial distraction of maxilla in two planes perpendicular to each other is a safe and stable approach for the treatment of cleft lip and palate patients with severe transverse and anteroposterior discrepancies. PMID:26981462

  5. Long-term skeletal stability after maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis using a rigid external distraction device in cleft maxillary deformities.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Alvaro A; Polley, John W; Friede, Hans; Ko, Ellen W

    2004-11-01

    Rigid external distraction is a highly effective technique for correction of maxillary hypoplasia in patients with orofacial clefts. The clinical results after correction of sagittal maxillary deformities in both the adult and pediatric age groups have been stable. The purpose of this retrospective longitudinal cephalometric study was to review the long-term stability of the repositioned maxilla in cleft patients who underwent maxillary advancement with rigid external distraction. Between April 1, 1995, and April 1, 1999, 17 consecutive patients with cleft maxillary hypoplasia underwent maxillary advancement using rigid external distraction. There were 13 male patients and four female patients, with ages ranging from 5.2 to 23.6 years (mean, 12.6 years). After a modified complete high Le Fort I osteotomy and a latency period of 3 to 5 days, patients underwent maxillary advancement with rigid external distraction until proper facial convexity and dental overjet and overbite were obtained. After active distraction, a 3- to 4-week period of rigid retention was undertaken; this was followed by removable elastic retention for 6 to 8 weeks using, during sleep time, an orthodontic protraction face mask. Cephalometric radiographs were obtained preoperatively, after distraction, at 1 year after distraction, and 2 or more years after distraction. The mean follow-up was 3.3 years (minimum, 2.1 years; maximum, 5.3 years). The following measurements were obtained in each cephalogram: three linear horizontal and two linear vertical maxillary measurements, two angular craniomaxillary measurements, and one craniomandibular measurement. Differences between the preoperative and postoperative cephalometric values were analyzed by paired t tests (p < 0.05). The cephalometric analysis demonstrated postoperatively significant advancement of the maxilla. In addition, the mandibular plane angle opened 1.2 degrees after surgery. After the 1- to 3-year follow-up period, the maxilla was

  6. Stability after Cleft Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis or Conventional Orthognathic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Svenstrup, Martin; Pedersen, Thomas Klit; Küseler, Annelise; Jensen, John; Nørholt, Sven Erik

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To compare stability of maxillary advancements in patients with cleft lip and palate following distraction osteogenesis or orthognathic surgery. Material and Methods Inclusion criteria: 1) cleft lip and palate, 2) advancement > 8 mm. Eleven patients comprised the distraction osteogenesis group (DOG). Seven patients comprised the orthognathic treatment group (CONVG). Skeletal and soft tissue points were traced on lateral cephalograms: T1 (preoperatively), T2 (after surgery), T3 (follow-up). Group differences were analyzed using Students t-test. Results At T1-T2, advancement of 6.98 mm (P = 0.002) was observed in DOG. Horizontal overjet increased 11.62 mm (P = 0.001). A point-nasion-B point (ANB) angle increased 8.82° (P = 0.001). Aesthetic plane to upper lip was reduced 5.44 mm (P = 0.017) and the naso-labial angle increased 16.6° (P = 0.001). Vertical overbite (VOB) increased 2.27 mm (P = 0.021). In T2-T3, no significant changes were observed in DOG. In T1-T2, horizontal overjet increased 8.45 mm (P = 0.02). The ANB angle, 9.33° (P = 0.009) in CONVG. At T2-T3, VOB increased, 2.35 mm (P = 0.046), and the ANB angle reduced, 3.83° (P = 0.003). In T2-T3, no parameters changed in CONVG. At follow-up (T3), VOB increased in CONVG compared with DOG, (P = 0.01). Vertical position of A point differed between the groups (P = 0.04). No significant intergroup differences between soft tissue parameters occurred. Conclusions Distraction osteogenesis resulted in a stable position of the maxilla and movement upwards in vertical plane, however in case of orthognathic treatment sagittal relapse and a continued postoperatively downward movement was registered. PMID:26229581

  7. Transpalatal distraction for the management of maxillary constriction in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Nicolai; Ernst, Nicole; Hoffmeister, Bodo; Raguse, Jan-Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Context: The management of severe maxillary constriction can be challenging. For that purpose surgically assisted maxillary expansion by transpalatal distraction (TPD) can typically be recommended after skeletal maturity. However in selected cases bone borne transpalatal distraction devices can contribute to improve maxillary constriction considerably earlier already during mixed dentition. Aims: To assess the possibility of bone borne transpalatal distraction in pediatric patients. Settings and Design: Clinical paper. Materials and Methods: Since 2010 TPD has been applied to six pediatric patients during mixed dentition when severe maxillary constriction was present and conventional orthodontic widening has already failed. Individually selected devices (Surgitec, Belgium) were inserted in general anaesthesia and distraction was performed according to well known parameters. Results: Maxillary constriction could be improved in all six patients without any drawbacks by bone borne devices during mixed dentition. Skeletal conditions were obviously improved for subsequent orthodontic or orthognathic therapy without functional impairment. Follow-up is up to 36 months after device removal. Conclusions: Transpalatal Distraction is recommendable in selected pediatric patients if massive growth disturbance is present or has to be expected. TPD allows for individually adapted maxillary expansion by selection and positioning of appropriate devices in combination with intraoperative testing of maxillary movements and controlled bone removal. PMID:26389033

  8. Use of anterior maxillary distraction osteogenesis in two cleft lip and palate patients

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Dhirendra; Ghassemi, Alireza; Ghassemi, Mehrangiz; Showkatbakhsh, Rahman; Jamilian, Abdolreza

    2015-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has become a mainstream surgical technique for patients with jaw deformities. The aim of this study was to report the effect of DO done by a hyrax screw incorporated in an acrylic plate in the treatment of two maxillary deficient cases with cleft lip and palate. Two patients, a 24-year-old female and a 29-year-old male who suffered from maxillary deficiency and cleft lip and palate, were treated by DO. After making vertical cuts between the premolars on both sides and horizontal cuts similar to Le Fort 1, a hyrax screw was mounted on an acrylic plate for the slow anteroposterior expansion of maxillary arch. The expansion was achieved by turning the hyrax screw 0.8 mm per day after the latency period. Treatment was discontinued after achieving satisfactory over jet and occlusion. This study showed that anterior maxillary distraction is a reliable technique for correction of midfacial deformity arising out of cleft lip and palate. Incidences of complications are negligible compared to total maxillary distraction. PMID:26668459

  9. Biomechanical comparison of two intraoperative mobilization techniques for maxillary distraction osteogenesis: Down-fracture versus non-down-fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lili; Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Suzuki, Boonsiva

    2014-01-01

    Purposes: The purpose of this study was to compare the distraction forces and the biomechanical effects between two different intraoperative surgical procedures (down-fracture [DF] and non-DF [NDF]) for maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Materials and Methods: Eight patients were assigned into two groups according to the surgical procedure: DF, n = 6 versus NDF, n = 2. Lateral cephalograms taken preoperatively (T1), immediately after removal of the distraction device (T2), and after at least a 6 months follow-up period (T3) were analyzed. Assessment of distraction forces was performed during the distraction period. The Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare the difference in the amount of advancement, the maximum distraction force and the amount of relapse. Results: Although a significantly greater amount of maxillary movement was observed in the DF group (median 9.5 mm; minimum-maximum 7.9-14.1 mm) than in the NDF group (median 5.9 mm; minimum-maximum 4.4-7.6 mm), significantly lower maximum distraction forces were observed in the DF (median 16.4 N; minimum-maximum 15.1-24.6 N) than in the NDF (median 32.9 N; minimum-maximum 27.6-38.2 N) group. A significantly greater amount of dental anchorage loss was observed in the NDF group. Moreover, the amount of relapse observed in the NDF group was approximately 3.5 times greater than in the DF group. Conclusions: In this study, it seemed that, the use of the NDF procedure resulted in lower levels of maxillary mobility at the time of the maxillary distraction, consequently requiring greater amounts of force to advance the maxillary bone. Moreover, it also resulted in a reduced amount of maxillary movement, a greater amount of dental anchorage loss and poor treatment stability. PMID:25593865

  10. Le Fort I distraction using internal devices for maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip, palate, and alveolus: complications and their prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Kaneshige; Morishita, Tadashi

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, advancement has been made in distraction osteogenesis in the facial area. It has been applied actively to treat maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip, palate, and alveolus. Le Fort I distraction using internal devices does not lead to disability in daily living, including during the retention period, and has low surgical invasiveness, facile management, and superior aesthetics. Thus, there have been occasional reports on this procedure in recent years. Because an internal device is unidirectional, the greatest disadvantage is the inability to adjust the direction of distraction after its placement. However, past reports have emphasized its advantages, and its complications have rarely been discussed. We performed Le Fort I distraction using internal devices on 15 young patients. Our results showed notable complications in a few cases. When serial cephalometric analysis was performed after maxillary distraction, it demonstrated that the maxilla assumes various three-dimensional distraction morphologies. In particular, cases with insufficient bone grafting of alveolar clefts developed collapse mainly in the alveolar cleft region during postoperative distraction. Mobility and deviation of the maxillary bone fragment occurred. We implemented preventative measures against complications such as using modifications to place the devices parallel on the left and right sides and using a bite splint for distraction. These measures produced improved outcomes, and we describe here the details. PMID:20856032

  11. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis for treatment of cleft lip and palate in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yutaka; Mishimagi, Takashi; Katsuki, Yuko; Harada, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a congenital immune deficiency disorder caused by abnormal antibody production. It is a rare disease with an estimated frequency of 1 in 379,000 that has X-linked recessive heredity and develops only in males. The clinical problems include bacterial infection such as otitis media, sinusitis, and bronchitis. In recent years it has become possible to diagnose XLA in the early stage and intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy has permitted survival to adulthood. However, there have been no reports of oral surgery in patients with XLA. Here, we describe a case in which immunoglobulin replacement therapy given pre- and postoperatively was used to control infection in oral surgery and maxillary distraction osteogenesis performed for improving occlusion and appearance of a cleft lip and palate in a patient with XLA. PMID:24947966

  12. Combined use of alveolar distraction osteogenesis and segmental osteotomy in anterior vertical ridge augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Öncü, Elif; Isik, Kubilay; Alaaddinoğlu, E. Emine; Uçkan, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vertical defects of the anterioral veolar ridge are challenging cases in implant dentistry. Various techniques, such as onlay bone grafting, segmental osteotomy (SO) oral veolar distraction osteogenesis (ADO), have been suggested to manage those situations. ADO has an advantage of being capable of enhancing both hard and soft tissue simultaneously. Presentation of case One of the possible complications of ADO is rotation ortilting the transport segment (TS). In this report, we present a 30-year old woman who had a severe anterior vertical deficiency. ADO was started to manage the case, but advancement of the TS lagged on the left side and the segment rotated. A SO was planned and the lagged side was corrected. Two years after the surgery, hard and soft tissue gains were found to be preserved. Discussion Vertical alveolar bone deficiencies are challenging cases for dental implantology. Alveolar DO promotes soft tissue along with hard tissue, and the bone regeneration process and shows lower infection rates and greater stability over the long term. However, the technique has some disadvantages and can lead to complications, such as breaking of the distraction device, nerve injury or paresthesia, fracture of transport bone, hematoma, wound dehiscence, severe bleeding, and even jaw fractures. Deviation of the TS from the distraction path is another undesired situation. The rigidity of the device, the width of the mucosa, the volume of the transport and anchor segments, and the amount of augmentation can affect vector deviation. Conclusion We suggest that SO can be used in similar cases in which TS could not be distracted on a straight vector line. PMID:25661636

  13. A comparison of the stability of single-piece and segmental Le Fort I maxillary advancements.

    PubMed

    Arpornmaeklong, Premjit; Heggie, Andrew A; Shand, Jocelyn M

    2003-01-01

    This study retrospectively evaluated the stability of Le Fort I maxillary advancements and compared segmental and one-piece maxillary osteotomy procedures. A cephalometric analysis was performed on 26 cases of maxillary advancement. The sample comprised 11 cases of one-piece and 15 cases of segmental maxillary procedures. The tracings were superimposed and digitized by computer software, and the skeletal changes were analyzed before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at a minimum of 1 year of follow-up. Different values were compared by the paired and nonpaired t tests and were correlated by the Pearson correlation test. The significant value was set at a 95% confidence interval. The maxilla was advanced by a mean of 5.0 +/- 1.6 mm (P < 0.001), and the anterior maxilla was repositioned inferiorly by a mean of 1.5 +/- 3.3 mm (P < 0.05). The maxilla relapsed posteriorly by a mean of 0.6 +/- 1.2 mm (P < 0.05) and superiorly at the anterior maxilla by a mean of 0.8 +/- 1.1 mm (P < 0.001). Overjet and overbite did not significantly change (P > 0.05). It was concluded that maxillary advancement using rigid fixation and interpositional bone grafting in both groups was a stable procedure, particularly in the horizontal plane. In the one-piece group, there was a significantly higher relapse in the vertical plane than in the segmental group (P < 0.05), however. Minor skeletal relapse was compensated for by postoperative tooth movement, and segmental procedures are recommended when required to enhance occlusal results. PMID:12544214

  14. Surgical accuracy of three-dimensional virtual planning: a pilot study of bimaxillary orthognathic procedures including maxillary segmentation.

    PubMed

    Stokbro, K; Aagaard, E; Torkov, P; Bell, R B; Thygesen, T

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the precision and positional accuracy of different orthognathic procedures following virtual surgical planning in 30 patients. To date, no studies of three-dimensional virtual surgical planning have evaluated the influence of segmentation on positional accuracy and transverse expansion. Furthermore, only a few have evaluated the precision and accuracy of genioplasty in placement of the chin segment. The virtual surgical plan was compared with the postsurgical outcome by using three linear and three rotational measurements. The influence of maxillary segmentation was analyzed in both superior and inferior maxillary repositioning. In addition, transverse surgical expansion was compared with the postsurgical expansion obtained. An overall, high degree of linear accuracy between planned and postsurgical outcomes was found, but with a large standard deviation. Rotational difference showed an increase in pitch, mainly affecting the maxilla. Segmentation had no significant influence on maxillary placement. However, a posterior movement was observed in inferior maxillary repositioning. A lack of transverse expansion was observed in the segmented maxilla independent of the degree of expansion. PMID:26250603

  15. Skeletal and dental stability of segmental distraction of the anterior mandibular alveolar process. A 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Joss, C U; Triaca, A; Antonini, M; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2012-05-01

    33 patients (27 females; 6 males) were retrospectively analysed for skeletal and dental relapse before distraction osteogenesis (DOG) of the mandibular anterior alveolar process at T1 (17.0 days), after DOG at T2 (mean 6.5 days), at T3 (mean 24.4 days), and at T4 (mean 2.0 years). Lateral cephalograms were traced by hand, digitized, superimposed, and evaluated. Skeletal correction (T3-T1) was mainly achieved through the distraction of the anterior alveolar segment in a rotational manner where the incisors were more proclined. The horizontal backward relapse (T4-T3) measured -0.8mm or 19.0% at point B (p<0.001) and -1.6mm or 25.0% at incision inferior (p<0.001). Age, gender, amount and type (rotational versus translational) of advancement were not correlated with the amount of relapse. High angle patients (NL/ML'; p<0.01) and patients with large gonial angle (p<0.05) showed significantly smaller relapse rates at point B. Overcorrection of the overjet achieved by the distraction was seen in a third of the patients and could be a reason for relapse. Considering the amount of skeletal relapse the DOG could be an alternative to bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular advancement in selected cases. PMID:22356741

  16. Management of post midface distraction occlusal discrepancy using temporary anchorage devices in a cleft patient

    PubMed Central

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Hussain, Syed Altaf; Chitharanjan, Arun B.; Murthy, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Open bite deformity following a successful midface advancement by distraction osteogenesis is a common complication. Temporary anchorage devices can be deployed during the distraction and post-distraction settling phases for restoring the occlusion even in severe cases. The following report describes the management of severe anterior open bite following maxillary distraction. PMID:25991895

  17. Skeletal and dental stability of segmental distraction of the anterior mandibular alveolar process. A 5.5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Joss, C U; Triaca, A; Antonini, M; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2013-03-01

    17 patients (14 female; 3 male) were analysed retrospectively for skeletal and dental relapse before distraction osteogenesis (DO) of the mandibular anterior alveolar process at T1 (17.0 days), after DO at T2 (mean 6.5 days), at T3 (mean 24.4 days), at T4 (mean 2.0 years), and at T5 (mean 5.5 years). Lateral cephalograms were traced by hand, digitized, superimposed, and evaluated. Skeletal correction (T5-T1) was mainly achieved through the distraction of the anterior alveolar segment in a rotational manner where the incisors were more proclined. The horizontal backward relapse (T5-T3) measured -0.3mm or 8.3% at point B (non-significant) and -1.8mm or 29.0% at incision inferior (p<0.01). Age, gender, amount and type (rotational vs. translational) of advancement were not correlated with the amount of relapse. High angle patients (NL/ML'; p<0.01) showed significant smaller relapse rates at point B. Overcorrection of the overjet achieved by the distraction could be a reason for dental relapse. Considering the amount of long-term skeletal relapse the DO could be an alternative to bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular advancement in selected cases. PMID:23153785

  18. Distracted Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... combines all three types of distraction. 3 How big is the problem? Deaths In 2013, 3,154 ... European countries. More A CDC study analyzed 2011 data on distracted driving, including talking on a cell ...

  19. Improvement in chronic low back pain in an aviation crash survivor with adjacent segment disease following flexion distraction therapy: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Dean M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case study is to describe the chiropractic management of chronic low back pain in a patient with adjacent segment disease. Clinical Features The patient was a 30-year-old man with a 3-year history of chronic nonspecific low back pain following a lumbar disk herniation. Two years before this incident, he had severe lumbar fractures and cauda equina injury due to an aviation accident that required multilevel lumbar fusion surgery, vertebrectomy, and cage reconstruction. Intervention and Outcome The patient received chiropractic management using Cox Flexion Distraction over a 4-week period. A complete reduction of symptoms to 0/10 on a verbal numerical rating scale was achieved within 4 weeks. At 3 months, the patient was able to work 8 to 9 hours per day in his dental practice with no pain. At 9 months, the patient continued to report a complete reduction of symptoms. Conclusions This report describes the successful management of a patient with chronic low back pain associated with adjacent segment disease using Cox Flexion Distraction protocols. PMID:23843764

  20. Initial Experience With a New Intraoral Midface Distraction Device

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Fernando; Soldanska, Magdalena; Granger, Michael; Berhane, ChiChi; Schoemann, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maxillary hypoplasia that necessitates surgical advancement affects approximately 25% of patients born with cleft lip and palate. Syndromic conditions such as Crouzon may also be accompanied by significant maxillary hypoplasia. Severe maxillary hypoplasia can result in airway obstruction, malocclusion, proptosis, and facial disfigurement. For optimal stability, severe hypoplasia is best addressed with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-two patients (15 boys, 7 girls, ages 6–16 years, mean age 10 years) with severe midface hypoplasia underwent midface distraction with new internal maxillary distraction (IMD) device at our institution. Total distraction distances ranged from 15 to 30 mm. There were no major complications, and all of them had improvement in functional and aesthetic parameters. There were 2 minor complications and 2 patients failed to distract the full distance because of converging vectors. Early maxillary distraction in patients with severe midface hypoplasia is a useful technique to provide interval correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia before skeletal maturity and definitive orthognathic surgery is contemplated, and it is a good tool to improve occlusion, aesthetics, and self-perception in younger patients. PMID:26080162

  1. Bone dynamics in the upward direction after a maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure: serial segmentation using synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seung-Jun; Bark, Chung Wung; Lim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Yong-Gun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maxillary sinus floor augmentation has been shown to be the most predictable surgical technique for enhancing the bone volume in the posterior area of the maxilla. The purpose of this study was to analyze the serial slice image segmentation of newly formed bone and bone substitutes after sinus floor elevation using synchrotron radiation X-ray micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT). Materials and methods Bone biopsy specimens were collected after 6 months of sinus floor augmentation. From the six bone biopsy specimens, the cross-sectional images at every 8 μm along the apical direction from the inferior border using serial segmentation from three-dimensional reconstructed X-ray images were analyzed. The amount of new bone and bone substitutes were measured at each slicing image (300–430 images per specimen). Results The bone dynamics between the new bone and bone substitutes along the inferior–superior direction in humans after maxillary sinus floor elevation (MSFE) were analyzed using the whole sample region. Although these observations suggest that the specimens are structurally inhomogeneous, sinus floor elevation was confirmed to be a reliable surgical procedure for increasing the amount of bone. Conclusion SR-μCT is highly effective for obtaining high-resolution images. An analysis of biological specimens using SR-μCT is quite reliable and this technique will be an important tool in the wide field of tissue engineering. PMID:26347146

  2. Distracted driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... stay safe with a cell phone in the car. ... for Disease Control and Prevention Injury Prevention & Control. Motor Vehicle Safety. www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/distracted_driving . Accessed May ...

  3. Soft tissue stability in segmental distraction of the anterior mandibular alveolar process. A 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Joss, C U; Triaca, A; Antonini, M; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated soft tissue changes in adult patients treated with distraction osteogenesis (DOG) of the anterior mandibular alveolar process and related it to different parameters. 33 patients (27 females; 6 males) were analysed retrospectively before surgery at T1 (17.0 days), after surgery at T2 (mean 6.5 days), at T3 (mean 24.4 days), and at T4 (mean 2.0 years). Lateral cephalograms were traced by hand, digitized, superimposed, and evaluated. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, paired t test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and linear backward regression analysis. 2 years postoperatively (T4), the net effect of the soft tissue at point B' was 100% of the advancement at point B whilst the lower lip (labrale inferior) followed the advancement of incision inferior to 46%. Increased preoperative age was correlated (p<0.05) with more horizontal backward movement (T4-T3) for labrale superior and pogonion'. Higher NL/ML' angles were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with smaller horizontal soft tissue change at point B'. Gender and the amount of skeletal and dental advancement were not correlated with postoperative soft tissue changes (T4-T3). DOG of the anterior mandibular alveolar process is a valuable alternative for mandibular advancement regarding soft tissue change and predictability. PMID:22204924

  4. Soft tissue stability after segmental distraction of the anterior mandibular alveolar process: a 5.5 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Joss, C U; Triaca, A; Antonini, M; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2013-03-01

    Soft tissue changes were analysed retrospectively in 17 patients following distraction osteogenesis (DO) of the mandibular anterior alveolar process. Lateral cephalograms were traced by hand, digitized, superimposed, and evaluated at T1 (17.0 days), after DO at T2 (mean 6.5 days), at T3 (mean 24.4 days), at T4 (mean 2.0 years), and at T5 (mean 5.5 years). Statistical analysis was carried out using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, paired t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and linear backward regression analysis. 5.5 years postoperatively, the net effect for the soft tissue at point B' was 88% of the advancement at point B while the lower lip (labrale inferior) followed the advancement of incision inferior to 24%. Increased preoperative age was correlated (p<0.05) with more horizontal backward movement (T5-T3) for labrale inferior and pogonion'. Higher NL/ML' angles were significantly correlated (p<0.05) to smaller horizontal soft tissue change at labrale inferior (T5-T3). The amount of advancement at point B was significantly correlated with an upward movement (T5-T3) of labrale inferior (p<0.01) and stomion inferior (p<0.05). It can be concluded that further change in soft tissues occurred between 2.0 and 5.5 years postoperatively. The physiological process of ageing and loss of soft tissue elasticity should be considered as possible reasons. PMID:23182400

  5. Dento-Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis for rapid Orthodontic Canine Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naveen; Prashantha, GS; Raikar, Sudhir; Ranganath, Krishnappa; Mathew, Silju; Nambiar, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rate of canine distalization by segmental alveolar distraction method in first premolar extraction cases, to evaluate the displacement of the canine and first molar teeth, to assess the effects of the procedure on the pulpal vitality of the canines, and to determine the amount of root resorption in retracted canines. Materials & Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 20 teeth in 7 patients (five females and two males, mean age 18.5 years). After the osteotomy procedure distractor was fixed. After 3 days of consolidation period, the distractor was activated 3 quarter turns per day(0.75 mm/day) till the canines comes in contact with second premolar. An electrical vitality test was applied before and after the distraction procedure and during the follow-up period. Results: The mean distal retraction of canines was 7.262 ± 0.4864 mm. The distal displacement of the canine was mainly a combination of tipping and translation. The mean distraction procedure was completed in 14.60 ±1.536 days. The duration of retraction was less for mandibular canine compared to maxillary canine. The mean posterior anchorage loss was mean 0.50±0.688 mm. The amount of root resorption that occurred during distraction was clinically insignificant. None of the teeth reacted negatively to the electrical vitality test that was performed 6 months after the completion of the distraction procedure. There was no clinical sign of discoloration or pulpal pain in any tooth. Conclusion: With dentoalveolar distraction, as canines can be fully retracted in 12 to 16 days, the non-compliance patients, patients with root-shape malformations, periodontal problems, or ankylosed teeth will benefit from this technique. The anchorage teeth can withstand the retraction forces better with no anchorage loss, and without clinical or radiographic evidence of root resorption, ankylosis, periodontal problems, and soft tissue dehiscence. This

  6. Distraction arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Morse, Kenneth R; Flemister, A Samuel; Baumhauer, Judith F; DiGiovanni, Benedict F

    2007-03-01

    Few joint-preserving surgical options exist for the patient who has ankle arthritis refractory to conservative measures. Therefore, continuous effort is afforded to the development of additional treatment options for such patients. Distraction arthroplasty has been proposed as one of these options for the patient in whom fusion or joint replacement is not appropriate. Although the mechanism of action remains unknown, the reports of several researchers support the potential beneficial effects that can be obtained from joint distraction arthroplasty in the severely osteoarthritic ankle. Furthermore, the studies published to date suggest that these effects may not only persist for years but also improve as time progresses during the first several years after treatment. Although additional laboratory studies are needed to understand the biochemical and biomechanical effects of distraction, additional prospective clinical studies are also needed to further understand its efficacy and appropriate patient population. The data thus far suggests that joint distraction arthroplasty may be a viable alternative treatment to arthrodesis and replacement for the young patient who has a congruent, painful, mobile, arthritic ankle joint. PMID:17350509

  7. Deadly distractions.

    PubMed

    Zuzek, Crystal

    2013-04-01

    In 2011, the National Transportation Safety Board urged all states to ban the use of portable electronic devices while driving, including hand-held and hands-free devices. Texting while driving concerns several Texas legislators, who have filed bills, backed by the Texas Medical Association, to ban the practice. TMA physicians recognize that the use of hand-held and hands-free devices and other factors associated with distracted driving affect their patients' safety. PMID:23546834

  8. [Front Block distraction].

    PubMed

    Esnault, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    The contribution of the segmental osteotomies in the ortho-surgical protocols is no longer to demonstrate and found a new lease of life thanks to the combination with the bone distraction techniques. The osteotomy of Köle, initially described to close infraclusies, and then used to level very marked curves of Spee has more recently been used to correct anterior crowding. This support is therefore aimed at patients with an incisor and canine Class 2 but molar Class 1 with an isolated mandibular footprint. With minimal orthodontic preparation we can create in two weeks bilateral diastemas that will then be used to align the incisivocanin crowding without stripping or bicuspid extractions. Dental orthodontic movements can be resumed one month after the end of the distraction. This technique is therefore likely to avoid bicuspid extraction and replace some sagittal osteotomy advancement by correction of the overjet. It also helps to correct a incisors labial or lingual tipping playing on differential activation of the cylinders and the distractor. This segmental surgery can be combined with Le Fort 1 surgeries with correction of the transverse and associated meanings, but in a second time, to a mandibular advancement and/or a genioplasty. PMID:25888045

  9. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991

  10. Learning to Ignore Distracters

    PubMed Central

    Rozek, Ellen; Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Eyetracking has indicated that older and young adults process distracters similarly when reading single sentences. The present study extended this approach by presenting short paragraphs sentence by sentence. Eyetracking measures included reading times per word, and the duration of the first fixation and total fixations to the distracters and target words. Comprehension was tested following each paragraph and recognition of distracters and target words was assessed. The results indicated that young adults were able to learn to ignore the distracters as they read through the paragraphs whereas older adults were less successful at learning to ignore the distracters. PMID:22004518

  11. Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion in adults.

    PubMed

    Pogrel, M A; Kaban, L B; Vargervik, K; Baumrind, S

    1992-01-01

    Twelve adults with maxillary width discrepancy of greater than 5 mm were treated by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The procedure consisted of bilateral zygomatic buttress and midpalatal osteotomies combined with the use of a tooth-borne orthopedic device postoperatively. Mean palatal expansion of 7.5 mm (range of 6 to 13 mm), measured in the first molar region, was achieved within 3 weeks in all patients. Expansion remained stable during the 12-month study period, with a mean relapse for the entire group of 0.88 +/- 0.48 mm. Morbidity was limited to mild postoperative discomfort. The results of this preliminary study indicated that surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion is a safe, simple, and reliable procedure for achieving a permanent increase in skeletal maxillary width in adults. Further study is necessary to document the three-dimensional movements of the maxillary segments and long-term stability of the skeletal and dental changes. PMID:1453038

  12. The epidemic of distraction.

    PubMed

    Weksler, Marc E; Weksler, Babette B

    2012-01-01

    Multitasking is a rapidly growing phenomenon affecting all segments of the population but is rarely as successful as its proponents believe. The use of mobile electronic devices contributes importantly to multitasking and cognitive overload. Although personal electronic devices provide many benefits, their adverse effects are frequently overlooked. Personal observation and a review of the scientific literature supports the view that overuse or misuse of personal electronic devices promotes cognitive overload, impairs multitasking and lowers performance at all ages but particularly in the elderly. This phenomenon appears to be rapidly increasing and threatens to become a tsunami as spreading electronic waves cause an 'epidemic of distraction'. Mobile electronic devices often bring benefits to their users in terms of rapid access to information. However, there is a dark side to the increasing addiction to these devices that challenges the health and well-being of the entire population, targeting, in particular, the aged and infirm. New approaches to information gathering can foster creativity if cognitive overload is avoided. PMID:22572729

  13. Distracted driving: prevalence, problems, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Overton, Tiffany L; Rives, Terry E; Hecht, Carrie; Shafi, Shahid; Gandhi, Rajesh R

    2015-01-01

    While the number of motor vehicle crashes has declined over the years, crashes resulting from distracted driving are increasing in the United States resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The national public seems to be aware of the dangers associated with using technology while driving, but continues to engage in this dangerous behaviour, and may be unaware of or underestimate the impact of cell phone use on their own driving performance. Problems associated with distracted driving are not limited to novice or teenage drivers; multifaceted universal prevention efforts aimed at impacting large segments of the population may have the greatest impact. Legislation limiting drivers' cell phone use has had little impact, possibly due to low regulation and enforcement. Behaviour change programmes, improved vehicle safety, and public awareness campaigns have been developed as potential preventive efforts to reduce accidents caused by distracted drivers. PMID:24499372

  14. Segments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a market taxonomy for higher education, including what it reveals about the structure of the market, the model's technical attributes, and its capacity to explain pricing behavior. Details the identification of the principle seams separating one market segment from another and how student aspirations help to organize the market, making…

  15. [Maxillary sinus hypoplasia].

    PubMed

    Plaza, G; Ferrando, J; Martel, J; Toledano, A; de los Santos, G

    2001-03-01

    Maxillary sinus hypoplasia is rare, with an estimated prevalence of 1-5%. Out of the CT scans performed in sinusal patients between March 1998 and June 1999, we report on 4 isolated maxillary sinus hypoplasia, 4 maxillary sinus hypoplasia associated to concha bullosa, and 10 isolated conchae bullosas. All cases were evaluated by nasosinusal endoscopy and CT scan. Size, location and uni/bilateral presentation of concha bullosa is correlated to maxillary sinus hypoplasia presence, specially with regards to uncinate process presence, medial or lateral retraction. The pathogenesis of maxillary sinus hypoplasia is reviewed, and its relation to concha bullosa, evaluating how this could explain some cases of the so called chronic maxillary sinus atelectasia, as an acquired and progressive variant of maxillary sinus hypoplasia in adults. PMID:11428268

  16. Distractions in Everyday Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... about one hour and 15 minutes in their vehicles every day? Unfortunately, people often treat this as ... easy access to information, entertainment, and communications, in-vehicle distractions are increasing – as is the temptation to ...

  17. Electronic gaming as pain distraction.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Eleanor; Trevena, Judy; Swain, Nic

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated whether active distraction reduces participants' experience of pain more than passive distraction during a cold pressor task. In the first experiment, 60 participants were asked to submerge their hand in cold (2°C) water for as long as they could tolerate. They did this with no distraction, and then with active (electronic gaming system) and passive (television) distraction, in randomly assigned order. Tolerance time, pain intensity ratings and task absorption ratings were measured for each condition. A second experiment attempted to control for participants' expectations about the effects of distraction on pain. Forty participants underwent the same experimental procedure, but were given verbal suggestions about the effects of distraction by the experimenter before each distraction condition. Participants in both experiments had a significantly higher pain tolerance and reported less pain with the active distraction compared with passive or no distraction. Participants reported being more absorbed, and were significantly more willing to do the task again when they had the active distraction compared with both passive distraction and no distraction. They also had more enjoyment, less anxiety and greater reduction in pain with active distraction than with passive distraction. There was no effect of suggestion. These experiments offer further support for the use of electronic games as a method of pain control. PMID:21369538

  18. Neonatal mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Flores, Roberto L

    2014-11-01

    Mandibular distraction has revolutionized the treatment of Robin sequence associated with severe airway obstruction. The distraction technique remains the only intervention that directly corrects mandibular hypoplasia and the retropositioned tongue, providing efficient relief of airway stenosis. Multiple studies have demonstrated the efficacy of distraction in avoiding tracheostomy and decreasing the severity airway obstruction in this patient population. The benefit to avoiding tracheostomy and relieving airway obstruction is superior to that of tongue-lip adhesion. It is, therefore, not surprising that mandibular distraction has become the first-line intervention at many centers for the surgical treatment of Robin sequence. The complication profile associated with mandibular distraction appears low; the most common complication is infection, which can be treated by antibiotics alone. The severity of airway obstruction can be quantified by polysomnogram: This tool has become one of the most widely used objective metrics in the Robin sequence population. Therefore indications for surgery, timing of palatoplasty and long-term assessment of airway function should be performed in conjunction with sleep study analysis. The effects of mandibular lengthening on feeding difficulty in Robin sequence patient remains a topic of controversy. Studies have demonstrated conflicting results: This can be an area of future study. Agreed-upon indications for surgery and definitive protocols of care have yet to be formulized; future research should focus on achieving these goals. Such studies would require agreed-upon terminology for Robin sequence, an increase in comparative and prospective analysis, and the use of quantifiable metrics of clinical results. PMID:25383055

  19. Neonatal Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Roberto L.

    2014-01-01

    Mandibular distraction has revolutionized the treatment of Robin sequence associated with severe airway obstruction. The distraction technique remains the only intervention that directly corrects mandibular hypoplasia and the retropositioned tongue, providing efficient relief of airway stenosis. Multiple studies have demonstrated the efficacy of distraction in avoiding tracheostomy and decreasing the severity airway obstruction in this patient population. The benefit to avoiding tracheostomy and relieving airway obstruction is superior to that of tongue–lip adhesion. It is, therefore, not surprising that mandibular distraction has become the first-line intervention at many centers for the surgical treatment of Robin sequence. The complication profile associated with mandibular distraction appears low; the most common complication is infection, which can be treated by antibiotics alone. The severity of airway obstruction can be quantified by polysomnogram: This tool has become one of the most widely used objective metrics in the Robin sequence population. Therefore indications for surgery, timing of palatoplasty and long-term assessment of airway function should be performed in conjunction with sleep study analysis. The effects of mandibular lengthening on feeding difficulty in Robin sequence patient remains a topic of controversy. Studies have demonstrated conflicting results: This can be an area of future study. Agreed-upon indications for surgery and definitive protocols of care have yet to be formulized; future research should focus on achieving these goals. Such studies would require agreed-upon terminology for Robin sequence, an increase in comparative and prospective analysis, and the use of quantifiable metrics of clinical results. PMID:25383055

  20. What causes auditory distraction?

    PubMed

    Macken, William J; Phelps, Fiona G; Jones, Dylan M

    2009-02-01

    The role of separating task-relevant from task-irrelevant aspects of the environment is typically assigned to the executive functioning of working memory. However, pervasive aspects of auditory distraction have been shown to be unrelated to working memory capacity in a range of studies of individual differences. We measured individual differences in global pattern matching and deliberate recoding of auditory sequences, and showed that, although deliberate processing was related to short-term memory performance, it did not predict the extent to which that performance was disrupted by task-irrelevant sound. Individual differences in global sequence processing were, however, positively related to the degree to which auditory distraction occurred. We argue that much auditory distraction, rather than being a negative function of working memory capacity, is in fact a positive function of the acuity of obligatory auditory processing. PMID:19145024

  1. Versatility of Distraction Osteogenesis for the Craniofacial Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Klement, Kristen A; Black, Jonathan S; Denny, Arlen D

    2016-05-01

    Malformations of the craniofacial skeleton are common. Restoration of anatomic shape, size, and position has been traditionally accomplished using autologous bone grafting to fill gaps created by surgery and segmental movement. The authors present their practice using distraction in many different ages and settings over 20 years. A retrospective review was performed of all craniofacial patients treated using distraction osteogenesis for mandible, midface, and calvarium. The authors identified 205 patient. Mandible: 112 patients were treated at an average age of 3.4 years. 18.8% of patients required repeat distraction. There was no difference in the neonatal versus older group (P = 0.71). There were significantly higher reoperation rates in syndromic children (P < 0.01). Midface: 58 patients underwent Lefort III distraction at an average age of 13.6 years. One (1.7%) required repeat distraction (Miller syndrome). Five (8.6%) patients underwent subsequent Lefort I advancement for occlusal changes. Calvarium: 33 patients were treated at an average age of 4.7 years. No repeat distractions were performed. One patient required an additional advancement procedure. Distraction demonstrates successful long-term correction of defects in the craniofacial skeleton with the versatility and control needed to treat the wide spectrum of deformity. PMID:26999694

  2. Distracted Biking: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Elizabeth Suzanne; Arabian, Sandra Strack; Breeze, Janis L; Salzler, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Commuting via bicycle is a very popular mode of transportation in the Northeastern United States. Boston, MA, has seen a rapid increase in bicycle ridership over the past decade, which has raised concerns and awareness about bicycle safety. An emerging topic in this field is distracted bicycle riding. This study was conducted to provide descriptive data on the prevalence and type of distracted bicycling in Boston at different times of day. This was a cross-sectional study in which observers tallied bicyclists at 4 high traffic intersections in Boston during various peak commuting hours for 2 types of distractions: auditory (earbuds/phones in or on ears), and visual/tactile (electronic device or other object in hand). Nineteen hundred seventy-four bicyclists were observed and 615 (31.2%), 95% CI [29, 33%], were distracted. Of those observed, auditory distractions were the most common (N = 349; 17.7%), 95% CI [16, 19], p = .0003, followed by visual/tactile distractions (N = 266; 13.5%), 95% CI [12, 15]. The highest proportion (40.7%), 95% CI [35, 46], of distracted bicyclists was observed during the midday commute (between 13:30 and 15:00). Distracted bicycling is a prevalent safety concern in the city of Boston, as almost a third of all bicyclists exhibited distracted behavior. Education and public awareness campaigns should be designed to decrease distracted bicycling behaviors and promote bicycle safety in Boston. An awareness of the prevalence of distracted biking can be utilized to promote bicycle safety campaigns dedicated to decreasing distracted bicycling and to provide a baseline against which improvements can be measured. PMID:26953533

  3. Hemangioma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Most, D S

    1985-11-01

    Hemangiomas of the maxillary sinus are rare. Hemangiomas of the maxillary sinus with an associated phlebolith have not been previously reported. Severe bleeding can occur upon surgical removal of hemangiomas. PMID:3864111

  4. Distraction subtalar arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J Benjamin; Jacobson, Lance; Banerjee, Rahul; Nickisch, Florian

    2015-06-01

    There is a high potential for disability following calcaneal fracture. This potential exists whether a patient is treated with conservative or operative management. Subfibular impingement and irritation of the peroneal tendon and sural nerve may also be present. Posttraumatic arthritis of the subtalar joint can occur. In patients with symptomatic calcaneal malunion, systematic evaluation is required to determine the source of pain. Nonsurgical treatment may be effective. One surgical treatment option is subtalar distraction arthrodesis. High rates of successful arthrodesis and patient satisfaction have been reported with this surgical option in correctly selected patients. PMID:26043248

  5. Neural Basis of Visual Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Yeon; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to maintain focus and avoid distraction by goal-irrelevant stimuli is critical for performing many tasks and may be a key deficit in attention-related problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that irrelevant stimuli that are consciously perceived may be filtered out on a neural level and not cause the distraction triggered by…

  6. The distracted driver.

    PubMed

    Peters, G A; Peters, B J

    2001-03-01

    A serious health problem is developing from automobile collisions caused by distracted drivers. This is a result of the rapid proliferation of portable cellular telephones and personal organisers used while driving, the development of more sophisticated entertainment systems and instrument panel controls, the advent of navigation and television displays in vehicles and promises of sophisticated wireless e-mail, FAX and Internet services in the vehicle. Preoccupation with electronic gadgets may also degrade human driving performance. Many drivers however, sincerely believe they have the talent to do several things at the same time, such as hold and look at a cellular telephone in one hand and drive with a beverage container in the other hand whilst at the same time, exercise their personal skills. Obviously, they believe that they do not need two hands on the steering wheel and two eyes on the road. This is a unique situation requiring intensive health promotion as distracted or 'offensive driving' may be habit forming and difficult to change, any significant design remedies will be slow to arrive and may be circumvented, and the regulatory laws have proved difficult or impossible to enforce. This special need may require research to determine the most effective techniques for health promotion. PMID:11329694

  7. Chronic odontogenic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ugincius, Paulius; Kubilius, Ricardas; Gervickas, Albinas; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate average age of the patients in both sexes treated for MS, distribution by sex, amount of dexter and sinister MS with and without the fistulas into the maxillary sinus, with and without the foreign-bodies, length of stay in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery at Kaunas Hospital of University of Medicine during the period from 1999 till 2004. The retrospective data analysis of the patients' treated from chronic MS was made. 346 patients (213 females and 133 males) were treated for chronic MS. 55 cases of chronic dexter MS with a fistula into maxillary sinus, 98 cases of chronic dexter MS without a fistula, 45 cases of chronic sinister MS with a fistula, 112 cases chronic sinister MS without a fistula, 16 cases of foreign-bodies in dexter maxillary sinus, 20 cases of foreign-bodies in sinister maxillary sinus have been detected. The main age of the female was 46.6+/-15.0, the main age of the men was 42.1+/-14.4. Statictically significant difference in the age difference of the women and the men was found (p=0.0024). It was determined, that females diagnosed and treated with chronic MS were 1.6 times more than males during the period from 1999 till 2004 in Kaunas Hospital of University of Medicine. Females treated for chronic MS were 4.5 years older than males. PMID:16861848

  8. Distraction induced Enterogenesis: A unique mouse model using polyethylene glycol

    PubMed Central

    Okawada, Manabu; Maria, Haytham Mustafa; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose Recent studies have demonstrated that the small intestine can be lengthened by applying mechanical forces to the bowel lumen – distraction-induced enterogenesis. However, the mechanisms which account for this growth are unknown, and might be best examined using a mouse model. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of developing distractive-induced small bowel growth in mouse. Methods 12-week old C57BL/6J mice had a jejunal segment taken out of continuity, and distended with polyethylene glycol (PEG: 3350 KDa); this group was compared to a control group without stretching. Segment length and diameter were measured intra-operatively and after 5 days. Villus height, crypt depth, muscle thickness in the isolated segment were assessed. Rate of epithelial cell proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine: BrdU incorporation) in crypt was also examined. The mucosal mRNA expression of targeted factors were performed to investigate potential mechanisms of which might lead to distraction-induced enterogenesis. Results At harvest, the PEG-stretch group showed a significant increase in length and diameter versus controls. Villus height, crypt depth and muscular layer thickness increased in the PEG group. The PEG group also showed significantly increased rates of epithelial cell proliferation versus controls. Real-time PCR showed a trend toward higher β-catenin and c-myc mRNA expression in the PEG stretched group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Radial distraction-induced enterogenesis with PEG is a viable method for increasing small intestinal length and diameter. This model may provide a new method for studying the mechanisms leading to distraction-induced enterogenesis. PMID:21605872

  9. Context effects on auditory distraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

  10. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that distracted driving, especially among new drivers, ... whenever the cars were moving. A suite of sensors recorded acceleration, sudden braking or swerving, and other ...

  11. Leading to distraction: Driver distraction, lead car, and road environment.

    PubMed

    Kountouriotis, G K; Merat, N

    2016-04-01

    Driver distraction is strongly associated with crashes and near-misses, and despite the attention this topic has received in recent years, the effect of different types of distracting task on driving performance remains unclear. In the case of non-visual distractions, such as talking on the phone or other engaging verbal tasks that do not require a visual input, a common finding is reduced lateral variability in steering and gaze patterns where participants concentrate their gaze towards the centre of the road and their steering control is less variable. In the experiments presented here, we examined whether this finding is more pronounced in the presence of a lead car (which may provide a focus point for gaze) and whether the behaviour of the lead car has any influence on the driver's steering control. In addition, both visual and non-visual distraction tasks were used, and their effect on different road environments (straight and curved roadways) was assessed. Visual distraction was found to increase variability in both gaze patterns and steering control, non-visual distraction reduced gaze and steering variability in conditions without a lead car; in the conditions where a lead car was present there was no significant difference from baseline. The lateral behaviour of the lead car did not have an effect on steering performance, a finding which indicates that a lead car may not necessarily be used as an information point. Finally, the effects of driver distraction were different for straight and curved roadways, indicating a stronger influence of the road environment in steering than previously thought. PMID:26785327

  12. A novel intramedullary callus distraction system for the treatment of femoral bone defects.

    PubMed

    Horas, Konstantin; Schnettler, Reinhard; Maier, Gerrit; Horas, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    An intramedullary device has some advantages over external fixation in callus distraction for bone defect reconstruction. There are difficulties controlling motorized intramedullary devices and monitoring the distraction rate which may lead to poor results. The aim of this study was to design a fully implantable and non-motorized simple distraction nail for the treatment of bone defects. The fully implantable device comprises a tube-in-tube system and a wire pulling mechanism for callus distraction. For the treatment of femoral bone defects, a traction wire, attached to the device at one end, is fixed to the tibial tubercle at its other end. Flexion of the knee joint over a predetermined angle generates a traction force on the wire triggering bone segment transport. This callus distraction system was implanted into the femur of four human cadavers (total 8 femora), and bone segment transport was conducted over 60-mm defects with radiographic monitoring. All bone segments were transported reliably to the docking site. From these preliminary results, we conclude that this callus distraction system offers an alternative to the current intramedullary systems for the treatment of bone defects. PMID:27221258

  13. Distraction Osteogenesis Update: Introduction of Multidirectional Cranial Distraction Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Akira; Sunaga, Ataru; Kamochi, Hideaki; Oguma, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Yasushi

    2016-05-01

    In this review, we discuss in detail our current procedure for treating craniosynostosis using multidirectional cranial distraction osteogenesis (MCDO). The MCDO method allows all phenotypes of skull deformity to be reshaped by distraction osteogenesis, except in patients who are 5 months of age or younger and patients with posterior cranial vault problems. We report the results of clinical data of 36 children with craniosynostosis who underwent MCDO between 2005 and 2014 in our institute. This method has the following benefits, such as a high flexibility of reshaping, shorter treatment period and less invasive secondary intervention. We also discuss the other distraction osteogenesis techniques that are used to treat craniosynostosis and compare them with MCDO. The preferred procedure for correction of craniosynostosis may depend on the patient's age, the extent of deformity, and the extent of correction achievable by surgery. We can arrange the combinations of various methods according to the advantage and disadvantage of each technique. PMID:27226854

  14. Distraction Osteogenesis Update: Introduction of Multidirectional Cranial Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sunaga, Ataru; Kamochi, Hideaki; Oguma, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we discuss in detail our current procedure for treating craniosynostosis using multidirectional cranial distraction osteogenesis (MCDO). The MCDO method allows all phenotypes of skull deformity to be reshaped by distraction osteogenesis, except in patients who are 5 months of age or younger and patients with posterior cranial vault problems. We report the results of clinical data of 36 children with craniosynostosis who underwent MCDO between 2005 and 2014 in our institute. This method has the following benefits, such as a high flexibility of reshaping, shorter treatment period and less invasive secondary intervention. We also discuss the other distraction osteogenesis techniques that are used to treat craniosynostosis and compare them with MCDO. The preferred procedure for correction of craniosynostosis may depend on the patient's age, the extent of deformity, and the extent of correction achievable by surgery. We can arrange the combinations of various methods according to the advantage and disadvantage of each technique. PMID:27226854

  15. Maxillary sinus carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F.; Ogura, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Primary site control, anatomical site of failure, survival, and complications of treatment were determined in a retrospective review of primary maxillary sinus carcinoma. Sixty-one patients were treated by radiation followed by surgery and 35 by radiation alone. Primary tumor control was achieved in 69% of patients receiving combined treatment, 14% of patients treated with radiation alone, and 49% of all patients. Local control did not differ with histological type. Virtually all epidermoid and undifferentiated carcinoma recurrences occurred within 2 years, but 27% of adenocarcinomas recurred after 2 years.

  16. Callus stimulation in distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mofid, Mehrdad M; Inoue, Nozomu; Atabey, Atay; Marti, Guy; Chao, Edmund Y S; Manson, Paul N; Vander Kolk, Craig A

    2002-04-15

    Distraction osteogenesis has been described as in vivo tissue engineering. The ability to stimulate this process for the repair of bony defects or lengthening of congenitally shortened facial structures is likely to significantly impact the field of craniofacial surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical stimulation of the distracted rabbit mandible would accelerate the maturation of the bony callus when applied during the early consolidation period. Twenty adult New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral mandibular osteotomy. A uni-directional internal distractor device (Synthes, Paoli, Pa.) was positioned along a plane perpendicular to the line of osteotomy. After a 7-day latency period, distraction was commenced at a rate of 1.0 mm/day for 12 days in all animals. In a control group of 10 rabbits, a consolidation period of 8 weeks was observed before they were killed. In the experimental group of 10 rabbits, daily alternate compression and distraction of 1 mm (sequential compression and distraction) was performed for 3 weeks followed by a 5-week period of rigid fixation. Each animal received a dose of a fluorescent label at three different time points during the study: at the end of the distraction period, 3 weeks after the completion of the distraction phase, and 3 days before it was killed. All animals were killed 8 weeks after the completion of the distraction phase. Undecalcified histologic analysis and 3-point bending tests to failure were performed on the extracted mandibles. The results of the experimental and control groups were compared. Four animals in the control group and three animals in the experimental group were excluded from the study because of screw loosening resulting in distractor dislodgment or because of infection. On histologic analysis, cortical thickness at the center of the callus was found to be significantly greater in the experimental group compared with the control group when normalized to the

  17. Videogame Distraction using Virtual Reality Technology for Children Experiencing Cold Pressor Pain: The Role of Cognitive Processing

    PubMed Central

    Law, Emily F.; Sil, Soumitri; Weiss, Karen E.; Herbert, Linda Jones; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan Berrin

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether increasing the demand for central cognitive processing involved in a distraction task, by involving the child in ongoing, effortful interaction with the distraction stimulus, would increase children's tolerance for cold pressor pain. Methods Seventy-nine children ages 6–15 years underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which they received interactive distraction (i.e., used voice commands to play a videogame) or passive distraction (in which they merely watched the output from the same videogame segment) in counterbalanced order. Both distraction conditions were presented via a virtual reality-type helmet. Results As expected, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during distraction relative to baseline. Children showed the greatest improvement during the interactive distraction task. Conclusion The effects of distraction on children's cold pressor pain tolerance are significantly enhanced when the distraction task also includes greater demands for central cognitive processing. PMID:20656761

  18. Pre-arthroplastic and simultaneous mandibular distraction for correction of facial deformity in temporomandibular joint ankylosis

    PubMed Central

    Chellappa, A.L.; Mehrotra, D.; Vishwakarma, K.; Mahajan, N.; Bhutia, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In cases of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis, interposition arthroplasty allows return of functional jaw movements. In order to improve the facial appearance, distraction osteogenesis is the treatment of choice, and may be timed either as a pre-arthroplastic, simultaneous or post-arthroplastic procedure. This study was planned to compare the treatment outcomes of pre-arthroplastic distraction (PAD) and simultaneous arthroplastic distraction (SAD) to establish the better treatment modality in terms of improvement in function and aesthetics. Materials and methods This prospective randomized experimental study included 20 children and adolescents suffering from facial deformity due to long standing unilateral TMJ ankylosis. They were randomly allocated to the two surgical groups with ten in each group. Result Both groups resulted in good facial symmetry and aesthetics. Initially, during the distraction period, mouth opening of SAD group scored less than that of PAD group but became comparable in 30 days. More pain at the distraction site and over the normal TMJ was observed in PAD group. The excursive movements were almost comparable in both the groups. Conclusion We conclude that both procedures are effective in correcting the post-ankylotic deformity and improving function. Although PAD has better control over movement of the distracting segment, the contralateral TMJ may experience pain. SAD requires a shorter management period but is associated with a temporary decrease in function. Also, control of distraction may be difficult and chances of reankylosis are always there. PMID:26587380

  19. Comparing calvarial transport distraction with and without radiation and fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Yuhasz, Mikell M; Koch, Felix P; Kwiatkowski, Anna; Young, Calvin; Clune, James; Travieso, Rob; Wong, Kenneth; Van Houten, Joshua; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to: a) assess transport distraction to reconstruct cranial defects in radiated and non-radiated fields b) examine adipose grafting's effect on the bony regenerate and overlying wound, and c) elucidate sources of bone formation during transport distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-three male New Zealand white rabbits (3 months; 3.5 kg) were used, 10 non-irradiated and 13 irradiated (17 treatment, 6 control) with a one-time fraction of 35 Gy. A 16 × 16 mm defect was abutted by a 10 × 16 mm transport disc 5 weeks after irradiation, and 11 animals were fat grafted at the distraction site. Latency (1 day), distraction (1.5 mm/day), and consolidation (4 weeks) followed. Fluorochromes were injected subcutaneously and microCT, fluorescence, and histology assessed. In distracted animals without fat grafting, bone density measured 701.87 mgHA/ccm and 2271.95 mgHA/ccm in irradiated and non-irradiated animals. In distracted animals with fat grafting, bone density measured 703.23 mgHA/ccm and 2254.27 mgHA/ccm in irradiated and non-irradiated animals. Fluorescence revealed ossification emanating from the dura, periosteum, and transport segment with decreased formation in irradiated animals. Transport distraction is possible for cranial reconstruction in irradiated fields but short-term osseous fill is significantly diminished. Adipose grafting enhances wound healing in previously irradiated fields but does not enhance ossification. PMID:24864072

  20. Craniofacial reconstruction by transport distraction osteogenesis: corticotomy versus osteotomy--an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Franz-Josef; Mueller, Michal; Rahmstorf, Meike; Swennen, Gwen; Dempf, Rupert; Schierle, Hannes

    2004-07-01

    Transport osteogenesis is a modified technique of callus distraction appropriate for the reconstruction of extended osseous defects of long or flat bones. The aim of this study was to determine the regenerative potential of this technique related to the degree of mobilization of the transport segment. In 10 adult sheep, critically sized defects of the calvaria were treated by gradual movement of a transport segment consisting of calvarial bone. The transport segments were either corticotomized (n = 5) or osteotomized (n = 5). The latency period was 5 days; the rate of distraction was 1 mm/d, extended for approximately 40 days. The consolidation period was 28 days. Specimens were investigated by conventional radiography, computed tomography scans, immunofluorescence, and histological examination. In both groups, transport osteogenesis resulted in a complete closure of the defect. The volume and thickness of newly formed bone at the defect site did not differ significantly between the groups, nor did the extent of vascularization. Bone formation and remodeling occurred during the entire period of distraction and consolidation. Osteotomized transport segments became smaller during distraction, whereas the volume of corticotomized segments remained relatively constant. In conclusion, transport osteogenesis resulted in reliable closure of extended skull defects in adult organisms; corticotomy and osteotomy of the transport segment led to a similar extent of bone formation. PMID:15213530

  1. Effects of lateral osteotomy on surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T F M; Pereira-Filho, V A; Gabrielli, M A C; Gonçales, E S; Santos-Pinto, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential effects of two different osteotomy designs of the maxillary lateral wall on dental and skeletal changes after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). Thirty adult patients were divided into two groups according to the lateral osteotomy design: group 1 (n=16) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in a horizontal straight fashion, and group 2 (n=14) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in parallel to the occlusal plane with a step at the zygomatic buttress. Cone beam computed tomography scans were obtained preoperatively (T1), immediately after expansion (T2), and 6 months after expansion (T3). Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed no significant interaction effect between groups and time points. Therefore, maxillary expansion was effective in both groups. Statistically significant increases in all dental and skeletal measurements were observed immediately after expansion (P<0.001). Relapse of the nasal floor width, tipping of the supporting teeth, and an increase in root distance in molars occurred at T3 (P<0.05). In summary, the maxillary lateral osteotomy design did not influence the results of SARME, which occurred mainly through the inclination of maxillary segments. PMID:26688294

  2. Vertical distraction of a free vascularized osteocutaneous scapular flap in the reconstructed mandible for implant therapy.

    PubMed

    Hirota, M; Mizuki, N; Iwai, T; Watanuki, K; Ozawa, T; Maegawa, J; Matsui, Y; Tohnai, I

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes a case of vertical distraction osteogenesis of a free vascularized osteocutaneous scapular flap in the reconstructed mandible before implant therapy. The patient was a 67-year-old woman with squamous cell carcinoma of the right lower gingiva. She underwent segmental mandibulectomy for tumor ablation and reconstruction with an osteocutaneous scapular flap. The distraction protocol, clinical course and implant therapy are presented. Through this procedure, the bone height of the scapular graft increased by 10mm. Implants with adequate length could be placed in the distracted area. Two years after masticatory loading, the condition of these implants was stable. Vertical distraction osteogenesis of the scapular flap was considered effective when performed before implant therapy, to facilitate postoperative functional and esthetic restoration after tumor resection. PMID:18367380

  3. Bilateral en-masse distalization of maxillary posterior teeth with skeletal anchorage: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Noorollahian, Saeed; Alavi, Shiva; Shirban, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to introduce a new method for bilateral distal movement of the entire maxillary posterior segment. Case report: A 17-year-old girl with Class I skeletal malocclusion (end-to-end molar relationships, deviated midline and space deficiency for left maxillary canine) was referred for orthodontic treatment. She did not accept maxillary first premolars extraction. A modified Hyrax appliance (Dentaurum Ispringen, Germany) was used for bilateral distalization of maxillary posterior teeth simultaneously. Expansion vector was set anteroposteriorly. Posterior legs of Hyrax were welded to first maxillary molar bands. All posterior teeth on each side consolidated with a segment of 0.017 × 0.025-in stainless steel wire from the buccal side. Anterior legs of Hyrax were bent into eyelet form and attached to the anterior palate with two mini-screws (2 × 10 mm) (Jeil Medical Corporation Seoul, South Korea). Hyrax opening rate was 0.8 mm per month. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to evaluate the extent of distal movement. 3.5-mm distalization of posterior maxillary teeth was achieved in five months. Results: A nearly bodily distal movement without anchorage loss was obtained. Conclusion: The mini-screw-supported modified Hyrax appliance was found to be helpful for achieving en-masse distal movement of maxillary posterior teeth. PMID:27409657

  4. Model of the distraction callus tissue behavior during bone transport based in experiments in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mora-Macías, Juan; Reina-Romo, Esther; Domínguez, Jaime

    2016-08-01

    Bone transport studies have measured the forces related to bone segment distraction (Brunner et al., 1994; Hyodo et al., 1996). However, no distraction force distribution between callus and docking-site was reported. Besides, most of these works have not provided continuous and long-term force relaxation measurements. The fit of the relaxation curves allows for modeling the mechanical behavior of the callus tissue during distraction osteogenesis, particularly in bone transport, where the resistance of the soft tissue and muscle is reduced compared with the bone lengthening. Bone transport experiments were carried out in sheep in which the distraction force was monitored continuously in vivo. The daily force relaxation curves were fitted, and two experimental models of the mechanical behavior of the callus tissue were obtained, assuming the total daily force relaxation or the accumulation of the residual forces. According to these models, the residual force 24h after each distraction step was a maximum of 71.6N, and the peak distraction force increased with the number of steps from 7-34N to 41-246N. The maximum residual force values that were predicted are much lower than those measured during bone lengthening in the literature. These results indirectly differentiate the influence of the surrounding soft tissues during bone transport compared with bone lengthening. Moreover, experimental measurements showed that distraction force through the docking-site was negligible with respect to distraction force through the callus. Experimental models of the callus tissue allow for an understanding of the mechanobiology of distraction osteogenesis and for predicting outcomes in its application processes. PMID:27111628

  5. Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis: historical and biologic review and case presentation.

    PubMed

    Emtiaz, Shahram; Noroozi, Sohrab; Caramês, João; Fonseca, Luís

    2006-12-01

    Dental rehabilitation of partially or totally edentulous patients with dental implants has become common practice in the last few decades, with reliable long-term results. However, local conditions of edentulous alveolar ridges may be unfavorable for implant placement. Vertically deficient alveolar ridges, in particular, may have insufficient bone volume to hold implants of adequate dimensions, making implant placement difficult or impossible. To correct this situation, a variety of surgical procedures have been proposed, including onlay bone grafts, vertical guided bone regeneration, and alveolar distraction osteogenesis. Distraction osteogenesis is a biologic process of new bone formation between the surfaces of bone segments that are gradually separated by incremental traction. This process is initiated when a traction force is applied to the bone segments and continues as long as the callus tissues are stretched. This traction force, in turn, generates tension within the tissues that connect the bone segments, which stimulates new bone formation parallel to the vector of distraction. The aim of this article is to provide clinicians with the historical background of and biologic basis for the concept of distraction osteogenesis, which can be traced back to the 1800s. Finally, a clinical case is presented to demonstrate a step-by-step application of alveolar distraction osteogenesis as a treatment protocol in a partially edentulous ridge for improvement of esthetics. PMID:17243326

  6. Pre-arthroplasty simultaneous maxillomandibular distraction osteogenesis for the correction of post-ankylotic dentofacial deformities.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, D; Vishwakarma, K; Chellapa, A L; Mahajan, N

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hard and soft tissue changes after pre-arthroplasty simultaneous maxillomandibular distraction osteogenesis for the correction of post-ankylotic dentofacial deformities. This prospective study included 10 patients with unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis who presented with a facial deformity and a maxillary cant. Informed patient consent was obtained for participation. Simultaneous maxillomandibular distraction was planned based on clinical and radiographic examinations. A horizontal mandibular osteotomy was performed in the ramus and the distractor device was fixed. A bilateral Le Fort I osteotomy was then performed and a four-hole straight plate was fixed on the contralateral zygomatic buttress to act as a fulcrum. After a latency period of 5 days, the distractor was activated twice daily by 0.5mm until the required vertical lengthening was achieved. Intermaxillary fixation was maintained during the entire distraction period. After a consolidation period of 8-12 weeks, the distractor was removed. The TMJ ankylosis was released and a temporal fascia interpositional arthroplasty was performed as second surgery, along with a genioplasty if needed. All patients were followed up for a period of 12-24 months. A marked improvement in the facial asymmetry was noted in all cases. The occlusal cant and mandibular retrusion improved satisfactorily, and the average postoperative inter-incisal opening was 35.6mm. Pre-arthroplasty simultaneous maxillomandibular distraction offers a good treatment outcome, as it allows improvements in facial aesthetics as well as function. PMID:26780926

  7. Biomechanical optimization of the diameter of distraction screw in distraction implant by three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Songhe; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Lu, Chunlei; Sun, Yingying; Zhang, Junrui; Xu, Dezhong

    2013-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) finite element models of a posterior mandibular segment and a distraction implant (DI) were created and assembled in this study. The diameter of distraction screw (DS) was set as input variable, ranging from 1.0 to 3.0mm, to analyze the stress and displacement, in order to obtain an optimal outcome of the DI. The results indicate that when the diameter of DS was 2.0mm, the stresses in jaw bone and DS and the displacement of DS reached a relatively low range. The diameter of DS significantly affects the stress distribution in DI and surrounding bone. The present study demonstrates that from clinical and biomechanical points of view, the optimal diameter of DS is 2.0mm. PMID:24209940

  8. Mucopyocele of the maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Kshar, Avinash; Patil, Abhijeet; Umarji, Hemant; Kadam, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Mucoceles are defined as chronic, cystic lesions in the paranasal sinuses. When the mucocele content becomes infected, the lesion is defined as mucopyocele. Most mucoceles are located in the frontal and anterior ethmoid sinuses and normally they involve the frontal-ethmoid complex, expanding to the superior-medial region of the orbit, leading to ocular disorders; maxillary sinus presentation is rare. In the present article, the authors described a rare case of mucopyocele in the maxillary sinus. PMID:24688571

  9. Mucopyocele of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Kshar, Avinash; Patil, Abhijeet; Umarji, Hemant; Kadam, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Mucoceles are defined as chronic, cystic lesions in the paranasal sinuses. When the mucocele content becomes infected, the lesion is defined as mucopyocele. Most mucoceles are located in the frontal and anterior ethmoid sinuses and normally they involve the frontal-ethmoid complex, expanding to the superior-medial region of the orbit, leading to ocular disorders; maxillary sinus presentation is rare. In the present article, the authors described a rare case of mucopyocele in the maxillary sinus. PMID:24688571

  10. Unilateral Le Fort I Osteotomy for Rehabilitating the Large Alveolar Cleft and Vertical Malocclusion With the Distraction Technique.

    PubMed

    Baykul, Timuçin; Aydin, Mustafa Asim; Findik, Yavuz; Esenlik, Elçin

    2016-05-01

    Rehabilitation of the large alveolar clefts with autogenous graft or distraction osteogenesis is one of the most common treatment choices. Depending on the clinical situation such as vertical deficiencies, linear transport of the segment does not always ensure a proper closure of the cleft space. In this report, the authors present a patient in whom large unilateral cleft and vertical alveolar deficiency were closed by unilateral Le Fort I osteotomy and distraction technique using the orthodontic elastics. PMID:27054420

  11. How Concentration Shields Against Distraction

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, John E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we outline our view of how concentration shields against distraction. We argue that higher levels of concentration make people less susceptible to distraction for two reasons. One reason is that the undesired processing of the background environment is reduced. For example, when people play a difficult video game, as opposed to an easy game, they are less likely to notice what people in the background are saying. The other reason is that the locus of attention becomes more steadfast. For example, when people are watching an entertaining episode of their favorite television series, as opposed to a less absorbing show, attention is less likely to be diverted away from the screen by a ringing telephone. The theoretical underpinnings of this perspective, and potential implications for applied settings, are addressed. PMID:26300594

  12. Evaluation of cranial bone transport distraction with and without adipose grafting.

    PubMed

    Koch, Felix P; Yuhasz, Mikell M; Travieso, Rob; Wong, Kenneth; Clune, James; Zhuang, Zhen W; Van Houten, Joshua; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2014-05-01

    Transport distraction osteogenesis (DO) can be used to autologously reconstitute calvarial defects. The purpose of this study is to histomorphologically interrogate osteogenic formation during cranial transport distraction using a novel device. We also evaluate the effect of fat grafting on the regenerate and soft-tissue stability during distraction. This study was approved by Yale IACUC. Ten male New Zealand white rabbits (3 mo; 3.5 kg) were used (8 treatment, 2 control). A 16 × 16 mm defect was created abutted by a 10 × 16 mm transport disc. The device was fixated anterioposteriorly. Four animals were fat-grafted using 2 mL of subdermal intrascapular fat deposited along the distraction site. Latency (1 d), active distraction (12-14 d) (1.5 mm/d), and consolidation (4 wk) followed. Calcein and xylene orange fluorochromes were injected subcutaneously during and post-distraction to mark sites of bone formation. Following sacrifice, osteogenesis was assessed using microCT, histology, and fluorescence. Treatment animals demonstrated regenerate bone between distracted segments on microCT. MicroCT analysis of non-fat-grafted and fat-grafted animals revealed a mean density of 2271.95 mgHA/ccm and 2254.27 mgHA/ccm (P = 0.967), respectively, and defect bone versus total volume (BV/TV) of 0.0999 and 0.0766 (P = 0.5979), respectively. Controls had minimal reossification. Histologically, mean densities measured 43.63% and 8.19%, respectively. Fluorescence revealed ossification from the callus as well as from dura and periosteum in the cranial defect. Transport distraction is effective to reconstruct critically sized rabbit calvarial defects. Regenerate bone arises predominantly from the callus with contribution from surrounding dura and periosteum. Adipose grafting is well tolerated but does not enhance osseous regeneration. PMID:24820707

  13. Distracted by Your Mind? Individual Differences in Distractibility Predict Mind Wandering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2014-01-01

    Attention may be distracted from its intended focus both by stimuli in the external environment and by internally generated task-unrelated thoughts during mind wandering. However, previous attention research has focused almost exclusively on distraction by external stimuli, and the extent to which mind wandering relates to external distraction is…

  14. Predicting Visual Distraction Using Driving Performance Data

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Katja; Ahlstrom, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral variables are often used as performance indicators (PIs) of visual or internal distraction induced by secondary tasks. The objective of this study is to investigate whether visual distraction can be predicted by driving performance PIs in a naturalistic setting. Visual distraction is here defined by a gaze based real-time distraction detection algorithm called AttenD. Seven drivers used an instrumented vehicle for one month each in a small scale field operational test. For each of the visual distraction events detected by AttenD, seven PIs such as steering wheel reversal rate and throttle hold were calculated. Corresponding data were also calculated for time periods during which the drivers were classified as attentive. For each PI, means between distracted and attentive states were calculated using t-tests for different time-window sizes (2 – 40 s), and the window width with the smallest resulting p-value was selected as optimal. Based on the optimized PIs, logistic regression was used to predict whether the drivers were attentive or distracted. The logistic regression resulted in predictions which were 76 % correct (sensitivity = 77 % and specificity = 76 %). The conclusion is that there is a relationship between behavioral variables and visual distraction, but the relationship is not strong enough to accurately predict visual driver distraction. Instead, behavioral PIs are probably best suited as complementary to eye tracking based algorithms in order to make them more accurate and robust. PMID:21050615

  15. Diagnosing and understanding the maxillary lip-tie (superior labial, the maxillary labial frenum) as it relates to breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Kotlow, Lawrence A

    2013-11-01

    Successful breastfeeding is dependent upon an infant's ability to correctly latch onto a mother's breast. If an infant is born with oral soft tissue abnormalities such as tongue-tie or lip-tie, breastfeeding may become challenging or impossible. During the oral evaluation of an infant presenting with breastfeeding problems, one area that is often overlooked and undiagnosed and, thus, untreated is the attachment of the upper lip to the maxillary gingival tissue. Historically, this tissue has been described as the superior labial frenum, median labial frenum, or maxillary labial frenum. These terms all refer to a segment of the mucous membrane in the midline of the upper lip containing loose connective tissue that inserts into the maxillary arch's loose, unattached gingival or tight, attached gingival tissue. There is no muscle contained within this tissue. In severe instances, this tissue may extend into the area behind the upper central incisors and incisive papilla. The author has defined and identified the restrictions of mobility of this tissue as a lip-tie, which reflects the clinical attachment of the upper lip to the maxillary arch. This article discusses the diagnosis and classifications of the lip-tie, as it affects an infant's latch onto the mother's breast. As more and more women choose to breastfeed, lip-ties must be considered as an impediment to breastfeeding, recognizing that they can affect a successful, painless latch and milk transfer. PMID:23821655

  16. Experience with Mandibular Reconstruction Using Transport-Disc-Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pingarrón-Martín, Lorena; Otero, T. González; Gallo, L.J. Arias

    2014-01-01

    The goal of transport-disc-distraction osteogenesis (TDDO) is to restore bone continuity by using in-situ bone. It may be useful following trauma, gunshot injuries, or tumor ablation, especially when there may be contraindications at the donor site or for prolonged surgery. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time TDDO has been used for mandibular reconstruction reporting additional procedures, which include osseointegrated dental implants rehabilitation and orthognathic surgery. A retrospective study is performed analyzing all mandibular reconstruction cases that may be suitable for distraction from January 2006 to December 2011. A thorough description of the documented cases includes details about sex, gender, complications, duration of hospitalization, etiology, size, and location of the defect. Eight cases of mandibular reconstruction were included. Six cases correspond to mandibular ameloblastoma. The remaining two cases were mandibular gunshot comminuted fractures. Range of the defects was from 45 to 60 mm. Length of the transport disc was 15 to 20 mm. Protocolized technique consisted of 5 days of latency period, 19 to 45 days of activation term (average 30 days), and 8 to 12 weeks for consolidation. Mean distraction length achieved was 40.45 mm. We can conclude that TDDO is an alternative to conventional and more invasive procedures, when we face severe segmental mandibular defects reconstruction. It shows the potential to restore a better anatomical bone regeneration, also providing soft tissues and reducing donor-site morbidity. Patients' education and awareness about the proper use of the transport-disc-distraction device is important to optimize functional outcomes. PMID:26000082

  17. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... grant program, 77 FR 51610 (Aug. 24, 2012), which established an application deadline of October 9, 2012... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway... Transportation (DOT) announced the availability of funding authorized for distracted driving grants on August...

  18. Distractions in the School Science Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Karim M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I…

  19. Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors.

    PubMed

    Trosman, Samuel J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors offer considerable challenges to otolaryngologists, oral surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists alike. Because of the close proximity to vital structures, appropriate steps toward a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan are of paramount importance. This article reviews the most common causes of pediatric jaw masses and discusses diagnostic and therapeutic considerations and recommendations. PMID:25442129

  20. Bilateral Distraction Osteogenesis of Vascularized Iliac Crest Free Flaps Used in Mandibular Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Shiva S.; Vujcich, Nathan J.; Nastri, Alf L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Vascularized free flaps have become the gold standard in reconstructing large segmental mandibular defects; however, even when bony union and soft-tissue coverage is achieved, insufficient bone stock and altered facial contour can create functional and cosmetic problems for the patient. There have been limited case reports on the use of secondary distraction osteogenesis to address these issues. The authors report a case of bilateral mandibular distraction of deep circumflex iliac artery free flaps, used for mandibular reconstruction after total mandibulectomy for treatment of osteosarcoma. Performed for reasons of retrognathia and facilitation of dental prosthetic rehabilitation, this is the first case of bilateral horizontal distraction osteogenesis of deep circumflex iliac artery free flaps reported in the literature.

  1. Correction of facial asymmetry and maxillary canting with corticotomy and 1-jaw orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Seo, Dong Hwi; Kim, Seong-Hun; Lee, Baek-Soo; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Although 2-jaw orthognathic surgery is a typical recommendation for the treatment of facial asymmetry, another good treatment alternative is maxillary corticotomy with temporary skeletal anchorage devices followed by mandibular orthognathic surgery. The corticotomy procedure described here can achieve unilateral molar intrusion and occlusal plane canting correction with potentially fewer complications than 2-jaw orthognathic surgery. The approach allows movement of dentoalveolar segments in less time than with conventional dental intrusion using temporary skeletal anchorage devices. A 2-jaw asymmetry with occlusal plane canting might be corrected using maxillary corticotomy and mandibular orthognathics rather than 2-jaw orthognathics. Two patients with facial asymmetry are presented here. In each one, the maxillary cant was corrected over a period of 2 to 3 months with 3.5 mm of intrusion of the unilateral buccal segment. After the preorthognathic cant correction, orthognathic surgery was done to correct the mandibular asymmetry. PMID:25432261

  2. Bimaxillary distraction osteogenesis used for treatment of crowding in non-growing individuals. Case report.

    PubMed

    Corega, C; Vaida, L; Festila, D G; Rigoni, G; Albanese, M; D'Agostino, A; Chiarini, G; Nocini, P F; Bertossi, D

    2014-01-14

    Dental crowding is frequently associated with transverse jaw discrepancies, resulting in a less-than-ideal position of the teeth in the basal bone. The classic aproach for correcting bimaxillary crowding are extractions or arch expansion. Rapid maxilla-mandibular expansion was used to treat transverse discrepancies in growing patients, but with aging, the upper and lower jaw bones become increasingly resistant to expansion. The surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) and the mandibular midsymphyseal distraction osteogenesis procedure overcome this age limitation and are of great importance for the treatment of transverse discrepancies in adults. The aim of this paper is to report a case with a severe transverse deficiency treated with SARME, mandibular midsymphyseal distraction together with orthodontic treatment in an adult patient. The case highlights the esthetic advantages of increasing the transversal dimension of both jaws in patients with severe crowding associated with constricted dental arches and recommends the maxillo-mandibular transverse distraction osteogenesis as an and effective form of surgical treatment for patients with malocclusions or dentofacial deformities featuring severe transverse discrepancies, combined with a carefully monitored orthodontic treatment. PMID:24423741

  3. Distraction osteogenesis device to estimate the axial stiffness of the callus in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Mora-Macías, J; Reina-Romo, E; Domínguez, J

    2015-10-01

    Knowing the evolution of callus stiffness is very important in distraction osteogenesis and bone healing. It allows the characterization of the bone maturation process and the assessment of the moment to retire the fixator. A new distractor device that monitors the callus axial stiffness is presented in this study. It quantifies the callus stiffness during the bone transport process with some advantages over previous methods to assess stiffness during simple distraction and bone healing. This device avoids a misalignment between bone segments, uses real load conditions, monitors forces continuously, does not involve radiation for patients, and allows the study of the complete distraction process, i.e., the distraction and consolidation phases. The device was calibrated in vitro simulating different real bone load conditions depending on the stage of the process. The stiffness of the callus could be estimated for values between 4.2 N/mm and 9066.8 N/mm. The average relative error in measurements carried out in in vitro calibration tests was 7.8% during the distraction phase and 9.5% during the consolidation phase. These results improve the accuracy and increase the callus stiffness range of estimation with respect to other devices in the literature. In addition, the device was used successfully in vivo in a preliminary experiment. PMID:26320818

  4. Distractions in the School Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Karim M.

    2013-08-01

    In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I examined in close detail the conversations of three groups of high school students trying to explain how a real galvanic cell works. The three groups experienced the same two distractions, (1) a nonworking light-emitting diode and (2) negative readings on a voltmeter. The analysis reveals how one of the groups, through a series of contingencies, successively made the two distractions continuous with the main purpose of the activity. In the remaining two groups, no such continuity was established. The results show that (a) experiences initially being distracting, perplexing, and confusing may indeed acquire significance for the students' possibilities of coping with the main purpose of the activity but that (b) the outcome is highly contingent on the particular experiences drawn upon by the students to cope with the distractions. Consequently, I discuss ways in which teachers may turn distractions encountered in laboratory activities into educative experiences for more than a few lucky students.

  5. Reflections of distraction in memory: transfer of previous distraction improves recall in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ruthann C; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting words. When the memory task was indirect in its use of distraction (Study 1), only older adults showed transfer, with better recall of previously distracting compared with new words, which increased their recall to match that of younger adults. However, younger adults showed transfer when cued about the relevance of previous distraction both before studying the words (Study 2) and before recalling the words (Study 3) in the memory test. Results suggest that both younger and older adults encode distraction, but younger adults require explicit cueing to use their knowledge of distraction. In contrast, older adults transfer knowledge of distraction in both explicitly cued and indirect memory tasks. Results are discussed in terms of age differences in inhibition and source-constrained retrieval. PMID:21843024

  6. The effects of distraction on metacognition and metacognition on distraction: evidence from recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, C. Philip; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Jones, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of auditory distraction in memory tasks have, to date, been examined with procedures that minimize participants’ control over their own memory processes. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to metacognitive control factors which might affect memory performance. In this study, we investigate the effects of auditory distraction on metacognitive control of memory, examining the effects of auditory distraction in recognition tasks utilizing the metacognitive framework of Koriat and Goldsmith (1996), to determine whether strategic regulation of memory accuracy is impacted by auditory distraction. Results replicated previous findings in showing that auditory distraction impairs memory performance in tasks minimizing participants’ metacognitive control (forced-report test). However, the results revealed also that when metacognitive control is allowed (free-report tests), auditory distraction impacts upon a range of metacognitive indices. In the present study, auditory distraction undermined accuracy of metacognitive monitoring (resolution), reduced confidence in responses provided and, correspondingly, increased participants’ propensity to withhold responses in free-report recognition. Crucially, changes in metacognitive processes were related to impairment in free-report recognition performance, as the use of the “don’t know” option under distraction led to a reduction in the number of correct responses volunteered in free-report tests. Overall, the present results show how auditory distraction exerts its influence on memory performance via both memory and metamemory processes. PMID:24860543

  7. Assessment of distraction from erotic stimuli by nonerotic interference.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alex B; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Distraction from erotic cues during sexual encounters is a major contributor to sexual difficulties in men and women. Being able to assess distraction in studies of sexual arousal will help clarify underlying contributions to sexual problems. The current study aimed to identify the most accurate assessment of distraction from erotic cues in healthy men (n = 29) and women (n = 38). Participants were assigned to a no distraction, low distraction, or high distraction condition. Distraction was induced using an auditory distraction task presented during the viewing of an erotic video. Attention to erotic cues was assessed using three methods: a written quiz, a visual quiz, and a self-reported distraction measure. Genital and psychological sexual responses were also measured. Self-reported distraction and written quiz scores most accurately represented the level of distraction present, while self-reported distraction also corresponded with a decrease in genital arousal. Findings support the usefulness of self-report measures in conjunction with a brief quiz on the erotic material as the most accurate and sensitive ways to simply measure experimentally-induced distraction. Insight into distraction assessment techniques will enable evaluation of naturally occurring distraction in patients suffering from sexual problems. PMID:24611908

  8. Bacteria in chronic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Karma, P; Jokipii, L; Sipilä, P; Luotonen, J; Jokipii, A M

    1979-07-01

    Sixty-one chronically inflamed maxillary sinuses produced 131 bacterial strains from mucosal pieces that were taken during a Caldwell-Luc operation and cultured aerobically and anaerobically. Sinus secretions showed only 62 and nasal secretions 106 bacterial strains. Fourteen mucosal strains, including 11 Haemophilus influenzae, grew heavily. None of 24 mucosal anaerobes showed heavy growth. Of 52 antral mucosae with culturable bacteria, 37 disclosed mixed and 15 pure growth. The bacteriological characteristics of the diseased sinus and the nose did not correlate. The duration or extent of the disease, the macroscopic appearance of the diseased sinus, or the presence or absence of allergy were unrelated to bacteriological findings, except that H influenzae was concentrated in purulent sinuses. Intraoperative culture of antral mucosa seems to give the most reliable picture of the bacteriological condition in chronic maxillary sinusitis. PMID:313206

  9. Temperament, Distraction, and Learning in Toddlerhood

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Wallace E.; Salley, Brenda J.; Clements, Andrea D.

    2006-01-01

    The word and non-word learning abilities of toddlers were tested under various conditions of environmental distraction, and evaluated with respect to children’s temperamental attentional focus. Thirty-nine children and their mothers visited the lab at child age 21-months, where children were exposed to fast-mapping word learning trials and nonlinguistic sequential learning trials. It was found that both word and nonword-learning was adversely affected by the presentation of environmental distractions. But it was also found that the effect of the distractions sometimes depended on children’s level of attentional focus. Specifically, children high in attentional focus were less affected by environmental distractions than children low in attentional focus when attempting to learn from a model, whereas children low in attentional focus demonstrated little learning from the model. Translationally, these results may be of use to child health-care providers investigating possible sources of cognitive and language delay. PMID:17138290

  10. Special considerations in distracted driving with teens.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens' attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  11. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  12. Distraction from emotional information reduces biased judgements.

    PubMed

    Lench, Heather C; Bench, Shane W; Davis, Elizabeth L

    2016-06-01

    Biases arising from emotional processes are some of the most robust behavioural effects in the social sciences. The goal of this investigation was to examine the extent to which the emotion regulation strategy of distraction could reduce biases in judgement known to result from emotional information. Study 1 explored lay views regarding whether distraction is an effective strategy to improve decision-making and revealed that participants did not endorse this strategy. Studies 2-5 focused on several established, robust biases that result from emotional information: loss aversion, desirability bias, risk aversion and optimistic bias. Participants were prompted to divert attention away from their feelings while making judgements, and in each study this distraction strategy resulted in reduced bias in judgement relative to control conditions. The findings provide evidence that distraction can improve choice across several situations that typically elicit robustly biased responses, even though participants are not aware of the effectiveness of this strategy. PMID:25787937

  13. Sustained Efficacy of Virtual Reality Distraction

    PubMed Central

    Rutter, Charles E.; Dahlquist, Lynnda M.; Weiss, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study tested whether the effectiveness of distraction using virtual reality (VR) technology in reducing cold pressor pain would maintain over the course of eight weekly exposures. Twenty-eight adults, 18 to 23 years of age, underwent one baseline cold pressor trial and one VR distraction trial in randomized order each week. VR distraction led to significant increases in pain threshold and pain tolerance, and significant decreases in pain intensity, time spent thinking about pain, and self-reported anxiety, relative to baseline. Repeated exposure did not appear to affect the benefits of VR. Implications for the long-term use of VR distraction as a non-pharmacological analgesic are discussed. PMID:19231295

  14. The Biobasis for Distraction and Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    The article examines the neurological basis for hyperactivity/distraction and dyslexia. Overlapping symptoms are listed, nutritional and organic basis for hyperkinesis considered, and visual and motoric factors in dyslexia discussed. (CL)

  15. Divided maxillary artery in relation to the lateral pterygoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Aland, R Claire; Shaw, Vivien

    2016-03-01

    We describe an anatomical variation of the right maxillary artery. The variation loops deep, giving off a middle meningeal artery with an extremely short extracranial segment, then bifurcates into unequal branches. The smaller branch passes superficial to the lateral pterygoid head and distributes primarily to the masticatory muscles. The larger partially pierces the lateral pterygoid lower head, re-emerges superficially, branches again and passes into the pterygopalatine fossa. The larger lies superficial to the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves and deep to the buccal nerve. An embryonic development origin of the cranial arteries is suggested. PMID:26077959

  16. Development of a device for the delivery of agents to bone during distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Grayson, B H; Rowe, N M; Hollier, L H; Williams, J K; McCormick, S; Longaker, M T; McCarthy, J G

    2001-01-01

    Various agents have been theoretically and experimentally implicated as mediators of distraction osteogenesis (DO). The purpose of this study was to develop a vehicle for the potential delivery of these factors to the region of the distraction site in an attempt to manipulate this biologic process. Three adult mongrel dogs (12 months old) had oblique osteotomies performed bilaterally through the gonial regions. In group I, the external distracter was affixed to the right hemimandible of two dogs (n = 2 hemimandibles) with cannulated pins (external diameter = 1.5 mm; lumen diameter = 1.0 mm; length = 60 mm), whereas the distracter on the left was affixed with standard, noncannulated pins of the same dimensions. In group II, cannulated pins were used to affix the external distracter to both hemimandibles (n = 2 hemimandibles) of a dog. The devices were activated after a 5-day latency period and were lengthened at a rate of 1 mm/day for 20 days. During the distraction period, 0.1 ml/d of sterile india ink was injected into the cannulated pins, after which the sterile stylet was replaced. The activation protocol was followed by 28 days of fixation (consolidation period). The hemimandibles from group I underwent removal of soft tissues, acetone fixation, and gross examination/photography, whereas the hemimandibles from group II were prepared for histologic evaluation (whole mount, hematoxylin and eosin staining). All dogs survived to the end of the study and demonstrated successful DO without evidence of complications. Hemimandibles in group I displayed evidence of india ink on both the lingual and buccal cortex around the cannulated pin site, in the regenerate and on the neocortices of the distracted segment. Hemimandibles of group II showed histologic evidence of the india ink being deposited densely around the cannulated pin site and extending in a radial fashion around the pin site into the regenerate. This study demonstrates for the first time a vehicle device for

  17. Establishing the Attention-Distractibility Trait.

    PubMed

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2016-02-01

    Failures to focus attention will affect any task engagement (e.g., at work, in the classroom, when driving). At the clinical end, distractibility is a diagnostic criterion of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we examined whether the inability to maintain attentional focus varies in the overall population in the form of an attention-distractibility trait. To test this idea, we administered an ADHD diagnostic tool to a sample of healthy participants and assessed the relationship between ADHD symptoms and task distraction. ADHD symptom summary scores were significantly positively associated with distractor interference in letter-search and name-classification tasks (as measured by reaction time), as long as the distractors were irrelevant (cartoon images) rather than relevant (i.e., compatible or incompatible with target names). Higher perceptual load during a task eliminated distraction irrespective of ADHD score. These findings suggest the existence of an attention-distractibility trait that confers vulnerability to irrelevant distraction, which can be remedied by increasing the level of perceptual load during the task. PMID:26667659

  18. Maxillary First Molar with Two Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge regarding the anatomic morphology of maxillary molars is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. The morphology of the permanent maxillary first molar has been reviewed extensively; however, the presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. This case report presents a patient with a maxillary first molar with two roots and two root canals, who was referred to the Department of Endodontics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. PMID:23862051

  19. Reflections of Distraction in Memory: Transfer of Previous Distraction Improves Recall in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ruthann C.; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting…

  20. Correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe crowding by a specially designed rapid maxillary expander.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honghong; Feng, Jing; Lu, Peijun; Shen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    To correct an Angle Class II malocclusion or to create spaces in the maxillary arch by nonextraction treatment, distal movement of the maxillary molars is required. Various modalities for distalizing the buccal segment have been reported. Conventional extraoral appliances can be used to obtain maximum anchorage. However, many patients reject headgear wear because of social and esthetic concerns, and the success of this treatment depends on patient compliance. Intraoral appliances, such as repelling magnets, nickel-titanium coils, pendulum appliance, Jones jig appliance, distal jet appliance, and modified Nance appliance, have been introduced to distalize the molars with little or no patient cooperation. However, intraoral appliances can result in anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the maxillary molars. In this case report, we introduce a diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance that was custom designed and fabricated for the treatment of a growing girl with a skeletal Class II malocclusion and severe crowding from a totally lingually positioned lateral incisor. The appliance concomitantly expanded the maxilla transversely and retracted the buccal segment sagittally, distalizing the maxillary molars to reach a Class I relationship and creating the spaces to displace the malpositioned lateral incisor. The uniqueness of this special diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance was highlighted by a series of reconstructions and modifications at different stages of the treatment to reinforce the anchorage. PMID:25636559

  1. Unusual external resorption of a maxillary lateral.

    PubMed

    Giunta, J L; Kaplan, M A

    1994-01-01

    This article defines an unusual previously unreported entity afflicting a maxillary lateral incisor. Labial idiopathic external root resorption just apical to the cemento-enamel presented as a gingival (periodontal) problem and was misinterpreted as cervical dental caries. This report defines a new possibility for a radicular defect in a maxillary lateral incisor that may cause periodontal problems. PMID:8054293

  2. Maxillary sinusitis with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Rashmi; Prakash, Ved; Singh, Abhishek Bahadur; Saheer, S

    2014-01-01

    Tubercular infection of the nasal cavity is an infrequently encountered condition. More so, after the discovery of relevant antibiotics, nasal sinus tuberculosis is not commonly seen. Few cases have reported tuberculosis of the paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and larynx. With the increasing incidence of HIV, these rare forms of infection have started re-emerging. We present a case of a middle aged man presenting with nasal cavity lesion along with pulmonary tuberculosis, which came to light only after the diagnosis of maxillary sinus tuberculosis. PMID:25085948

  3. Management of flexion distraction injuries to the thoracolumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Alejandro J; Scheer, Justin K; Smith, Zachary A; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2015-12-01

    We present an updated overview of the literature regarding the management of flexion distraction injuries (FDI). FDI are unstable fractures of the thoracolumbar spine, which require surgical management by long segment open fusion or minimally invasive posterior fixation with pedicle screws. While associated with concomitant intra-abdominal injuries that may delay operative stabilization, FDI frequently involve reversible spinal cord injuries and rapid correction is indicated. Modern biomechanical studies have identified valuable prognostic indicators that may be elucidated from determining the mechanism of injury, including the degree of flexion and presence of compression at the time of injury. An improved understanding of FDI will contribute to more appropriate diagnoses and treatment of these fractures. PMID:26209922

  4. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. PMID:26302716

  5. The Interfering Effect of Distracting Stimuli on the Infant's Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Robert B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Infants 3 1/2 months of age were assessed for the possible role of the dissimilarity of the distracting stimulus to the originally learned standard in a modified familiarization-distraction-test paradigm. (Author/JMB)

  6. Comprehensive Review of Adipose Stem Cells and Their Implication in Distraction Osteogenesis and Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Morcos, Mina W.; Al-Jallad, Hadil; Hamdy, Reggie

    2015-01-01

    Bone is one of the most dynamic tissues in the human body that can heal following injury without leaving a scar. However, in instances of extensive bone loss, this intrinsic capacity of bone to heal may not be sufficient and external intervention becomes necessary. Several techniques are available to address this problem, including autogenous bone grafts and allografts. However, all these techniques have their own limitations. An alternative method is the technique of distraction osteogenesis, where gradual and controlled distraction of two bony segments after osteotomy leads to induction of new bone formation. Although distraction osteogenesis usually gives satisfactory results, its major limitation is the prolonged duration of time required before the external fixator is removed, which may lead to numerous complications. Numerous methods to accelerate bone formation in the context of distraction osteogenesis have been reported. A viable alternative to autogenous bone grafts for a source of osteogenic cells is mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow. However, there are certain problems with bone marrow aspirate. Hence, scientists have investigated other sources for mesenchymal stem cells, specifically adipose tissue, which has been shown to be an excellent source of mesenchymal stem cells. In this paper, the potential use of adipose stem cells to stimulate bone formation is discussed. PMID:26448947

  7. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Simuntis, Regimantas; Kubilius, Ričardas; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin is a well-known condition in both the dental and otolaryngology communities. It occurs when the Schneiderian membrane is violated by conditions arising from dentoalveolar unit. This type of sinusitis differs in its pathophysiology, microbiology, diagnostics and management from sinusitis of other causes, therefore, failure to accurately identify a dental cause in these patients usually lead to persistent symptomatology and failure of medical and surgical therapies directed toward sinusitis. Unilateral recalcitrant disease associated with foul smelling drainage is a most common feature of odontogenic sinusitis. Also, high-resolution CT scans and cone-beam volumetric computed tomography can assist in identifying dental disease. Sometimes dental treatment alone is adequate to resolve the odontogenic sinusitis and sometimes concomitant or subsequent functional endoscopic sinus surgery or Caldwell-Luc operation is required. The aim of this article is to give a review of the most common causes, symptoms, diagnostic and treatment methods of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Search on Cochrane Library, PubMed and Science Direct data bases by key words resulted in 35 articles which met our criteria. It can be concluded that the incidence of odontogenic sinusitis is likely underreported in the available literature. PMID:25209225

  8. Distraction can reduce age-related forgetting.

    PubMed

    Biss, Renée K; Ngo, K W Joan; Hasher, Lynn; Campbell, Karen L; Rowe, Gillian

    2013-04-01

    In three experiments, we assessed whether older adults' generally greater tendency to process distracting information can be used to minimize widely reported age-related differences in forgetting. Younger and older adults studied and recalled a list of words on an initial test and again on a surprise test after a 15-min delay. In the middle (Experiments 1a and 2) or at the end (Experiment 3) of the delay, participants completed a 1-back task in which half of the studied words appeared as distractors. Across all experiments, older adults reliably forgot unrepeated words; however, older adults rarely or never forgot the words that had appeared as distractors, whereas younger adults forgot words in both categories. Exposure to distraction may serve as a rehearsal episode for older adults, and thus as a method by which general distractibility may be co-opted to boost memory. PMID:23426890

  9. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral. PMID:24098923

  10. Beneficial role of periosteum in distraction osteogenesis of mandible: its preservation prevents the external bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Sawako; Matsuo, Akira; Chiba, Hiroshige

    2010-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical process of new bone generation through the gradual extension of two segments of existing bone. DO is applied for maxillofacial surgeries to manage defects in mandibular continuity. Vertical DO with an oral device is often employed to augment the alveolar bone height for better implant anchorage for esthetic purposes or functional prosthetic requirements. To determine how the periosteum affects the vertical DO in mandibular reconstruction, we extracted the teeth and resected the alveolar parts of the mandible on both sides of dogs, along with removal of the surrounding periosteum in the right, but not left side. Three months later, box-shaped bone segments (vectors) were prepared from the resected alveolar part, and the segments were vertically elongated using a distraction device on both sides at 0.9 mm/day for one week. The extent of bone formation after distraction was determined with micro-focused computed tomography and by measuring incorporation of tetracycline and calcein with confocal laser scanning microscopy. During the initial two months after distraction, new bone formation was observed more prominently in the left side than in the right side of mandible with the periosteum. However, this difference was less clear during the bone-remodeling period. One notable change was the reduced height of the alveolar part of the right-side mandible, a sign of external bone resorption, observed in two out of three dogs at 6-month post-consolidation. These findings suggest that preservation of periosteum prevents the external bone resorption during the vertical DO of mandible. PMID:20046054

  11. The Effects of Distraction on Cognitive Task Performance during Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Nancy M.; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Haden, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of distraction on attention and task performance during toddlerhood. Thirty toddlers (24- to 26-month-olds) completed different tasks (2 of each: categorization, problem solving, memory, free play) in one of two conditions: No Distraction or Distraction. The results revealed that the distractor had varying effects on…

  12. Distractibility in Learning Disabled Children: The Role of Measurement Artifact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Philip D.; And Others

    Two digit span distraction tasks were used to compare performance of 32 learning disabled (LD) and 32 normal children (mean ages 16 and 15 years). On the first set of tasks, where the neutral and distraction conditions were matched for their ability to discriminate between groups, no differential distraction effect was found. The second task's…

  13. Unusual Anatomy of Maxillary Second Premolars

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida-Gomes, Fábio; de Sousa, Bruno Carvalho; de Souza, Fabricio Dias; dos Santos, Roberto Alves; Maniglia-Ferreira, Cláudio

    2009-01-01

    In this study, endodontic treatments of maxillary second premolars with unusual anatomical configuration were presented. Maxillary second premolars usually have one root with one or two root canals. The occurrence of variations in anatomical configuration is also common; therefore, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during the endodontic treatment. These teeth may also require special shaping and filling techniques. This article reports and discusses the treatment recommendations for unusual occurrences of anatomical configurations in four different maxillary second premolars. PMID:19421396

  14. Evaluation of canine retraction following periodontal distraction using NiTi coil spring and implants – A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Rohit; Tikku, Tripti; Sachan, Kiran; Maurya, R.P.; Verma, Geeta; Ojha, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the amount of canine retraction with periodontal distraction using miniscrew implants and NiTi coil spring. Material and method Sample comprised of 25 patients who were scheduled for all 1st premolar extraction (13 males and 12 females), in the age range of 16–22 years with mean age 18.8 ± 2.7 years. For each patient left side served as control side (Group I) and right side as experimental side (Group II). At the time of first premolar extraction, periodontal distraction was performed only on the experimental side, followed by retraction of canine from mini-implant by closed NiTi coil spring on both the sides. “Nemotech” software was used to evaluate the amount of canine retraction for a period of 3 months. Results Significantly higher amount of tooth movement was seen from T0–T1 and from T1–T2 in Group II for the maxillary parameters 3C-5C, 6CF-3C, 3C-I/3C-J and for the mandibular parameter 6CF″-3C″. Whereas no significant amount of tooth movement was observed for maxillary and mandibular parameters between T2-T3 except for 6CF″-3C″ (p ≤ 0.01) which was significantly higher for the Group II. Conclusion There was accelerated canine retraction on the periodontal distraction side as compared to the control side, with negligible anchorage loss. PMID:25737943

  15. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: Department of... amount of $17.525 million in Federal fiscal year (FY) 2013 funds to provide grants to States for enacting... limitation that may be established in appropriations law. Therefore, the amount available for the grants...

  16. Reward, Distraction, and the Overjustification Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy W.; Pittman, Thane S.

    1978-01-01

    This study tests two differing hypotheses: the competing response hypothesis, which states that both reward and non-reward distractions produce decreases in interest which weaken over repeated trials, and the attribution/overjustification hypothesis, which maintains that rewards produce a decrease in interest that does not weaken over trials.…

  17. Interference from audio distracters during speechreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brungart, Douglas S.; Simpson, Brian D.

    2005-12-01

    Although many audio-visual speech experiments have focused on situations where the presence of an incongruent visual speech signal influences the perceived utterance heard by an observer, there are also documented examples of a related effect in which the presence of an incongruent audio speech signal influences the perceived utterance seen by an observer. This study examined the effects that different distracting audio signals had on performance in a color and number keyword speechreading task. When the distracting sound was noise, time-reversed speech, or continuous speech, it had no effect on speechreading. However, when the distracting audio signal consisted of speech that started at the same time as the visual stimulus, speechreading performance was substantially degraded. This degradation did not depend on the semantic similarity between the target and masker speech, but it was substantially reduced when the onset of the audio speech was shifted relative to that of the visual stimulus. Overall, these results suggest that visual speech perception is impaired by the presence of a simultaneous mismatched audio speech signal, but that other types of audio distracters have little effect on speechreading performance.

  18. Angiogenesis and mineralization during distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Ho; Chung, Chin Youb; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon

    2002-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is currently a standard method of bone lengthening. It is a viable method for the treatment of short extremities as well as extensive bone defects, because large amounts of bone can be regenerated in the distraction gap. Mechanical stimulation by distraction induces biological responses of skeletal regeneration that is accomplished by a cascade of biologic processes that may include differentiation of pluripotential tissue, angiogenesis, mineralization, and remodeling. There are complex interactions between bone-forming osteoblasts and other cells present within the bone microenvironment, particularly vascular endothelial cells that may be pivotal members of a complex interactive communication network in bone. Regenerate bone forms by three modes of ossification, which include intramembranous, enchondral, and transchondroid ossifications, although intramembraneous bone formation is the predominant mechanism of ossification. In this review we discussed the coupling between angiogenesis and mineralization, the biological and mechanical factors affecting them, the cellular and molecular events occurring during distraction osteogenesis, and the emerging modalities to accelerate regenerate bone healing and remodeling. PMID:12172035

  19. The Neural Bases of Distraction and Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Kateri; Hughes, Brent; Chopra, Sita; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Gross, James J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2010-01-01

    Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive control, and limbic regions, interpreted as mediating emotional responses. However, no study has directly compared distraction…

  20. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of maxillary central incisors exposure in patients undergoing maxillary advancement

    PubMed Central

    Trento, Guilherme dos Santos; Bernabé, Felipe Bueno Rosettti; da Costa, Delson João; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo; Scariot, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Patients with dentofacial deformities may undergo orthodontic or orthodontic-surgical treatment. Both modalities can affect esthetics. Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical and radiographic changes in exposure of maxillary central incisors occurring after orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement. Methods: A total of 17 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement between September, 2010 and July, 2011 were selected. Exposure of maxillary central incisors was evaluated clinically and by lateral cephalograms. Measurements were taken one week before and three months after surgery. Data were paired in terms of sex, age, nasolabial angle, height and thickness of the upper lip, the amount of maxillary advancement, clinical exposure and inclination of maxillary central incisor by statistical tests (CI 95%). Results: After maxillary advancement, incisor clinical exposure had increased even with relaxed lips and under forced smile. Moreover, there was a mean increase of 23.33% revealed by lateral cephalograms. There was an inverse correlation between upper lip thickness and incisors postsurgical exposure revealed by radiographic images (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Significant changes in the exposure of maxillary central incisors occur after maxillary advancement, under the influence of some factors, especially lip thickness. PMID:26691970

  1. Dynamics of Driver Distraction: The process of engaging and disengaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Driver distraction research has a long history, spanning nearly 50 years, but intensifying over the last decade. The dominant paradigm guiding this research defines distraction in terms of excessive workload and limited attentional resources. This approach largely ignores how drivers come to engage in these tasks and under what conditions they engage and disengage from driving—the dynamics of distraction. The dynamics of distraction identifies breakdowns of interruption management as an important contributor to distraction, leading to describe distraction in terms of failures of task timing, switching, and prioritization. The dynamics of distraction also identifies disengagement in driving (e.g., mind wandering) as a substantial challenge that secondary tasks might exacerbate or mitigate. Increasing vehicle automation accentuates the need to consider these dynamics of distraction. Automation offers drivers more opportunity to engage in distractions and disengage from driving, and can surprise drivers by unexpectedly requiring drivers to quickly re-engage in driving—placing greater importance of interruption management expertise. This review describes distraction in terms of breakdowns in interruption management and problems of engagement, and summarizes how contingency, conditioning, and consequence traps lead to problems of engaging and disengaging in driving and distractions. PMID:24776224

  2. Virtual Reality: A Distraction Intervention for Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susan M.; Hood, Linda E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To explore virtual reality (VR) as a distraction intervention to relieve symptom distress in adults receiving chemotherapy treatments for breast, colon, and lung cancer. Design Crossover design in which participants served as their own control. Setting Outpatient clinic at a comprehensive cancer center in the southeastern United States. Sample 123 adults receiving initial chemotherapy treatments. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to receive the VR distraction intervention during one chemotherapy treatment and then received no intervention (control) during an alternate matched chemotherapy treatment. The Adapted Symptom Distress Scale–2, Revised Piper Fatigue Scale, and State Anxiety Inventory were used to measure symptom distress. The Presence Questionnaire and an open-ended questionnaire were used to evaluate the subjects’ VR experience. The influence of type of cancer, age, and gender on symptom outcomes was explored. Mixed models were used to test for differences in levels of symptom distress. Main Research Variables Virtual reality and symptom distress. Findings Patients had an altered perception of time (p < 0.001) when using VR, which validates the distracting capacity of the intervention. Evaluation of the intervention indicated that patients believed the head-mounted device was easy to use, they experienced no cybersickness, and 82% would use VR again. However, analysis demonstrated no significant differences in symptom distress immediately or two days following chemotherapy treatments. Conclusions Patients stated that using VR made the treatment seem shorter and that chemotherapy treatments with VR were better than treatments without the distraction intervention. However, positive experiences did not result in a decrease in symptom distress. The findings support the idea that using VR can help to make chemotherapy treatments more tolerable, but clinicians should not assume that use of VR will improve chemotherapy

  3. Maxillary sinus manifestations of methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Erynne A; Marsh, Katherine M; Farshad, Kayven; Erman, Audrey B; Chiu, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamines are the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and cost the United States health-care system ∼$23.4 billion annually. Use of this drug affects multiple organ systems and causes a variety of clinical manifestations. Although there are commonly known sequelae of methamphetamine abuse such as "meth mouth," there is limited evidence regarding maxillary sinus manifestations. The following cases highlight the initial evaluation and management of two methamphetamine abusers with loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus as a result of methamphetamine abuse. Our aim was to delineate the otolaryngologic symptoms associated with the patients' methamphetamine abuse. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus of probable odontogenic origin in both patients. Methamphetamine abuse leading to rampant caries and poor oral hygiene may predispose individuals for craniofacial infections and fluid collections. These cases illustrate the development of maxillary sinusitis and maxilla mucoceles that have been associated with methamphetamine use. PMID:25675268

  4. A benign maxillary tumour with malignant features.

    PubMed

    Ricalde, Rosario R; Lim, Aimee Caroline E; Lopa, Ramon Antonio B; Carnate, Jose M

    2010-06-01

    Non-specific biopsy results such as chronic inflammation, hemorrhage, necrosis can be frustrating to the clinician. This is especially true if the patient presents with clinical features suggestive of an aggressive tumour. This is a review of the clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas and surgical management of a benign maxillary mass with malignant features - a disease called hematoma-like mass of the maxillary sinus (HLMMS). Our experience with five cases will also be cited. PMID:20502750

  5. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Booij, J. W.; Livas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination. PMID:27200194

  6. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative.

    PubMed

    Booij, J W; Livas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination. PMID:27200194

  7. Distalization pattern of whole maxillary dentition according to force application points

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Eui-Hyang; Kim, Sung-Jin; Chun, Youn-Sic; Park, Young-Chel; Yu, Hyung-Seog

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to observe stress distribution and displacement patterns of the entire maxillary arch with regard to distalizing force vectors applied from interdental miniscrews. Methods A standard three-dimensional finite element model was constructed to simulate the maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar process. The displacement of each tooth was calculated on x, y, and z axes, and the von Mises stress distribution was visualized using color-coded scales. Results A single distalizing force at the archwire level induced lingual inclination of the anterior segment, and slight intrusive distal tipping of the posterior segment. In contrast, force at the high level of the retraction hook resulted in lingual root movement of the anterior segment, and extrusive distal translation of the posterior segment. As the force application point was located posteriorly along the archwire, the likelihood of extrusive lingual inclination of the anterior segment increased, and the vertical component of the force led to intrusion and buccal tipping of the posterior segment. Rotation of the occlusal plane was dependent on the relationship between the line of force and the possible center of resistance of the entire arch. Conclusions Displacement of the entire arch may be dictated by a direct relationship between the center of resistance of the whole arch and the line of action generated between the miniscrews and force application points at the archwire, which makes the total arch movement highly predictable. PMID:25667914

  8. Partial maxillary osteotomy following an unsuccessful forced eruption of an impacted maxillary canine - 10 year follow-up. Review and case report

    PubMed Central

    PURICELLI, Edela; MORGANTI, Mário Alexandre; de AZAMBUJA, Henrique Voltollini; PONZONI, Deise; FRIEDRISCH, Clarice C.

    2012-01-01

    The maxillary canines are amongst the most frequently impacted teeth, second only to the third molars. Several conservative orthodontic and surgical techniques are available to position the teeth properly in the dental arch, even in severe cases. However, when an extraction is necessary, it often leaves a critical alveolar defect of difficult management. The authors present the technique of Partial Maxillary Osteotomy, in which a dento-alveolar segment is moved mesially, hence closing the remaining space, allowing for the formation of healthy periodontium and resulting in an adequate functional and aesthetic outcome. A case report is presented with a 10 year follow-up, proving the technique's stability in the long term. PMID:23329250

  9. Distractibility in Learning-Disabled Children: The Role of Measurement Artifact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Philip D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two-digit span tasks compared the distraction performance of 32 learning disabled (LD) high schoolers and non LD Ss. No differential distraction effect was found on the first set (matching nondistraction and distraction conditions). In set two, (distraction condition was designed to be more discriminating), a differential distraction effect was…

  10. Biomechanical patterns of text-message distraction.

    PubMed

    Le, Peter; Hwang, Jaejin; Grawe, Sarah; Li, Jing; Snyder, Alison; Lee, Christina; Marras, William S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify biomechanical measures that can distinguish texting distraction in a laboratory-simulated driving environment. The goal would be to use this information to provide an intervention for risky driving behaviour. Sixteen subjects participated in this study. Three independent variables were tested: task (texting, visual targeting, weighted and non-weighted movements), task direction (front and side) and task distance (close and far). Dependent variables consisted of biomechanical moments, head displacement and the length of time to complete each task. Results revealed that the time to complete each task was higher for texting compared to other tasks. Peak moments during texting were only distinguishable from visual targeting. Peak head displacement and cumulative biomechanical exposure measures indicated that texting can be distinguished from other tasks. Therefore, it may be useful to take into account both temporal and biomechanical measures when considering warning systems to detect texting distraction. PMID:25867196

  11. Orthodontic-restorative treatment as an option for biologic replacement of a maxillary central incisor: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rizzatto, Susana Maria Deon; Closs, Luciane Quadrado; Freitas, Maria Perpétua Mota; Rizzatto, Laura Escobar

    2012-09-01

    The maxillary central incisor is the tooth most often affected by trauma, especially in the age range of 7 to 10 years, when high-impact sports are prevalent. The options for conservative treatment should be prioritized in these patients, aiming to achieve a biologic response that might provide continuity of growth of the alveolus, to provide functional and esthetic development of the affected region. This case report describes a patient with a history of trauma during the deciduous dentition with consequent intrusion, root dilaceration, and retention of the maxillary left central incisor. The treatment involved extraction of the traumatized tooth and mesial movement of the lateral incisor and posterior segments. PMID:22920706

  12. Sharing the responsibility for driver distraction across road transport systems: a systems approach to the management of distracted driving.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is acknowledged universally as a large and growing road safety problem. Compounding the problem is that distracted driving is a complex, multifaceted issue influenced by a multitude of factors, organisations and individuals. As such, management of the problem is not straightforward. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and implemented across the globe. The vast majority of these measures have derived from the traditional reductionist, driver-centric approach to distraction and have failed to fully reflect the complex mix of actors and components that give rise to drivers becoming distracted. An alternative approach that is gaining momentum in road safety is the systems approach, which considers all components of the system and their interactions as an integrated whole. In this paper, we review the current knowledge base on driver distraction and argue that the systems approach is not currently being realised in practice. Adopting a more holistic, systems approach to distracted driving will not only improve existing knowledge and interventions from the traditional approach, but will enhance our understanding and management of distraction by considering the complex relationships and interactions of the multiple actors and the myriad sources, enablers and interventions that make up the distracted driving system. It is only by recognising and understanding how all of the system components work together to enable distraction to occur, that we can start to work on solutions to help mitigate the occurrence and consequences of distracted driving. PMID:24767853

  13. [An experimental study of a new bidirectional distraction appliance].

    PubMed

    Lucas, R; Gounot, N; Cresseaux, P; Breton, P; Freidel, M; Ferez, C; Roger, T; Genevois, J P

    1998-07-01

    The goals of mandibular distraction are to restore a normal length but also a normal shape to the hypoplastic mandible. These two goals are related to the elongation vector which is itself related to the location of the cortictomy and of the device. Other factors influence this elongation vector. So it is impossible to precisely predict the elongation vector. With the monodirectional distraction device no modification can be made during the distraction time. With a bidirectional distraction device offering the possibility to modulate the angulation between the two elongation rods it is possible to adjust the elongation vector during distraction. Precise distraction gap modeling is possible. This is particularly important to correct anterior open-bite. This device was tested on animals (pigs). PMID:9697234

  14. Strategies for preventing distractions and interruptions in the OR.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gregory J

    2013-06-01

    Stakeholders in the automotive industry, airline industry, and anesthesia profession have identified critical periods of time in which distractions and interruptions of normal processes can have devastating effects. Just as reducing distractions improves safety in an automobile or airplane cockpit, limiting distractions and interruptions during critical times in the perioperative setting can increase patient safety. We assessed perioperative nurses and identified what they perceived as critical phases of nursing care. We also worked with our anesthesia partners to address their concerns about interruptions during the administration of nerve blocks. The perioperative nurses at our hospital initiated strategies to reduce distractions or interruptions to their practice at critical points, and, in collaboration with surgical committee members, we developed strategies to reduce or eliminate distractions for anesthesia professionals during the preoperative administration of nerve blocks and to eliminate distractions for the RN circulator and scrub person during the final counts. PMID:23722034

  15. Method for Automated Bone Shape Correction within Bone Distraction Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blynskiy, F. Yu

    2016-01-01

    The method for automated bone shape correction within bone distraction procedure is presented. High precision deformation angle measurement is provided by the software for X- Ray images processing. Special BDC v.1.0.1. application is designed. The purpose of the BDC is modeling of the bone geometry structure to calculate the appropriate distraction forces. The correction procedure control is realized by the hardware of the distraction system.

  16. A rare presentation of multiple dens invaginatus in maxillary dentition

    PubMed Central

    Purani, Jigar M; Purani, Hiral J

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental disturbance of the tooth and usually occurs in the maxillary lateral incisor of permanent dentition. In this article, a rare case of dens invaginatus affecting multiple permanent maxillary teeth is described. PMID:25085944

  17. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the maxillary sinus related with pulp necrosis of maxillary teeth: case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin-Young; Yang, Sung-Eun

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a benign lesion composed of myofibroblasts accompanied by varying numbers of inflammatory cells. Various pathogenetic factors have been proposed, but the etiology of most IMTs remains unknown. This article presents a case of IMT occurring in the left maxillary sinus. A 24-year-old man complained of throbbing pain in the maxillary left molars and swelling of the left cheek. His maxillary left second molar was diagnosed as pulp necrosis and root canal treatment performed. After that, his symptoms continued and he was referred to the Department of Otolaryngology. Computerized tomography disclosed compact soft tissue masses in the left maxillary sinus with obstruction of maxillary ostium. Under general anesthesia, the lesions were fully excised. Histopathologically, the lesions were composed of plump or spindled myofibroblasts. Cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin and β-catenin, and were negative for ALK1, CD34, and EMA. The diagnosis was IMT of left maxillary sinus. Although it is very rare, IMT should be included as a differential diagnosis in patients with compact masses in maxillary sinus. PMID:21868269

  18. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  19. Subtractive fuzzy classifier based driver distraction levels classification using EEG.

    PubMed

    Wali, Mousa Kadhim; Murugappan, Murugappan; Ahmad, Badlishah

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] In earlier studies of driver distraction, researchers classified distraction into two levels (not distracted, and distracted). This study classified four levels of distraction (neutral, low, medium, high). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty Asian subjects (n=50, 43 males, 7 females), age range 20-35 years, who were free from any disease, participated in this study. Wireless EEG signals were recorded by 14 electrodes during four types of distraction stimuli (Global Position Systems (GPS), music player, short message service (SMS), and mental tasks). We derived the amplitude spectrum of three different frequency bands, theta, alpha, and beta of EEG. Then, based on fusion of discrete wavelet packet transforms and fast fourier transform yield, we extracted two features (power spectral density, spectral centroid frequency) of different wavelets (db4, db8, sym8, and coif5). Mean ± SD was calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. A fuzzy inference system classifier was applied to different wavelets using the two extracted features. [Results] The results indicate that the two features of sym8 posses highly significant discrimination across the four levels of distraction, and the best average accuracy achieved by the subtractive fuzzy classifier was 79.21% using the power spectral density feature extracted using the sym8 wavelet. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that EEG signals can be used to monitor distraction level intensity in order to alert drivers to high levels of distraction. PMID:24259914

  20. Speech-Language Dissociations, Distractibility, and Childhood Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relation among speech-language dissociations, attentional distractibility, and childhood stuttering. Method Participants were 82 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 120 who do not stutter (CWNS). Correlation-based statistics (Bates, Appelbaum, Salcedo, Saygin, & Pizzamiglio, 2003) identified dissociations across 5 norm-based speech-language subtests. The Behavioral Style Questionnaire Distractibility subscale measured attentional distractibility. Analyses addressed (a) between-groups differences in the number of children exhibiting speech-language dissociations; (b) between-groups distractibility differences; (c) the relation between distractibility and speech-language dissociations; and (d) whether interactions between distractibility and dissociations predicted the frequency of total, stuttered, and nonstuttered disfluencies. Results More preschool-age CWS exhibited speech-language dissociations compared with CWNS, and more boys exhibited dissociations compared with girls. In addition, male CWS were less distractible than female CWS and female CWNS. For CWS, but not CWNS, less distractibility (i.e., greater attention) was associated with more speech-language dissociations. Last, interactions between distractibility and dissociations did not predict speech disfluencies in CWS or CWNS. Conclusions The present findings suggest that for preschool-age CWS, attentional processes are associated with speech-language dissociations. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the directionality of effect of this association (e.g., inefficient attentional processes → speech-language dissociations vs. inefficient attentional processes ← speech-language dissociations). PMID:26126203

  1. The biology of distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular and craniomaxillofacial defects: A review

    PubMed Central

    Natu, Subodh Shankar; Ali, Iqbal; Alam, Sarwar; Giri, Kolli Yada; Agarwal, Anshita; Kulkarni, Vrishali Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Limb lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was first described in 1905. The technique did not gain wide acceptance until Gavril Ilizarov identified the physiologic and mechanical factors governing successful regeneration of bone formation. Distraction osteogenesis is a new variation of more traditional orthognathic surgical procedure for the correction of dentofacial deformities. It is most commonly used for the correction of more severe deformities and syndromes of both the maxilla and the mandible and can also be used in children at ages previously untreatable. The basic technique includes surgical fracture of deformed bone, insertion of device, 5-7 days rest, and gradual separation of bony segments by subsequent activation at the rate of 1 mm per day, followed by an 8-12 weeks consolidation phase. This allows surgeons, the lengthening and reshaping of deformed bone. The aim of this paper is to review the principle, technical considerations, applications and limitations of distraction osteogenesis. The application of osteodistraction offers novel solutions for surgical-orthodontic management of developmental anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton as bone may be molded into different shapes along with the soft tissue component gradually thereby resulting in less relapse. PMID:24688555

  2. Chronic maxillary sinusitis and diabetes related maxillary osteonecrosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dental infections and maxillary sinusitis are the main causes of osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis can occur in all age groups, and is more frequently found in the lower jaw than in the upper jaw. Systemic conditions that can alter the patient's resistance to infection including diabetes mellitus, anemia, and autoimmune disorders are predisposing factors for osteomyelitis. We report a case of uncommon broad maxillary osteonecrosis precipitated by uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic maxillary sinusitis in a female patient in her seventies with no history of bisphosphonate or radiation treatment. PMID:26734561

  3. Chronic maxillary sinusitis and diabetes related maxillary osteonecrosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Huh, Suk; Lee, Chae-Yoon; Ohe, Joo-Young; Lee, Jung-Woo; Choi, Byung-Jun; Lee, Baek-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Dae

    2015-12-01

    Dental infections and maxillary sinusitis are the main causes of osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis can occur in all age groups, and is more frequently found in the lower jaw than in the upper jaw. Systemic conditions that can alter the patient's resistance to infection including diabetes mellitus, anemia, and autoimmune disorders are predisposing factors for osteomyelitis. We report a case of uncommon broad maxillary osteonecrosis precipitated by uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic maxillary sinusitis in a female patient in her seventies with no history of bisphosphonate or radiation treatment. PMID:26734561

  4. Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor Versus Agenesis of the Maxillary Central Incisor.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Fabrício Kitazono; Arid, Juliana; De Rossi, Andiara; Paula-Silva, Francisco W G; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is rare and affected individuals may carry a potentially serious condition known as SMMCI syndrome. However, many of these cases do not receive proper attention because they are misdiagnosed as agenesis of the maxillary central incisor. The purpose of this manuscript is to report two cases of children with only one maxillary central incisor and draw diagnostic differences between the entities. A correct diagnosis is very important because if an SMMCI is confirmed, the patient should be referred for genetic counseling. PMID:27098718

  5. Rapid Maxillary Expansion to Correct Palatal Fracture Malunion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chitra, Prasad; Vikrant; Aravind, Narahari Kalyana Srinivas; Bindra, Sukhvinder

    2016-01-01

    Mid palatal fractures are usually present in conjunction with Le Fort I maxillary fractures. Literature on isolated mid palatal fractures as seen in this case is relatively rare. A novel approach for the management of this case was undertaken. A rapid maxillary expander was used to separate palatal segments which healed well. The patient’s crossbite and open bite was corrected with elastic use. The protocol of management of malunion of isolated mid palatal fractures is simple with reduced costs, morbidity and higher rates of acceptance. We report a case of a 26-year-old male patient involved in a road traffic accident leading to an isolated mid palatal fracture which is a rare entity. Due to lack of specialized care, the fracture fragments united inadequately resulting in deranged occlusion, open bite and reduced masticatory efficiency. PMID:27437371

  6. Three-Dimensional Eyeball and Orbit Volume Modification After LeFort III Midface Distraction.

    PubMed

    Smektala, Tomasz; Nysjö, Johan; Thor, Andreas; Homik, Aleksandra; Sporniak-Tutak, Katarzyna; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dowgierd, Krzysztof; Olszewski, Raphael

    2015-07-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate orbital volume modification with LeFort III midface distraction in patients with craniosynostosis and its influence on eyeball volume and axial diameter modification. Orbital volume was assessed by the semiautomatic segmentation method based on deformable surface models and on 3-dimensional (3D) interaction with haptics. The eyeball volumes and diameters were automatically calculated after manual segmentation of computed tomographic scans with 3D slicer software. The mean, minimal, and maximal differences as well as the standard deviation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for intraobserver and interobserver measurements reliability were calculated. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare measured values before and after surgery. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Intraobserver and interobserver ICC for haptic-aided semiautomatic orbital volume measurements were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. The intraobserver and interobserver ICC values for manual segmentation of the eyeball volume were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively. The orbital volume increased significantly after surgery: 30.32% (mean, 5.96  mL) for the left orbit and 31.04% (mean, 6.31  mL) for the right orbit. The mean increase in eyeball volume was 12.3%. The mean increases in the eyeball axial dimensions were 7.3%, 9.3%, and 4.4% for the X-, Y-, and Z-axes, respectively. The Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that preoperative and postoperative eyeball volumes, as well as the diameters along the X- and Y-axes, were statistically significant. Midface distraction in patients with syndromic craniostenosis results in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the orbit and eyeball volumes. The 2 methods (haptic-aided semiautomatic segmentation and manual 3D slicer segmentation) are reproducible techniques for orbit and eyeball volume measurements. PMID:26086925

  7. Flow through a mechanical distraction enterogenesis device: a pilot test

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Okawada, Manabu; Herman, Richard; Utter, Brent; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    Background We tested the coupling portion of a prototype intraluminal distraction enterogenesis device to allow flow-through of simulated enteric contents (SEC) in both pig and human jejunum. Materials and methods SEC was made using 80% corn syrup. Ten cm pig and human intestinal segments had a spoke-shaped 2.2cm coupling adaptor sutured in place intraluminally. The adaptor had a flow-through area of 33.6mm2. SEC was pumped into the proximal part of the intestinal segment at 0.083mL/sec. The times to first passage of SEC through the coupler (first drop), 10mL and 20mL of SEC eluted from the distal end were recorded. Results Mean time to first drop elution was 155±38 seconds with pig, and 149±22 seconds with human bowel (p = 0.8). This corresponded to a hydrostatic pressure of 37.5mmHg before the initial drop passed through. Mean flow rates were 0.094mL/sec in pig bowel and 0.084mL/sec in human bowel (p=0.09). To account for occlusion from luminal debris, a 75% occlusion of coupler holes was studied in the smaller pig bowel to investigate if reductions in flow-through area could be tolerated. Mean time to first drop increased slightly to 171±15 seconds, and the elution rate stayed the same (p=0.5). Conclusions After a physiological level of initial pressure buildup allowing the first drop of SEC to pass the coupling adaptor, our prototype intestinal coupling adaptor did not obstruct flow-through of SEC, even after a 75% decrease in flow-through area. This type of attachment represents a viable approach to placing a device in-continuity without obstructing flow of enteric contents. PMID:21571307

  8. Independence of Performance and Self-Report Measures of Distractibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulhus, Delroy L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study using self-report measures of students' responses to auditory and visual stimuli to measure distractibility in task performance among 224 Canadian undergraduates. Findings show the absence of any link between self-reported distractibility and actual performance. Study shows correlations between personality type and…

  9. Implementation Intentions and Test Anxiety: Shielding Academic Performance from Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks-Stamm, Elizabeth J.; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    College students whose test anxiety was measured completed a working memory-intensive math exam with televised distractions. Students were provided with implementation intentions (if-then plans; Gollwitzer, 1999) designed to either help them ignore the distractions (i.e., temptation-inhibiting plans) or focus more intently on the math exam (i.e.,…

  10. Effects of Auditory Distraction on Cognitive Processing of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Leonard L.; Heald, Gary R.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Kemker, Brett E.; Maurice, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The effects of interference, competition, and distraction on cognitive processing are unclearly understood, particularly regarding type and intensity of auditory distraction across a variety of cognitive processing tasks. Method: The purpose of this investigation was to report two experiments that sought to explore the effects of types…

  11. Neuronal Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27…

  12. 77 FR 15398 - Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum, Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction, which will begin... the forum, and all five NTSB Board Members will serve as members of the Board of Inquiry. The forum...

  13. Interference by Process, Not Content, Determines Semantic Auditory Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic…

  14. Metronomic palliative chemotherapy in maxillary sinus tumor

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijay M.; Noronh, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Karpe, Ashay; Talreja, Vikas; Chandrasekharan, Arun; Dhumal, Sachin; Prabhash, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metronomic chemotherapy consisting of methotrexate and celecoxib recently has shown promising results in multiple studies in head and neck cancers. However, these studies have not included patients with maxillary sinus primaries. Hence, the role of palliative metronomic chemotherapy in patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma that is not amenable to radical therapy is unknown. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of carcinoma maxillary sinus patients who received palliative metronomic chemotherapy between August 2011 and August 2014. The demographic details, symptomatology, previous treatment details, indication for palliative chemotherapy, response to therapy, and overall survival (OS) details were extracted. SPSS version 16 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics have been performed. Survival analysis was done by Kaplan–Meier method. Results: Five patients had received metronomic chemotherapy. The median age was 60 years (range 37–64 years). The proportion of patients surviving at 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months were 40%, 40%, and 20%, respectively. The estimated median OS was 126 days (95% confidence interval 0–299.9 days). The estimated median survival in patients with an event-free period after the last therapy of <6 months was 45 days, whereas it was 409 days in patients with an event-free period postlast therapy above 6 months (P = 0.063). Conclusion: Metronomic chemotherapy in carcinoma maxillary sinus holds promise. It has activity similar to that seen in head and neck cancers and needs to be evaluated further in a larger cohort of patients.

  15. Revisiting the Factors Underlying Maxillary Midline Diastema

    PubMed Central

    Jaija, Abdullah M. Zakria; El-Beialy, Amr Ragab; Mostafa, Yehya A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to analyze the etiological factors underlying the presence of maxillary midline diastema in a sample of orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods. One hundred patients who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected from 1355 patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The pretreatment orthodontic records were analyzed. The width of the maxillary midline diastema was measured clinically with a digital caliper at two levels: the mesioincisal angles of the central incisors and five millimeters from the incisal edge. The two measurements were averaged, and patients with diastema of more than 0.5 millimeter in width were enrolled. Results. Diastema is a multifactorial clinical finding with more than one underlying etiological cause. The interrelationship between the familial pattern of midline diastema and the microdontia, macroglossia, labial frenum, and alveolar cleft conforms was clear. The effect of a mesiodens and the upper lateral incisor whether bilaterally missing, unerupted, or peg shaped was minimal. Conclusion. Etiological factors underlying maxillary midline diastema are interconnected. Using a checklist as a guide during handling maxillary midline diastema is important in the different stages of treatment. PMID:27239374

  16. Revisiting the Factors Underlying Maxillary Midline Diastema.

    PubMed

    Jaija, Abdullah M Zakria; El-Beialy, Amr Ragab; Mostafa, Yehya A

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to analyze the etiological factors underlying the presence of maxillary midline diastema in a sample of orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods. One hundred patients who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected from 1355 patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The pretreatment orthodontic records were analyzed. The width of the maxillary midline diastema was measured clinically with a digital caliper at two levels: the mesioincisal angles of the central incisors and five millimeters from the incisal edge. The two measurements were averaged, and patients with diastema of more than 0.5 millimeter in width were enrolled. Results. Diastema is a multifactorial clinical finding with more than one underlying etiological cause. The interrelationship between the familial pattern of midline diastema and the microdontia, macroglossia, labial frenum, and alveolar cleft conforms was clear. The effect of a mesiodens and the upper lateral incisor whether bilaterally missing, unerupted, or peg shaped was minimal. Conclusion. Etiological factors underlying maxillary midline diastema are interconnected. Using a checklist as a guide during handling maxillary midline diastema is important in the different stages of treatment. PMID:27239374

  17. Conservative management of a large maxillary cyst.

    PubMed

    Rees, J S

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the treatment of a large maxillary cyst by root canal treatment and decompression using a hollow drain made from surgical suction tubing. The rationale behind the use of this technique is reviewed and its advantages highlighted. PMID:9477796

  18. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    PubMed Central

    XUE, Junjie; YE, Niansong; YANG, Xin; WANG, Sheng; WANG, Jing; WANG, Yan; LI, Jingyu; MI, Congbo; LAI, Wenli

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress. Results The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises) stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. Conclusions Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction. PMID:24626249

  19. Clinical Use of Deferoxamine in Distraction Osteogenesis of Irradiated Bone.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Arash; Rapp, Scott; Donneys, Alexis; Buchman, Steven R; Wan, Derrick C

    2016-06-01

    The deleterious effects of radiotherapy, including hypovascularity and hypocellularity, have made distraction of irradiated bones challenging. Animal studies, however, have demonstrated adjunctive measures such as the administration of deferoxamine to significantly improve bone regeneration across irradiated distraction gaps. In this report, the authors demonstrate, for the first time, enhanced bone formation following deferoxamine application in a patient following distraction of a previously irradiated maxilla. Computed tomography imaging of the pterygomaxillary buttress on the side of administration revealed significantly increased bone area and density relative to the contralateral buttress. This is the first presentation of clinical deferoxamine use to promote bone formation following irradiated bone distraction and highlights the promise for this adjunctive measure to make outcomes after distraction of irradiated bone more reliable. PMID:27171947

  20. Memory as discrimination: what distraction reveals.

    PubMed

    Beaman, C Philip; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Hodgetts, Helen M; Marsh, John E; Jones, Dylan M

    2013-11-01

    Recalling information involves the process of discriminating between relevant and irrelevant information stored in memory. Not infrequently, the relevant information needs to be selected from among a series of related possibilities. This is likely to be particularly problematic when the irrelevant possibilities not only are temporally or contextually appropriate, but also overlap semantically with the target or targets. Here, we investigate the extent to which purely perceptual features that discriminate between irrelevant and target material can be used to overcome the negative impact of contextual and semantic relatedness. Adopting a distraction paradigm, it is demonstrated that when distractors are interleaved with targets presented either visually (Experiment 1) or auditorily (Experiment 2), a within-modality semantic distraction effect occurs; semantically related distractors impact upon recall more than do unrelated distractors. In the semantically related condition, the number of intrusions in recall is reduced, while the number of correctly recalled targets is simultaneously increased by the presence of perceptual cues to relevance (color features in Experiment 1 or speaker's gender in Experiment 2). However, as is demonstrated in Experiment 3, even presenting semantically related distractors in a language and a sensory modality (spoken Welsh) distinct from that of the targets (visual English) is insufficient to eliminate false recalls completely or to restore correct recall to levels seen with unrelated distractors . Together, the study shows how semantic and nonsemantic discriminability shape patterns of both erroneous and correct recall. PMID:23661190

  1. Disposed to distraction: genetic variation in the cholinergic system influences distractibility but not time-on-task effects.

    PubMed

    Berry, Anne S; Demeter, Elise; Sabhapathy, Surya; English, Brett A; Blakely, Randy D; Sarter, Martin; Lustig, Cindy

    2014-09-01

    Both the passage of time and external distraction make it difficult to keep attention on the task at hand. We tested the hypothesis that time-on-task and external distraction pose independent challenges to attention and that the brain's cholinergic system selectively modulates our ability to resist distraction. Participants with a polymorphism limiting cholinergic capacity (Ile89Val variant [rs1013940] of the choline transporter gene SLC5A7) and matched controls completed self-report measures of attention and a laboratory task that measured decrements in sustained attention with and without distraction. We found evidence that distraction and time-on-task effects are independent and that the cholinergic system is strongly linked to greater vulnerability to distraction. Ile89Val participants reported more distraction during everyday life than controls, and their task performance was more severely impacted by the presence of an ecologically valid video distractor (similar to a television playing in the background). These results are the first to demonstrate a specific impairment in cognitive control associated with the Ile89Val polymorphism and add to behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies indicating the cholinergic system's critical role in overcoming distraction. PMID:24666128

  2. Behavioral Distraction by Auditory Novelty Is Not Only about Novelty: The Role of the Distracter's Informational Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Elsley, Jane V.; Ljungberg, Jessica K.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected events often distract us. In the laboratory, novel auditory stimuli have been shown to capture attention away from a focal visual task and yield specific electrophysiological responses as well as a behavioral cost to performance. Distraction is thought to follow ineluctably from the sound's low probability of occurrence or, put more…

  3. Distraction by a monotube fixator to achieve limb lengthening: predictive factors for tibia trauma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Management of post trauma tibia bone gap varied with orthopedic surgeons’ experience and tools available. Study aims to determine predictive factors for distraction by a monotube fixator (DMF) outcome in post tibia trauma limb length discrepancy. Methods A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of post traumatized tibia bone gap and limb length discrepancy patients at tertiary hospitals. Patient’s informed consent and institutional ethical committee approval were obtained. Bio-data, clinical and healing indexes were documented. DMF was applied for patient that met inclusion criteria. The Statistic tests used included the Chi-square, the Student’s two-tailed t test, and the Wilcox on rank-sum test when appropriate. Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for poor outcome potential risk factors were recorded. Bivariate correlation and logistic regression were evaluated. Significance level was set at a p value <0.05. Results Thirty-six patients with mean age, 37.2 ± 10.3 year and male/female ratio of 1:1.25 had DMF applied. Motorcycle accident accounted for 50.0% of patients and diaphyseal segment was most commonly affected 25 (69.4%). The mean bone lengthened was 10.1 ± 4.0 cm (range: 5-21 cm) and mean duration of bone transport was 105.6 ± 38.2 days. The means of rate of distraction, healing index and percentage of lengthening were 0.99 ± 0.14 mm/day, 15.6 ± 4.3 days/cm and 38.0 ± 14.3 respectively. The mean follow up was 9.7 ±4.9 months (range: 2–17.0). Per operative complications varied and outcome was satisfactory in 30 (83.3%). Obesity (p <0.0001), multiple surgery (p = 0.012) and transfusion (p = 0.001) correlated to poor outcome. Percentage lengthening ≥ 50%, bone gap >10 cm, anemia, blood transfusion, general anesthesia administration, distraction rate >1 mm/day, osteomyelitis and prolong partial weight bearing were significant predictive factors for poor

  4. The costs of distraction: The effect of distraction during repeated picture processing on the LPP.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sandra; Kathmann, Norbert; Riesel, Anja

    2016-05-01

    Confrontation with anxiety-provoking situations is an effective treatment for anxiety disorders. However, underlying processes of the effects of exposure and its prevention by avoidance are barely understood. We investigated consequences of repeatedly withdrawing attention from or maintaining it to unpleasant images using ERPs. Thirty-five healthy participants were presented with neutral and unpleasant images in two experimental phases. During habituation phase, participants should attend to or distract themselves from pictures. The same picture-instruction combinations were presented three times. In the re-exposure phase, all pictures were presented again with the attend instruction. In the habituation phase, repeated presentation reduced sustained attention as reflected in decreased late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes when participants attended to pictures. This habituation effect was absent during distraction. In the re-exposure phase, increased LPP amplitudes were found for pictures with a distraction history. This highlights the role of avoidance in the development and maintenance of exaggerated attention to threatening stimuli. PMID:27064106

  5. Active and passive distraction in children undergoing wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan; Enskär, Karin; Hallqvist, Carina; Kokinsky, Eva

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test how distraction influences pain, distress and anxiety in children during wound care. Sixty participants aged 5-12 years were randomized to three groups: serious gaming, the use of lollipops and a control group. Self-reported pain, distress, anxiety and observed pain behaviour were recorded in conjunction with wound care. Serious gaming, an active distraction, reduced the observed pain behaviour and self-reported distress compared with the other groups. A sense of control and engagement in the distraction, together, may be the explanation for the different pain behaviours when children use serious gaming. PMID:22819747

  6. Electronic media use, reading, and academic distractibility in college youth.

    PubMed

    Levine, Laura E; Waite, Bradley M; Bowman, Laura L

    2007-08-01

    Activities that require focused attention, such as reading, are declining among American youth, while activities that depend on multitasking, such as instant messaging (IMing), are increasing. We hypothesized that more time spent IMing would relate to greater difficulty in concentrating on less externally stimulating tasks (e.g., academic reading). As hypothesized, the amount of time that young people spent IMing was significantly related to higher ratings of distractibility for academic tasks, while amount of time spent reading books was negatively related to distractibility. The distracting nature and the context of IMing in this population are described. PMID:17711365

  7. Effects of joint position on the distraction distance during grade III glenohumeral joint distraction in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Park, Sam-Sik; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Moon, Ok-Kon; Choi, Wan-Suk

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated the effects of joint position on the distraction distance during Grade III glenohumeral joint distraction in healthy individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty adults in their forties without shoulder disease were randomly divided into neutral position group (NPG; n = 7), resting position group (RPG; n = 7), and end range position group (ERPG; n = 6). After Kaltenborn Grade III distraction for 40s, the distance between glenoid fossa and humeral head was measured by ultrasound. [Results] The average distances between the humeral head and glenoid fossa before distraction were 2.86 ± 0.81, 3.21 ± 0.47, and 3.55 ± 0.59 mm for the NP, RP, and ERP groups. The distances after applying distraction were 3.12 ± 0.51, 3.86 ± 0.55, and 4.35 ± 0.32 mm. Between-group comparison after applying distraction revealed no significant differences between the NP and RP groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between the NP and RP groups, as well as between the NP and ERP groups. [Conclusion] Joint space was largest in ERP individuals when performing manual distraction. PMID:26644692

  8. A rare case of impacted maxillary first premolar.

    PubMed

    Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Săndulescu, Mihai

    2015-11-01

    Among the dental and maxillary anomalies, impacted teeth are frequently encountered. However, the incidence of impaction of maxillary first premolars is very low. Herewith, we report a rare case of impacted maxillary left first premolar, in a vertical position, with the apical two-thirds of the root situated in the angle between the medial and antero-lateral walls of the maxillary sinus. The persistence of the maxillary left primary canine was also observed. The cone beam computed tomography evaluation of the case identified the close proximity of the impacted tooth with the root of the permanent canine and the nasal fossa. The finding may be helpful to dental practitioners, not only to anticipate the difficulties which may occur during surgical interventions, but also to prevent possible complications, such as maxillary infections or root resorptions. PMID:25813918

  9. Effects of Airway Problems on Maxillary Growth: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gungor, Ahmet Yalcin; Turkkahraman, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    The volume of air passing through the nose and nasopharinx is limited by its shape and diameter. Continuous airflow through the nasal passage during breathing induces a constant stimulus for the lateral growth of maxilla and for lowering of the palatal vault. Maxillary morphological differences exist between patients with airway problems and control groups, identifying a potential etiological role in these patients. The purpose of this article was to review the literature on the interaction between airway problems and expressed maxillary morphology including specific dental and skeletal malocclusions. Statistically significant differences were found between patients with airway problems and control groups, in maxillary skeletal morphology including shorter maxillary length, more proclined maxillary incisors, thicker and longer soft palate, narrower maxillary arch and higher palatal vault. PMID:19756202

  10. Skeletal anchorage for orthodontic correction of maxillary protrusion with adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Tomohiro; Kuroda, Shingo; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2006-01-01

    Because the number of adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment is increasing, orthodontists are becoming more likely to encounter patients with adult periodontitis. However, it is sometimes difficult to establish anchorage because of poor periodontal tissues in patients with adult periodontitis. This article reports the successful use of skeletal anchorage to treat a maxillary protrusion case complicated by severe adult periodontitis. A female patient aged 50 years seven months showed a skeletal Class II jaw base relationship. A spacing of five mm in the upper anterior teeth with an overjet of 7.5 mm and overbite of four mm was observed. She had generalized horizontal bone loss in both arches, with vertical bone loss in the posterior segment. After periodontal treatment, miniplates were placed in the zygomatic process, and retraction and intrusion of the maxillary incisors were performed. After active treatment for 21 months, the upper incisors had been inclined 9.5 degrees lingually, intruded two mm at the apex, and good anterior occlusion was achieved. Acceptable occlusion and periodontal tissue were maintained after a retention period of two years. Our results suggest that skeletal anchorage is useful for retraction and intrusion of upper incisors in cases of maxillary protrusion with severe adult periodontitis. PMID:16448285

  11. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  12. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  13. Treatment of horizontal root-fractured maxillary incisors--a case report.

    PubMed

    Polat-Ozsoy, Omür; Gülsahi, Kamran; Veziroğlu, Firdevs

    2008-12-01

    Traumatic dental injuries often occur to the teeth and their supporting tissues and they are the main reasons for emergency visit to a dental clinic. Management of a fracture depends on its position and the extent of root involvement. Horizontal root fractures are not seen frequently and the treatment consists of reduction and long-term rigid fixation of the coronal segment. The present case demonstrates the successful management of two horizontally fractured maxillary central incisors with a follow-up period of 9 months. PMID:19021647

  14. Treatment of Bi-maxillary Protrusion with Impacted Maxillary and Mandibular Canines: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shdrma, Vipul Kumar; Yadav, Kirti; Nagar, Amit; Tandon, Pradeep; Chaturvedi, Thakur Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Bi-maxillary protrusion in adolescent patients has traditionally been treated by extraction of the four first premolars and retraction ofthe anterior teeth. The ectopic eruption of the maxiIlary permanent canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. Orthodontic treatment of the impacted teeth remains a challenge for clinicians. If it is associated with other dental and skeletalproblems, there will be further complications to the treatment plan. In such cases, if we extract canines, then problems with this approach are restricted to anatomical and functional limitations ofpremolars substitution of canines. Here, we are presenting a case report of bi-maxillary dento-alveolar protrusion with the impacted maxillary and mandibular left canines and its management. PMID:27319045

  15. Distraction As A Source Of Drive In Social Facilitation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert Steven; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Demonstrates that in a replication of a well known social facilitation study, subjects show indications across several measures of being more distracted in audience conditions than when they are alone. Subjects were 55 college students. (MP)

  16. [Possibilities and limitations of ultrasonography in corticotomy/callus distraction].

    PubMed

    Gruber, G; Konermann, W

    2002-02-01

    Sonographic examination can yield additional information free of radiation in the course of corticotomy/callus distraction. The echogenic structures of the cortical structure and the callus between can be scanned at the area of the callus distraction by ultrasound examination. Individual sectional planes are focussed. They are different from the standardized ultrasound examination. Depending on when the corticotomy was performed, the callus between the cortical structures can be visualized sonographically. First it is echo poor, and then it becomes more and more echogenic. The ultrasound examination can give additional information during the first 4 weeks after corticotomy/callus distraction. A deviation of the axis in the area of callus distraction cannot be judged reliably. A sonographically guided division into three stages is possible. PMID:11963483

  17. Why segment the maxilla between laterals and canines?

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Lucas Senhorinho; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Sullivan, Steven M.; Martins, Luana Maria Rosário; Ávila, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Maxillary surgery on a bone segment enables movement in the sagittal and vertical planes. When performed on multiple segments, it further provides movement in the transverse plane. Typical sites for interdental osteotomies are between laterals and canines, premolars and canines, or between incisors. Additionally, osteotomies can be bilateral, unilateral or asymmetric. The ability to control intercanine width, buccolingual angulation of incisors, and correct Bolton discrepancy are some of the advantages of maxillary segmentation between laterals and canines. Objective: This article describes important features to be considered in making a clinical decision to segment the maxilla between laterals and canines when treating a dentoskeletal deformity. It further discusses the history of this surgical approach, the indications for its clinical use, the technique used to implement it, as well as its advantages, disadvantages, complications and stability. It is therefore hoped that this paper will contribute to disseminate information on this topic, which will inform the decision-making process of those professionals who wish to make use of this procedure in their clinical practice. Conclusions: Segmental maxillary osteotomy between laterals and canines is a versatile technique with several indications. Furthermore, it offers a host of advantages compared with single-piece osteotomy, or between canines and premolars. PMID:27007769

  18. Flux distraction effect on magnetoelectric laminate sensors and gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ying; Gao, Junqi; Wang, Yaojin; Hasanyan, Davresh; Finkel, Peter; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.

    2013-10-01

    A magnetic flux distraction effect caused by a nearby metallic material was investigated for Metglas/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 laminated magnetoelectric (ME) sensors. Using flux distraction, a ME sensor can perform an accurate search for metallic targets of different dimensions at various distances. Detection results and simulations were in good agreement. The findings demonstrate an effective means to employ stationary ME sensors and gradiometers for magnetic search applications.

  19. Distracted Driving in Elderly and Middle-Aged Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kelsey R.; Johnson, Amy M.; Emerson, Jamie L.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Boer, Erwin R.

    2011-01-01

    Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an instrumented vehicle (IV) in 86 elderly (mean = 72.5 years, SD = 5.0 years) and 51 middle-aged drivers (mean = 53.7 years, SD = 9.3 year) under a concurrent auditory-verbal processing load created by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Compared to baseline (no-task) driving performance, distraction was associated with reduced steering control in both groups, with middle-aged drivers showing a greater increase in steering variability. The elderly drove slower and showed decreased speed variability during distraction compared to middle-aged drivers. They also tended to “freeze up”, spending significantly more time holding the gas pedal steady, another tactic that may mitigate time pressured integration and control of information, thereby freeing mental resources to maintain situation awareness. While 39% of elderly and 43% of middle-aged drivers committed significantly more driving safety errors during distraction, 28% and 18%, respectively, actually improved, compatible with allocation of attention resources to safety critical tasks under a cognitive load. PMID:22269561

  20. Deviant sounds yield distraction irrespective of the sounds' informational value.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-06-01

    Oddball studies show that rare and unexpected changes in an otherwise repetitive or structured sequence of task-irrelevant sounds (deviant sounds among standard sounds) ineluctably break through attentional filters and yield longer response times in an ongoing task. Although this deviance distraction effect has generally been thought of as an involuntary and adaptive phenomenon, recent studies questioned this view by reporting that deviance distraction is observed when sounds predict the occurrence of a target stimulus (informative sounds) but that it disappears when sounds do not convey this information (uninformative sounds). Here, I challenge this conclusion and suggest that the apparent absence of deviance distraction with uninformative sounds results in fact from 2 opposite effects: deviance distraction when the previous trial involved a target and required responding, and a speeding up of responses by deviant sound following trials involving no target and requiring the withholding of responses. Data from a new experiment, new analyses of the data from 3 earlier studies, and the modeling of these data all converge in suggesting the existence of deviance distraction impervious to the sounds' informational value. These results undermine the proposition of a late top-down control mechanism gating behavioral distraction as a function of the sounds' informative value. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26727016

  1. Memory load modulates graded changes in distracter filtering.

    PubMed

    Shimi, Andria; Woolrich, Mark W; Mantini, Dante; Astle, Duncan E

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to maintain small amounts of information in mind is critical for successful performance on a wide range of tasks. However, it remains unclear exactly how this maintenance is achieved. One possibility is that it is brought about using mechanisms that overlap with those used for attentional control. That is, the same mechanisms that we use to regulate and optimize our sensory processing may be recruited when we maintain information in visual short-term memory (VSTM). We aimed to test this hypothesis by exploring how distracter filtering is modified by concurrent VSTM load. We presented participants with sequences of target items, the order and location of which had to be maintained in VSTM. We also presented distracter items alongside the targets, and these distracters were graded such that they could be either very similar or dissimilar to the targets. We analyzed scalp potentials using a novel multiple regression approach, which enabled us to explore the neural mechanisms by which the participants accommodated these variable distracters on a trial-to-trial basis. Critically, the effect of distracter filtering interacted with VSTM load; the same graded changes in perceptual similarity exerted effects of a different magnitude depending upon how many items participants were already maintaining in VSTM. These data provide compelling evidence that maintaining information in VSTM recruits an overlapping set of attentional control mechanisms that are otherwise used for distracter filtering. PMID:25610387

  2. Unilateral mandibular ramus elongation by intraoral distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kofod, Thomas; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Pedersen, Thomas Klit; Jensen, John

    2005-03-01

    Successful correction of facial asymmetry by mandibular distraction osteogenesis relies on mastering vector control. Lack of necessary vector control continues to compromise the treatment modality. The purpose of this study was to describe a new simplified method for vector transfer and to evaluate this method according to the outcome and the efficacy of distraction osteogenesis in the correction of unilateral mandibular hypoplasia and asymmetry. Twenty-seven patients with unilateral hypoplasia of the mandibular ramus underwent unilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis with intraoral distraction devices. Posterior-anterior and lateral cephalograms were analyzed by digitalization. Changes in sagittal, vertical, and transversal linear and angular dimensions after the distraction treatment were evaluated by measurements performed on headfilms taken before and after surgery. Means and variances were calculated for selected cephalometric variables for each time point. The differences between the control and the treatment side were calculated, statistically described, and compared with a paired Student t test. Correction of the mandibular asymmetry, chin position, and the canting of the occlusal plane was obtained in all patients clinically, as well as radiographically, by the use of intraoral unidirectional distraction osteogenesis. PMID:15750421

  3. Segmental neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Galhotra, Virat; Sheikh, Soheyl; Jindal, Sanjeev; Singla, Anshu

    2014-07-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare disorder, characterized by neurofibromas or cafι-au-lait macules limited to one region of the body. Its occurrence on the face is extremely rare and only few cases of segmental neurofibromatosis over the face have been described so far. We present a case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the buccal mucosa, tongue, cheek, ear, and neck on the right side of the face. PMID:25565748

  4. CT maxillary sinus evaluation-A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Paula; Faria-Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana-Cristina; Felino, António

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study. The total sample of 504 patients and their CT was included in this study. The patients were from a private dental clinic, specializing in oral surgery, where the first complaint was not directly related to sinus disease, but with dental pathology. For each patient, the etiological factors of maxillary sinusitis and the imaging CT findings were analyzed. All the axial, coronal and sagittal CT slices were evaluated and general data were registered. The latter was selected based on the maxillary sinus CT published literature. Results 32.40% of patients presented normal sinus (without any etiological factor associated), 29.00% showed presence of etiological and imaging findings in the maxillary sinus, 20.60% had only imaging changes in the maxillary sinus and 18.00% of patients presented only etiological factors and no change in the maxillary sinus. Conclusions Radiological imaging is an important tool for establishing the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology. These results indicate that the CT scan should be an excellent tool for complement the odontogenic sinusitis diagnosis. Key words: Maxillary sinusitis/etiology, odontogenic, computed tomography, maxillary sinus. PMID:25858084

  5. Modified transversal sagittal maxillary expander for correction of upper midline deviation associated with maxillary arch deficiency.

    PubMed

    Maspero, C; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Farronato, G

    2015-04-01

    The transversal sagittal maxillary expander (TSME) is a fixed device designed to develop arch form in patients with constricted dental arches. The present article describes a modified TSME appliance, the activation method, the therapeutic benefits as well as clinical advantages. The appliance has two molar bands, a Hyrax-type transverse expansion screw, one 0.045-inch wire extending from the molar band to the palatal surface of the central incisor in the emiarch crossbite and an 8 mm-Hyrax-type screw attached to this wire between the molar band and the incisor. A buccal arm with a terminal loop is welded to the band in the emiarch and it is extended to the labial surface on the central incisor on the side opposite to the crossbite and the maxillary midline deviation. The modified TSME appliance described in this paper are specifically designed for anteroposterior and transverse development. It has a sagittal effect on the maxillary alveolar process and at the same time allow to restore the correct transverse maxillary diameters. PMID:25747426

  6. Cisplatin inhibits bone healing during distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Stine, Kimo C; Wahl, Elizabeth C; Liu, Lichu; Skinner, Robert A; Vanderschilden, Jacquelyn; Bunn, Robert C; Montgomery, Corey O; Suva, Larry J; Aronson, James; Becton, David L; Nicholas, Richard W; Swearingen, Christopher J; Lumpkin, Charles K

    2014-03-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor affecting children and adolescents. Many patients are treated with a combination of chemotherapy, resection, and limb salvage protocols. Surgical reconstructions after tumor resection include structural allografts, non-cemented endoprostheses, and distraction osteogenesis (DO), which require direct bone formation. Although cisplatin (CDP) is extensively used for OS chemotherapy, the effects on bone regeneration are not well studied. The effects of CDP on direct bone formation in DO were compared using two dosing regimens and both C57BL/6 (B6) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 knockout (TNFR1KO) mice, as CDP toxicity is associated with elevated TNF levels. Detailed evaluation of the five-dose CDP regimen (2 mg/kg/day), demonstrated significant decreases in new bone formation in the DO gaps of CDP treated versus vehicle treated mice (p < 0.001). Further, no significant inhibitory effects from the five-dose CDP regimen were observed in TNFR1KO mice. The two-dose regimen significantly inhibited new bone formation in B6 mice. These results demonstrate that CDP has profound short term negative effects on the process of bone repair in DO. These data provide the mechanistic basis for modeling peri-operative chemotherapy doses and schedules and may provide new opportunities to identify molecules that spare normal cells from the inhibitory effects of CDP. PMID:24259375

  7. Segmental neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Toy, Brian

    2003-10-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare variant of neurofibromatosis in which skin lesions are confined to a circumscribed body segment. A case of a 72-year-old woman with this condition is presented. Clinical features and genetic evidence are reviewed. PMID:14594599

  8. Active Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary. We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach. PMID:20686671

  9. Cholesteatoma of Maxillary Sinus: What Is the Best Surgical Approach?

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyun; Shin, Ji Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-06-01

    Cholesteatoma is a relatively common disease entity within the middle ear or mastoid cavity but cholesteatoma of the paranasal sinuses is a rare diseases entity, especially in the maxillary sinus. As the authors recently experienced a patient of maxillary sinus cholesteatoma, the authors tried to review all the literatures previously reported on the "Cholesteatoma of the maxillary sinus." The aim of this study was to describe authors' recent experience and review previously reported patients of cholesteatoma of the maxillary sinus. Additionally, it is to describe the clinical features focusing on the computed tomography findings and to elucidate which approach may be best for complete excision. The authors thoroughly reviewed 10 patient reports written in English regarding the cholesteatoma of maxillary sinus which have been published since the 1980s. Based on authors' review, the authors suggest some conclusions. First, the diagnosis of cholesteatoma, although rare, should be considered for any slowly expansile lesion of the maxillary sinus. Second, there was no specific computed tomography finding that was helpful for the diagnosis of maxillary sinus cholesteatoma. Last, the surgical approach to cholesteatoma of the maxillary sinus should be chosen to allow visibility and complete removal according to the size, location, and extent of diseases. PMID:27171957

  10. Metastatic Lung Carcinoma Involving the Maxillary Gingiva.

    PubMed

    Sawheny, Eva; Khawar, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Shoaib; Jones, Kellie

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic spread of malignant tumors to the oral soft tissue is rare and account for 0.1% of all oral malignancies. Metastatic spread to the oral soft tissue can present as dental infections, which in turn can create a diagnostic challenge. Metastasis to the oral soft tissue from lung cancer is a rare situation. Here we describe a 52 year-old male patient treated initially with antibiotics for presumed oral abscess, who later was found to have metastatic lung cancer involving the maxillary gingiva. PMID:27027144

  11. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis obscured by midfacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Simuntis, Regimantas; Kubilius, Ričardas; Ryškienė, Silvija; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis whose sinonasal symptomatology was thought to be the consequence of a previous midfacial trauma. The patient was admitted to the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery after more than 10 years of exacerbations of sinonasal symptoms, which began to plague soon after a facial contusion. We decided to perform CT of paranasal sinuses, and despite the absence dental symptomatology, the dental origin of sinusitis was discovered. The majority of sinonasal symptoms resolved after appropriate dental treatment, and there was no need for nasal or sinus surgery. PMID:26183855

  12. Maxillary ameloblastic fibroma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Miles, C R; Bell, C M; Pinkerton, M E; Soukup, J W

    2011-07-01

    A 4-year-old spayed female Golden Retriever was presented for evaluation of a rostral maxillary gingival mass. An en bloc resection was performed after histologic diagnosis of ameloblastic fibroma from an incisional biopsy specimen. Histologically, the tumor was composed of (1) poorly differentiated vimentin-positive mesenchymal cells that surrounded islands and (2) thin anastomosing trabeculae of odontogenic epithelium that variably coexpressed pancytokeratin and vimentin. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of ameloblastic fibroma in a dog. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings in this case are compared to those in other domestic animals and humans. PMID:20861502

  13. Benign schwannoma of the maxillary antrum

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Oshin; Desai, Dinkar; Bhandarkar, Gowri P.; Paul, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma also known commonly as neurilemmoma and schwann cell tumor is a benign nerve sheath tumor. About 1/3rd cases of schwannoma arise from the head and neck region but rarely from the nasal and paranasal sinuses. The recurrence rate in these cases has reported to be very rare. We report a rare case of schwannoma in a 60-year-old woman arising from the maxillary sinus further eroding the orbital floor and nasal bone. We have also described the clinical presentation, radiological, histological findings, and management of the case. PMID:27095911

  14. Impact of Distracted Driving on Safety and Traffic Flow

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L.; Garner, Annie A.; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A.; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C.; Ball, Karlene K.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Fine, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16 to 25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner

  15. Impact of distracted driving on safety and traffic flow.

    PubMed

    Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L; Garner, Annie A; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C; Ball, Karlene K; Sisiopiku, Virginia P; Fine, Philip R

    2013-12-01

    Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16-25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) Poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner

  16. Ectopic 3rd Molar Tooth in the Maxillary Antrum

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Seidu A.; Oketade, Ifeoluwa O.; Osunde, Otasowie D.

    2014-01-01

    Location of ectopic tooth in a nondentate area like the maxillary antrum is rare. A 17-year-old boy, with one year history of recurrent right facial swelling and radiographic finding of a maxillary third molar tooth located at the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum, is presented. Under endotracheal intubation, the tooth was extracted through a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy approach and patient had an uneventful recovery and has been symptom free for eight months. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum is rare and is commonest with maxillary third molar. It may be symptomless but is more commonly associated with inflammatory symptoms. The treatment of choice is surgical excision which is mostly carried out with Caldwell-Luc approach, even though endoscopic approach is being reported. PMID:25132999

  17. Ectopic 3rd molar tooth in the maxillary antrum.

    PubMed

    Bello, Seidu A; Oketade, Ifeoluwa O; Osunde, Otasowie D

    2014-01-01

    Location of ectopic tooth in a nondentate area like the maxillary antrum is rare. A 17-year-old boy, with one year history of recurrent right facial swelling and radiographic finding of a maxillary third molar tooth located at the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum, is presented. Under endotracheal intubation, the tooth was extracted through a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy approach and patient had an uneventful recovery and has been symptom free for eight months. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum is rare and is commonest with maxillary third molar. It may be symptomless but is more commonly associated with inflammatory symptoms. The treatment of choice is surgical excision which is mostly carried out with Caldwell-Luc approach, even though endoscopic approach is being reported. PMID:25132999

  18. A combined frontal and maxillary sinus approach for repulsion of the third maxillary molar in a horse.

    PubMed

    Boutros, C P; Koenig, J B

    2001-04-01

    The 3rd maxillary molar is a difficult tooth to remove by extraction or repulsion. A combined frontal and maxillary approach provides good exposure for repulsion of this tooth, debridement of the sinuses, and placement of an alveolar seal. The improved exposure should minimize operative difficulties and postoperative complications. PMID:11326631

  19. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-01-01

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation. PMID:24577171

  20. Maxillary sinus carcinoma: result of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, H.; Horiuchi, J.; Suzuki, S.; Shioda, S.; Enomoto, S.

    1984-07-01

    This hundred and sixteen patients with carcinoma of the maxillary sinus received primary therapy consisting of external beam irradiation alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy at the Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital, between 1953 and 1982. In our institution, methods of treating cancer of the maxillary sinus have been changed from time to time and showed different control rates and clinical courses. An actuarial 10-year survival rate of 21% has been obtained by the megavoltage irradiation alone as well as 34% actuarial 10-year survival rate by megavoltage irradiation with surgery. After the introduction of conservative surgery followed by conventional trimodal combination therapy, the local control rate has been improved. The amount of functional, cosmetic, and brain damages have been remarkably decreased by this mode of therapy. The actuarial five year survival rate was 67%. In addition, along with the improvement of the local control rate, the control of nodal and distant organ metastases have been emerging as one of the important contributions to the prognosis of this disease.

  1. Maxillary sinus disease of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Pushkar; Murad, Haitham

    2004-04-01

    Odontogenic sinusitis is a well-recognized condition and accounts for approximately 10% to 12% of cases of maxillary sinusitis. An odontogenic source should be considered in patients with symptoms of maxillary sinusitis who give a history positive for odontogenic infection or dentoalveolar surgery or who are resistant to standard sinusitis therapy. Diagnosis usually requires a thorough dental and clinical evaluation with appropriate radiographs. Common causes of odontogenic sinusitis include dental abscesses and periodontal disease perforating the Schneidarian membrane, sinus perforations during tooth extraction, or irritation and secondary infection caused by intra-antral foreign bodies. The typical odontogenic infection is now considered to be a mixed aerobic-anaerobic infection, with the latter outnumbering the aerobic species involved. Most common organisms include anaerobic streptococci, Bacteroides, Proteus, and Coliform bacilli. Typical treatment of atraumatic odontogenic sinusitis is a 3- to 4- week trial of antibiotic therapy with adequate oral and sinus flora coverage. When indicated, surgical removal of the offending odontogenic foreign body (primary or delayed) or treatment of the odontogenic pathologic conditions combined with medical therapy is usually sufficient to cause resolution of symptoms. If an oroantral communication is suspected, prompt surgical management is recommended to reduce the likelihood of causing chronic sinus disease. PMID:15064067

  2. Treatment of C2 body fracture with unusual distractive and rotational components resulting in gross instability

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Darryl; Shin, Samuel S; Patel, Rakesh; Park, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Cervical fractures can result in severe neurological compromise and even death. One of the most commonly injured segments is the C2 vertebrae, which most frequently involves the odontoid process. In this report, we present the unusual case of a 28-year-old female who sustained a C2 vertebral body fracture (comminuted transverse fracture through the body and both transverse processes) that had both a significant distractive and rotational component, causing the fracture to be highly unstable. Application of halo bracing was unsuccessful. The patient subsequently required a C1-C4 posterior spinal fusion. Follow-up computer tomography imaging confirmed fusion and the patient did well clinically thereafter. PMID:24147270

  3. Masticatory Mechanics of a Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis Site: Interfragmentary Micromovement

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zongyang; Rafferty, Katherine L.; Egbert, Mark A.; Herring, Susan W.

    2007-01-01

    Micromovement at a fracture or distraction osteogenesis (DO) site may play an important role in bone formation and healing. Mastication is an important physiological process that can cause substantial micromovement at a mandibular disjunction. The purpose of this study is to characterize and quantify the micromovement caused by mastication. Eighteen pigs, divided into three groups based on duration of consolidation, received a unilateral (right) mandibular angle distraction osteogenesis protocol. Differential variable reluctance transducers (DVRTs) and ultrasound crystals were used to measure the change of gap width as well as interfragmentary movement during mastication. Synchronized chewing video and interfragmentary movement recordings were used to determine the magnitude and direction of micromovement at different phases of the chewing cycle. The magnitude of micromovement did not increase significantly with distraction up to almost 5 mm, but did decrease gradually with consolidation. The average micromovement magnitude during the distraction phase was 0.2-0.3 mm, equaling 50,000-250,000 microstrain (με) on interfragmentary tissue. The dominant deformation pattern was bending in the sagittal plane. The most common direction of bending at the power stroke of chewing was concave dorsally, i.e. superior shortening and inferior lengthening. These findings elucidate how masticatory mechanics affect a mandibular distraction site, and the measurements may be useful for future simulation studies. PMID:17532283

  4. Miniature osmotic actuators for controlled maxillofacial distraction osteogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Hsien; Su, Yu-Chuan

    2010-06-01

    We have successfully demonstrated miniature actuators that are capable of converting chemical potential directly into steady mechanical movements for maxillofacial distraction osteogenesis. Pistons and diaphragms powered by osmosis are employed to provide the desired linear and volumetric displacements for bone distraction and potentially the release of bone morphogenetic proteins, respectively. The cylindrical-shaped miniature actuators are composed of polymeric materials and fabricated by molding and assembly processes. In the prototype demonstration, vapor-permeable thermoplastic polyurethane was employed as the semi-permeable material. 3 cm long actuators with piston and diaphragm radii of 1 mm and 500 µm, respectively, were fabricated and characterized. The maximum distraction force from the piston-type actuator is found to be 6 N while the piston travels at a constant velocity of 32 µm h-1 (or 0.77 mm/day) for about 1 week. Meanwhile, the release rate from the diaphragm-type actuator is measured to be constant, 0.15 µl h-1 (or 3.6 µl/day), throughout the experiment. Moreover, the sizes and output characteristics of the self-regulating actuators could readily be tailored to realize optimal distraction rate, rhythm and osteogenic activity. As such, the demonstrated miniature osmotic actuators could potentially serve as versatile apparatuses for maxillofacial distraction osteogenesis and fulfill the needs of a variety of implantable and biomedical applications.

  5. Relationships between tissue dilatation and differentiation in distraction osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Elise F.; Longaker, Michael T.; Carter, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical factors modulate the morphogenesis and regeneration of mesenchymally derived tissues via processes mediated by the extracellular matrix (ECM). In distraction osteogenesis, large volumes of new bone are created through discrete applications of tensile displacement across an osteotomy gap. Although many studies have characterized the matrix, cellular and molecular biology of distraction osteogenesis, little is known about relationships between these biological phenomena and the local physical cues generated by distraction. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to characterize the local physical environment created within the osteotomy gap during long bone distraction osteogenesis. Using a computational approach, we quantified spatial and temporal profiles of three previously identified mechanical stimuli for tissue differentiation–pressure, tensile strain and fluid flow–as well as another candidate stimulus–tissue dilatation (volumetric strain). Whereas pressure and fluid velocity throughout the regenerate decayed to less than 31% of initial values within 20 min following distraction, tissue dilatation increased with time, reaching steady state values as high as 43% strain. This dilatation created large reductions and large gradients in cell and ECM densities. When combined with previous findings regarding the effects of strain and of cell and ECM densities on cell migration, proliferation and differentiation, these results indicate two mechanisms by which tissue dilatation may be a key stimulus for bone regeneration: (1) stretching of cells and (2) altering cell and ECM densities. These results are used to suggest experiments that can provide a more mechanistic understanding of the role of tissue dilatation in bone regeneration. PMID:16330195

  6. Early sensory processing deficits predict sensitivity to distraction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smucny, Jason; Olincy, Ann; Eichman, Lindsay C; Lyons, Emma; Tregellas, Jason R

    2013-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia frequently report difficulties paying attention during important tasks, because they are distracted by noise in the environment. The neurobiological mechanism underlying this problem is, however, poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine if early sensory processing deficits contribute to sensitivity to distracting noise in schizophrenia. To that end, we examined the effect of environmentally relevant distracting noise on performance of an attention task in 19 patients with schizophrenia and 22 age and gender-matched healthy comparison subjects. Using electroencephalography, P50 auditory gating ratios also were measured in the same subjects and were examined for their relationship to noise-induced changes in performance on the attention task. Positive symptoms also were evaluated in patients. Distracting noise caused a greater increase in reaction time in patients, relative to comparison subjects, on the attention task. Higher P50 auditory gating ratios also were observed in patients. P50 gating ratio significantly correlated with the magnitude of noise-induced increase in reaction time. Noise-induced increase in reaction time was associated with delusional thoughts in patients. P50 ratios were associated with delusional thoughts and hallucinations in patients. In conclusion, the observation of noise effects on attention in patients is consistent with subjective reports from patients. The observed relationship between noise effects on reaction time and P50 auditory gating supports the hypothesis that early inhibitory processing deficits may contribute to susceptibility to distraction in the illness. PMID:23590872

  7. Changing Practice in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Reducing Distractions for Patient Safety.

    PubMed

    Hay, James M; Barnette, William; Shaw, Sandra Egeto

    2016-01-01

    Failure in communication during the process of delivering healthcare can have dangerous repercussions. Specifically, failure in interdisciplinary team communication contributes to lapses in patient care. Distractions in procedural areas disrupt team communication. Application of a structured communication algorithm creates agreed-upon cues that promote team communication and facilitate clinical decision making. Frequent disruptions before, during, and after gastro-intestinal endoscopy procedures place veterans at risk for an error. A hierarchical culture promotes intimidation and reduces the likelihood that staff will speak up for patient safety. An endoscopy procedure area implemented a "sterile cockpit" methodology to reduce the number of distractions during procedures. Data collected from a self-reported safety awareness were measured by two different questionnaires and collected through observation of actual practice. Improved awareness of distraction and the impact on patient safety was reported, with a reduction from 24 observed interruptions to zero in 9 months. After reducing distractions in the procedural area, there is a perception of improved nursing quality of care. Additional support is required to consistently remove electronic distractions during a procedure. PMID:27258458

  8. Gray level co-occurrence and random forest algorithm-based gender determination with maxillary tooth plaster images.

    PubMed

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet; Kök, Hatice

    2016-06-01

    Gender is one of the intrinsic properties of identity, with performance enhancement reducing the cluster when a search is performed. Teeth have durable and resistant structure, and as such are important sources of identification in disasters (accident, fire, etc.). In this study, gender determination is accomplished by maxillary tooth plaster models of 40 people (20 males and 20 females). The images of tooth plaster models are taken with a lighting mechanism set-up. A gray level co-occurrence matrix of the image with segmentation is formed and classified via a Random Forest (RF) algorithm by extracting pertinent features of the matrix. Automatic gender determination has a 90% success rate, with an applicable system to determine gender from maxillary tooth plaster images. PMID:27104495

  9. Nasal base, maxillary, and infraorbital implants--alloplastic.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, U T

    1991-01-01

    The aesthetic surgery of the facial skeletal contour requires either the performance of ostectomies of excessively prominent segments or the augmentation of retruded segments with organic or synthetic material, in order to achieve balanced tridimensional relations of each segment with regard to the total facial unit. Craniomaxillofacial surgeries are necessary in major malformations or in those combined with malocclusion. In the nasal dorsum or tip, the author prefers the use of cartilage, because synthetic materials need adequate soft-tissue bulk for cover to be inserted without tension and absence of passive mobility of the reception site. For malar augmentation, first proposed by the author and independently by Spadafora in 1971, for chin augmentation up to 8 mm, and for augmentation of the mandibular angle, the author prefers silicone implants because they do not change in shape or volume, may be premanufactured or custom-made, have a similar consistency to that of bone, and do not support bacterial growth. On the other hand, autologous bone grafts adapt less to curved bony surfaces, have an erratic rate of resorption, and need an additional surgical step for removal with the corresponding morbidity and scar. Subperiosteal insertion is preferred because it confers greater stability and the cavity is easier to dissect without soft-tissue damage. Although bone erosion may occur, with over 1200 implants clinically no major change in the soft-tissue contour has been observed, nor has the author been consulted for late complication. In the malar region this may be due to the large surface of the implant and absence of muscular pressure. In the chin, an insertion over the site of the dental roots is avoided. For midface augmentation the following implants are used: (1) The premaxillary lower nasal base implant, proposed in 1971, is indicated to correct a concave midfacial profile, frequent in Asian, black, and Mestizo patients from Latin America and in Caucasian

  10. The disruptive – and beneficial – effects of distraction on older adults’ cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Jennifer C.; Hasher, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Older adults’ decreased ability to inhibit irrelevant information makes them especially susceptible to the negative effects of simultaneously occurring distraction. For example, older adults are more likely than young adults to process distraction presented during a task, which can result in delayed response times, decreased reading comprehension, disrupted problem solving, and reduced memory for target information. However, there is also some evidence that the tendency to process distraction can actually facilitate older adults’ performance when the distraction is congruent with the target information. For example, congruent distraction can speed response times, increase reading comprehension, benefit problem solving, and reduce forgetting in older adults. We review data showing that incongruent distraction can harm older adults’ performance, as well as evidence suggesting that congruent distraction can play a supportive role for older adults by facilitating processing of target information. Potential applications of distraction processing are also discussed. PMID:24634662

  11. Randomized clinical trial of musical distraction with and without headphones for adolescents' immunization pain.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsdóttir, Ólöf; Kristjánsdóttir, Guðrún

    2011-03-01

    Distraction has shown to be a helpful pain intervention for children; however, few investigations have studied the effectiveness of this method with adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an easy and practical musical distraction in reducing adolescents' immunization pain. Furthermore, to examine whether musical distraction techniques (with or without headphones) used influenced the pain outcome. Hundred and eighteen 14-year-old adolescents, scheduled for polio immunization, participated. Adolescents were randomly assigned to one of three research groups; musical distraction with headphones (n=38), musical distraction without headphones (n=41) and standard care control (n=39). Results showed adolescents receiving musical distraction were less likely to report pain compared to the control group, controlling for covariates. Comparing musical distraction techniques, eliminating headphone emerged as a significant predictor of no pain. Results suggest that an easy and practical musical distraction intervention, implemented without headphones, can give some pain relief to adolescents during routine vaccination. PMID:20409050

  12. Video surveillance for monitoring driver's fatigue and distraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Moreno, R.; Orjuela, S. A.; Van Hese, P.; Prieto, F. A.; Grisales, V. H.; Philips, W.

    2012-06-01

    Fatigue and distraction effects in drivers represent a great risk for road safety. For both types of driver behavior problems, image analysis of eyes, mouth and head movements gives valuable information. We present in this paper a system for monitoring fatigue and distraction in drivers by evaluating their performance using image processing. We extract visual features related to nod, yawn, eye closure and opening, and mouth movements to detect fatigue as well as to identify diversion of attention from the road. We achieve an average of 98.3% and 98.8% in terms of sensitivity and specificity for detection of driver's fatigue, and 97.3% and 99.2% for detection of driver's distraction when evaluating four video sequences with different drivers.

  13. Driver distraction and driver inattention: definition, relationship and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Regan, Michael A; Hallett, Charlene; Gordon, Craig P

    2011-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that driver distraction and driver inattention are leading causes of vehicle crashes and incidents. However, as applied psychological constructs, they have been inconsistently defined and the relationship between them remains unclear. In this paper, driver distraction and driver inattention are defined and a taxonomy is presented in which driver distraction is distinguished from other forms of driver inattention. The taxonomy and the definitions provided are intended (a) to provide a common framework for coding different forms of driver inattention as contributing factors in crashes and incidents, so that comparable estimates of their role as contributing factors can be made across different studies, and (b) to make it possible to more accurately interpret and compare, across studies, the research findings for a given form of driver inattention. PMID:21658505

  14. Differences in mandibular distraction osteogenesis after corticotomy and osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J.; Li, J.; Wang, D.; Buckley, M. J.; Agarwal, S.

    2016-01-01

    Corticotomy or osteotomy was performed on opposing sides of the mandibles in 18 goats. A custom-made distractor was used to lengthen the mandible at a rate of 1 mm/day for 10 days (total 10 mm elongation). Six goats were sacrificed respectively at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after completion of distraction. The distracted calluses were harvested and processed for radiographic, histologic, and scanning electron microscopic evaluation as well as Ca/P ratio analysis. The regenerate bone in the corticotomy side showed more bone formation and earlier mineralization than in the osteotomy side. The results of this study suggest that preservation of intramedullary vessels is beneficial to bone regeneration following mandibular osteodistraction, and that performing corticotomy may be a simple but effective way to promote the maturity of the distracted callus and shorten the time for fixation. PMID:12102418

  15. Differences in mandibular distraction osteogenesis after corticotomy and osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Li, J; Wang, D; Buckley, M J; Agarwal, S

    2002-04-01

    Corticotomy or osteotomy was performed on opposing sides of the mandibles in 18 goats. A custom-made distractor was used to lengthen the mandible at a rate of 1 mm/day for 10 days (total 10 mm elongation). Six goats were sacrificed respectively at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after completion of distraction. The distracted calluses were harvested and processed for radiographic, histologic, and scanning electron microscopic evaluation as well as Ca/P ratio analysis. The regenerate bone in the corticotomy side showed more bone formation and earlier mineralization than in the osteotomy side. The results of this study suggest that preservation of intramedullary vessels is beneficial to bone regeneration following mandibular osteodistraction, and that performing corticotomy may be a simple but effective way to promote the maturity of the distracted callus and shorten the time for fixation. PMID:12102418

  16. The prevalence of distraction among passenger vehicle drivers: a roadside observational approach

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving contributes to a large proportion of motor vehicle crashes, yet little is known about the prevalence of distracted driving and the specific types of distracting behaviors. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of driver distraction using a roadside observational study design. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving direct roadside observation was conducted at 11 selected intersections. Trained investigators observed a sample of passenger vehicles and recorded distraction-related behaviors, driver characteristics, and contextual factors such as vehicle speed and traffic flow. Results Of the 3,265 drivers observed, the prevalence of distracted driving was 32.7%. Among those involved in a distracting activity, the most frequently observed distractions included interacting with another passenger (53.2%, where passengers were present), talking on the phone (31.4%), external-vehicle distractions (20.4%), and texting/dialing a phone (16.6%). The prevalence of talking on the phone was higher among females than males (38.6% vs. 24.3%), whereas external vehicle distractions were higher among males than females (25.8% vs. 24.3%). Drivers <30 years were observed being engaged in any distracting activity, interacting with other passengers and texting/dialing more frequently than drivers aged 30–50 and >50 years. Drivers were engaged in distracting behaviors more frequently when the car was stopped. Conclusions When using similar methodology, roadside observational studies generate comparable prevalence estimates of driver distraction as naturalistic driving studies. Driver distraction is a common problem among passenger vehicle drivers. Despite the increased awareness on the dangers of texting and cell phone use while driving, these specific activities were two of the most frequently observed distractions. There is a continued need for road safety education about the dangers of distracted driving, especially for younger

  17. [History of treatment and classification of maxillary sinus neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Skorek, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    History of treatment of maxillary malignant neoplasms goes back to the middle of 19th century, when Gensoul and Lizzard performed their first maxillectomy. However the development of maxillar surgery is connected with achivements of Moure, who as the first one characterized and applied innovative skin cut on the face. Author presents the history of other surgical procedures in therapy of maxillary tumors and describes methods which are apply nowaday. Attention is paid to the Polish contributions and accomplishments in diagnostics and treatment of tumors localized in this area. The classification of maxillary tumors from Sebileau dissertation till the newest TNM classification from 2001 is described. PMID:16471201

  18. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge.

    PubMed

    Walia, Pawanjit Singh; Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98. PMID:27274164

  19. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98. PMID:27274164

  20. Analytics For Distracted Driver Behavior Modeling in Dilemma Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jan-Mou; Malikopoulos, Andreas; Thakur, Gautam; Vatsavai, Raju

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results obtained and insights gained through the analysis of TRB contest data. We used exploratory analysis, regression, and clustering models for gaining insights into the driver behavior in a dilemma zone while driving under distraction. While simple exploratory analysis showed the distinguishing driver behavior patterns among different popu- lation groups in the dilemma zone, regression analysis showed statically signification relationships between groups of variables. In addition to analyzing the contest data, we have also looked into the possible impact of distracted driving on the fuel economy.

  1. Homework Distraction Scale: Confirming the Factor Structure With Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao; Du, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to evaluate psychometric properties of the Homework Distraction Scale (HDS) using 796 middle school students. Results from confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) supported the presence of two distinct yet related subscales for the HDS: Conventional Distraction and Tech-Related Distraction. Results of…

  2. Editorial Commentary: Ankle Arthroscopy: Correct Portals and Distraction Are the Keys to Success.

    PubMed

    Ferkel, Richard D

    2016-07-01

    Access to all areas of the ankle during arthroscopy is always problematic. The use of the correct portals and distraction increases access in both the supine and prone positions. Noninvasive distraction up to 30 pounds is safe and effective to perform arthroscopy in the supine position, and avoids the potential complications of pin distraction. PMID:27373182

  3. 78 FR 24817 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is concerned about the effects of distraction on motor vehicle safety due to drivers' use of electronic devices. Consequently, NHTSA is issuing nonbinding, voluntary Driver Distraction Guidelines (NHTSA Guidelines) to promote safety by discouraging the introduction of excessively distracting devices in vehicles. This notice announces......

  4. The effects of an oral distraction on cattle during a painful procedure

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Brooke L.; Stookey, Joseph M.; Noble, Scott; Watts, Jon; Finlay, Don

    2013-01-01

    An oral distraction was investigated as a way to reduce struggle and heart rate of beef cattle undergoing freeze branding. Oral distraction reduced the struggle of steers, regardless of branding treatment. No effect on heart rate was found. Distractions may provide a way to reduce struggle by animals during restraint. PMID:24155450

  5. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

  6. Anagram Solution Time and Effects of Distraction, Sex Differences, and Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papsdorf, James D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    An anagram task administered to high and low test-anxious subjects under varied levels of external distraction showed a significant main effect of test anxiety for the "hard" anagrams which also interacted with the subjects' sex and distraction. The effects of increments of anxiety arousal produced by distraction are discussed. (Author/CM)

  7. Giant complex odontoma in maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Visioli, Adriano Rossini; de Oliveira e Silva, Cléverson; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present a rare case report of giant complex odontoma in the maxillary sinus, where the applied therapy included complete excision of the lesion with a conservative approach. Odontomas are also called benign growth abnormalities or hamartomas. They represent a more common type of odontogenic tumor and are related to various disorders such as bad dental placements, expansion, increased volumetric bone, and no eruption of permanent teeth. Usually they have an asymptomatic evolutionary course. The etiologic factors, although obscure, are related to local trauma, infection, and genetic factor. The structural composition of an odontoma consists of mature dental tissues. Odontomas can be differentiated according to their anatomical presentations: Compound odontoma-clusters of several denticles and complex odontoma-well defined tumefaction mass. The diagnosis can be performed by radiographic examination. PMID:26389051

  8. Pulp revascularization of immature maxillary first premolar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghamdi, Nuha S.; Al-Nazhan, Saad

    2015-01-01

    An immature maxillary first premolar in an 8-year-old female was treated using a regenerative approach. The root canal was gently irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite without instrumentation under aseptic conditions and then medicated with calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) for 3 weeks. The Ca(OH)2 was removed, and bleeding was initiated mechanically using a hand file to form an intracanal blood clot. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed over the blood clot, and the access cavity was sealed with a double filling. Increases in root length and width were radiographically evident, at the 6-month follow-up exam. The case was followed for 3 years. The development of 3 roots with complete apical closure was confirmed using cone beam computed tomography. PMID:26752847

  9. Giant complex odontoma in maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Carvalho Visioli, Adriano Rossini; de Oliveira E Silva, Cléverson; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present a rare case report of giant complex odontoma in the maxillary sinus, where the applied therapy included complete excision of the lesion with a conservative approach. Odontomas are also called benign growth abnormalities or hamartomas. They represent a more common type of odontogenic tumor and are related to various disorders such as bad dental placements, expansion, increased volumetric bone, and no eruption of permanent teeth. Usually they have an asymptomatic evolutionary course. The etiologic factors, although obscure, are related to local trauma, infection, and genetic factor. The structural composition of an odontoma consists of mature dental tissues. Odontomas can be differentiated according to their anatomical presentations: Compound odontoma-clusters of several denticles and complex odontoma-well defined tumefaction mass. The diagnosis can be performed by radiographic examination. PMID:26389051

  10. Rapid Maxillary Expansion without Posterior Anchorage.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Adauê; Amaral, Cássia

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate an alternative form of maxillary expansion anchored with mini-implants. A patient 12 years, class III in permanent canine teeth, with multiple agenesis of upper posterior teeth was treated with the aid of four mini-implants in the palate and Haas modified type appliance. During the period of expansion, an interincisal diastema was observed as the first clinical sign of disjunction of the sutures. After correction of cross bite, the expansion of the palate was confirmed by upper occlusal radiographs. Thus, the evaluations showed that the technique was effective and that new scientific studies should be conducted to further develop this subject. Keywords: Appliances; Biomechanics; Implants; Malocclusions PMID:27319047

  11. Etiology of maxillary canine impaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Becker, Adrian; Chaushu, Stella

    2015-10-01

    This article is a review that enumerates the causes of impaction of the maxillary permanent canines, including hard tissue obstructions, soft tissue lesions, and anomalies of neighboring teeth, and discusses the much-argued relationship between environmental and genetic factors. These phenomena have been shown in many investigations to accompany the diagnosis of canine impaction and have been presented as unrelated anomalous features, each of which is etiologically construed as genetic, including the aberrant canine itself. While in general the influence of genetics pervades the wider picture, a guidance theory proposes an alternative etiologic line of reasoning and interpretation of these studies, in which the same genetically determined anomalous features provide an abnormal milieu in which the canine is reared and from which it is guided in its misdirected and often abortive path of eruption. PMID:26432311

  12. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Roger K

    2006-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th-38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18-22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated. PMID:16722608

  13. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Roger K

    2006-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18–22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated. PMID:16722608

  14. Are child occupants a significant source of driving distraction?

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith; Kopinathan, Chelvi; Taranto, David

    2011-05-01

    Driver distraction represents a well-documented and growing contribution to the road safety problem. This study used a naturalistic, observational approach to examine if children in vehicles are a significant source of driving distraction. Families with children aged between 1 and 8 years drove an instrumented "study vehicle" on their regular trips for 3 weeks. A discrete video recording system in the vehicle provided images of the driver and front seat passenger, the rear seat child passengers and the traffic ahead. The video-recordings inside and outside the vehicle were analysed to identify potential distracting activities, where 'distraction' was broadly defined as any activity that distracted the driver or competed for their attention while driving. In addition, all potentially distracting activities that involved the driver looking away from the forward roadway for more than 2s while the vehicle was in motion were also coded. Video-recordings were analysed for 92 driving journeys undertaken by 12 families including 25 children and 19 drivers. The mean journey duration was approximately 16 min (range: 2 min-3h 34 min). Most journeys were undertaken during the day (89%), with the mother driving (65%) and without a front seat passenger (64%). Driving journeys were predominantly undertaken in urban areas (97%), on suburban roads/streets (94%), and under low complexity traffic conditions (91%). Most journeys involved some source of potential driver distraction (98%), with drivers distracted for 18% of the driving journey. The most frequent types of distracting activities that drivers engaged in included: touching their head or their face (35%), interacting with child passengers in the rear seat (12%), and engaging with the front seat passenger (9%). Almost three-quarters of these potentially distracting activities were engaged in by the driver while the study vehicle was in motion (72%) and 14% of all potentially distracting activities involved the driver's eyes

  15. The costly filtering of potential distraction: evidence for a supramodal mechanism.

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesco; Chelazzi, Leonardo; Maravita, Angelo

    2013-08-01

    When dealing with significant sensory stimuli, performance can be hampered by distracting events. Attention mechanisms lessen such negative effects, enabling selection of relevant information while blocking potential distraction. Recent work shows that preparatory brain activity, occurring before a critical stimulus, may reflect mechanisms of attentional control aimed to filter upcoming distracters. However, it is unknown whether the engagement of these filtering mechanisms to counteract distraction in itself taxes cognitive-brain systems, leading to performance costs. Here we address this question and, specifically, seek the behavioral signature of a mechanism for the filtering of potential distraction within and between sensory modalities. We show that, in potentially distracting contexts, a filtering mechanism is engaged to cope with forthcoming distraction, causing a dramatic behavioral cost in no-distracter trials during a speeded tactile discrimination task. We thus demonstrate an impaired processing caused by a potential, yet absent, distracter. This effect generalizes across different sensory modalities, such as vision and audition, and across different manipulations of the context, such as the distracter's sensory modality and pertinence to the task. Moreover, activation of the filtering mechanism relies on both strategic and reactive processes, as shown by its dynamic dependence on probabilistic and cross-trial contingencies. Crucially, across participants, the observed strategic cost is inversely related to the interference exerted by a distracter on distracter-present trials. These results attest to a mechanism for the monitoring and filtering of potential distraction in the human brain. Although its activation is indisputably beneficial when distraction occurs, it leads to robust costs when distraction is actually expected but currently absent. PMID:22984954

  16. Segmented combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A combustor liner segment includes a panel having four sidewalls forming a rectangular outer perimeter. A plurality of integral supporting lugs are disposed substantially perpendicularly to the panel and extend from respective ones of the four sidewalls. A plurality of integral bosses are disposed substantially perpendicularly to the panel and extend from respective ones of the four sidewalls, with the bosses being shorter than the lugs. In one embodiment, the lugs extend through supporting holes in an annular frame for mounting the liner segments thereto, with the bosses abutting the frame for maintaining a predetermined spacing therefrom.

  17. Bilateral postoperative maxillary cysts after orthognathic surgery: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hye; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative maxillary cysts are locally aggressive lesions, usually developing as delayed complications many years after radical antral surgery. This report describes a case of bilateral postoperative maxillary cysts following orthognathic surgery performed approximately 21 years previously. The patient complained of stinging pain on her right cheek. Radiographic examination revealed low-attenuation lesions on both maxillary sinuses with discontinuously corticated margins without distinct expansion or bone destruction. The cysts were enucleated with the removal of metal plates and screws for pain relief. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of postoperative maxillary cysts lined by ciliated, pseudostratified columnar cells. The patient has remained asymptomatic thus far, and there was no evidence of local recurrence at 21 months of postoperative follow-up. PMID:25473641

  18. Relapse of a maxillary median diastema: closure and permanent retention.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Claudia Trindade; da Silva, Dayanne Lopes; Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the closure of a maxillary median diastema of a 26-year-old woman that had been corrected before during orthodontic treatment but reopened after dental trauma in a car accident. A clear esthetic device made from a tray like those used for home bleaching was used, providing a comfortable, nearly undetectable, and efficient solution. A permanent fixed retainer was bonded again to the maxillary central incisors to prevent relapse. PMID:22196198

  19. Radiographic appearance of maxillary sinus feed impaction in a horse.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, James E; Carmalt, James L

    2013-01-01

    A 15-year-old Belgian gelding presented in respiratory distress, with bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, and right-sided epistaxis. The horse had a 5-year history of dental disease and had been recently losing weight. Radiographs indicated tooth root abscessation of the right maxillary third molar tooth and probable maxillary sinus feed impaction. These findings were confirmed at surgery and necropsy. The stippled, granular radiographic appearance described here is highly characteristic of sinus feed impaction. PMID:24371923

  20. Management of an Unusual Maxillary Canine: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Muppalla, Jaya Nagendra Krishna; Kavuda, Krishnamurthy; Punna, Rajani; Vanapatla, Amulya

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians need to have intimate knowledge and thorough understanding of both pulp chamber and root canal anatomy. They should be aware of possibility of anatomical variations in the root canal system during endodontic treatment. Maxillary canines usually have single root and root canal but rarely may have single root with two root canals. This case describes a lengthier maxillary canine with two root canals. PMID:26779354

  1. Unusual metastases of lung cancer: bulbus oculi and maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Ates, I; Yazici, O; Ates, H; Ozdemir, N; Zengin, N

    2015-09-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma often makes metastasis to the brain, liver, kidneys, bone, bone marrow and adrenal glands. It can also make metastasis to other parts of the body rarely for example eye, nose, parotid gland and paranasal sinus. We did not encounter with combined ocular bulbus and the maxillary sinus metastases of lung cancer in the accessible literature. In this case report, a patient who was combined ocular bulbus and the maxillary sinus metastases of lung adenocarcinoma will be discussed. PMID:26928715

  2. Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Nagihan; Çağırankaya, L. Berna; Akkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition. PMID:25177502

  3. Treatment of a Maxillary First Molar with Two Palatal Roots

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Vahideh; Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin; Talebzadeh, Bita; Norlouoni, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of the morphology and internal anatomy of the root canal system is essential, because it determines the successful outcome of endodontic treatment. The main goal of endodontic treatment is to prevent apical periodontitis and/or to promote the healing of periapical lesion. Presence of two canals or roots on the palatal side of the first maxillary molar has rarely been reported. This case report presents a maxillary first molar with two separate palatal roots. PMID:26523146

  4. Cementoblastoma of posterior maxilla involving the maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Dadhich, Anuj S.; Nilesh, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cementoblastoma is a rare neoplasm, representing <1% of all odontogenic tumors. It usually occurs in the posterior mandible and is associated with roots of a mandibular first molar or second premolar. This paper presents a rare case of cementoblastoma in the maxillary posterior region involving the maxillary sinus, in a young female patient. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of the lesion are discussed along with a review of previously reported cases in the literature. PMID:26389052

  5. Maxillary lateral incisor with two roots: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Mithun; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Subba Rao, C V

    2011-01-01

    Although the dental literature has indicated that 100% of maxillary lateral incisors have a single canal anatomy, it is possible for these teeth to have extra canals. These extra canals must be identified and debrided to prevent endodontic failure. This report presents an uncommon case involving a maxillary lateral incisor with two roots. Even when the frequency of radicular anatomy abnormality is extremely low, dentists must consider the possibility that a tooth has extra root canals or even extra roots. PMID:21613043

  6. Distraction and Facilitation--Two Faces of the Same Coin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Nicole; Widmann, Andreas; Schroger, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected and task-irrelevant sounds can capture our attention and may cause distraction effects reflected by impaired performance in a primary task unrelated to the perturbing sound. The present auditory-visual oddball study examines the effect of the informational content of a sound on the performance in a visual discrimination task. The…

  7. U.s. State and federal laws targeting distracted driving.

    PubMed

    Catherine Chase, J D

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has burgeoned with the proliferation of cell phones, global positioning systems and other in-vehicle and personal electronic devices. Annually more than 3,300 people are killed and an additional 400,000 are injured in the United States in distracted driving crashes. The United States (U.S.) federal and state governments have responded to this public health problem with policies and laws; however, a more comprehensive and more effective approach is still needed. Some restrictions on the use of electronic devices while driving by federal employees and some voluntary guidelines and recommendations have been issued. Public opinion polls show support for addressing the issue of distracted driving with state laws. The majority of states have laws banning text messaging while driving and prohibiting the use of an electronic device by teenage or novice drivers. Some states prohibit all drivers from using a hand-held cellphone. Currently no state has a total ban on the use of personal electronic devices while driving. Successful past traffic safety campaigns changing driver behavior have demonstrated the necessity to adopt a "three Es" approach of Enactment of a law, Education of the public about the law, and rigorous Enforcement of the law. Experience reveals that this approach, along with future federal regulation of in-vehicle electronic devices and the employment of technology to limit the use of electronic devices while driving, is needed to alter personal behavior in order to reduce distractions and keep drivers focused on the driving task. PMID:24776229

  8. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  9. Distraction by emotional sounds: Disentangling arousal benefits and orienting costs.

    PubMed

    Max, Caroline; Widmann, Andreas; Kotz, Sonja A; Schröger, Erich; Wetzel, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    Unexpectedly occurring task-irrelevant stimuli have been shown to impair performance. They capture attention away from the main task leaving fewer resources for target processing. However, the actual distraction effect depends on various variables; for example, only target-informative distractors have been shown to cause costs of attentional orienting. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that high arousing emotional distractors, as compared with low arousing neutral distractors, can improve performance by increasing alertness. We aimed to separate costs of attentional orienting and benefits of arousal by presenting negative and neutral environmental sounds (novels) as oddballs in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Participants categorized pictures while task-irrelevant sounds preceded visual targets in two conditions: (a) informative sounds reliably signaled onset and occurrence of visual targets, and (b) noninformative sounds occurred unrelated to visual targets. Results confirmed that only informative novels yield distraction. Importantly, irrespective of sounds' informational value participants responded faster in trials with high arousing negative as compared with moderately arousing neutral novels. That is, costs related to attentional orienting are modulated by information, whereas benefits related to emotional arousal are independent of a sound's informational value. This favors a nonspecific facilitating cross-modal influence of emotional arousal on visual task performance and suggests that behavioral distraction by noninformative novels is controlled after their motivational significance has been determined. PMID:26053245

  10. Facilitation and Distraction in Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John William; Kail, Robert V., Jr.

    Children's short-term memory was studied under two experimental conditions: one in which recall was expected to be facilitated because of the provision of a study period, and one in which a distracting task was imposed that was expected to interfere with recall. Forty subjects at each of two age levels, 7 and 11 years, were tested in a…

  11. Auditory Distraction in Semantic Memory: A Process-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate auditory-semantic distraction in tests of memory for semantic category-exemplars. The effects of irrelevant sound on category-exemplar recall are shown to be functionally distinct from those found in the context of serial short-term memory by showing sensitivity to: The lexical-semantic, rather than acoustic,…

  12. Musical Distracters, Personality Type and Cognitive Performance in School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Stephenson, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the nature of the interaction between the affective value of musical distraction, personality type and performance on the cognitive tasks of reading comprehension, free recall, mental arithmetic and verbal reasoning in children aged 11-12 years. It was hypothesized that the cognitive performance of extraverts…

  13. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kambalimath, Halaswamy V; Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indian population, no cases of maxillary canine agenesis have been documented. This paper reports a case of non-syndromic bilateral agenesis of permanent maxillary canines, along with agenesis of both mandibular central incisors in a healthy 13-year-old Indian female patient; and a brief literature review on prevalence, etiology and treatment modalities of the condition. How to cite this article: Kambalimath HV, Jain S, Patil RU, Asokan A, Kambalimath D. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015; 8(3):242-246. PMID:26604546

  14. Jagged1 is essential for osteoblast development during maxillary ossification.

    PubMed

    Hill, Cynthia R; Yuasa, Masato; Schoenecker, Jonathan; Goudy, Steven L

    2014-05-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia occurs due to insufficient maxillary intramembranous ossification, leading to poor dental occlusion, respiratory obstruction and cosmetic deformities. Conditional deletion of Jagged1 (Jag1) in cranial neural crest (CNC) cells using Wnt1-cre; Jagged1(f/f) (Jag1CKO) led to maxillary hypoplasia characterized by intrinsic differences in bone morphology and density using μCT evaluation. Jag1CKO maxillas revealed altered collagen deposition, delayed ossification, and reduced expression of early and late determinants of osteoblast development during maxillary ossification. In vitro bone cultures on Jag1CKO mouse embryonic maxillary mesenchymal (MEMM) cells demonstrated decreased mineralization that was also associated with diminished induction of osteoblast determinants. BMP receptor expression was dysregulated in the Jag1CKO MEMM cells suggesting that these cells were unable to respond to BMP-induced differentiation. JAG1-Fc rescued in vitro mineralization and osteoblast gene expression changes. These data suggest that JAG1 signaling in CNC-derived MEMM cells is required for osteoblast development and differentiation during maxillary ossification. PMID:24491691

  15. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indian population, no cases of maxillary canine agenesis have been documented. This paper reports a case of non-syndromic bilateral agenesis of permanent maxillary canines, along with agenesis of both mandibular central incisors in a healthy 13-year-old Indian female patient; and a brief literature review on prevalence, etiology and treatment modalities of the condition. How to cite this article: Kambalimath HV, Jain S, Patil RU, Asokan A, Kambalimath D. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015; 8(3):242-246. PMID:26604546

  16. Aetiopathology of maxillary swelling--a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Deb; Crank, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    A wide variety of lesions and not necessarily a malignant tumour can cause maxillary swelling. Non-specificity of clinical and radiological features of these maxillary lesions makes their diagnosis difficult. Review of literature adds a little regarding the aetiopathological distribution of the various lesions causing maxillary swelling. We present our finding regarding the relative distribution of various conditions causing maxillary swelling. The awareness of the spectrum of pathology related to maxillary swelling is essential for correct diagnosis and treatment. Forty-eight patients who presented with a swelling of the maxilla to our hospital between May 1998 and April 2001 were prospectively studied regarding the clinical presentations, radiological features and histological findings. Maxillary swelling was found to be caused by malignant tumours in 54.2%, benign neoplasms in 22.9% and non-neoplastic lesions in 22.9%. Overall squamous cell carcinoma (22.9%) was the commonest lesion, tumour of vascular origin was the commonest benign neoplasm and odontogenic cyst was the commonest among the non-neoplastic lesions. PMID:17611767

  17. Changes in growth and morphology of the condyle following mandibular distraction in minipigs: Overloading or Underloading?

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Katherine L.; Sun, Zongyang; Egbert, Mark; Bakko, Daniel W.; Herring, Susan W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Loading of temporomandibular tissues during mandibular distraction may cause changes in condylar growth and cartilage thickness. This study examines the effects of distraction on the condyle in a large animal model by explicitly measuring growth and in vivo loading. Design: Unilateral mandibular distraction was carried out on twenty growing minipigs divided into three groups. One group underwent distraction but not consolidation, whereas the other two groups were allowed a period of consolidation of either one or two weeks. Animals received fluorochrome and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and masticatory strain was measured from the condylar neck. Condylar strain was also recorded in an age-matched sample of eight animals that received no distraction surgery. Immunohistochemical procedures were used to identify dividing prechondroblasts and histological analysis was used to measure mineral apposition rate, count dividing cells, and measure the thickness of condylar cartilage. Results: Strain magnitude, particularly compressive strain, was much larger on the non-distraction side compared to the distraction side condyle. Compared to normal loading levels, the distraction side condyle was underloaded whereas the condyle on the intact side was overloaded. Mineral apposition and cartilage thickness were greater on the distraction side condyle compared to the opposite side. Differences between the sides were most pronounced in the group with no consolidation and became progressively reduced with consolidation time. Conclusions: Increased mineralization and cartilage thickness on the distraction side condyle is associated with reduced, not increased loading, perhaps because of disruption of the distraction side masseter muscle. PMID:17573035

  18. The emotional side of cognitive distraction: Implications for road safety.

    PubMed

    Chan, Michelle; Singhal, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Driver distraction is estimated to be one of the leading causes of motor vehicle accidents. However, little is known about the role of emotional distraction on driving, despite evidence that attention is highly biased toward emotion. In the present study, we used a dual-task paradigm to examine the potential for driver distraction from emotional information presented on roadside billboards. This purpose was achieved using a driving simulator and three different types of emotional information: neutral words, negative emotional words, and positive emotional words. Participants also responded to target words while driving and completed a surprise free recall task of all the words at the end of the study. The findings suggest that driving performance is differentially affected by the valence (negative versus positive) of the emotional content. Drivers had lower mean speeds when there were emotional words compared to neutral words, and this slowing effect lasted longer when there were positive words. This may be due to distraction effects on driving behavior, which are greater for positive arousing stimuli. Moreover, when required to process non-emotional target stimuli, drivers had faster mean speeds in conditions where the targets were interspersed with emotional words compared to neutral words, and again, these effects lasted longer when there were positive words. On the other hand, negative information led to better memory recall. These unique effects may be due to separate processes in the human attention system, particularly related to arousal mechanisms and their interaction with emotion. We conclude that distraction that is emotion-based can modulate attention and decision-making abilities and have adverse impacts on driving behavior for several reasons. PMID:23200451

  19. Distraction-induced intestinal enterogenesis: Preservation of intestinal function and lengthening after re-implantation into normal jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Sun, Xiaoyi; Yang, Hua; Nose, Keisuke; Somara, Sita; Bitar, Khalil N; Owyang, Chung; Okawada, Manabu; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Background Significant bowel lengthening can occur in an isolated intestinal segment with the use for linearly directed distractive forces; resulting in increased surface area and epithelial cell proliferation. We hypothesized that re-implantation of this lengthened intestine into normal jejunum would preserve this gain in intestinal length and function similar to normal jejunum. Methods An intestinal lengthening device was inserted into isolated jejunal segments in pigs, and fully expanded over 8 days. Lengthened segment were then re-implanted into normal intestinal continuity. Pigs were studied after another 28days. Function was assessed by motility, mucosal enzyme activity, barrier function and intestinal ion transport. Results Lengthened segments were significantly longer than control segments, and had nearly 2-fold greater surface area. Bowel lengthening was maintained 4 weeks after re-implantation. Motility after re-implantation was similar to non-operated pigs. Barrier function, mucosal disaccharidase levels and electrophysiologic measures declined immediately after lengthening, but returned to nearly normal levels 28 days after re-implantation. Conclusion Bowel lengthening results in a transient decline in mucosal absorptive function and smooth muscle contractility. However, function approaches that of normal bowel after re-implantation into enteric flow. These data may support the use of this technique as a potential new option for the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome. PMID:21997804

  20. Maxillary posterior bone height in relation to maxillary sinus floor in Indian dentulous population.

    PubMed

    Jain, A; Chowdhary, R

    2013-06-01

    To establish a ratio of variable bone height (Infrazygomatic alveolar crest height) to constant bone height (Infraorbital zygomatic height) and, to estimate the relative sinus floor position from alveolar crest of maxillary first molar region of dentulous Indian males and females, using Digital panoramic radiographs. Panoramic radiographs of 74 patients were included in the study (37 male, 37 female) to measure maxillary posterior vertical bone height and their ratio in dentulous patients. Measurements were made from reference lines drawn from anatomic landmarks on soft digital versions of standardized panoramic radiographs using Kodak dental imaging software. Later the data were analyzed using normal test (Z-score). When the posterior maxillary bone height and their ratio were evaluated in Indian population, the vertical bone height (x, y, z) of males was more than the females. Ratio of Infrazygomatic-alveolar crest distance (y)/Infraorbital-zygomatic distance (x)-was 0.74 for Indian males and females. The relative sinus floor for Indian males was found to be 8.1 mm and that of Indian females to be 7.8 mm. The results are of significant value as "baseline" data, in serial studies where alveolar bone height for a single patient is compared at different times before and after tooth loss. The relative sinus floor position from alveolar crest can help in implant length selection. This study can be used as a diagnostic and predictive tool in implant treatment planning but further long-term evaluation is still required to prove the efficacy of this study. PMID:24431714

  1. Distraction osteogenesis of free flap reconstructed mandible following ameloblastoma resection for optimal functional rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bousdras, V A; Kalavrezos, N

    2014-01-01

    This case highlights the use of a custom-made distractor (Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland), used to increase bone height prior to rehabilitation with implant placement, in a patient following excision of an ameloblastoma and reconstruction of her mandible with a fibular flap. A 27-year-old patient had her mandible reconstructed following wide resection of an ameloblastoma. Although a 2.0 LOCK reconstruction plate (Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland) was used for fixation of the fibular bone, the vertical deficiency between the reconstructed segment and the occlusal plane made oral rehabilitation impossible. To overcome this, the fibular bone segment was vertically distracted following a latency period of 4 days. Distractor was left in place for 20 weeks for bone consolidation. Following device removal implants were placed. The novelty of this approach included fixation of the lower arm of the distractor on the LOCK plate. The distractor was unidirectional with two arms of different length. The lower arm composed of a 2.0 mini-plate to fit exactly on the 2.0 LOCK plate whereas the upper arm used a standard 1.5 mini-plate. Advantages of this custom-made distractor included: (i) No need for removal of the reconstruction plate, (ii) no need for an extraoral surgical approach, and (iii) no need for additional drilling to fit the lower arm of the distractor. Technical details and limitations are presented. PMID:25593885

  2. Successful Reconstruction of Nerve Defects Using Distraction Neurogenesis with a New Experimental Device

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Mohamed Abdelhamid Ali; Dionigi, Paolo; Marconi, Stefania; Calligaro, Alberto; Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Alfonsi, Enrico; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Repair of peripheral nerve injuries is an intensive area of challenge and research in modern reconstructive microsurgery. Intensive research is being carried out to develop effective alternatives to the standard nerve autografting, avoiding its drawbacks. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly designed mechanical device for the reconstruction of the sciatic nerve in rats in comparison to nerve autografting and to assess the pain during the period of distraction neurogenesis. Methods: Fourteen Sprague Dawley rats were used and randomly assigned into 2 groups with 7 rats in each group; group A (Nerve Autografting group) in which a 10-mm segment of the sciatic nerve was resected and rotated 180 degrees, then primary end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed in the reverse direction; group B (Nerve Lengthening group) in which the mechanical device was inserted after surgical resection of 10 mm of the sciatic nerve, then secondary end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed after completing the nerve lengthening. Thirteen weeks later, assessment of the functional sciatic nerve recovery using static sciatic index (SSI) was performed. Furthermore, fourteen weeks after the nerve resection, assessment of the nerve regeneration with electrophysiological study and histological analysis were performed. Also, gastrocnemius wet weight was measured. For pain assessment in group B, Rat Grimace Scale (RGS) score was used. Results: Significantly better functional recovery rate (using the SSI) was reported in the nerve lengthening group in comparison to autografting group. Also, a statistically significant higher nerve conduction velocity was detected in the nerve lengthening group. On histological analysis of the distal nerve section at 3 mm distal to the nerve repair site, significant myelin sheath thickness was detected in the nerve lengthening group. Discussion: Distraction neurogenesis with the new experimental device is a reliable therapeutic

  3. [Segmental neurofibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Zulaica, A; Peteiro, C; Pereiro, M; Pereiro Ferreiros, M; Quintas, C; Toribio, J

    1989-01-01

    Four cases of segmental neurofibromatosis (SNF) are reported. It is a rare entity considered to be a localized variant of neurofibromatosis (NF)-Riccardi's type V. Two cases are male and two female. The lesions are located to the head in a patient and the other three cases in the trunk. No family history nor transmission to progeny were manifested. The rest of the organs are undamaged. PMID:2502696

  4. Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma of the Maxillary Sinus.

    PubMed

    Avadhani, Vaidehi; Loftus, Patricia Anne; Meltzer, Daniel; Wang, Beverly; Tabaee, Abtin

    2016-06-01

    The clinical course and pathologic features of a 72 year old female who presented with epistaxis are presented. Radiographic findings were notable for a large, soft tissue lesion filling the maxillary sinus with significant bony erosion and expansion. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) and underwent endoscopic resection. She has no evidence of local, regional or distant recurrence 14 months post-surgery. The rarity of this neoplasm, the unusual anatomic location and non-specific symptoms present diagnostic and management challenges. Epithelioid vascular tumors encompass a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors. EHE itself is thought to have an intermediate malignant behavior pattern, though cases with indolent behavior have been reported. Differentiation of EHE from other lesions has historically based on histopathology. Additionally, recent studies have described a recurrent genetic fusion WWTR1-CAMTA1 in EHE, involving t(1;3) (p36;q25). This represents the second reported case of EHE arising in a paranasal sinus. The histopathologic findings of this lesion are reviewed. PMID:25963905

  5. [Maxillary prosthesis for better QOL--early setting and faster construction of maxillary prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Usui, H; Sakakura, Y; Shimozato, K

    1992-12-01

    The maxillofacial prosthesis (MFP) is well accepted as one of the modalities to ameliolate the postsurgical crippling in the patients with maxillary malignancy. In this report, we analyzed 55 primary cases of MFP out of 100, from July, 1981 to July, 1987 in terms of the time of start after operation, and the duration and procedure of the MFP-making. MFP-making set about within 4 weeks in 35% of patients, 8 weeks in 25%, 12 weeks in 22%, and more than 12 weeks in 18%. The completion of MFP-making averaged 10 days. As a result of simplifying of MFP-making, we shortened a period requiring MFP-making within 3 days in recent 10 cases. There were no adverse effects of early wear of MFP after operation. We believe that early wear of MFP after operation improve the quality of life of patients with maxillary malignancy and considered that wear of MFP is not the completion of treatment, but is one of the procedures of treatment for the patients undergone maxillectomy. PMID:1491275

  6. 3D evaluation of maxillary arches in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients treated with nasoalveolar moulding vs. Hotz's plate.

    PubMed

    Cerón-Zapata, A M; López-Palacio, A M; Rodriguez-Ardila, M J; Berrio-Gutiérrez, L M; De Menezes, M; Sforza, C

    2016-02-01

    To compare the three-dimensional changes occurring in the maxillary arch during the use of modified pre-surgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) and Hotz's plate. A clinical trial including 32 children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 16 treated with Hotz's plate and 16 with PNAM, was performed. Impressions of the maxillary arches were taken: A. prior to pre-surgical orthopaedics, B. before cheiloplasty and C. after cheiloplasty. Models were digitised using a stereophotogrammetric instrument, and geodesic distances were calculated: anterior, canine and posterior widths of the arch, and lengths and cleft depths of the larger and shorter segments. The time and treatment effects were assessed by two-factor anova. A significant effect of treatment was found for cleft depth at the larger segment: children treated with Hotz's plate had significantly deeper cleft than children treated with PNAM. All distances significantly changed during time: the anterior and canine widths decreased, while the posterior width, the lengths and depths of the cleft segments increased. Significant treatment per time interactions was found. The anterior and canine widths reduced more with PNAM between time points A and B while Hotz's treatment was more effective between B and C. The shorter segment depth increased more between B and C with PNAM, and between A and B with Hotz's plate. During pre-surgical orthopaedics, therapy with PNAM obtained the best results in reducing the width at the anterior segment of the cleft. This treatment gave a lower increase in cleft depth than treatment with Hotz's plate. PMID:26404105

  7. Implant-guided volumetric analysis of edentulous maxillary bone with cone-beam computerized tomography scan. Maxillary sinus pneumatization classification.

    PubMed

    Tolstunov, Len; Thai, David; Arellano, Leo

    2012-08-01

    The primary goal of this anatomic study was to measure the average bone volume of the edentulous maxilla with a cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scan and to determine its suitability for implant treatment without additional bone grafting. The secondary goal of the study was to estimate the degree of sinus pneumatization (SP) in reviewed CBCT scans, assess the sinus-to-maxillary bone interrelationship in edentulism, and attempt to classify maxillary sinuses based on the degree of their pneumatization. This retrospective radiographic quantitative study consisted of the analysis of CBCT scans of 30 randomly selected maxillary edentulous patients who presented in 2008-2010 to the University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, for evaluation and treatment of their edentulism. A volume of edentulous maxillary bone mesial to the maxillary sinuses (intersinal region) that can be used for a full-arch implant treatment was evaluated based on specifically selected and clinically relevant measurement criteria. There were 30 CBCT scans of maxillary edentulous patients reviewed (9 men, 21 women) with a mean age of 67.3 years (range, 41 to 92 years). The total mean maxillary bone volume (MMBV) suitable for implantation was 4 408.1 mm(3) and ranged from 1489.7 to 7263.1 mm(3). The MMBV in the study was higher than an assumed or hypothetical bone volume minimally suitable for 4-implant treatment as proposed by the authors for comparative purposes (3500 mm(3)). The degree of SP as seen on a CBCT scan (60 sinuses analyzed on panoramic images of 30 CBCT scans) had the following results in the study: SP0 (clear: not interfering with implant treatment in cases of high/small sinus), 2 sinuses or 3.3%; SP1 (mild sinus enlargement), 29 sinuses or 48.3%; SP2 (moderate SP), 16 sinuses or 26.7%; SP3 (severe SP), 9 sinuses or 15.0%; and SP4 (extreme), 4 sinuses or 6.7%. Most analyzed maxillary sinuses (47 of 60, or 78.3%) were in the clear, mild, or moderate

  8. Does attention capacity moderate the effect of driver distraction in older drivers?

    PubMed

    Cuenen, Ariane; Jongen, Ellen M M; Brijs, Tom; Brijs, Kris; Lutin, Mark; Van Vlierden, Karin; Wets, Geert

    2015-04-01

    With age, a decline in attention capacity may occur and this may impact driving performance especially while distracted. Although the effect of distraction on driving performance of older drivers has been investigated, the moderating effect of attention capacity on driving performance during distraction has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether attention capacity has a moderating effect on older drivers' driving performance during visual distraction (experiment 1) and cognitive distraction (experiment 2). In a fixed-based driving simulator, older drivers completed a driving task without and with visual distraction (experiment 1, N=17, mean age 78 years) or cognitive distraction (experiment 2, N=35, mean age 76 years). Several specific driving measures of varying complexity (i.e., speed, lane keeping, following distance, braking behavior, and crashes) were investigated. In addition to these objective driving measures, subjective measures of workload and driving performance were also included. In experiment 1, crash occurrence increased with visual distraction and was negatively related to attention capacity. In experiment 2, complete stops at stop signs decreased, initiation of braking at pedestrian crossings was later, and crash occurrence increased with cognitive distraction. Interestingly, for a measure of lane keeping (i.e., standard deviation of lateral lane position (SDLP)), effects of both types of distraction were moderated by attention capacity. Despite the decrease of driving performance with distraction, participants estimated their driving performance during distraction as good. These results imply that attention capacity is important for driving. Driver assessment and training programs might therefore focus on attention capacity. Nonetheless, it is crucial to eliminate driver distraction as much as possible given the deterioration of performance on several driving measures in those with low and high attention capacity

  9. Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis Caused by Denture Lining Material

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Nakashima, Chie; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Matsusue, Yumiko; Horita, Satoshi; Sakagami, Go; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of chronic maxillary sinusitis caused by denture lining material entering through an oroantral fistula after tooth extraction. The patient was an 80-year-old female who visited us with a complaint of pus discharge from the right posterior maxilla. She had extraction of the upper right second molar and had her upper denture relined with silicone lining material. The patient noticed swelling of the right cheek and purulent rhinorrhea 20 days before her first visit to our clinic. Oral examination showed an oroantral fistula with a diameter of 3 mm in the posterior alveolar ridge of the right maxilla. Computed tomography revealed a hyperdense foreign body in the right maxillary sinus and thickening of the mucosal lining. Under diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis caused by a foreign body, endoscopic maxillary surgery was performed simultaneously with the removal of the foreign body. The foreign body removed was 12 × 6 mm in size, oval in shape, light pink in color, and compatible with silicone denture lining material. During the follow-up it was observed that the oroantral fistula closed spontaneously after the removal of the foreign body. The maxillary sinus was in a good shape without recurrence of sinusitis seven months after surgery. PMID:27386012

  10. Predicting acute maxillary sinusitis in a general practice population.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J. G.; Schmidt, H.; Rosborg, J.; Lund, E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the diagnostic value of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C reactive protein for acute maxillary sinusitis. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. SETTING--Danish general practice in cooperation with the otorhinolaryngology and neuroradiology department at Aalborg County Hospital. SUBJECTS--174 patients aged 18-65 years who were suspected by the general practitioner of having acute maxillary sinusitis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--The independent association of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and concentration of C reactive protein in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis defined as purulent or mucopurulent antral aspirate. RESULTS--Only raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.01) and raised C reactive protein (P = 0.007) were found to be independently associated with a diagnosis of acute maxillary sinusitis. The combination of the two variables had a sensitivity of 0.82 and a specificity of 0.57. CONCLUSION--Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein are useful diagnostic criteria for acute maxillary sinusitis. PMID:7627042

  11. Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on sleep characteristics in children

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Navya; Varma, N. K. Sapna; Ajith, V. V.; Gopinath, Siby

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthopedic treatment procedure routinely used to treat constricted maxillary arches and also a potential additional treatment in children presenting with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RME on sleep characteristics in children. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on children of 8-13 years of age before expansion (T0), after expansion (T1) and after a period of 3 months after retention (T2). Bonded rapid maxillary expander was cemented in all children. Inter-molar distance was also measured at T0 and T2. Statistical Analysis: Nonparametric Friedman test was used for comparing the averages of sleep parameters at different time period (T0, T1, T2). Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for comparing the averages of inter-molar width (T0-T2). P < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: All children showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, decreased in arousal and desaturation index after expansion. Total sleep time showed a statistically significant increase after expansion. A statistically significant increase in inter-molar distance was obtained after expansion. Conclusions: Rapid maxillary expansion is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep even in normal children without SDB. It also induces widening of the maxilla, corrects posterior crossbites and improves maxillary and mandibular dental arch coordination. PMID:25395765

  12. Simple maxillary reconstruction using free tissue transfer and prostheses.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Minoru; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Ota, Yojiro; Uchiyama, Kiyotaka; Kishimoto, Seiji; Harii, Kiyonori; Ebihara, Satoshi

    2003-02-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation is essential for maintaining postoperative oral function after maxillary reconstruction. However, the maxillary prosthesis becomes unstable in some patients because of extensive palatomaxillary resection and drooping of the transferred flap. In such patients, maintaining sufficient oral function is difficult, especially if the patient is edentulous. To achieve prosthetic retention, the authors performed microvascular maxillary reconstruction with a slit-shaped fenestration in the midline of the hard palate. Maxillary defects after subtotal or total maxillectomy were reconstructed with rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps in five patients. Defects of the nasal lining and palate were reconstructed with the single cutaneous portion of the flap, and a slit-shaped fenestration was left between the cutaneous portion of the flap and the edge of the remaining hard palate. Postoperatively, patients were fitted with maxillary prostheses that had a flat projection for the palatal fenestration. In all patients, the prosthesis was stable enough for mastication and prevented nasal regurgitation. Speech function was rated as excellent on Hirose's scoring system for Japanese speech ability. The authors believe that their method of palatomaxillary reconstruction is both simple and reliable. PMID:12560680

  13. Distractibility during infants' examining and repetitive rhythmic activity.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, E J; Ruff, H A

    1998-05-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the role of examining and repetitive rhythmic activity in infants' exploration of novel objects. Sixteen 8-month-old infants played with novel toys as auditory-visual slide distractors occurred on one side at random intervals. The results showed that examining, but not repetitive activities, declined with exposure to the objects. They also showed that infants had different patterns of distractibility during examining and repetitive rhythmic activities. The infants were slower to turn to the distractor if they were examining the toy than if they were engaged in other activity, but the probability of a response did not differ. In contrast, when engaged in repetitive rhythmic activity, infants were less likely to respond to the distractor than when engaged in other activities, including examining; the speed with which they responded, however, did not differ. The results suggest that, during these two activities, the mechanisms for resisting distraction are quite different. PMID:9589216

  14. Biomechanical Configurations of Mandibular Transport Distraction Osteogenesis Devices

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Uriel; Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Dechow, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Mandibular bone transport (MBT) distraction osteogenesis devices are used for achieving reconstruction of mandibular defects in a predictable way, with few complications, less complexity than other alternative surgical procedures, and minimal tissue morbidity. However, selection of appropriate MBT device characteristics is critical for ensuring both their mechanical soundness and their optimal distraction function for each patient's condition. This article assesses six characteristics of currently available MBT devices to characterize their design and function and to classify them in a way that assists the selection of the best device option for each clinical case. In addition, the present work provides a framework for both the biomechanical conception of new devices and the modification of existing ones. PMID:19958167

  15. Interference by process, not content, determines semantic auditory distraction.

    PubMed

    Marsh, John E; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic category-exemplars more than meaningless irrelevant sound (Experiment 1). This effect was exacerbated when the irrelevant speech was semantically related to the to-be-remembered material (Experiment 2). Importantly, however, these effects of meaningfulness and semantic relatedness were shown to arise only when instructions emphasized recall by category rather than by serial order (Experiments 3 and 4). The results favor a process-oriented, rather than a structural, approach to the breakdown of attentional selectivity and forgetting: performance is impaired by the similarity of process brought to bear on the relevant and irrelevant material, not the similarity in item content. PMID:19081558

  16. Reducing Smoking Among Distracted Individuals: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Wallaert, Matthew; Mann, Traci

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: According to the attentional myopia model, salient cues that serve to inhibit behavior can be especially effective under conditions of limited attention. A small field study tested the implications of this model for smoking reduction. Methods: Twenty-three undergraduate smokers were exposed to a prominent health warning for 2 5-day experimental phases, with phase order counterbalanced across participants. During one phase, participants simply viewed the warning at regular intervals. During the other phase, participants viewed the warning for the same duration but also simultaneously performed a distracting cognitive load task. Results: Participants in the phase that combined a health warning with cognitive load reported smoking significantly fewer cigarettes and taking significantly fewer puffs of smoke as compared to a baseline comparison phase—a reduction in smoking not observed in the absence of cognitive load. Conclusions: Sources of attentional distraction may heighten the impact of salient smoking warnings, resulting in significant reductions in smoking. PMID:25098673

  17. Segmental neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Sobjanek, Michał; Dobosz-Kawałko, Magdalena; Michajłowski, Igor; Pęksa, Rafał; Nowicki, Roman

    2014-12-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis or type V neurofibromatosis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by neurofibromas, café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas limited to a circumscribed body region. The disease may be associated with systemic involvement and malignancies. The disorder has not been reported yet in the Polish medical literature. A 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 20-year history of multiple, flesh colored, dome-shaped, soft to firm nodules situated in the right lumbar region. A histopathologic evaluation of three excised tumors revealed neurofibromas. No neurological and ophthalmologic symptoms of neurofibromatosis were diagnosed. PMID:25610358

  18. Segmental neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Adigun, Chris G; Stein, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    A 59-year-old man presented for evaluation and excision of non-tender, fleshy nodules that were arranged in a dermatomal distribution from the left side of the chest to the left axilla. A biopsy specimen of a nodule was consistent with a neurofibroma. Owing to the lack of other cutaneous findings, the lack of a family history of neurofibromatosis, and the dermatomal distribution of the neurofibromas, this patient met the criteria for a diagnosis of segmental neurofibromatosis (SNF) according to Riccardi's definition of SNF and classification of neurofibromatosis. Because the patient has no complications of neurofibromatosis 1 no medical treatment is required. PMID:22031651

  19. Segmental neurofibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Dobosz-Kawałko, Magdalena; Michajłowski, Igor; Pęksa, Rafał; Nowicki, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis or type V neurofibromatosis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by neurofibromas, café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas limited to a circumscribed body region. The disease may be associated with systemic involvement and malignancies. The disorder has not been reported yet in the Polish medical literature. A 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 20-year history of multiple, flesh colored, dome-shaped, soft to firm nodules situated in the right lumbar region. A histopathologic evaluation of three excised tumors revealed neurofibromas. No neurological and ophthalmologic symptoms of neurofibromatosis were diagnosed. PMID:25610358

  20. Distraction-free ankle arthroscopy for anterolateral impingement.

    PubMed

    Rouvillain, Jean Louis; Daoud, Wael; Donica, Adrian; Garron, Emmanuel; Uzel, André Pierre

    2014-08-01

    The origin of chronic pain after external ankle sprain is better known with arthroscopy's contribution. Chronic hypertrophic synovitis of the anterolateral ankle region is seemingly the cause, resulting in "anterolateral ankle impingement." But is partial synovectomy with fibrosis resection under arthroscopy always possible without any distraction? Are results affected? This retrospective study concerned only patients with soft tissue ankle impingement. All cases with bone and joint diseases were excluded. The final sample of 24 patients had a mean age of 35 years (21-54 years) and presented anterolateral mechanical pain associated with oedema following external ankle sprain. Medical and rehabilitative treatment was undertaken for more than 6 months before arthroscopy. Average time between trauma and arthroscopy was 21 months (5-60 months). Clinical examination revealed no ankle instability or laxity. Debridement with joint lavage was systematically performed under arthroscopy without any distraction. Average patient follow-up was 22 months (12-92 months). All patients had a good Kitaoka score, with 22 patients registering excellent results. There were no septic complications or algodystrophy. Two transient hypoesthesias were observed in the dorsal surface and lateral border of the foot with full postoperative recovery at 6 months. Distraction was never used and simple dorsiflexion was sufficient to perform arthroscopic debridement. In this study, anterolateral ankle impingement diagnosis was primarily clinical. Arthroscopic treatment yielded significant benefits on pain, oedema and resumption of sport activities. Arthroscopic treatment of anterolateral ankle impingements is thus possible with simple dorsiflexion and no distraction, resulting in a possible decrease in complication rates. Level of evidence Retrospective cohort study, Level IV. PMID:24220747

  1. U.S. State and Federal Laws Targeting Distracted Driving

    PubMed Central

    Catherine Chase, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has burgeoned with the proliferation of cell phones, global positioning systems and other in-vehicle and personal electronic devices. Annually more than 3,300 people are killed and an additional 400,000 are injured in the United States in distracted driving crashes. The United States (U.S.) federal and state governments have responded to this public health problem with policies and laws; however, a more comprehensive and more effective approach is still needed. Some restrictions on the use of electronic devices while driving by federal employees and some voluntary guidelines and recommendations have been issued. Public opinion polls show support for addressing the issue of distracted driving with state laws. The majority of states have laws banning text messaging while driving and prohibiting the use of an electronic device by teenage or novice drivers. Some states prohibit all drivers from using a hand-held cellphone. Currently no state has a total ban on the use of personal electronic devices while driving. Successful past traffic safety campaigns changing driver behavior have demonstrated the necessity to adopt a “three Es” approach of Enactment of a law, Education of the public about the law, and rigorous Enforcement of the law. Experience reveals that this approach, along with future federal regulation of in-vehicle electronic devices and the employment of technology to limit the use of electronic devices while driving, is needed to alter personal behavior in order to reduce distractions and keep drivers focused on the driving task. PMID:24776229

  2. Neural effects of auditory distraction on visual attention in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C; Eichman, Lindsay C; Tregellas, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    Sensory flooding, particularly during auditory stimulation, is a common problem for patients with schizophrenia. The functional consequences of this impairment during cross-modal attention tasks, however, are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how auditory distraction differentially affects task-associated response during visual attention in patients and healthy controls. To that end, 21 outpatients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy comparison subjects performed a visual attention task in the presence or absence of distracting, environmentally relevant "urban" noise while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The task had two conditions (difficult and easy); task-related neural activity was defined as difficult - easy. During task performance, a significant distraction (noise or silence) by group (patient or control) interaction was observed in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus, left temporoparietal junction, and right fusiform gyrus, with patients showing relative hypoactivation during noise compared to controls. In patients, the ability to recruit the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the task in noise was negatively correlated with the effect of noise on reaction time. Clinically, the ability to recruit the fusiform gyrus during the task in noise was negatively correlated with SANS affective flattening score, and hippocampal recruitment during the task in noise was positively correlated with global functioning. In conclusion, schizophrenia may be associated with abnormalities in neural response during visual attention tasks in the presence of cross-modal noise distraction. These response differences may predict global functioning in the illness, and may serve as a biomarker for therapeutic development. PMID:23560100

  3. P1 - Maxillary Osteoporosis and Genetic Predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, E.; Delle Rose, G.; Duvina, M.; Civitelli, V.; Brancato, L.; Amunni, F.; Tonelli, P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Osteoporosis is a form of dysmetabolic osteopathy of multifactorial origin, characterised by reduction of the bone matrix and mineral portion and, overall, of bone mass, leading to fragility and increased fracture risk. AETIOPATHOGENESIS -ENDOCRINE FACTORS: ACTH, glycocorticoids, PTH, thyroxine, oestrogen, testosterone-GENETIC FACTORS: Major genes that regulate fundamental characteristics of bone, such as density and quality, and minor genes that regulate individual genetic background [lipoprotein receptor related protein (LRP5), TGF1, BMP, VDR, COL1A1, ER]. The DIAGNOSIS is based on history, clinical findings (vertebral or appendicular fractures), blood chemistry, conventional radiology and bone mass measurement. For the latter, it is possible to use DUAL-ENERGY X-RAY DENSITOMETRY which measures bone mineral content: according to the WHO definition, in osteoporosis bone mineral density (BMD) is more than 2.5 standard deviations below normal. MAXILLARY OSTEOPOROSIS: because of their function as a support for teeth, which leads to the development of the alveolar process, and their role in mastication, the jawbones (maxilla and mandible) differ from all the other bones of the skeleton. This role, also involving the masticatory muscles, prompts bone trophism. In advancing age a marked reduction of the thickness of the maxillary cortical bone is observed, together with increased porosity and constant functional remodelling of the trabecular part, a phenomenon that, as it increases, leads to tooth loss. Only a mandibular area (a bucco-lingual area of cortical bone in front of the mental foramen) remains unmodified, independently of gender, age and tooth loss. Materials and methods: Kemifar® supplies a test which can be used to study several factors (Er, VDR, COL1A1) that predispose to the development of osteoporosis. OsteoResis®Type is a simple, non-invasive test that allows the complete determination, and interpretation, of several genotypes associated

  4. Supraliminal but not subliminal distracters bias working memory recall.

    PubMed

    Wildegger, Theresa; Myers, Nicholas E; Humphreys, Glyn; Nobre, Anna C

    2015-06-01

    Information of which observers are not consciously aware can nevertheless influence perceptual processes. Whether subliminal information might exert an influence on working memory (WM) representations is less clear, and relatively few studies have examined the interactions between subliminal and supraliminal information in WM. We present 3 experiments examining this issue. Experiments 1a and b replicated the finding that orientation stimuli can influence behavior subliminally in a visuomotor priming task. Experiments 2 and 3 used the same orientation stimuli, but participants had to remember a target orientation and report it back by adjusting a probe orientation after a memory delay. Before or after presentation of the target orientation, a subliminal or supraliminal distracter orientation was presented that was either irrelevant for task completion and never had to be reported (Experiment 2), or was relevant for task completion because it had to be reported on some trials (Experiment 3). In both experiments, presentation of a supraliminal distracter influenced WM recall of the target orientation. When the distracter was presented subliminally, however, there was no bias in orientation recall. These results suggest that information stored in WM is protected from influences of subliminal stimuli, while online information processing is modulated by subliminal information. PMID:25867502

  5. Inhibin A enhances bone formation during distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Perrien, Daniel S; Nicks, Kristy M; Liu, Lichu; Akel, Nisreen S; Bacon, Anthony W; Skinner, Robert A; Swain, Frances L; Aronson, James; Suva, Larry J; Gaddy, Dana

    2012-02-01

    Given the aging population and the increased incidence of fracture in the elderly population, the need exists for agents that can enhance bone healing, particularly in situations of delayed fracture healing and/or non-union. Our previous studies demonstrated that overexpression of the gonadal peptide, human inhibin A (hInhA), in transgenic mice enhances bone formation and strength via increased osteoblast activity. We tested the hypothesis that hInhA can also exert anabolic effects in a murine model of distraction osteogenesis (DO), using both transgenic hInhA overexpression and administration of normal physiological levels of hInhA in adult male Swiss-Webster mice. Tibial osteotomies and external ring fixation were performed, followed by a 3-day latency period, 14-day distraction, and sacrifice on day 18. Supraphysiological levels of hInhA in transgenic mice, but not normal physiological levels of hInhA, significantly increased endosteal bone formation and mineralized bone area in the distraction gap, as determined by radiographic and µCT analysis. Significantly, increased PCNA and osteocalcin expression in the primary matrix front suggested that hInhA increased osteoblast proliferation. This mechanism is consistent with the effects of other agents and pathologies that modulate bone formation during DO, and demonstrates the potential of hInhA to enhance bone repair and regeneration. PMID:21809377

  6. Inhibin A enhances bone formation during distraction osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Perrien, Daniel S.; Nicks, Kristy M.; Liu, Lichu; Akel, Nisreen S.; Bacon, Anthony W.; Skinner, Robert A.; Swain, Frances L.; Aronson, James; Suva, Larry J; Gaddy, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Given the aging population and the increased incidence of fracture in the elderly population, the need exists for agents that can enhance bone healing, particularly in situations of delayed fracture healing and/or non-union. Our previous studies demonstrated that over-expression of the gonadal peptide, human Inhibin A (hInhA), in transgenic mice enhances bone formation and strength via increased osteoblast activity. We tested the hypothesis that hInhA can also exert anabolic effects in a murine model of distraction osteogenesis (DO), using both transgenic hInhA overexpression and administration of normal physiological levels of hInhA in adult male Swiss-Webster mice. Tibial osteotomies and external ring fixation were performed, followed by a 3 day latency period, 14 day distraction, and sacrifice on day 18. Supraphysiological levels of hInhA in transgenic mice, but not normal physiological levels of hInhA, significantly increased endosteal bone formation and mineralized bone area in the distraction gap, as determined by radiographic and µCT analysis. Significantly, increased PCNA and osteocalcin expression in the primary matrix front suggested that hInhA increased osteoblast proliferation. This mechanism is consistent with the effects of other agents and pathologies that modulate bone formation during DO, and demonstrates the potential of hInhA to enhance bone repair and regeneration. PMID:21809377

  7. Supraliminal But Not Subliminal Distracters Bias Working Memory Recall

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Information of which observers are not consciously aware can nevertheless influence perceptual processes. Whether subliminal information might exert an influence on working memory (WM) representations is less clear, and relatively few studies have examined the interactions between subliminal and supraliminal information in WM. We present 3 experiments examining this issue. Experiments 1a and b replicated the finding that orientation stimuli can influence behavior subliminally in a visuomotor priming task. Experiments 2 and 3 used the same orientation stimuli, but participants had to remember a target orientation and report it back by adjusting a probe orientation after a memory delay. Before or after presentation of the target orientation, a subliminal or supraliminal distracter orientation was presented that was either irrelevant for task completion and never had to be reported (Experiment 2), or was relevant for task completion because it had to be reported on some trials (Experiment 3). In both experiments, presentation of a supraliminal distracter influenced WM recall of the target orientation. When the distracter was presented subliminally, however, there was no bias in orientation recall. These results suggest that information stored in WM is protected from influences of subliminal stimuli, while online information processing is modulated by subliminal information. PMID:25867502

  8. Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Emerson, Jamie L.; Yu, Lixi; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to quantify and compare performance of middle-aged and older drivers during a naturalistic distraction paradigm (visual search for roadside targets) and predict older driver performance given functioning in visual, motor, and cognitive domains. Background Distracted driving can imperil healthy adults and may disproportionally affect the safety of older drivers with visual, motor, and cognitive decline. Methods Two hundred and three drivers, 120 healthy older (61 men and 59 women, ages 65 years or greater) and 83 middle-aged drivers (38 men and 45 women, ages 40–64 years), participated in an on-road test in an instrumented vehicle. Outcome measures included performance in roadside target identification (traffic signs and restaurants) and concurrent driver safety. Differences in visual, motor, and cognitive functioning served as predictors. Results Older drivers identified fewer landmarks and drove slower but committed more safety errors than middle-aged drivers. Greater familiarity with local roads benefited performance of middle-aged but not older drivers. Visual cognition predicted both traffic sign identification and safety errors while executive function predicted traffic sign identification over and above vision. Conclusion Older adults are susceptible to driving safety errors while distracted by common secondary visual search tasks that are inherent to driving. The findings underscore that age-related cognitive decline affects older driver management of driving tasks at multiple levels, and can help inform the design of on-road tests and interventions for older drivers. PMID:23964422

  9. Posteromedial approach to proximal tibia for corticotomy in callus distractions.

    PubMed

    Heiss, C; Meissner, S A; Hoesel, L M; Pfeil, J; Schnettler, R

    2006-10-01

    Corticotomy of the tibia using Ilizarov's anterolateral approach is used routinely for callus distraction. This method is associated with impaired callus formation and delayed healing because of marginal soft tissue covering and blood supply to the proximal tibia. We presumed a newly designed posteromedial approach would result in less callus defects and improved healing. In this prospective, randomized study, 31 patients had callus distraction using an anterolateral approach or the newly designed posteromedial approach. Callus formation was assessed radiographically and histologically. Callus defects were classified using serial radiographs. Biopsy specimens were taken from high-grade defect (Grades 3-4) zones to examine the osteogenic potential. Radiographic evaluation showed 13 callus defects; 12 occurred after the anterolateral approach and only one occurred after the posteromedial method. Although low-grade defects (Grades 1-2) healed spontaneously, biopsy specimens taken from Grades 3-4 defects revealed no osteogenic potential and requiring operative revision. Because of low soft tissue covering and impaired blood supply to the anterior tibia during surgical exposure for corticotomy, less callus formation occurred after the anterolateral approach compared with the posteromedial approach. We recommend the less invasive posteromedial approach to reduce callus defects and impaired healing in callus distraction of the proximal tibia. PMID:16760808

  10. Eye movements of Young and Older Adults while Reading with Distraction

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan

    2005-01-01

    We used eye-tracking technology to examine young and old adults’ on-line performance in the reading in distraction paradigm. Participants read target sentences and answered comprehension questions following each sentence. In some sentences, single word distracters were presented in either italic or red font. Distracters could be related or unrelated to the target text. On-line measures including probability of fixation, fixation duration, and number of fixations to distracting text revealed no age differences in text processing. However, young adults did have an advantage over older adults in overall reading time and text comprehension. These results provide no support for an inhibition deficit account of age differences in the reading in distraction paradigm, but are consistent with Dywan and Murphy’s (1995) suggestion that older adults are less able than young to distinguish target and distracter information held in working memory. PMID:16594789

  11. Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction Osteogenesis with Barrel Stave Osteotomy in the Treatment of Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    KOMURO, Yuzo; SHIMIZU, Azusa; SHIMOJI, Kazuaki; MIYAJIMA, Masakazu; ARAI, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since distraction osteogenesis was introduced into the field of craniomaxillofacial surgery, with distraction osteogenesis gradually consolidating its position for midface advancement in syndromic craniosynostosis. On the other hand, no consensus has been reached regarding its adaptation to calvarial bone. We reported that distraction osteogenesis was useful in posterior cranial vault expansion, and subsequently, similar reports have been successively observed worldwide. In posterior cranial vault distraction, intracranial capacity could be greatly expanded due to its simultaneous expansion with the scalp, with little risk of relapse because new bone is regenerated in the distraction gap. The possibility was suggested that the standard of first carrying out fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) for brachycephaly observed in syndromic craniosynostosis will greatly change posterior cranial vault distraction. PMID:26226978

  12. Maxillary odontogenic sinusitis, complicated with cerebral abscess--case report.

    PubMed

    Onişor-Gligor, F; Lung, T; Pintea, B; Mureşan, O; Pop, P B; Juncar, M

    2012-01-01

    Maxillary sinus inflammation, when untreated or incorrectly treated, may extend locoregionally, the remaining paranasal sinuses being the first affected anatomical structures. This is why the understanding of the inflammatory pathology of the maxillary sinus, and particularly of the complications it can generate, is extremely important. The purpose of this presentation is to point out that inflammations of the paranasal sinuses are susceptible to develop complications in certain conditions and threaten the patient's life due to the proximity of vital structures. This is the case of a 16 years old male patient who developed a left maxillary and frontal sinusitis, complicated with cerebral abscess. Early detection, multidisciplinary approach and proper indication of surgical treatment, as well as early suspicion of complication, especially in young male adolescents, are extremely important. PMID:22712359

  13. Etiologies and Treatments of Odontogenic Maxillary Sinusitis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Fahimeh; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Safai, Pooria

    2015-01-01

    Context: Maxillary sinusitis is an important issue in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. This study aims to present a systematic review of etiologies and treatments of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic database search was performed based on related MeSH keywords. Articles published between January 2001 and December 2014 was selected according to the inclusion criteria. The information extracted from various studies was categorized in various tables. Results: The study selected 19 studies. In most studies, oroantral fistula (OAF) was the most common etiology of odontogenic sinusitis. Alpha-hemolytic streptococcus was the most common flora in sinusitis with dental origin. The literature shows that the Caldwell-Luc approach may be the best method for treating sinusitis in cases of displaced teeth. Conclusions: OAF is a common cause of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis and may easily be treated by endoscopy and fistula closure. Maxillofacial surgeons and dentists should consider this problem to avoid misdiagnosis and prevent complications. PMID:26756016

  14. Unusual cause of maxillary sinus mass with proptosis.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Regi; Babu, Telugu Ramesh; Rupa, Vedantam

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 21-year-old Indian man with an 8-month history of left-sided headache, maxillary sinus mass, proptosis and swelling of the left temple, whose contrast-enhanced CT scans of the paranasal sinuses showed an enhancing, destructive soft tissue mass involving the left maxillary sinus, orbit, infratemporal fossa and anterior cranial fossa, suggestive of a malignancy or chronic granulomatous disease. Histopathological examination of the sinus mass, which was debulked and partially excised via an endoscopic approach, suggested a diagnosis of immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease of the maxillary sinus. Subsequent immunohistochemical staining and biochemical tests confirmed the diagnosis. We highlight the importance of considering this increasingly recognised but rare entity that can mimic a malignant lesion with its clinical and radiological features but which, unlike the latter, has a very good prognosis with appropriate treatment. PMID:26392443

  15. Aberration in the palatal root of the maxillary first molar

    PubMed Central

    Rajalbandi, Sandeep; Shingte, Sandhya Narayan; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for the endodontic therapy. Variations in the root and root canal morphology, especially in multirooted teeth, are a constant challenge for diagnosis and management. The dentist needs to be familiar with the various root canal configurations and their variations for successful endodontic therapy. There are rare variations in canal number and configuration in maxillary molars, which could affect treatment outcome. Two lingual root structures are occasionally found on human permanent maxillary molars. One of these is the normal lingual root, which is always present, the other is a supernumerary structure which can be located either mesiolingually (radix mesiolingualis) or distolingually (radix distolingualis). The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and to demonstrate a case report which describes the successful non-surgical endodontic management of an unusual maxillary first molar with four separate roots and four canals. PMID:23632609

  16. Reappraisal of trimodal combination therapy for maxillary sinus carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, H.; Suzuki, S.; Horiuchi, J.; Takagi, M.; Okuyama, T.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, M.

    1982-12-15

    The introduction of trimodal combination therapy (surgery + radiation + intraarterial infusion) for maxillary carcinoma resulted in a change in the sites of recurrence and no satisfactory improvement in the local control rate. To examine the cause of these phenomena, external carotid angiography was performed on 51 patients prior to the start of the therapy and the results of the treatment were studied. Angiographic findings indicated that maxillary carcinoma is fed not only by the maxillary artery, but also by the internal carotid, facial, transverse facial and other arteries from the external carotid artery. The multiplicity of feeders causes irregular distribution of the intraarterially infused antimetabolites. Irregular and local low distribution of antimetabolites may well bring about the high rate of recurrence. The results of intraarterial transcatheter Tc-99m-MAA injection were also in accord with the angiographic findings.

  17. Methylene blue mediated laser therapy of maxillary sinusitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Chikina, E. E.; Knyazev, A. B.; Mareev, O. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is a clinical study of photodynamic therapy of maxillary sinusitis. 0.1%-Methylene Blue aqueous solution in combination with He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm) have been used for treatment of maxillary sinus mucous of patients with acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis. The differences between the results of the treatment with dye and light versus treatment with a drug for every group of patients were statistically analyzed by Student’s t test. The efficacy of the photodynamic therapy was estimated with the use of the following criteria: the state of respiration, olfaction, duration of purulent discharge, reconstruction of transport function of ciliary epithelium, etc. The obtained results have shown that the photodynamic therapy is effective in comparison with conservative methods of treatment of the disease.

  18. Potential Distractions and Unsafe Driving Behaviors Among Drivers of 1- to 12-year-old Children

    PubMed Central

    Macy, Michelle L.; Carter, Patrick M.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Driver distraction has been identified as a threat to individual drivers and public health. Motor vehicle collisions remain a leading cause of death for children yet little is known about distractions among drivers of children. This study sought to characterize potential distractions among drivers of children. Methods A two-site, cross-sectional, computerized survey of child passenger safety practices was conducted among adult drivers of 1- to 12-year-old children who presented for emergency care between October 2011-May 2012. Drivers indicated the frequency with which they engaged in ten potential distractions in the past month while driving with their child. Distractions were grouped in four categories: 1) non-driving, 2) cellular phone, 3) child, 4) directions. Information about other unsafe driving behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics was collected. Results Nearly 90% of eligible parents participated. Analysis included 570 (92.2%) drivers. Non-driving and cellular phone-related distractions were disclosed by >75% of participants. Fewer participants disclosed child (71.2%) and directions-related distractions (51.9%). Child age was associated with each distraction category. Cellular phone-related distractions were associated with the child riding daily in the family car, non-Hispanic white and other race/ethnicity, and higher education. Parents admitting to drowsy driving and being pulled over for speeding had over two-times higher odds of disclosing distractions from each category. Conclusions Distracted driving activities are common among drivers of child passengers and associated with other unsafe driving behaviors. Child passenger safety may be improved by preventing crash events through the reduction or elimination of distractions among drivers of child passengers. PMID:24767781

  19. Novel Rigid External Distraction Device Improves Stability and Controls the Vector During Midfacial Advancement.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Cory M; Rottgers, Stephen Alex; Langenfeld, Christopher C; Mulliken, John B; Padwa, Bonnie L

    2016-06-01

    The major limitation of the rigid external devices currently used for midfacial distraction after subcranial Le Fort III osteotomies is the ductile wire that connects the midface to the device, which makes it difficult to control the vector and force during distraction. The authors describe a novel external appliance that addresses this and other problems of contemporary devices, and application of a custom cranial template that facilitates precise placement of the device to achieve the planned vector of distraction. PMID:27213737

  20. Maxillary Tuberosity Fracture Associated with First Molar Extraction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Hidayet B.; Ay, Sinan; Kara, M. Isa

    2007-01-01

    Maxillary tuberosity fractures during molar teeth extraction can occur commonly in dental practice; however, very few cases are reported and discussed in the literature. This article presents a case of large fracture of maxillary tuberosity during extraction of first maxillary molar tooth and its conservative treatment outcomes. PMID:19212477

  1. Large, expansile odontogenic cyst with bilateral maxillary sinus involvement.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Maxine; Singer, Steven R; Rinaggio, Joseph; Kim, Irene H; Mupparapu, Muralidhar

    2013-03-01

    Residual cysts are common odontogenic lesions of the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws. A case of an unusually large residual cyst that crosses the maxillary midline and occupies portions of the maxillary sinuses is being reported. Investigations included a panoramic radiograph, CT scan and a biopsy. The differential diagnoses were common odontogenic lesions, including cysts and benign tumors. The value of advanced imaging modalities is stressed when determining the presence and extent of lesions in complex structures such as the maxilla. The need to visualize the entire lesion beyond what may be seen on intraoral views, as well as panoramic radiographs, is discussed. PMID:23691727

  2. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, H L; Nagarathna, J; Kumar, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233. PMID:26604543

  3. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, HL; Nagarathna, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233. PMID:26604543

  4. Medical therapy of maxillary sinus inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Seung; Hong, Ki Hwan; Kim, June Sun; Song, Jong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) in the maxillary sinus is a diagnostic challenge. As IMT has various names, it has various findings in magnetic resonance image. Although destructive pattern in computed tomography and hypermetabolism in PET CT suggest malignancy, it is debatable whether it is a tumor or inflammatory lesion. Treatment of IMT usually includes surgery. However, IMT can be dealt with medical treatment according to histologic type and localization. We report a rare case of IMT in the maxillary sinus which is controlled by medical therapy. PMID:27038822

  5. Interdisciplinary approach for the management of bilaterally impacted maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P.; Tandon, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. This case report describes the orthodontic management of a 16-year-old adolescent female patient with bilateral labially impacted maxillary canines. The problems associated with impacted maxillary canines and the biomechanical interventions used for this patient are discussed. The treatment protocol involved surgical intervention, followed by sequential traction of the impacted teeth. An interdisciplinary approach to treatment with different mechanical strategies led to the achievement of the desired esthetic, functional, and occlusal treatment goals. PMID:25395776

  6. Unilateral cacosmia: a presentation of maxillary fungal infestation.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Sally E; Schelenz, Silke; Philpott, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of long-standing unilateral cacosmia in a healthy 67-year-old man due to maxillary fungal infestation. Treatment with septoplasty had been attempted 10 years prior but no further investigation or management undertaken and symptoms continued. Subsequent MRI scan revealed significant opacification of the left maxillary sinus. This was readily amenable to treatment by balloon sinuplasty. This yielded viscous grey mucus which grew Scedosporium apiospermum. The case highlights the need for careful investigation of olfactory symptoms, including blood tests to exclude systemic causes, endoscopy and imaging where indicated. PMID:23563684

  7. Laser therapy of acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Chikina, Elena E.; Meglinski, Igor V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Knyazev, Anatoly B.; Mareev, Oleg V.

    2006-06-01

    The clinical results of photodynamic therapy of maxillary sinusitis have been presented. 0.1%-Methylene Blue aqueous solution in combination with He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm) has been used for treatment of patients with acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis. Efficacy of the photodynamic therapy was estimated with the use of the following criteria: the state of respiration, olfaction, duration of purulent discharge, reconstruction of transport function of ciliary epithelium, etc. The obtained results have shown that the photodynamic therapy is effective in comparison with conservative methods of treatment of the diseases.

  8. Incidental treatment of maxillary dysesthesia with maxillary sinus lift procedure--a case report.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Clarkson, Earl

    2014-12-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of dysesthesia to the left palate with referred pain to the left infraorbital distribution after extraction of the left maxillary first and second premolars. The clinical and radiologic examination revealed an alveolar crestal bone dehiscence suggestive of an occult oral antral communication (OAC) that had spontaneously healed. Stimulation of the mucosa at this bony dehiscence consistently reproduced the dysesthesia. A sinus lift procedure was performed in this region for implant site development and also resulted in resolution of the dysesthesia. This case represents an instance in which surgical alteration of a trigger zone of neuropathic pain can result in its resolution. PMID:25454712

  9. Recurrent Maxillary Odontogenic Myxoma Following Partial Maxillary Resection and Consecutive Osseous Reconstruction Including Tooth Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Reinhard E; Scheuer, Hanna A; Höltje, Wolf

    2016-06-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare tumour arising in the jaws. The tumour is purported to be odontogenic in origin due to the frequent localisation of the tumour inside the jaws in close relation to teeth. The aim of this report was to detail the course of a patient who developed OM of the maxilla, underwent adequate ablative surgery and reconstruction, including tooth transplantation to the original tumour site, and subsequently developed a local recurrence in close proximity to the teeth transplanted to the reconstructed maxilla 6 years after the first diagnosis. Once again, a partial maxillary resection was performed, with no reconstruction. The patient has been free from tumour recurrence for over 20 years. We discuss the current hypothesis on OM pathogenesis and the possible impact of actively dividing cells on tumour re-growth. PMID:27272841

  10. Comparison of the Diagnostic Image Quality of the Canine Maxillary Dentoalveolar Structures Obtained by Cone Beam Computed Tomography and 64-Multidetector Row Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Jason W; Drees, Randi; Koenig, Lisa J; Snyder, Christopher J; Hetzel, Scott; Miles, Chanda R; Schwarz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this blinded study was to validate the use of cone beam computed tomography (C) for imaging of the canine maxillary dentoalveolar structures by comparing its diagnostic image quality with that of 64-multidetector row CT Sagittal slices of a tooth-bearing segment of the maxilla of a commercially purchased dog skull embedded in methylmethacrylate were obtained along a line parallel with the dental arch using a commercial histology diamond saw. The slice of tooth-bearing bone that best depicted the dentoalveolar structures was chosen and photographed. The maxillary segment was imaged with cone beam CT and 64-multidetector row CT. Four blinded evaluators compared the cone beam CT and 64-multidetector row CT images and image quality was scored as it related to the anatomy of dentoalveolar structures. Trabecular bone, enamel, dentin, pulp cavity, periodontal ligament space, and lamina dura were scored In addition, a score depicting the evaluators overall impression of the image was recorded. Images acquired with cone beam CT were found to be significantly superior in image quality to images acquired with 64-multidetector row CT overall, and in all scored categories. In our study setting cone beam CT was found to be a valid and clinically superior imaging modality for the canine maxillary dentoalveolar structures when compared to 64-multidetector row CT. PMID:26415384

  11. Mandibular lengthening by distraction osteogenesis in the setting of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Black, Jonathan S; Denny, Arlen D

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited disorder characterized by bone fragility and deformity. The craniofacial skeleton may be involved either primarily or by result of a concomitant diagnosis. Distraction osteogenesis has emerged as a versatile reconstructive option for many craniofacial deformities. Mandibular lengthening by distraction has not been reported in a patient with OI. We present a patient in whom mandibular lengthening was successfully performed twice for hemifacial microsomia. Bilateral lengthening was initially performed with successful airway improvement. This was followed by transport distraction on the more severely affected side for condylar reconstruction. Successful mandibular lengthening by distraction is possible in the setting of OI. PMID:25565236

  12. Orthodontic management of bilateral maxillary canine-first premolar transposition and bilateral agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Elena Di; Giuseppe, Biagio Di; Tepedino, Michele; Chimenti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Maxillary canine-first premolar transposition (Mx.C.P1) is an uncommon dental positional anomaly that may create many orthodontic problems from both esthetic and functional points of view. OBJECTIVE: In this report we show the orthodontic management of a case of Mx.C.P1 associated with bilateral maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and unilateral mandibular second premolar agenesis METHODS: The patient was treated with a multibracket appliance and the extraction of the lower premolar. RESULTS: treatment was completed without the need for any prosthetic replacement. PMID:25992994

  13. Beneficial effects of growth hormone therapy for ossification defects after bone distraction in X linked hypophosphataemic rickets

    PubMed Central

    Cañete, Ramón; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Aguilar-Quintero, María; Vázquez-Rueda, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    A report on two homozygous twin girls affected by X linked hypophosphataemic rickets. They were examined due to short stature and genu varum of both tibias. They were treated with calcitriol and Joulie's solution, whereon it was observed that serum parathyroid hormone and phosphaturia decreased while phosphataemia increased. They underwent a tibial osteotomy (by means of the insertion of Kirchner needles) at 7.7 years of age for correction of genu varum and a normal consolidation was reached 1 month later. Nonetheless, height was percentile <1 after menarche, so both sisters asked for bone lengthening. Because of this, at 15 years of age femoral distraction was performed, but no bone callus was observed 14 months later. Consequently, they were treated with subcutaneous growth hormone, showing bone callus at 6 months. Finally, the external fixators were removed due to ossification in the lengthened segments. PMID:25115781

  14. [Gorlin syndrome with osteoma in the maxillary sinus (case report)].

    PubMed

    Sevinç, Halil; Oztürk, Mustafa; Mavili, Ertuğrul; Ozyazgan, Irfan

    2004-12-01

    Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas of the skin, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaw, various skeletal abnormalities, and lamellar falx calsifications. Many associated lesions have been reported. In this report, we present a case of Gorlin syndrome with an osteoma in the maxillary sinus which has never been reported in the literature. PMID:15611914

  15. Immediate maxillary lateral incisor implants with nonocclusal loading provisional crowns.

    PubMed

    Peñarrocha, Miguel; Lamas, Joana; Peñarrocha, Maria; Garcia, Berta

    2008-01-01

    This clinical report series describes a treatment modality involving immediately placed dental implants in maxillary lateral incisor sites using noncemented immediate provisional crowns retained with calcinable copings (prosthetic complement used in preparing the metal for the definitive prosthesis). Ten implants were placed in eight patients for the replacement of maxillary lateral incisors: two immediate and eight corresponding to cases of agenesis. All were subjected to immediate rehabilitation with provisional acrylic resin crowns in nonocclusal loading. One implant failed 3 weeks after placement due to acute local trauma. The other nine remained functional within the mouth, with normal clinical and radiological characteristics after a minimum of 12-month follow-up. Immediate placement of implant fixed provisional restorations retained by friction in maxillary lateral incisors offers an esthetic solution, eliminates the need for a removable provisional restoration, and avoids implant failures associated with excess cement or screw loosening. Moreover, in the case of extractions, immediate placement and provisionalization of implants in maxillary lateral incisors can effectively optimize the peri-implant esthetic results by maintaining the existing hard and soft tissue architecture of the replaced tooth. As no cement or screws are required, and the provisional crowns are placed in nonocclusal loading, the risk of complications is minimized. PMID:17927733

  16. Aneurysmal bone cyst of maxillary alveolus: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Subhas Chandra; Adhyapok, Apurba Kumar; Hazarika, Kriti; Malik, Kapil; Vatsyayan, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a nonneoplastic rare pathologic entity of the jaws. Its locally aggressive nature and high recurrence rate after curettage make surgical resection a better treatment option. Here, we present a case of ABC of maxillary alveolus and its management by alveolectomy followed by white head varnish pack application in the surgical defect. PMID:27041915

  17. The morphological interaction between the nasal cavity and maxillary sinuses in living humans.

    PubMed

    Holton, Nathan; Yokley, Todd; Butaric, Lauren

    2013-03-01

    To understand how variation in nasal architecture accommodates the need for effective conditioning of respired air, it is necessary to assess the morphological interaction between the nasal cavity and other aspects of the nasofacial skeleton. Previous studies indicate that the maxillary sinuses may play a key role in accommodating climatically induced nasal variation such that a decrease in nasal cavity volume is associated with a concomitant increase in maxillary sinus volume. However, due to conflicting results in previous studies, the precise interaction of the nasal cavity and maxillary sinuses, in humans, is unclear. This is likely due to the prior emphasis on nasal cavity size, whereas arguably, nasal cavity shape is more important with regard to the interaction with the maxillary sinuses. Using computed tomography scans of living human subjects (N=40), the goal of this study is to assess the interaction between nasal cavity form and maxillary sinus volume in European- and African-derived individuals with differences in nasal cavity morphology. First, we assessed whether there is an inverse relationship between nasal cavity and maxillary sinus volumes. Next, we examined the relationship between maxillary sinus volume and nasal cavity shape using multivariate regression. Our results show that there is a positive relationship between nasal cavity and maxillary sinus volume, indicating that the maxillary sinuses do not accommodate variation in nasal cavity size. However, maxillary sinus volume is significantly correlated with variation in relative internal nasal breadth. Thus, the maxillary sinuses appear to be important for accommodating nasal cavity shape rather than size. PMID:23382025

  18. Interruptions and Distractions in Healthcare: Review and Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, A. Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare settings can be hectic, demanding, time-constrained environments. Within these environments, health care professionals (HCP) are expected to perform tasks that often require their undivided attention. However, HCPs are frequently interrupted, which can distract their attention and add to the complexity of their work. That said, not all interruptions are bad; many interruptions are essential to the patient care process and provide HCPs with necessary information. This paper systematically reviews the peer-reviewed literature on interruptions in healthcare settings to determine the state of the science and to identify gaps. It then provides a complex sociotechnical systems approach to understanding interruptions in healthcare. PMID:20378621

  19. The effect of aging on distraction osteogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Aronson, J; Gao, G G; Shen, X C; McLaren, S G; Skinner, R A; Badger, T M; Lumpkin, C K

    2001-05-01

    The effect of age on bone formation in the limb lengthening model of distraction osteogenesis (DO) was investigated in two studies using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats from two colonies at various ages (CAMM: 9 vs 24 months, Harlan: 4 vs 24 months). External fixators were placed on the right tibiae of 30 male SD rats (20 CAMM, 10 Harlan) and mid-diaphyseal osteotomies were performed. Distraction was performed at 0.2 mm bid for 20 days (CAMM) or 14 days (Harlan). The experimental (DO) and control (contra-lateral) tibiae were removed for high-resolution radiography and decalcified histology. Videomicroscopy was used to quantitate radiodensity, histology (matrix type) and relative areas of cell proliferation, which was identified by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunochemistry. Both studies demonstrated an age-related decrease in the percent mineralized bone (radiodensity) in the distraction gap (CAMM 9 vs 24 months: 68% vs 51%, P < 0.003; Harlan 4 vs 24 months: 95% vs 36%, P < 0.001) and no significant colony or distraction time-specific difference was seen between the two colonies of 24-month-old rats. Histology was performed on the Harlan rats. The DO gaps in the 24-month-old rats demonstrated less endosteal new bone compared to the 4-month-old rats (P < 0.01), but equivalent periosteal new bone. In 4-month-old rats, PCNA-immunostained cells were organized along the primary matrix front (where the first deposition of osteoid occurs) extending across both periosteal and endosteal surfaces. In 24-month-old rats, PCNA+ cells were organized in zones along the periosteal new bone fronts only and irregularly scattered throughout the endosteal gap within a fibrovascular non-ossifying matrix. These results indicate that 24-month-old rats have a relative deficit in endosteal bone formation which may not be related to cell proliferation but rather to cell organization. This model reflects the clinical situation where radiographic findings in older patients demonstrate

  20. Virtual reality as a distraction technique in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  1. Virtual Reality as a Distraction Technique in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  2. Keep Your Eyes on the Road: Young Driver Crash Risk Increases According to Duration of Distraction

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Guo, Feng; Klauer, Sheila G; Ehsani, Johnathon P; Pradhan, Anuj K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Secondary task engagement that distracts the driver is a contributing factor to motor vehicle crashes among adults. However, the association between eye glance duration and crash risk with novice teenage drivers has not been determined. Methods Vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers were instrumented with cameras, accelerometers, GPS, and other devices. Data were collected continuously for 18 months. Crashes and near crashes (CNCs) were identified by examining highly elevated gravitational force events. Video footage of the 6 seconds prior to each CNC and randomly sampled non-CNC road segments were coded for the duration of eye glances off the forward roadway and the presence of secondary task engagement. The likelihood (odds ratios) of CNC due to eye glance behavior was calculated by comparing the prevalence of secondary task engagement and duration of eyes off road prior to CNC with the prevalence and duration of eyes off road during non-CNC road segments. Results Crash risk increased with the duration of single longest glance during all secondary tasks (OR=3.8 for >2s) and wireless secondary task engagement (OR=5.5 for >2s). Single longest glance provided a more consistent estimate of crash risk than total time eyes off the forward roadway. Conclusions Eyes glances away from forward roadway involving secondary tasks increased the likelihood of CNC. The longer the duration of eye glance away from the road the greater the risk, regardless of type of secondary task. Education and policy discouraging secondary task engagement, particularly for prolonged periods, is warranted. PMID:24759443

  3. Achieving the prediction results by visualized treatment objective following anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, V; Kumar, K A Jeevan; Mohan, A P; Kumar, B Pavan; Kunusoth, Ramesh; Kumar, M Pavan

    2013-06-01

    This study used the manual visualized treatment objectives (VTO) as a tool to evaluate the predictive value of the computer-assisted VTO. Presurgical cephalometric tracing predictions generated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons and computer-assisted VTOs were compared with the postsurgical outcome as seen on lateral cephalometric tracings. Ten measurements of the predicted and actual postsurgical hard tissue landmarks were compared statistically. A paired Student's t test showed that in nine of ten measurements, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean values of manual VTO (MVTO). Statistically significant differences were found in one of the four linear measurements (cant of upper lip P - 0.0001). For computer assisted (CAVTO) Student's t test showed that in nine of ten measurements, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean values. Statistically significant differences were found in one of the four linear measurements (nasolabial angle, P  - 0.0001). From these data, it appears that both VTOs demonstrated good predictive comparative outcome, and are equally predictive, but CAVTO is precise. PMID:24431838

  4. Violating Interpersonal Distancing Expectations, Distraction and Reward on Source Attraction, Credibility and Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.; Burgoon, Judee K.

    The role of two nonverbal variables, conversational distance and physical self-presentation, were examined as potential sources of distraction and for their consequent effects on susceptibility to persuasion. The distraction literature was reviewed and synthesized into five propositions, which served as a starting point for predicting how…

  5. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: "Just Hang Up and Drive".

    PubMed

    Kahn, Christopher A; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-12-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as "distracted driving." The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article "Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011" highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family. PMID:26759649

  6. Predicting Homework Distraction at the Secondary School Level: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2010-01-01

    Background: Students continue to struggle with homework distraction well into the secondary school years. Recently, the concern over homework distraction has been growing, as new electronic media have offered diverse and nearly ubiquitous forms of diversion to students while they are doing homework. It is surprising to note, however, that a…

  7. Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julien T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N=27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders were trained along with their parents to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Distraction produced significant positive effects for observer-rated distress scores for the low hypnotizable children. Discusses…

  8. "Shhh! We're Tryin' to Concentrate": Attention and Environmental Distracters in Novel Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Wallace E., Jr.; Salley, Brenda J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this study was to evaluate the role of attention, as a central dimension of temperament, in children's real-time acquisition of novel vocabulary. Environmental distractions were administered to 47 22-month-old children as they acquired novel vocabulary in a fast-mapping task. Two distraction conditions impeded novel word…

  9. Object-Based Attention Overrides Perceptual Load to Modulate Visual Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to ignore task-irrelevant information and overcome distraction is central to our ability to efficiently carry out a number of tasks. One factor shown to strongly influence distraction is the perceptual load of the task being performed; as the perceptual load of task-relevant information processing increases, the likelihood that…

  10. Selective Attention in Schizophrenic and Manic Psychoses: The Effect of Distraction on Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    1978-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the general level of cognitive processing that is especially vulnerable to distraction in schizophrenia. Attempts to determine at what level auditory distraction interferes with schizophrenics' performance, as opposed to normals, on simple recall tasks. (Editor/RK)

  11. Five- and Eight-Year-Old Children's Response to Auditory and Visual Distraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Gordon A.; Stevenson, Edward E., Jr.

    An assessment was made of 5- and 8-year-old children's performance on a short-term memory task under two auditory and two visual distraction conditions, as well as under a nondistraction condition. Performance under nondistraction was found to be superior to that under distraction (p<.001), indicating that the extraneous stimuli had a generally…

  12. The Use of Choice-Based Distraction to Decrease the Distress of Children at the Dentist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filcheck, Holly A.; Allen, Keith D.; Ogren, Hilary; Darby, James Brandt; Holstein, Brian; Hupp, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine whether choice-based distraction provides an effective means of reducing the distress of children undergoing routine dental treatment. Sixty children between the ages of 5-12 who required restorative dental treatment were assigned randomly to either a Control group or a Distraction group in which the…

  13. Why Does Working Memory Capacity Predict RAPM Performance? A Possible Role of Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Andrew F.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Current theories concerning individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) suggest that WMC reflects the ability to control the focus of attention and resist interference and distraction. The current set of experiments tested whether susceptibility to distraction is partially responsible for the established relationship between…

  14. Using semi-automated segmentation of computed tomography datasets for three-dimensional visualization and volume measurements of equine paranasal sinuses.

    PubMed

    Brinkschulte, Markus; Bienert-Zeit, Astrid; Lüpke, Matthias; Hellige, Maren; Staszyk, Carsten; Ohnesorge, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The system of the paranasal sinuses morphologically represents one of the most complex parts of the equine body. A clear understanding of spatial relationships is needed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomy and volume of equine paranasal sinuses using three-dimensional (3D) reformatted renderings of computed tomography (CT) slices. Heads of 18 cadaver horses, aged 2-25 years, were analyzed by the use of separate semi-automated segmentation of the following bilateral paranasal sinus compartments: rostral maxillary sinus (Sinus maxillaris rostralis), ventral conchal sinus (Sinus conchae ventralis), caudal maxillary sinus (Sinus maxillaris caudalis), dorsal conchal sinus (Sinus conchae dorsalis), frontal sinus (Sinus frontalis), sphenopalatine sinus (Sinus sphenopalatinus), and middle conchal sinus (Sinus conchae mediae). Reconstructed structures were displayed separately, grouped, or altogether as transparent or solid elements to visualize individual paranasal sinus morphology. The paranasal sinuses appeared to be divided into two systems by the maxillary septum (Septum sinuum maxillarium). The first or rostral system included the rostral maxillary and ventral conchal sinus. The second or caudal system included the caudal maxillary, dorsal conchal, frontal, sphenopalatine, and middle conchal sinuses. These two systems overlapped and were interlocked due to the oblique orientation of the maxillary septum. Total volumes of the paranasal sinuses ranged from 911.50 to 1502.00 ml (mean ± SD, 1151.00 ± 186.30 ml). 3D renderings of equine paranasal sinuses by use of semi-automated segmentation of CT-datasets improved understanding of this anatomically challenging region. PMID:23890087

  15. A comparison between audio and audiovisual distraction techniques in managing anxious pediatric dental patients.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, A R; Marwah, N; Raju, O S

    2007-01-01

    Pain is not the sole reason for fear of dentistry. Anxiety or the fear of unknown during dental treatment is a major factor and it has been the major concern for dentists for a long time. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the two distraction techniques, viz, audio distraction and audiovisual distraction, in management of anxious pediatric dental patients. Sixty children aged between 4-8 years were divided into three groups. Each child had four dental visits--screening visit, prophylaxis visit, cavity preparation and restoration visit, and extraction visit. Child's anxiety level in each visit was assessed using a combination of four measures: Venham's picture test, Venham's rating of clinical anxiety, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation. The values obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded that audiovisual distraction technique was more effective in managing anxious pediatric dental patient as compared to audio distraction technique. PMID:18007104

  16. Goal-directed behavior under emotional distraction is preserved by enhanced task-specific activation.

    PubMed

    Wessa, Michèle; Heissler, Janine; Schönfelder, Sandra; Kanske, Philipp

    2013-03-01

    Despite the distracting effects of emotional stimuli on concurrent task performance, humans are able to uphold goal-directed behavior. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that this effect is due to the enhanced recruitment of task-specific neural resources. In a two-step functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we first localized those areas involved in mental arithmetics by contrasting arithmetic problems with a number detection task. The resulting activation maps were then used as masks in a second experiment that compared the effects of neutral and emotional distracter images on mental arithmetics. We found increased response times in the emotional distracter condition, accompanied by enhanced activation in task-specific areas, including superior parietal cortex, dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. This activation increase correlated with larger behavioral impairment through emotional distraction. Similar error rates in both conditions indicate that cognitive task performance is preserved through enhanced recruitment of task-specific neural resources when emotional distracter stimuli are present. PMID:22302842

  17. Neither state or trait anxiety alter the response to distracting emotionally neutral sounds.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Robert; Hunter, Mike D; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory suggests that heightened anxiety, whether due to trait or state factors, causes an increased vulnerability to distraction even when the distracters are emotionally neutral. Recent passive oddball studies appear to support this theory in relation to the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds. However such studies have manipulated emotional state via the content of task stimuli, thus potentially confounding changes in emotion with differences in task demands. To identify the effect of anxiety on the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds, 50 participants completed a passive oddball task requiring emotionally neutral sounds to be ignored. Crucially, state anxiety was manipulated independent of the task stimuli (via unrelated audiovisual stimuli) thus removing confounds relating to task demands. Neither state or trait anxiety was found to influence the susceptibility to distraction by emotionally neutral sounds. These findings contribute to the ongoing debate concerning the impact of emotion on attention. PMID:25217343

  18. Understanding commercial truck drivers' decision-makin process concerning distracted driving.

    PubMed

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-05-01

    A concurrent mixed methods design was used to explore personal and workplace factors, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, that affect truck drivers' decision-making about distracted driving on the job. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with experts in truck safety and distracted driving, and quantitative data were collected via online survey of truck drivers in the United States. Findings from the interviews illustrated how drivers perceived distractions and the importance of supervisors enforcing organizational distracted driving policies. Survey results found that behavioral intentions were most important in regards to texting and crash and near-crash outcomes, while perceived norms from management best described the correlation between dispatch device use and negative crash-related outcomes. By using a mixed methods design, rather than two separate studies, these findings revealed nuanced differences into the influence of supervisors on distracted driving. PMID:25732132

  19. Sex differences in the response to emotional distraction: an event-related fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Iordan, Alexandru D; Dolcos, Sanda; Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Florin

    2013-03-01

    Evidence has suggested that women have greater emotional reactivity than men. However, it is unclear whether these differences in basic emotional responses are also associated with differences in emotional distractibility, and what the neural mechanisms that implement differences in emotional distractibility between women and men are. Functional MRI recording was used in conjunction with a working memory (WM) task, with emotional distraction (angry faces) presented during the interval between the memoranda and the probes. First, we found an increased impact of emotional distraction among women in trials associated with high-confidence responses, in the context of overall similar WM performance in women and men. Second, women showed increased sensitivity to emotional distraction in brain areas associated with "hot" emotional processing, whereas men showed increased sensitivity in areas associated with "cold" executive processing, in the context of overall similar patterns of response to emotional distraction in women and men. Third, a sex-related dorsal-ventral hemispheric dissociation emerged in the lateral PFC related to coping with emotional distraction, with women showing a positive correlation with WM performance in left ventral PFC, and men showing similar effects in the right dorsal PFC. In addition to extending to men results that have previously been reported in women, by showing that both sexes engage mechanisms that are similar overall in response to emotional distraction, the present study identifies sex differences in both the response to and coping with emotional distraction. These results have implications for understanding sex differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders, in which basic emotional responses, emotional distractibility, and coping abilities are altered. PMID:23293019

  20. Do advertisements at the roadside distract the driver?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettwich, Carmen; Klinger, Karsten; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment. More and more cars are on the road. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio and navigation system, the environment outside the car has also become more and more complex. Hoardings, advertising pillars, shop fronts and video screens are just a few examples. For this reason the potential risk of driver distraction is rising. But in which way do the advertisements at the roadside influence the driver's attention? The investigation which is described is devoted to this topic. Various kinds of advertisements played an important role, like illuminated and non-illuminated posters as well as illuminated animated ads. Several test runs in an urban environment were performed. The gaze direction of the driver's eye was measured with an eye tracking system. The latter consists of three cameras which logged the eye movements during the test run and a small-sized scene camera recording the traffic scene. 16 subjects (six female and ten male) between 21 and 65 years of age took part in this experiment. Thus the driver's fixation duration of the different advertisements could be determined.

  1. Inhibiting prepotent responses in the elderly: Distraction and disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shulan; Wu, Mengyao; Tang, Chien-Hui

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine whether older adults, relative to younger adults, suffer from generic inhibition, selective inhibition, and/or distraction deficits, as assessed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures in a go/no-go task paradigm that included manipulations of no-go stimulus type (irrelevant vs. conflict) and no-go probability. A total of 96 individuals were recruited; each of three experiments included 32 participants (16 adults above and 16 adults below 60 years of age). The older adults performed more poorly than the younger adults in our behavioral test; however, the event-related potential results showed that irrelevant and conflict no-go stimuli incurred different processes that were differentially impacted by aging, as was reflected in the N2 and P3. That is, the older adults' inhibition deficits might be due to different underlying mechanisms: disproportionate processing of irrelevant no-go stimuli, and disproportionate suppression of conflicting information when executing or withholding a response to conflict no-go stimuli. The present results therefore support the theories of age-related selective inhibition and distraction deficits. PMID:26369924

  2. Accurate expectancies diminish perceptual distraction during visual search

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Jocelyn L.; Guerin, Scott A.; Stegman, Anna; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively “spills-over” to task-irrelevant information. The spill-over of perceptual processing capacity increases the likelihood that task-irrelevant information will impair performance. In two visual search experiments, we tested the automaticity of the allocation of perceptual processing resources by measuring the extent to which the processing of task-irrelevant distracting stimuli was modulated by both perceptual load and top-down expectations using behavior, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and electrophysiology. Expectations were generated using a trial-by-trial cue that provided information about the likely load of the upcoming visual search task. When the cues were valid, behavioral interference was eliminated and the influence of load on frontoparietal and visual cortical responses was attenuated relative to when the cues were invalid. In conditions in which task-irrelevant information interfered with performance and modulated visual activity, individual differences in mean blood oxygenation level dependent responses measured from the left intraparietal sulcus were negatively correlated with individual differences in the severity of distraction. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a top-down biasing mechanism interacts with perceptual load to support filtering of task-irrelevant information. PMID:24904374

  3. Subjective responses to emotional stimuli during labeling, reappraisal, and distraction.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Matthew D; Inagaki, Tristen K; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Crockett, Molly J

    2011-06-01

    Although multiple neuroimaging studies suggest that affect labeling (i.e., putting feelings into words) can dampen affect-related responses in the amygdala, the consequences of affect labeling have not been examined in other channels of emotional responding. We conducted four studies examining the effect of affect labeling on self-reported emotional experience. In study one, self-reported distress was lower during affect labeling, compared to passive watching, of negative emotional pictures. Studies two and three added reappraisal and distraction conditions, respectively. Affect labeling showed similar effects on self-reported distress as both of these intentional emotion regulation strategies. In each of the first three studies, however, participant predictions about the effects of affect labeling suggest that unlike reappraisal and distraction, people do not believe affect labeling to be an effective emotion regulation strategy. Even after having the experience of affect labels leading to lower distress, participants still predicted that affect labeling would increase distress in the future. Thus, affect labeling is best described as an incidental emotion regulation process. Finally, study four employed positive emotional pictures and here, affect labeling was associated with diminished self-reported pleasure, relative to passive watching. This suggests that affect labeling tends to dampen affective responses in general, rather than specifically alleviating negative affect. PMID:21534661

  4. An Assessment of the Relationship between the Maxillary Sinus Floor and the Maxillary Posterior Teeth Root Tips Using Dental Cone-beam Computerized Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Cenk; Kamburoglu, Kivanc; Yuksel, Selcen Pehlivan; Ozen, Tuncer

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary posterior teeth root tips using dental cone-beam CT. Methods: A total of 87 right and 89 left maxillary sinus regions from 92 patients were examined using dental cone-beam CT. Images were analyzed by a specialist in oral and maxillofacial radiology. Perpendicular lines were drawn on the cross-sectional images between the deepest point of the maxillary sinus floor and the root tips of the maxillary first and second premolars and first, second and third molars, and the distances were measured using built-in measurement tools. Means, standard deviations and minimum and maximum values were calculated for all right and left premolars and molars. T-tests were used to compare measurements between left and right sides and between female and male patients. Results: The distance between sinus floor and root tip was longest for the first premolar root tip and shortest for the second molar buccodistal root tip for both right and left sides. No statistically significant differences were found between the right and left side measurements or between female and male patients (P>.05). Conclusions: Knowledge of the anatomical relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary posterior teeth root tips is important for the preoperative treatment planning of maxillary posterior teeth. PMID:20922167

  5. SEGMENTAL LEFORT I OSTEOTOMY FOR TREATMENT OF A CLASS III MALOCCLUSION WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Marcos; Janson, Guilherme; Sant'Ana, Eduardo; Nakamura, Alexandre; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the case of a 19-year-old young man with Class III malocclusion and posterior crossbite with concerns about temporomandibular disorder (TMD), esthetics and functional problems. Surgical-orthodontic treatment was carried out by decompensation of the mandibular incisors and segmentation of the maxilla in 4 pieces, which allowed expansion and advancement. Remission of the signs and symptoms occurred after surgical-orthodontic intervention. The maxillary dental arch presented normal transverse dimension. Satisfactory static and functional occlusion and esthetic results were achieved and remained stable. Three years after the surgical-orthodontic treatment, no TMD sign or symptom was observed and the occlusal results had not changed. When vertical or horizontal movements of the maxilla in the presence of moderate maxillary constriction are necessary, segmental LeFort I osteotomy can be an important part of treatment planning. PMID:19089265

  6. Composite orbital reconstruction using the vascularized segmentalized osteo-fascio-cutaneous fibula flap.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, T Kalle; Pignatti, Marco; Halle, Martin; Boscaini, Giulia; Skogh, Ann-Charlotte Docherty; Luigi, Chiarini; De Santis, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Reconstruction of composite orbital defects must address the orbit and an exposed skull base and/or maxillary region. The orbit should not only be covered but also reshaped to accommodate the orbital contents or an epithesis when warranted. This study presents a rationale for a near-anatomical reconstruction of the orbit, together with adjacent dead space obliteration, using the segmentalized osteo-fascia-cutaneous fibula flap. Before the flap transfer, a cutting template for the fibula is made according to the measures and requirements of the facial defect. The segmentalized bone is then osteosynthesized to the facial skeleton and revascularized. Thus, an orbital depth is created by the bony fibula, whereas the fascio-cutaneous part of the flap may be used for lining the orbit and obliteration of the skull base or the maxillary region, or resurface the palate and/or the nasal cavity. PMID:26687794

  7. Surgical management of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis

    PubMed Central

    Chandna, Shalu; Sachdeva, Surinder; Kochar, Deepak; Kapil, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Buccal exostosis is benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the maxilla and less commonly, the mandible. They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over the years. A 24-year-old female presented with gingival enlargement on the buccal aspect of both the quadrants of the maxillary arch. The overgrowth was a cosmetic problem for the patient. The etiology of the overgrowth remains unclear though the provisional diagnosis indicates toward a bony enlargement, which was confirmed with the help of transgingival probing. The bony enlargement was treated with resective osseous surgery. The following paper presents a rare case of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis and its successful management. PMID:26229284

  8. Solitary median maxillary central incisor: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Uçar, Faruk Izzet; Gümüş, Hüsniye; Aydınbelge, Mustafa; Sisman, Yildiray

    2012-01-01

    A single median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly that may occur alone or be associated with growth deficiency or other systemic abnormalities. The best known association is with holoprosencephaly (HPE). HPE is a complex brain malformation that affects both the forebrain and the face. Early diagnosis of SMMCI is important, since it may be a sign of other severe congenital or developmental abnormalities. Therefore, systematic follow-up and close monitoring of the growth and development of SMMCI patients is crucial. The purpose of this paper was to report the cases of 2 children, each with a single median maxillary central incisor, and describe important symptoms of this syndrome that have not yet been reported. PMID:22583889

  9. Familial aggregation of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Choudhary, Kartik; Saxena, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular second premolars is the most frequent form of hypodontia. Its prevalence varies across population from 0.8% to 4.5%. Genetic aberrations and environmental factors may cause agenesis of one or more teeth. The management of child having such a problem is very important since diastema in teeth especially in upper anteriors not only affects child's physical appearance but also its psychological development as the child wants to look like other children. In this article is presented a case of non-syndromic agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors (MLIA) and mandibular central incisors in a 10-year-old boy (patient) in permanent dentition with its management along with the radiographic investigations and photographic presentations of the other members of his family affected with this condition. PMID:23536620

  10. Ectopic primary olfactory neuroblastoma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Margaret; Su, Shirley Y; Bell, Diana

    2016-06-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare malignant tumor. Although the vast majority of cases arise in the nasal cavity, ONB is rarely reported in ectopic locations. We report a case of ONB in the maxillary sinus. A 63-year-old woman presented with left-sided nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a nonenhancing left maxillary sinus tumor. Histologic sections showed ONB, Hyams grade IV, invading bone, skeletal muscle, and adjacent fibroadipose tissue. It is essential to be accurate when diagnosing sinonasal tumors because the differential diagnosis is broad, and one must consider the possibility of ectopic ONB, although it is rare. The behavior of ONB and other neuroendocrine tumors of the sinonasal region is quite different, and there are varied approaches to treatment. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis as well as correct grade and stage must be assigned. PMID:27180059

  11. Cementoblastoma Solely Involving Maxillary Primary Teeth--A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Urs, Aadithya B; Singh, Hanspal; Rawat, Garima; Mohanty, Sujata; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    Cementoblastoma is a rare benign neoplasm of odontogenic ectomesenchyme origin, involving the roots of any tooth, which occurs predominantly in second and third decade of life. Very few cases of cementoblastoma associated with a primary tooth or having a maxillary presentation have been reported in the past. Here, a rare case of a ten year old boy who presented to the department with a swelling in maxillary posterior region since one month is being discussed. The radiographic presentation was mimicking an odontoma. The final diagnosis was cementoblastoma. We have advocated the use of polarized microscopy to support the histopathological diagnosis with respect to its cemental origin. Cementoblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of radio-opaque lesions in the transitional dentition. PMID:26950817

  12. [Dissertations 25 years after date 26. Maxillary sutural surfaces].

    PubMed

    Remmelink, H J

    2011-06-01

    In the case of growing children with a deviation in the size or position of the upper jaw orthopaedic devices are often used to direct the growth at the level of the sutures. In the PhD thesis 'The postnatal development of the human maxillary sutural surfaces', published in 1985, the orientation and macroscopic morphology of the sutural surfaces of the maxilla in children's skulls were described. The existence of premaxillomaxillary and pterygomaxillary sutures could not be demonstrated. It was observed that the maxillary sutural surfaces were mainly sagittally oriented. Some sutural surfaces became increasingly rough with age, while the majority of the surfaces remained smooth. It was concluded that advice concerning the determination of the direction of orthopaedic forces in relation to the orientation of the sutures needed revision. Subsequent systematic reviews have reported that so far little is known about the long-term stability of orthopaedic effects in orthodontics. PMID:21761798

  13. Cone beam computed tomographic analysis of maxillary premolars and molars to detect the relationship between periapical and marginal bone loss and mucosal thickness of maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Sekerci, Ahmet-Ercan; Köse, Emre; Sisman, Yildiray

    2015-01-01

    Background This study assessed the relationship between mucosal thickness (MT) of the maxillary sinus and periodontal bone loss (PBL) and periapical condition of related teeth. We also aimed to identify the association between root apices and the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus using Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods In this study, CBCT images of 205 patients with 410 maxillary sinuses were examined, retrospectively. A total of 582 maxillary molars and 587 premolars were observed. The relationship of each root with maxillary sinus and apical lesions of these roots were classified, PBL was examined and the situations of adjacent teeth were estimated. The effect of these conditions on sinus mucosal thickness (MT) was evaluated. Results There was a significant correlation between MT of maxillary sinus and both PBL and age (r = 0.52, p=0.000 and r = 0.111, p= 0.002, respectively). The frequency of MT increased as the severity of apical lesion enlarged. A positive correlation was found between MT and degree of PBL and periapical lesions. To reveal the association between MT and pulpoperiapical condition bivariate correlation was done and a significant relationship between the pulpoperiapical condition and MT was found (r = 0.17, p=0.000). Conclusions This retrospective study showed that MT of the maxillary sinus was common among patients with PBL and MT was significantly associated with PBL and apical lesions. The relationship of maxillary sinus to adjacent teeth had also positive correlation with MT. CBCT imaging enabled better evaluation of maxillary sinus, posterior teeth and surrounding structures compared to other imaging tools. Key words:Maxillary sinus mucosal thickness, apical periodontitis, periodontal bone loss, CBCT. PMID:26241459

  14. Alterations in Maxillary Sinus Volume among Oral and Nasal Breathers

    PubMed Central

    Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Gulsun, Belgin; Koparal, Mahmut; Atalay, Yusuf; Aksoy, Orhan; Adiguzel, Ozkan

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral breathing causes many changes in the facial anatomical structures in adult patients. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of long-term oral breathing (>5 years) on the maxillary sinus volumes among adult male patients. Material/Methods We accessed medical records of 586 patients who had undergone cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for any reason between September 2013 and April 2014. Patients who had undergone cone-beam dental volumetric tomography scans for any reason and who had answered a questionnaire about breathing were screened retrospectively. Cone beam dental volumetric tomography (I-Cat, Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA) was used to take the images of the maxillo-facial area at a setting of 120 kVp and 3.7 mA. This study involved male patients older than 21 years of age. Results The study included a total of 239 male patients, of which 68 were oral breathers and 171 were nasal breathers. The mean age of the oral breathers was 48.4 years and that of the nasal breathers was 46.7 years and the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The mean maxillary sinus volumes of the oral and nasal breathers were 9043.49±1987.90 and 10851.77±2769.37, respectively, and the difference in maxillary sinus volume between the 2 groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions The volume of maxillary sinus in oral breathers (>5 years) was significantly lower than in nasal breathers, but it remains unclear whether this is due to malfunctioning of the nasal cavity or due to the underlying pathological condition. PMID:25553770

  15. Masticatory efficiency after rehabilitation of acquired maxillary and mandibular defects

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, N. Vasantha; Ramesh, Ganesh; Thareja, Amit; Patil, Seema

    2015-01-01

    The effect of oral cancer with its therapeutic intervention involves significant facial and functional disabilities. It is customary to rehabilitate these patients by surgical or prosthetic means. Studies have been done to assess mastication and other functions after rehabilitation. A review of these studies for assessing masticatory function has been done under separate sections for maxillary and mandibular defects. Different masticatory tests are mentioned. Further scope for research has been highlighted. PMID:26392731

  16. Maxillary expansion with the memory screw: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Halicioğlu, Koray; Kiki, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a newly developed rapid maxillary expansion screw-the memory screw-over 6 months. Methods Five subjects, aged between 11.7 and 13.75 years, were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent placement of a maxillary expansion appliance containing superelastic nickel-titanium open-coil springs in its screw bed. The parents of the patients and/or the patients themselves were instructed to activate the expansion screw by 2 quarter-turns 3 times a day (morning, midday, and evening; 6 quarter-turns a day). The mean expansion period was 7.52 ± 1.04 days. Dentoskeletal effects of the procedure, including dentoalveolar inclination, were evaluated. Measurements of all the parameters were repeated after 6 months of retention in order to check for relapse. Results Sella-Nasion-A point (SNA) and Sella-Nasion/Gonion-Menton angles increased, and Sella-Nasion-B point (SNB) angle decreased in all the subjects during the expansion phase. However, they approximated to the initial values at the end of 6 months. On the other hand, the increments in maxillary apical base (Mxr-Mxl) and intermolar widths was quite stable. As expected, some amount of dentoalveolar tipping was observed. Conclusions The newly developed memory expansion screw offers advantages of both rapid and slow expansion procedures. It widens the midpalatal suture and expands the maxilla with relatively lighter forces and within a short time. In addition, the resultant increments in the maxillary apical base and intermolar width remained quite stable even after 6 months of retention. PMID:23112935

  17. Primary small cell undifferentiated (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Shetty, Premalatha

    2014-01-01

    Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) of the paranasal sinuses is an extremely rare and distinctive tumor with aggressive clinical behavior. Moreover, SNECs originating in the head and neck region have been reported to be highly aggressive and to have a poor prognosis. This report describes a patient with a maxillary sinus SNEC who was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy. PMID:24639904

  18. [Two rare case report of maxillary sinus foreign body].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongliang; Zhu, Jiajing; Ma, Zhancheng

    2015-11-01

    The maxillary sinus is the largest paranasal sinuses. Foreign bodies of nosal sinus can caused by car accidents, firearm attacks, or iatrogeniccause. We reported two rare cases of foreign body of pulp needle and loach. The clinical manifestations might include facial numbness, facial paresthesia, swelling, nasal congestion, facial pain, eye discomfort, limited mouth opening and relapse and etc. Both CT scan and the medical history were helpful in diagnosis. Functional endoscopic surgery would be the first choice of treatment. PMID:26911073

  19. Prevalence of sinus augmentation associated with maxillary posterior implants.

    PubMed

    Seong, Wook-Jin; Barczak, Michael; Jung, Jae; Basu, Saonli; Olin, Paul S; Conrad, Heather J

    2013-12-01

    Pneumatization of the maxillary sinus limits the quantity of alveolar bone available for implant placement and may result in a lack of primary stability and difficulty in achieving osseointegration. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze a group of patients who had implants placed in the posterior maxilla, calculate the prevalence of sinus augmentation, and identify factors related to sinus augmentation. With institutional review board approval, dental records from a population of patients who had implants placed in the maxillary posterior region between January 2000 and December 2004 were used to create a database. Independent variables were classified as continuous (age of the patient at stage 1 implant surgery [S1], time between extraction and S1, time between extraction and sinus augmentation, and time between sinus augmentation and S1) and categorical (gender, implant failure, American Society of Anesthesiologists system classification, smoking, osteoporosis, residual crestal bone height, implant position, implant proximity, prostheses type, and implant diameter and length). The dependent variable was the incidence of a sinus augmentation procedure. Simple logistic regression was used to assess the influence of each factor on the presence of sinus augmentation (P < .05). The final database included 502 maxillary posterior implants with an overall survival rate of 93.2% over a mean follow-up period of 35.7 months. Of 502 implants, 272 (54.2%) were associated with a sinus augmentation procedure. Among variables, residual crestal bone height (P < .001), implant position (P < .001), implant proximity (P < .001), prosthesis type (P < .001), implant failure (P < .01), and implant diameter (P < .01), were statistically associated with sinus augmentation. Within the limitations of this retrospective study, the results suggest that more than half (54.2%) of the maxillary posterior implants were involved with a sinus augmentation procedure. The

  20. Non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity in sexual minority and heterosexual young adults.

    PubMed

    Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21796485

  1. Dopaminergic modulation of distracter-resistance and prefrontal delay period signal.

    PubMed

    Bloemendaal, Mirjam; van Schouwenburg, Martine R; Miyakawa, Asako; Aarts, Esther; D'Esposito, Mark; Cools, Roshan

    2015-03-01

    Dopamine has long been implicated in the online maintenance of information across short delays. Specifically, dopamine has been proposed to modulate the strength of working memory representations in the face of intervening distracters. This hypothesis has not been tested in humans. We fill this gap using pharmacological neuroimaging. Healthy young subjects were scanned after intake of the dopamine receptor agonist bromocriptine or placebo (in a within-subject, counterbalanced, and double-blind design). During scanning, subjects performed a delayed match-to-sample task with face stimuli. A face or scene distracter was presented during the delay period (between the cue and the probe). Bromocriptine altered distracter-resistance, such that it impaired performance after face relative to scene distraction. Individual differences in the drug effect on distracter-resistance correlated negatively with drug effects on delay period signal in the prefrontal cortex, as well as on functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the fusiform face area. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that dopaminergic modulation of the prefrontal cortex alters resistance of working memory representations to distraction. Moreover, we show that the effects of dopamine on the distracter-resistance of these representations are accompanied by modulation of the functional strength of connections between the prefrontal cortex and stimulus-specific posterior cortex. PMID:25300902

  2. Individual differences in distraction by motion predicted by neural activity in MT/V5

    PubMed Central

    Lechak, Jennifer R.; Leber, Andrew B.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals differ substantially in their susceptibility to distraction by irrelevant visual information. Previous research has uncovered how individual variability in the goal-driven component of attentional control influences distraction, yet it remains unknown whether other sources of variability between individuals also predict distraction. In this fMRI study, we showed that an individual's inherent sensitivity to passively viewed visual motion predicts his/her susceptibility to distraction by motion. Bilateral MT/V5 was localized in participants during passive viewing of moving stimuli, affording a baseline measure of motion sensitivity. Next, participants performed a visual search task with an irrelevant motion singleton distractor, and both behavioral and neural indices of distraction were recorded. Results revealed that both of these indices were predicted by the independent index of motion sensitivity. An additional analysis of moment-to-moment fluctuations in distraction within individuals revealed that distraction could be predicted by pretrial fMRI activity in several brain regions, including MT+, which likely reflected the observer's momentary propensity to process motion. Together, these results shed light on how variability in factors other than goal-driven processing, both within and between individuals, affects attentional control and one's perception of the visual world. PMID:22375110

  3. Investigating saccade programming in the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia using distracter interference paradigms.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the saccadic system in the mantis, I applied distracter interference paradigms. These involved presenting the mantis with a fixation target and one or several distracters supposed to affect saccades towards the target. When a single target was presented, a medium-sized target located in its lower visual field elicited higher rates of saccade response. This preference for target size and position was also observed when a target and a distracter were presented simultaneously. That is, the mantis chose and fixated the target rather than a distracter that was much smaller or larger than the target, or was located above the target. Furthermore, the mantis' preference was not affected by increasing the number of distracters. However, the presence of the distracter decreased the occurrence rate of saccade and increased the response time to saccade. I conclude that distracter interference paradigms are an effective way of investigating the visual processing underlying saccade generation in the mantis. Possible mechanisms of saccade generation in the mantis are discussed. PMID:16997321

  4. Characterization of a novel bidirectional distraction spinal cord injury animal model.

    PubMed

    Seifert, J L; Bell, J E; Elmer, B B; Sucato, D J; Romero, M I

    2011-04-15

    Scoliosis corrective surgery requires the application of significant multidirectional stress forces, including distraction, for correction of the curved spine deformity and the application of fixation rods. If excessive, spine distraction may result in the development of new neurological deficits, some as severe as permanent paralysis. Current animal models of spinal cord injury, however, are limited to contusion, transection, or unidirectional distraction injuries, which fail to replicate the multidirectional forces that occur during spine corrective surgery. To address such limitation, we designed a novel device that relies on intervertebral grip fixation and linear actuators to induce controllable bidirectional distraction injuries to the spine. The device was tested in three (i.e., 3, 5, and 7 mm) distention paradigms of the rat T9-T11 vertebra, and the resulting injuries were evaluated through electrophysiological, behavioral, and histological analysis. As expected, 3mm bilateral spine distractions showed no neurological deficit. In contrast, those with 5 and 7 mm showed partial and complete paralysis, respectively. The relationship between the severity of the spine distraction and injury to the spinal cord tissue was determined using glial fibrillary acidic protein immunocytochemistry for visualization of reactive astrocytes and labeling of ED1-positive activated macrophages/microglia. Our results demonstrate that this device can produce bidirectional spine distraction injuries with high precision and control and, thus, may be valuable in contributing to the testing of neuroprotective strategies aimed at preventing unintended new neurological damage during corrective spine surgery. PMID:21334381

  5. [Failure in anterior rehabilitation of agenesic maxillary lateral incisors].

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philippart-Rochaix, Martine; Philip-Alliez, Camille

    2016-03-01

    Agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors poses particular problems for dentists, orthodontists and patients. Treatment of these ageneses is still highly controversial, both functionally and esthetically. The patient's smile and anterior guidance are affected and must be restored. The diagnosis is easy. Few mistakes are possible. However, managing patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors can be a challenge, commonly involving two possible treatment approaches: space opening to replace the missing lateral incisor with a prosthetic unit (denture, bridge or implant) or orthodontic space closure replacing the missing lateral incisor with the maxillary canine camouflaged to mimic the appearance of a lateral incisor. One of these two options will be adopted using multiple means...liable to trigger a multitude of possible errors. Ultimately, optimal results can only be achieved if there is excellent coordination between different practitioners in various specialties. Each clinician will have a specific role to play. Also, the patient and family are at the heart of the decision-making process, by virtue of their consent (treatment duration, financial resources) and their motivation. This multi-factorial, multi-disciplinary decision process means that treatment of the lateral incisor is an ongoing challenge for the clinician striving for the best possible result. Each case is different. No set rules exist. No single factor can be neglected if we are to avoid "failure". PMID:27083223

  6. Removal of an Upper Third Molar from the Maxillary Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Klinger de Souza; da Silva, Vanessa Tavares; da Cunha, Rafael Soares; Souto, Maria Luisa Silveira; São Mateus, Carla Rocha; Souza, Liane Maciel de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary sinus or antrum is the largest of the paranasal sinuses. It is located in the maxillary bone and has a proximity to the apexes of upper molars and premolars, which allows it to form a direct link between the sinus and the oral cavity. Dislocation of a foreign body or tooth to the interior of a paranasal sinus is a situation that can occur as a result of car accidents, firearm attacks, or iatrogenic in surgical procedures. Therefore, it is necessary to know how to treat this kind of situation. This study's objective is to report the case of a 23-year-old female patient, leucoderma, who sought treatment from the Surgical Unit at the Dental Faculty of the Federal University of Sergipe. She had a history of pain and edema in the right side of the genian region and two failed attempts at removing dental unit (DU) 18. The extraoral clinical exam revealed intense edema of the left hemiface with signs of infection, excoriation of the labial commissure, hematoma, a body temperature of 39°C, and a limited ability to open her mouth. The patient was medicated and treated surgically. The tooth was removed from the maxillary sinus with caution, as should have been done initially. PMID:25705524

  7. Variation in maxillary sinus anatomy among platyrrhine monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi D; Takai, Masanaru; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Egi, Naoko; Shigehara, Nobuo

    2005-09-01

    Variations in the maxillary sinus anatomy of extant and fossil catarrhine primates have been extensively examined using computed tomography (CT), and have potential utility for phylogenetic analyses. This approach has also been used to demonstrate its anatomical variation in eight of the 16 extant genera of platyrrhines and the absence of the sinus in Saimiri and Cacajao. We used this approach to evaluate the three-dimensional anatomy of the maxillary sinus in all extant platyrrhine genera, and here argue the phylogenic implications of this variation. This study confirms, for the most part, previous CT studies and augments them with the six genera not studied previously: Ateles, Lagothrix, Callithrix, Cebuella, Pithecia and Chiropotes. The entire maxilla is pneumatized by the sinus in the atelines, Cebus, and Callicebus, whereas the sinus pneumatizes only the medial part of the maxilla in the callitrichines and Aotus. Pithecia has a unique conformation in which the maxillary sinus and the expanded inferior meatus pneumatize the posteromedial and anterolateral parts of the entire maxilla, respectively. Chiropotes has no sinus, and the inferior meatus possibly expands into the area between the middle meatus and medial surface of the maxilla to disturb sinus formation, as in the case of its close relative Cacajao. Finally, we argue that the sinus that pneumatizes the entire maxilla is a primitive feature in extant platyrrhines and was probably shared by the last common ancestor of the anthropoids. PMID:16009397

  8. Transnasal endoscopic approach to the impacted maxillary canine.

    PubMed

    Marianetti, Tito Matteo; Torroni, Andrea; Gasparini, Giulio; Moro, Alessandro S; Pelo, Sandro

    2014-09-01

    The inclusion of maxillary canines is a very common condition. The intraoral approach to the canine extraction can be buccal or palatal depending on the position of the tooth. However, in some cases, the proximity to the nasal floor or the side wall of the nose makes the transoral approach rather invasive. The aim of this article was to describe a novel transnasal endoscopically assisted approach for the extraction of high palatal/paranasal impacted canines. Thirty-seven maxillary canines have been extracted in 29 patients. The surgical approaches were buccal in 5 cases, palatal in 24 cases, and transnasal endoscopically assisted in 8 cases. Patients treated with the transnasal approach required the least amount of pain killers in the postoperative period, and the average of the operative time was shorter than that of the transoral extraction. In our opinion, the transnasal endoscopically assisted approach is a safe and effective procedure for the extraction of highly impacted maxillary canines located within 2 cm from the piriform aperture. PMID:25102392

  9. The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain.

    PubMed

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Thompson, Caitlin; Hahn, Amy; Herbert, Linda; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness. Sixty-two children (6-13 years old) underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered both with and without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found. Children's coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles. PMID:23184062

  10. Dynamics of distraction: competition among auditory streams modulates gain and disrupts inter-trial phase coherence in the human electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Ponjavic-Conte, Karla D; Hambrook, Dillon A; Pavlovic, Sebastian; Tata, Matthew S

    2013-01-01

    Auditory distraction is a failure to maintain focus on a stream of sounds. We investigated the neural correlates of distraction in a selective-listening pitch-discrimination task with high (competing speech) or low (white noise) distraction. High-distraction impaired performance and reduced the N1 peak of the auditory Event-Related Potential evoked by probe tones. In a series of simulations, we explored two theories to account for this effect: disruption of sensory gain or a disruption of inter-trial phase consistency. When compared to these simulations, our data were consistent with both effects of distraction. Distraction reduced the gain of the auditory evoked potential and disrupted the inter-trial phase consistency with which the brain responds to stimulus events. Tones at a non-target, unattended frequency were more susceptible to the effects of distraction than tones within an attended frequency band. PMID:23326548

  11. Stem Cells Rejuvenate Radiation-Impaired Vasculogenesis in Murine Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sagar S.; Gallagher, Kathleen K.; Donneys, Alexis; Nelson, Noah S.; Guys, Nicholas P.; Felice, Peter A.; Page, Erin E.; Sun, Hongli; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy is known to be detrimental to bone and soft-tissue repair. Bone marrow stromal cells have been shown to enhance bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis following radiation therapy. The authors posit that transplanted bone marrow stromal cells will significantly augment the mandibular vascularity devastated by radiation therapy. Methods Nineteen male Lewis rats were split randomly into three groups: distraction osteogenesis only (n = 5), radiation therapy plus distraction osteogenesis (n = 7), and radiation therapy plus distraction osteogenesis with intraoperative placement of 2 million bone marrow stromal cells (n = 7). A mandibular osteotomy was performed, and an external fixator device was installed. From postoperative days 4 through 12, rats underwent a gradual 5.1-mm distraction followed by a 28-day consolidation period. On postoperative day 40, Microfil was perfused into the vasculature and imaging commenced. Vascular radiomorphometric values were calculated for regions of interest. An analysis of variance with post hoc Tukey or Games-Howell tests was used, dependent on data homogeneity. Results Stereologic analysis indicated significant remediation in vasculature in the bone marrow stromal cell group compared with the radiation therapy/distraction osteogenesis group. Each of five metrics idicated significant improvements from radiation therapy/distraction osteogenesis to the bone marrow stromal cell group, with no difference between the bone marrow stromal cell group and the distraction osteogenesis group. Conclusions Bone marrow stromal cells used together with distraction osteogenesis can rejuvenate radiation-impaired vasculogenesis in the mandible, reversing radiation therapy–induced isotropy and creating a robust vascular network. Bone marrow stromal cells may offer clinicians an alternative reconstructive modality that could improve the lifestyle of patients with hypovascular bone. PMID:25415276

  12. Automating skeletal expansion: An implant for distraction osteogenesis of the mandible

    PubMed Central

    Magill, John C.; Byl, Marten F.; Goldwaser, Batya; Papadaki, Maria; Kromann, Roger; Yates, Brent; Morency, Joseph R.; Kaban, Leonard B.; Troulis, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a technique of bone lengthening that makes use of the body’s natural healing capacity. An osteotomy is created and a rigid distraction device is attached to the bone. After a latency period, the device is activated 2–4 times per day for a total of 1 mm/day of bone lengthening. This technique is used to correct a variety of congenital and acquired deformities of the mandible, midface and long bones. To shorten the treatment period and to eliminate the complications of patient activation of the device, an automated continuous distraction device would be desirable. It has been reported that continuous distraction generates adequate bone with lengthening at a rate of 2 mm/day, thereby reducing the treatment time. Method of Approach The device we describe here uses miniature high-pressure hydraulics, position feedback, and a digital controller to achieve closed-loop control of the distraction process. The implanted actuator can produce up to 40N of distraction force on linear trajectories as well as curved distraction paths. In the paper we detail the spring-powered hydraulic reservoir, controller, and user interface. Results Experiments to test the new device design were performed in a porcine cadaver head and in live pigs. In the cadaver head, the device performed an 11-day/11 mm distraction with a root-mean-squared position error of 0.09 mm. The device functioned for periods of several days in each of five live animals, though some component failures occurred, leading to design revisions. Conclusions The test series showed that the novel design of this system provides the capabilities necessary to automate distraction of the mandible. Further developments will focus on making the implanted position sensor more robust and then carrying out clinical trials. PMID:20740071

  13. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Parul; Nikhil, Vineeta; Goyal, Ayush; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps. PMID:27563190

  14. Non-pulsatile traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery following trauma to mandible.

    PubMed

    Soh, Hui Yuh; Muda, Ahmad Sobri; Jabar, Nazimi Abd; Nordin, Rifqah; Nabil, S; Ramli, Roszalina

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic pseudoaneurysm involving the maxillary artery is rare. Owing to its anatomic location, internal maxillary artery is usually protected by its surrounding structures. Formation of pseudoaneurysm usually takes place after several weeks to months of the initial injury. In this case, we reported a pseudoaneurysm arising from left internal maxillary artery following blunt injuries within 3 hours after a road accident and the treatment with endovascular embolization with titanium coils prior to open reduction and internal fixation of the fractured mandibles. PMID:25903486

  15. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Parul; Nikhil, Vineeta; Goyal, Ayush; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps. PMID:27563190

  16. [Mandibular advancement: bilateral sagittal split versus -distraction osteogenesis].

    PubMed

    Akkerman, V; Ho, J P; Baas, E M; de Lange, J de

    2015-11-01

    In the 1990s intra-oral distraction osteogenesis (DO) became available as an alternative for bilateral sagittal splitosteotomy (BSSO) for advancement of the mandible. It was thought that DO would lead to more stability in the results and fewer neurosensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve. However, there was no scientific evidence for this assumption. This article describes a number of recently published, prospective studies that demonstrate that BSSO is not inferior to DO with respect to stability and neurosensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve. They also demonstrate that BSSO leads to less pain in patients and to lower total costs. It can be concluded that BSSO should be considered the standard therapy for mandibular advancement up to 10 mm in non-syndromal patients. PMID:26569001

  17. Inhibitory Control During Emotional Distraction Across Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the changing relation between emotion and inhibitory control during adolescence. One hundred participants between 11 and 25 years of age performed a go-nogo task in which task-relevant stimuli (letters) were presented at the center of large task-irrelevant images depicting negative, positive, or neutral scenes selected from the International Affective Picture System. Longer reaction times for negative trials were found across all age groups, suggesting that negative but not positive emotional images captured attention across this age range. However, age differences in accuracy on inhibitory trials suggest that response inhibition is more readily disrupted by negative emotional distraction in early adolescence relative to late childhood, late adolescence or early adulthood. PMID:23506340

  18. Treatment of lateral open bite with vertical dentoalveolar distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aras, Işıl; Olmez, Sultan; Akay, Mehmet Cemal; Oztürk, Veli Ozgen; Aras, Aynur

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the surgical, orthodontic, and periodontal treatment of an adult patient with a lateral open bite, anterior crowding, and gingival recession on the mandibular right lateral incisor. The lateral open bite, which resisted conventional mechanics, was successfully corrected by the combination of dento-osseous osteotomies and vertical alveolar distraction using orthodontic multibracket appliances in conjunction with nickel-titanium archwires and intermaxillary elastics. After the orthodontic treatment, the denuded root surface of the mandibular right lateral incisor was closed using a coronally advanced flap technique with platelet-rich fibrin. The results at the 2-year posttreatment follow-up were satisfactory from both the occlusal and the periodontal standpoints. PMID:26232841

  19. Complications of distraction osteogenesis in short first metatarsals.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Wug; Satish, B R J; Lee, Sung-Tae; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyzed the results and complications of metatarsal lengthening in short first metatarsals by distraction osteogenesis. There were 13 first metatarsal lengthenings in eight patients. Mean age was 18.8 years and the average percentage of lengthening was 49.2%. The average healing index was 72.4 days/cm. The major complication was cavus foot, which was noticed in four feet. All great toes showed some loss of motion at metatarsophalangeal (MP) joint. Other complications were hallux valgus, angulation of the metatarsals, and pin tract infection each in two feet. The functional score according to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux MP joint, interphalangeal joint scale was excellent in 11 and good in 2. All patients were satisfied with the procedure. To avoid potential complications such as MP joint subluxation, cavus foot, and hallux valgus, the first metatarsal lengthening should not exceed 50% of the original length. PMID:15502575

  20. Distraction by competing speech in young and older adult listeners.

    PubMed

    Tun, Patricia A; O'Kane, Gail; Wingfield, Arthur

    2002-09-01

    In 2 experiments, young and older adults heard target speech presented in quiet or with a competing speaker in the background. The distractor consisted either of meaningful speech or nonmeaningful speech composed of randomly ordered word strings (Experiment 1) or speech in an unfamiliar language (Experiment 2). Tests of recall for the target speech showed that older adults, but not younger adults, were impaired more by meaningful distractors than by nonmeaningful distracters. However, on a surprise recognition test, young adults were more likely than older adults to recognize meaningful distractor items. These results suggest that reduced efficiency in attentional control is an important factor in older adults' difficulty in recalling target speech in the presence of a background of competing speech. PMID:12243387

  1. The effect of a safe zone on nurse interruptions, distractions, and medication administration errors.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Mindy; Schadewald, Diane; Dietrich, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a health care priority. Yet medical errors are ranked the eighth leading cause of death. Medication administration errors (MAEs) often result from multiple environmental and individual factors. This quality improvement initiative adapted a protocol based on airline industry safety measures to decrease nurse distractions and interruptions during medication administration, with the goal of decreasing MAEs. Sources of distractions, interruptions, and MAEs were measured pre and post intervention. Patient satisfaction scores were measured concurrently. Results of this initiative differ from previous studies in which similar interventions reduced both distractions and MAEs. An unexpected finding was dramatically increased patient satisfaction. PMID:25723837

  2. Distraction techniques for children undergoing procedures: a critical review of pediatric research.

    PubMed

    Koller, Donna; Goldman, Ran D

    2012-12-01

    Pediatric patients are often subjected to procedures that can cause pain and anxiety. Although pharmacologic interventions can be used, distraction is a simple and effective technique that directs children's attention away from noxious stimuli. However, there is a multitude of techniques and technologies associated with distraction. Given the range of distraction techniques, the purpose of this article was to provide a critical assessment of the evidence-based literature that can inform clinical practice and future research. Recommendations include greater attention to child preferences and temperament as a means of optimizing outcomes and heightening awareness around child participation in health care decision making. PMID:21925588

  3. Age-related changes in working memory and the ability to ignore distraction.

    PubMed

    McNab, Fiona; Zeidman, Peter; Rutledge, Robb B; Smittenaar, Peter; Brown, Harriet R; Adams, Rick A; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-05-19

    A weakened ability to effectively resist distraction is a potential basis for reduced working memory capacity (WMC) associated with healthy aging. Exploiting data from 29,631 users of a smartphone game, we show that, as age increases, working memory (WM) performance is compromised more by distractors presented during WM maintenance than distractors presented during encoding. However, with increasing age, the ability to exclude distraction at encoding is a better predictor of WMC in the absence of distraction. A significantly greater contribution of distractor filtering at encoding represents a potential compensation for reduced WMC in older age. PMID:25941369

  4. Morphological measurements of anatomic landmarks in human maxillary and mandibular molar pulp chambers.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Allan S; Musikant, Barry Lee

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to measure critical morphology of molar pulp chambers. One hundred random human maxillary and mandibular molars (200 teeth in total) were used. Each molar was radiographed mesiodistally on a millimeter grid. Using a stereomicroscope, the measurements were read to the nearest 0.5 mm. Results were as follows (mean, mm): pulp chamber floor to furcation, maxillary = 3.05 +/- 0.79, mandibular = 2.96 +/- 0.78; pulp chamber ceiling to furcation, maxillary = 4.91 +/- 1.06, mandibular = 4.55 +/- 0.91; buccal cusp to furcation, maxillary = 11.15 +/- 1.21, mandibular = 10.90 +/- 1.21; buccal cusp to pulp chamber floor, maxillary = 8.08 +/- 0.88, mandibular = 7.95 +/- 0.79; buccal cusp to pulp chamber ceiling, maxillary = 6.24 +/- 0.88, mandibular = 6.36 +/- 0.93; and pulp chamber height, maxillary = 1.88 +/- 0.69, mandibular = 1.57 +/- 0.68. The pulp chamber ceiling was at the level of the cementoenamel junction in maxillary, 98%, and mandibular, 97% of the specimens. The measurements showing the lowest percentage variance were buccal cusp to furcation (approximately 11%) and buccal cusp to pulp chamber ceiling (approximately 14%). The measurements were similar for both maxillary and mandibular molars. PMID:15167463

  5. New approach of maxillary protraction using modified C-palatal plates in Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Ki Beom; Kim, Seong-Hun; Chung, Kyu-Rhim

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary protraction is the conventional treatment for growing Class III patients with maxillary deficiency, but it has undesirable dental effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce an alternative modality of maxillary protraction in patients with dentoskeletal Class III malocclusion using a modified C-palatal plate connected with elastics to a face mask. This method improved skeletal measurements, corrected overjet, and slightly improved the profile. The patients may require definitive treatment in adolescence or adulthood. The modified C-palatal plate enables nonsurgical maxillary advancement with maximal skeletal effects and minimal dental side effects. PMID:26258067

  6. Osteoma and Ectopic Tooth of the Left Maxillary Sinus: A Unique Coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Ümit; Aşık, Burak; Ahmedov, Asif; Durmaz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ectopic eruption of a tooth or osteoma rarely occurs within the maxillary sinus. Coexistence of these two rare entities in the maxillary sinus has never been reported in the English literature. Case Report: Herein, we present a 21 year-old male patient with osteoma and ectopic tooth in the left maxillary sinus treated with the removal of the ectopic tooth by endoscopic sinus surgery and excision of the osteoma by the Caldwell-Luc procedure. Conclusion: Unique coexistence of two different entities in the maxillary sinus is most likely due to pediatric facial trauma. Pediatric patients with maxillofacial trauma should be carefully watched for dental injury both clinically and radiologically.

  7. Orthodontic and prosthetic treatment of a patient with cystic fibrosis and agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Harold; Greenberg, Joseph R

    2011-06-01

    The young dental patient with maxillary lateral incisor agenesis, maxillary canine impaction, and cystic fibrosis presents considerable challenges to the dentist. An interdisciplinary approach is described here for the orthodontist and restorative dentist to plan and work together with the patient's and parents' cooperation and consent. Despite some compromises, a successful outcome was achieved, as demonstrated in this case report. The use of conservative yet esthetic and durable fixed replacement prostheses is highlighted. Congenitally absent maxillary lateral incisors, impacted maxillary canines, and cystic fibrosis are clinical conditions that can significantly complicate and compromise dental treatment for any young patient. All three can be present simultaneously, as described in this case report. PMID:23738937

  8. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis with oro-nasal fistula: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Carini, Fabrizio; Longoni, Salvatore; Amosso, Ernesto; Carini, Stefania; Garavello, Werner; Porcaro, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim of the study The odontogenic sinusitis has an incidence between 38 and 40.6%. Increased risk of maxillary sinusitis has been reported with the presence of periapical abscesses, periodontal disease, dental trauma, tooth extraction and implant placement when the sinusal membrane is perforated. Materials and methods A patient with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis associated with oro-nasal fistula was treated. Results The follow-up at six months showed the complete resolution of maxillary sinusitis, palatal fistula got closed and pain symptoms disappeared. Conclusion This case report describes a rare complication of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis: the oro-nasal fistula. PMID:25678949

  9. Not all distraction is bad: working memory vulnerability to implicit socioemotional distraction correlates with negative symptoms and functional impairment in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mano, Quintino R; Brown, Gregory G; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Bolden, Khalima; Cadenhead, Kristen S; Light, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated implicit socioemotional modulation of working memory (WM) in the context of symptom severity and functional status in individuals with psychosis (N = 21). A delayed match-to-sample task was modified wherein task-irrelevant facial distracters were presented early and briefly during the rehearsal of pseudoword memoranda that varied incrementally in load size (1, 2, or 3 syllables). Facial distracters displayed happy, sad, or emotionally neutral expressions. Implicit socioemotional modulation of WM was indexed by subtracting task accuracy on nonfacial geometrical distraction trials from facial distraction trials. Results indicated that the amount of implicit socioemotional modulation of high WM load accuracy was significantly associated with negative symptoms (r = 0.63, P < 0.01), role functioning (r = -0.50, P < 0.05), social functioning (r = -0.55, P < 0.01), and global assessment of functioning (r = -0.53, P < 0.05). Specifically, greater attentional distraction of high WM load was associated with less severe symptoms and functional impairment. This study demonstrates the importance of the WM-socioemotional interface in influencing clinical and psychosocial functional status in psychosis. PMID:24724026

  10. Dentate transport discs can be used to reconstruct large segmental mandibular defects

    PubMed Central

    Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Malavia, Veera; Zakhary, Ibrahim; Mulone, Timothy; Kontogiorgos, Elias D.; Dechow, Paul C.; Opperman, Lynne A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study tests the use of a dentate transport segment for the reconstruction of a large U-shaped defect in the anterior segment of the canine mandible, using a novel curved reconstruction plate. The quality and quantity of bone regenerate formed by dentate versus edentulous transport segments was compared. Methods In five adult foxhound dogs, a defect of 70–75 mm was created in the canine mandible by excising the mandible anterior to the right and left 4th premolars. Reconstruction was done by trifocal distraction osteogenesis using a bone transport reconstruction plate (BTRP-02™), with two transport units being activated simultaneously, one on either side of the defect, one dentate and one edentulous. Bilateral distraction proceeded at a rate of 1mm/day until the segments docked against each other in midline. After 39–44 days consolidation, the animals were euthanized. The quantity and quality of bone regeneration on both sides were compared using micro-computed tomography. Results The defect reconstruction was successful. The amount and quality of bone formed by the transport segments was similar on both sides. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction and density of the regenerate bone formed by the two transport segments. The bone volume fraction and density of the regenerate was significantly lower than that of the host bone in the distal segments, likely due to the short consolidation period. Conclusions Bone transport remains a viable option in reconstructing anterior segmental defects in the mandible. The use of either dentate or edentulous transport segments for reconstruction provides options for the surgeon in often highly compromised patients requiring these surgeries. PMID:25661502

  11. BONE REGENERATION AND DOCKING SITE HEALING AFTER BONE TRANSPORT DISTRACTION OSTEOGENESIS IN THE CANINE MANDIBLE

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Lucy K; Newby, Michelle Rondon; Zakhary, Ibrahim E; Nagy, William W; Zapata, Uriel; Dechow, Paul C; Opperman, Lynne A; Elsalanty, Mohammed E

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Bone transport distraction osteogenesis (BTDO) provides a promising alternative to traditional grafting techniques. However, existing BTDO devices have many limitations. The purpose of this research was to test a new device, the mandibular bone transport reconstruction plate (BTRP), in an animal model with comparable mandible size to humans and to histologically and mechanically examine the regenerate bone. Materials and methods Eleven adult foxhound dogs were divided into an unreconstructed control group of 5 animals, and an experimental group of 6 animals. In each animal, a 34 mm segmental defect was created in the mandible. The defect was reconstructed with BTRP. Histological and biomechanical characteristics of the regenerate and un-repaired defect were analyzed and compared to bone on the contralateral side of the mandible after 4 weeks of consolidation. Results The reconstructed defect was bridged with new bone, with little bone in the control defect. Regenerate density and microhardness were 22.3% and 42.6% lower than the contralateral normal bone, respectively. Likewise, the anisotropy of the experimental group was statistically lower than in the contralateral bone. Half the experimental animals showed non-union at the docking site. Conclusion The device was very stable and easy to install and activate. After one month of consolidation, the defect has been bridged with new bone with evidence of active bone formation. Regenerate bone was less mature than the control bone. Studies are underway to identify when the regenerate properties compare to normal bone, and to identify methods to augment bone union at the docking site. PMID:21601342

  12. Three-dimensional maxillary and mandibular regional superimposition using cone beam computed tomography: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Koerich, L; Burns, D; Weissheimer, A; Claus, J D P

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to validate a novel method for fast regional superimposition of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. The method can be used with smaller field of view scans, thereby allowing for a lower radiation dose. This retrospective study used two dry skulls and secondary data from 15 patients who had more than one scan taken using the same machine. Two observers tested two types of regional voxel-based superimposition: maxillary and mandibular. The registration took 10-15s. Three-dimensional surface models of the maxillas and mandibles were generated via standardized threshold segmentation, and the accuracy and reproducibility of the superimpositions were assessed using the iterative closest point technique to measure the root mean square (RMS) distance between the images. Five areas were measured and a RMS≤0.25 was considered successful. Descriptive statistics and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to compare the intra-observer measurement reproducibility. The ICC was ≥0.980 for all of the variables and the highest RMS found was 0.241. The inter-observer reproducibility was assessed case by case and was perfect (RMS 0) for 68% (23 out of 34) of the superimpositions done and not clinically significant (RMS≤0.25) for the other 32%. The method is fast, accurate, and reproducible and is an alternative to cranial base superimposition. PMID:26794399

  13. Diagnosis and conservative treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and asymmetric maxillary crowding.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Linda L Y; Chang, Chris H; Roberts, W Eugene

    2016-04-01

    A man, aged 28 years 9 months, came for an orthodontic consultation for a skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB angle, -3°) with a modest asymmetric Class II and Class III molar relationship, complicated by an anterior crossbite, a deepbite, and 12 mm of asymmetric maxillary crowding. Despite the severity of the malocclusion (Discrepancy Index, 37), the patient desired noninvasive camouflage treatment. The 3-Ring diagnosis showed that treatment without extractions or orthognathic surgery was a viable approach. Arch length analysis indicated that differential interproximal enamel reduction could resolve the crowding and midline discrepancy, but a miniscrew in the infrazygomatic crest was needed to retract the right buccal segment. The patient accepted the complex, staged treatment plan with the understanding that it would require about 3.5 years. Fixed appliance treatment with passive self-ligating brackets, early light short elastics, bite turbos, interproximal enamel reduction, and infrazygomatic crest retraction opened the vertical dimension of the occlusion, improved the ANB angle by 2°, and achieved excellent alignment, as evidenced by a Cast Radiograph Evaluation score of 28 and a Pink and White dental esthetic score of 3. PMID:27021460

  14. Segment alignment control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.

    1988-01-01

    The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

  15. Driver distraction: a perennial but preventable public health threat to adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bingham, C Raymond

    2014-05-01

    Although public health efforts have made some progress in reducing risk of adolescent motor vehicle crashes over the last three decades, new technologies and evolving behavior patterns have focused attention on the risk of distracted driving. For many of the same reasons that alcohol-impaired driving represents a distinct risk for adolescents, distracted driving has an elevated impact on this age group. Similarly, many of the strategies used to reduce alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents might be applied to driver distraction, including adults serving as role models with high standards of behavior. The unique challenge posed by the proliferation of new technological distractions may accelerate this risk behavior and may lend itself to innovative prevention efforts. PMID:24759438

  16. Ultrasound control of magnet growing rod distraction in early onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Pérez Cervera, T; Lirola Criado, J F; Farrington Rueda, D M

    2016-01-01

    The growing rod technique is currently one of the most common procedures used in the management of early onset scoliosis. However, in order to preserve spine growth and control the deformity it requires frequent surgeries to distract the rods. Magnetically driven growing rods have recently been introduced with same treatment goal, but without the inconvenience of repeated surgical distractions. One of the limitations of this technical advance is an increase in radiation exposure due to the increase in distraction frequency compared to conventional growing rods. An improvement of the original technique is presented, proposing a solution to the inconvenience of multiple radiation exposure using ultrasound technology to control the distraction process of magnetically driven growing rods. PMID:25843064

  17. Definitive guiding flange prosthesis: A definitive approach in segmental mandibulectomy defect

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Sumanth; Manjunath, Shaurya; Vajawat, Mayuri

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular discontinuity defects following a segmental mandibulectomy defects present a major challenge to the rehabilitation team. With no immediate intervention to rehabilitate the patient, definitive mandibular guidance prostheses with a metal guiding flange and acrylic teeth on the resected side can be used successfully to stabilize the occlusion and correct the deviation. The present case report describes the prosthodontic rehabilitation of a patient with a segmental mandibulectomy using a mandibular prosthesis with a metal guide flange and a maxillary stabilizing metal framework. PMID:27274352

  18. Definitive guiding flange prosthesis: A definitive approach in segmental mandibulectomy defect.

    PubMed

    Babu, Sumanth; Manjunath, Shaurya; Vajawat, Mayuri

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular discontinuity defects following a segmental mandibulectomy defects present a major challenge to the rehabilitation team. With no immediate intervention to rehabilitate the patient, definitive mandibular guidance prostheses with a metal guiding flange and acrylic teeth on the resected side can be used successfully to stabilize the occlusion and correct the deviation. The present case report describes the prosthodontic rehabilitation of a patient with a segmental mandibulectomy using a mandibular prosthesis with a metal guide flange and a maxillary stabilizing metal framework. PMID:27274352

  19. Modified Segmental Osteotomy for Relocation of Malpositioned Implant: Case Report.

    PubMed

    da Silva, André Luis Fernandes; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Freitas, Diogo Loureiro; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2015-08-01

    Obtaining a good cosmetic and proper mastication in oral rehabilitation with dental implants are directly linked to the correct positioning of the implant in the alveolar bone. The malposition of the implant is a challenge in rehabilitation, which can often compromise the entire process. In cases of severely malpositioned implants, one has the option to remove it or leave it submerged under bone and gums. Another option is the modified segmental osteotomy that aims repositioning osseointegrated implant with the surrounding bone. The objective of this case report is to present a case where an implant was severely malpositioned after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, requiring a modified segmental osteotomy technique to reposition it. PMID:26464556

  20. Internal calvarial bone distraction in rabbits with delayed-onset coronal suture synostosis.

    PubMed

    Losken, H W; Mooney, M P; Zoldos, J; Tschakaloff, A; Burrows, A M; Smith, T D; Cooper, G M; Kapucu, M R; Siegel, M I

    1998-09-01

    Recent studies have identified a subpopulation of craniosynostotic individuals who exhibit progressive or delayed-onset synostosis and mild craniofacial growth abnormalities. These individuals may be good candidates for nonextirpation, distraction osteogenesis therapy. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis by using internal calvarial bone distraction in a rabbit model with familial delayed-onset craniosynostosis. Data were collected from 159 rabbits: 71 normal controls, 72 with delayed-onset coronal suture synostosis, 8 with delayed-onset coronal suture synostosis and coronal suturectomy, and 8 with delayed-onset coronal suture synostosis and distraction. At 10 days of age, all rabbits had amalgam markers placed on both sides of the frontonasal, coronal, and anterior lambdoidal sutures. At 25 days of age, correction was accomplished through either a 5-mm-wide suturectomy or distraction osteogenesis. An internal distraction appliance was fixed to the frontal and parietal bones and percutaneously and intermittently activated at an average of 0.10 mm/day for 42 days (4.11 mm total). Serial radiographs were taken at 10, 25, 42, and 84 days of age. Results revealed that rabbits with delayed-onset synostosis had significantly (p < 0.01) reduced coronal suture growth rates (0.04 mm/day) compared with the other three groups (0.07 mm/day). Rabbits with suturectomy and rabbits with distraction showed similar coronal suture responses. However, from 42 to 84 days of age, rabbits with distraction showed reduced growth at the vault sutures and abnormal growth patterns in cranial vault width, cranial vault shape, and cranial base angulation compared with the other three groups. Results demonstrated that, although the normal coronal suture growth rate was maintained in rabbits with delayed-onset synostosis using intermittent distraction osteogenesis, normal adult craniofacial structure was not achieved. Such anomalous growth was probably a result of altered growth

  1. Effect of distraction techniques in behaviour responses to pain among toddlers receiving immunisation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Pain and distress during immunisation of toddlers are reasons for non-immunisation of large number of toddlers. The present study was undertaken to assess the comparative effectiveness of distraction techniques in the process of immunisation i.e. toy and music. (The third group of study subjects was control group). It is concluded that distraction techniques are quite economical and safe in enhancing the magnitude of immunisation. PMID:23534177

  2. Parathyroid Hormone Therapy Mollifies Radiation-Induced Biomechanical Degradation in Murine Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sagar S.; Gallagher, Katherine K.; Donneys, Alexis; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Sarhaddi, Deniz; Nelson, Noah S.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Descriptions of mandibular distraction osteogenesis for tissue replacement after oncologic resection or for defects caused by osteoradionecrosis have been limited. Previous work demonstrated radiation decreases union formation, cellularity and mineral density in mandibular distraction osteogenesis. The authors posit that intermittent systemic administration of parathyroid hormone will serve as a stimulant to cellular function, reversing radiation-induced damage and enhancing bone regeneration. Methods Twenty male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 (radiation and distraction osteogenesis, n = 7) and group 2 (radiation, distraction osteogenesis, and parathyroid hormone, n = 5) received a human-equivalent dose of 35 Gy of radiation (human bioequivalent, 70 Gy) fractionated over 5 days. All groups, including group 3 (distraction osteogenesis, n = 8), underwent a left unilateral mandibular osteotomy with bilateral external fixator placement. Distraction osteogenesis was performed at a rate of 0.3 mm every 12 hours to reach a gap of 5.1 mm. Group 2 was injected with parathyroid hormone (60 μg/kg) subcutaneously daily for 3 weeks after the start of distraction osteogenesis. On postoperative day 40, all left hemimandibles were harvested. Biomechanical response parameters were generated. Statistical significance was considered at p ≤ 0.05. Results Parathyroid hormone–treated mandibles had significantly higher failure load and higher yield than did untreated mandibles. However, these values were still significantly lower than those of nonirradiated mandibles. Conclusions The authors have successfully demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of parathyroid hormone to stimulate and enhance bone regeneration in their irradiated murine mandibular model of distraction osteogenesis. Anabolic regimens of parathyroid hormone, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved drug on formulary, significantly improve outcomes in a model of

  3. A new method of morphological comparison for bony reconstructive surgery: maxillary reconstruction using scapular tip bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Harley; Gilbert, Ralph W.; Pagedar, Nitin A.; Daly, Michael J.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2010-02-01

    esthetic appearance is one of the most important factors for reconstructive surgery. The current practice of maxillary reconstruction chooses radial forearm, fibula or iliac rest osteocutaneous to recreate three-dimensional complex structures of the palate and maxilla. However, these bone flaps lack shape similarity to the palate and result in a less satisfactory esthetic. Considering similarity factors and vasculature advantages, reconstructive surgeons recently explored the use of scapular tip myo-osseous free flaps to restore the excised site. We have developed a new method that quantitatively evaluates the morphological similarity of the scapula tip bone and palate based on a diagnostic volumetric computed tomography (CT) image. This quantitative result was further interpreted as a color map that rendered on the surface of a three-dimensional computer model. For surgical planning, this color interpretation could potentially assist the surgeon to maximize the orientation of the bone flaps for best fit of the reconstruction site. With approval from the Research Ethics Board (REB) of the University Health Network, we conducted a retrospective analysis with CT image obtained from 10 patients. Each patient had a CT scans including the maxilla and chest on the same day. Based on this image set, we simulated total, subtotal and hemi palate reconstruction. The procedure of simulation included volume segmentation, conversing the segmented volume to a stereo lithography (STL) model, manual registration, computation of minimum geometric distances and curvature between STL model. Across the 10 patients data, we found the overall root-mean-square (RMS) conformance was 3.71+/- 0.16 mm

  4. Informational masking of speech in children: Effects of ipsilateral and contralateral distracters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    2005-11-01

    Using a closed-set speech recognition paradigm thought to be heavily influenced by informational masking, auditory selective attention was measured in 38 children (ages 4-16 years) and 8 adults (ages 20-30 years). The task required attention to a monaural target speech message that was presented with a time-synchronized distracter message in the same ear. In some conditions a second distracter message or a speech-shaped noise was presented to the other ear. Compared to adults, children required higher target/distracter ratios to reach comparable performance levels, reflecting more informational masking in these listeners. Informational masking in most conditions was confirmed by the fact that a large proportion of the errors made by the listeners were contained in the distracter message(s). There was a monotonic age effect, such that even the children in the oldest age group (13.6-16 years) demonstrated poorer performance than adults. For both children and adults, presentation of an additional distracter in the contralateral ear significantly reduced performance, even when the distracter messages were produced by a talker of different sex than the target talker. The results are consistent with earlier reports from pure-tone masking studies that informational masking effects are much larger in children than in adults.

  5. A piezoelectric motor-based microactuator-generated distractor for continuous jaw bone distraction.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Jae-Gi; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Gyu-Hag; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Cha, Jung-Yul; Kim, Hyung Jun; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2011-07-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is widely applied to correct oral and maxillofacial deformities, and intermittent distraction protocols have been used in various clinical applications. There are many challenges for continuous distraction of the jaw bone such as when using hydraulic motors and motor-driven plates. The size of the motor is critical to the ability to miniaturize the complete distractor system, and the importance of size makes it difficult to extrapolate the results of animal models to the clinical situation. This study developed a microactuator-generated distractor (MAGD) for continuous jaw bone distraction. The MAGD system consists of control software based on Microsoft Windows and a Squiggle piezoelectric motor. The system allows various intermittent and continuous distraction protocols to be simply selected using the control software. The maximum force of the laboratory-scale MAGD is 3 N, and the device is ready for adoption in small-animal distraction models such as the rat and mouse. The MAGD needs further refinement before it can be applied to humans, but a fully implanted MAGD system will reduce soft-tissue complications resulting from exposure of the extraoral component. Moreover, the MAGD will support the patient's social activities and require only minimal cooperation from the patient. PMID:21778842

  6. The effects of distraction on exercise and cold pressor tolerance for chronic low back pain sufferers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M H; Petrie, S M

    1997-01-01

    Distraction has been found to be effective for the attenuation of experimental and acute clinical pain but its efficacy for chronic pain management remains unclear. There are even some suggestions that distraction may be a counterproductive strategy for chronic pain sufferers. In this study we found that a word shadowing distraction task increased the ability of a group of 12 female and eight male chronic low back pain (CLBP) sufferers to carry out a brief (maximum 300 s) step-up exercise that temporarily increased their pain (P < 0.05). This 15% increase in exercise time was not accompanied by an increase in reported pain after the exercise. Interestingly, the same distraction task did not increase the cold pressor (CP) tolerance time for the CLBP group but produced a 26% increase in tolerance time for a pain-free control group consisting of nine females and nine males (P < 0.05). Also, performance on the distraction task during the CP was worse for the CLBP group than the controls (P < 0.05). Although these findings should be interpreted cautiously because of the parameters of the experiment, they do suggest that distraction is a potentially useful technique to assist chronic pain sufferers. PMID:9060011

  7. Visual distraction during word-list retrieval does not consistently disrupt memory

    PubMed Central

    Rae, Pamela J. L.; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Glenberg et al. (1998) reported that episodic memory is impaired by visual distraction and argued that this effect is consistent with a trade-off between internal and external attentional focus. However, their demonstration that visual distraction impairs memory for lists used 15 consecutive word-lists, with analysis only of mid-list items, and has never been replicated. Experiment 1 (N = 37) replicated their methodology and found the same pattern of impairment for mid-list recall, but found no evidence of impairment for other items on the lists. Experiment 2 (N = 64) explored whether this pattern arises because the mid-list items are poorly encoded (by manipulating presentation rate) or because of interference. Experiment 3 (N = 36) also looked at the role of interference whilst controlling for potential item effects. Neither study replicated the pattern seen in Experiment 1, despite reliable effects of presentation rate (Experiment 2) and interference (Experiments 2 and 3). Experiment 2 found no effect of distraction for mid-list items, but distraction did increase both correct and incorrect recall of all items suggestive of a shift in willingness to report. Experiment 3 found no effects of distraction whatsoever. Thus, there is no clear evidence that distraction consistently impairs retrieval of items from lists and therefore no consistent evidence to support the embodied cognition account used to explain the original finding. PMID:24795688

  8. Effects of explicit knowledge and predictability on auditory distraction and target performance.

    PubMed

    Max, Caroline; Widmann, Andreas; Schröger, Erich; Sussman, Elyse

    2015-11-01

    This study tested effects of task requirements and knowledge on auditory distraction effects. This was done by comparing the response to a pitch change (an irrelevant, distracting tone feature) that occurred predictably in a tone sequence (every 5th tone) under different task conditions. The same regular sound sequence was presented with task conditions varying in what information the participant was given about the predictability of the pitch change, and when this information was relevant for the task to be performed. In all conditions, participants performed a tone duration judgment task. Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were obtained to measure distraction effects and deviance detection. Predictable deviants produced behavioral distraction effects in all conditions. However, the P3a amplitude evoked by the predictable pitch change was largest when participants were uninformed about the regular structure of the sound sequence, showing an effect of knowledge on involuntary orienting of attention. In contrast, the mismatch negativity (MMN) component was only modulated when the regularity was relevant for the task and not by stimulus predictability itself. P3a and behavioral indices of distraction were not fully concordant. Overall, our results show differential effects of knowledge and predictability on auditory distraction effects indexed by neurophysiological (P3a) and behavioral measures. PMID:26386396

  9. The effect of distraction strategies on pain perception and the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex).

    PubMed

    Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Kreusch, Annette; Albers, Christoph; Sommer, Jens; Marziniak, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Distraction from pain reduces pain perception, and imaging studies have suggested that this may at least partially be mediated by activation of descending pain inhibitory systems. Here, we used the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex) to directly quantify the effects of different distraction strategies on basal spinal nociception and its temporal summation. Twenty-seven healthy subjects participated in 3 distraction tasks (mental imagery, listening to preferred music, spatial discrimination of brush stimuli) and, in a fourth task, concentrated on the painful stimulus. Results show that all 3 distraction tasks reduced pain perception, but only the brush task also reduced the RIII reflex. The concentration-on-pain task increased both pain perception and the RIII reflex. The extent of temporal summation of pain perception and the extent of temporal summation of the RIII reflex were not affected by any of the tasks. These results suggest that some, but not all, forms of pain reduction by distraction rely on descending pain inhibition. In addition, pain reduction by distraction seems to preferentially affect mechanisms of basal nociceptive transmission, not of temporal summation. PMID:21925793

  10. Distract or reappraise? Age-related differences in emotion-regulation choice.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Susanne; Sheppes, Gal; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2015-12-01

    Does aging impact strategy choice with regard to regulating negative emotions? Based on the assumption that older adults are highly motivated to quickly defuse negative states, we predicted that older adults, relative to young adults, would show an increased preference for distraction (a cognitive disengagement strategy) over reappraisal (a cognitive engagement strategy) in the face of negative material. A stronger preference for distraction, in turn, should be associated with higher affective well-being at older ages, as it helps to avoid high physiological arousal. Young (19-28 years, n = 38) and older (65-75 years, n = 39) adults completed a laboratory task of emotion-regulation choice in which they viewed negative pictures of high and low intensity and chose between distraction and reappraisal to regulate their emotional response. Confirming predictions, age was associated with an increased preference to choose distraction over reappraisal. Among older but not young adults, the relative preference for distraction to reappraisal predicted higher state-affective well-being. In addition, across age groups, the preference for distraction over reappraisal was positively predicted by stimulus intensity and negatively by cognitive resources. Findings support the notion of an age-related shift toward disengagement strategies to regulate negative emotions, which maps onto older adults' prohedonic orientation and holds affective benefits. PMID:25961143

  11. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Joana S.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  12. The congruency sequence effect emerges when the distracter precedes the target.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Daniel H; Egner, Tobias; Hawks, Zoë; Link, Jacqueline

    2015-03-01

    The congruency effect in distracter interference tasks is typically smaller when the previous trial was incongruent as compared to congruent, suggesting the operation of a control process that minimizes the influence of irrelevant stimuli on behavior. However, both the conditions under which this congruency sequence effect (CSE) can be most easily observed without the typical learning and memory confounds, and the control process underlying it, remain controversial. We therefore tested a recent hypothesis that the CSE is most easily observed without the typical confounds when the distracter is processed before the target. In line with this "distracter head start" hypothesis, in Experiments 1 and 2 the CSE was larger when the distracter appeared before, relative to with, the target. Further, in Experiment 3, we observed a negative congruency effect after incongruent trials when a long interval separated the distracter from the target, consistent with a modulation of the response engendered by the distracter but not with a shift of attention toward the target. These findings reveal an important determinant of CSE magnitude when the typical learning and memory confounds are absent and new insights into the nature of control processes that contribute to this phenomenon. PMID:25616120

  13. A Mobile App Offering Distractions and Tips to Cope With Cigarette Craving: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Wally; Pearce, Jon; Borland, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite considerable effort, most smokers relapse within a few months after quitting due to cigarette craving. The widespread adoption of mobile phones presents new opportunities to provide support during attempts to quit. Objective To design and pilot a mobile app "DistractMe" to enable quitters to access and share distractions and tips to cope with cigarette cravings. Methods A qualitative study with 14 smokers who used DistractMe on their mobiles during the first weeks of their quit attempt. Based on interviews, diaries, and log data, we examined how the app supported quitting strategies. Results Three distinct techniques of coping when using DistractMe were identified: diversion, avoidance, and displacement. We further identified three forms of engagement with tips for coping: preparation, fortification, and confrontation. Overall, strategies to prevent cravings and their effects (avoidance, displacement, preparation, and fortification) were more common than immediate coping strategies (diversion and confrontation). Tips for coping were more commonly used than distractions to cope with cravings, because they helped to fortify the quit attempt and provided opportunities to connect with other users of the application. However, distractions were important to attract new users and to facilitate content sharing. Conclusions Based on the qualitative results, we recommend that mobile phone-based interventions focus on tips shared by peers and frequent content updates. Apps also require testing with larger groups of users to assess whether they can be self-sustaining. PMID:25099632

  14. TVAR modeling of EEG to detect audio distraction during simulated driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Nabaraj; (Nanda Nandagopal, D.; Cocks, Bernadine; Vijayalakshmi, Ramasamy; Dasari, Naga; Gaertner, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The objective of our current study was to look for the EEG correlates that can reveal the engaged state of the brain while undertaking cognitive tasks. Specifically, we aimed to identify EEG features that could detect audio distraction during simulated driving. Approach. Time varying autoregressive (TVAR) analysis using Kalman smoother was carried out on short time epochs of EEG data collected from participants as they undertook two simulated driving tasks. TVAR coefficients were then used to construct all pole model enabling the identification of EEG features that could differentiate normal driving from audio distracted driving. Main results. Pole analysis of the TVAR model led to the visualization of event related synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) patterns in the form of pole displacements in pole plots of the temporal EEG channels in the z plane enabling the differentiation of the two driving conditions. ERS in the EEG data has been demonstrated during audio distraction as an associated phenomenon. Significance. Visualizing the ERD/ERS phenomenon in terms of pole displacement is a novel approach. Although ERS/ERD has previously been demonstrated as reliable when applied to motor related tasks, it is believed to be the first time that it has been applied to investigate human cognitive phenomena such as attention and distraction. Results confirmed that distracted/non-distracted driving states can be identified using this approach supporting its applicability to cognition research.

  15. Sipunculans and segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups—Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata—use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral nervous system form in anterior-posterior progression. Contrary to traditional belief, loss of segmentation may have occurred more often than commonly assumed, as exemplified in the sipunculans, which show remnants of segmentation in larval stages but are unsegmented as adults. The developmental plasticity and potential evolutionary lability of segmentation nourishes the controversy of a segmented bilaterian ancestor versus multiple independent evolution of segmentation in respective metazoan lineages. PMID:19513266

  16. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  17. [Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Rose, I; Vakilzadeh, F

    1991-12-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare type of neurofibromatosis. We report a case of bilateral manifestation, review the literature on this extremely uncommon variant, and discuss the possible causative mechanisms and the genetic risk of segmental neurofibromatosis. PMID:1765491

  18. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  19. Accuracy of virtual models in the assessment of maxillary defects

    PubMed Central

    Kurşun, Şebnem; Kılıç, Cenk; Özen, Tuncer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the reliability of measurements performed on three-dimensional (3D) virtual models of maxillary defects obtained using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 3D optical scanning. Materials and Methods Mechanical cavities simulating maxillary defects were prepared on the hard palate of nine cadavers. Images were obtained using a CBCT unit at three different fields-of-views (FOVs) and voxel sizes: 1) 60×60 mm FOV, 0.125 mm3 (FOV60); 2) 80×80 mm FOV, 0.160 mm3 (FOV80); and 3) 100×100 mm FOV, 0.250 mm3 (FOV100). Superimposition of the images was performed using software called VRMesh Design. Automated volume measurements were conducted, and differences between surfaces were demonstrated. Silicon impressions obtained from the defects were also scanned with a 3D optical scanner. Virtual models obtained using VRMesh Design were compared with impressions obtained by scanning silicon models. Gold standard volumes of the impression models were then compared with CBCT and 3D scanner measurements. Further, the general linear model was used, and the significance was set to p=0.05. Results A comparison of the results obtained by the observers and methods revealed the p values to be smaller than 0.05, suggesting that the measurement variations were caused by both methods and observers along with the different cadaver specimens used. Further, the 3D scanner measurements were closer to the gold standard measurements when compared to the CBCT measurements. Conclusion In the assessment of artificially created maxillary defects, the 3D scanner measurements were more accurate than the CBCT measurements. PMID:25793180

  20. Case Report: retained gutta-percha as a cause for persistent maxillary sinusitis and pain

    PubMed Central

    Hodnett, Benjamin L.; Ferguson, Berrylin

    2014-01-01

    Dental sources of infection can produce acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis. In some cases, the source of the infection may be related to the presence of endodontic materials in the oral cavity. In this article, we report a case of retained gutta-percha in the maxillary sinus resulting in chronic sinusitis. PMID:24795809

  1. Maxillary Midline diastema closure after replacement of primary teeth with implant prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Al-Saqabi, Farah Y; Fenlon, Michael R; Bavisha, Kalpesh A

    2015-05-01

    This case shows an excellent esthetic treatment outcome using implant-retained crowns replacing maxillary laterals and canines in hypodontia patient with unusual incidence of spontaneous diastema closure after the placement of implants. To our knowledge, this is the first case report showing maxillary midline diastema closure after implant placement. PMID:25984308

  2. Dual embryonic origin of maxillary lateral incisors: clinical implications in patients with cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Rosar, Julia Petruccelli; Sathler, Renata; Ozawa, Terumi Okada

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cleft lip and palate are craniofacial anomalies highly prevalent in the overall population. In oral clefts involving the alveolar ridge, variations of number, shape, size and position are observed in maxillary lateral incisors. The objective of this manuscript is to elucidate the embryonic origin of maxillary lateral incisors in order to understand the etiology of these variations. Contextualization: The hypothesis that orofacial clefts would split maxillary lateral incisor buds has been previously reported. However, recent studies showed that maxillary lateral incisors have dual embryonic origin, being partially formed by both the medial nasal process and the maxillary process. In other words, the mesial half of the lateral incisor seems to come from the medial nasal process while the distal half of the lateral incisor originates from the maxillary process. In cleft patients, these processes do not fuse, which results in different numerical and positional patterns for lateral incisors relating to the alveolar cleft. In addition to these considerations, this study proposes a nomenclature for maxillary lateral incisors in patients with cleft lip and palate, based on embryology and lateral incisors position in relation to the alveolar cleft. Conclusion: Embryological knowledge on the dual origin of maxillary lateral incisors and the use of a proper nomenclature for their numerical and positional variations renders appropriate communication among professionals and treatment planning easier, in addition to standardizing research analysis. PMID:26560830

  3. Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma with concurrent prolonged foreign body impaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ha; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Kwang Jae; Kim, Joohwan

    2012-03-01

    Several elements in the maxillary sinus are reported to be carcinogenic. Also, foreign body reaction can cause cancer in any part of the body. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma at the site in the maxillary sinus where a bullet splinter, analyzed as iron afterward, was inserted during the Korean War, approximately 60 years earlier. PMID:22446444

  4. Pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery following mandibular condylar fracture

    PubMed Central

    Katakol, Basavaraj; Govindaraj, E.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery is a rare occurrence. A well-organized pulsatile mass that develops after a traumatic event indicates a pseudoaneurysm. Such lesions are commonly misdiagnosed for an abscess or a hematoma. Pulsations and audible bruit are diagnostic features of an aneurysm. Rupture of such false aneurysms cause significant morbidity. Management is either surgical resection or embolization. Endovascular embolization is indicated in deep seated lesions or lesions with high morbidity. Though surgical resection is an invasive procedure, it is considered to be an alternative to embolization. PMID:25593875

  5. Liposarcoma of the maxillary antrum: A case report.

    PubMed

    Priyal, G; Shakil, Moidin; Jose, Maji; Hussain, Akther

    2015-01-01

    Atypical Lipomatous Tumor/Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma. (ALT/WDL) is a soft tissue sarcoma of intermediate malignant behavior, which most frequently affects the retroperitoneum and lower extremities. Liposarcomas of head and neck are rare, representing only 2-8% of all sarcomas in this region. The majority of liposarcomas occur in middle-aged adults; however, very uncommonly cases have been reported in infancy and early childhood. We report a case of a 14-year-old girl diagnosed as ALT/WDL of the maxillary antrum. PMID:26881583

  6. Orthodontic treatment of bilateral geminated maxillary permanent incisors.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philip, Camille; Aboudharam, Gérard

    2011-05-01

    Geminated teeth occur more frequently in the deciduous dentition than in the permanent dentition, with prevalence figures of 0.6% and 0.1%, respectively. Bilateral presentation is rare. A survey of the literature showed that the prevalence estimates for bilateral double teeth range from 0.01% to 0.04% in the deciduous dentition, and 0.05% in the permanent dentition. In this article, we report a rare case of bilateral fusion of the maxillary permanent incisors, discuss possible histogenetic mechanisms related to this anomaly, and explain the treatment management. PMID:21536214

  7. Pulp revascularization of a severely malformed immature maxillary canine.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won Chang; Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Hyo-Seol; Choi, Sung Chul; Nam, Ok Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a dental anomaly exhibiting complex anatomical forms. Because of this anatomical complexity, immature DI teeth with necrotic pulp are difficult to treat via apexification. We used revascularization as an alternative treatment for a patient with DI. An 11-year-old boy visited our clinic with chief complaints of gingival swelling and pain in the left maxillary canine. Clinical and radiographic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of type III DI. Revascularization therapy was performed, and a 24-month follow-up examination confirmed healing of the periapical radiolucency and physiological root formation. (J Oral Sci 58, 295-298, 2016). PMID:27349553

  8. Carcinoma of the maxillary antrum: surgery or radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, B.E.; Eisert, D.; Hazra, T.A.; King, E.R.

    1981-06-01

    Between the years 1968 and 1978, 57 patients with malignant tumors of the para-nasal sinuses were seen at the Medical College of Virginia. Thirty-nine patients presenting with squamous cell epitheliomas of the maxillary antrum, free of lymph node or distant metastases, and primarily treated at the Medical College of Virginia, form the basis of this study. Nineteen patients underwent radical craniofacial surgery with orbital exenteration and reconstruction. Twenty patients underwent Caldwell-Luc procedure followed by radical radiation therapy. The crude 3 year disease-free survivals are 50% and 37% in the radiation therapy and the surgery group, respectively. Local control, survival, and patterns of failure are discussed.

  9. Spheno-maxillary meningo-encephalocele. A case report.

    PubMed

    Morris, W M; Losken, H W; le Roux, P A

    1989-11-01

    A patient is presented who was born with a large swelling on the left side of his face. This was removed by a paediatric surgeon at six weeks of age, and the histology was that of an encephalocele. Based on our findings at a later procedure to correct the child's facial asymmetry resulting from the congenital deformity, we concluded that this was a spheno-maxillary meningo-encephalocele. We have been able to find only one other such meningo-encephalocele reported in the literature. PMID:2687333

  10. Possible and Impossible Segments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rachel; Pullum, Geoffrey K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between phonetic possibility and phonological permissibility of segment types. Specific focus is on whether there are any phonetically impossible segments phonologically permissible, and whether there are any phonetically possible segments phonologically impermissable. Examines the case of nasality spreading in Sudanese…

  11. Progressive immediate loading of a perforated maxillary sinus dental implant: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2015-01-01

    The displacement of a dental implant into the maxillary sinus may lead to implant failure due to exposure of the apical third or the tip of the implant beyond the bone, resulting in soft tissue growth. This case report discusses dental implant placement in the upper first molar area with maxillary sinus involvement of approximately 2 mm. A new technique for progressive implant loading was used, involving immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus perforation and low primary stability. Follow-up was performed with resonance frequency analysis and compared with an implant placed adjacent in the upper second premolar area using a conventional delayed loading protocol. Implants with maxillary sinus involvement showed increasing stability during the healing period. We found that progressive implant loading may be a safe technique for the placement of immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus involvement. PMID:25678816

  12. Five years follow-up of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation on a patient after mandibular ameloblastoma removal and ridge reconstruction by fibula graft and bone distraction

    PubMed Central

    Oteri, Giacomo; Ponte, Francesco Saverio De; Pisano, Michele; Cicciù, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This case report presents a combination of surgical and prosthetic solutions applied to a case of oral implant rehabilitation in post-oncologic reconstructed mandible. Bone resection due to surgical treatment of large mandibular neoplasm can cause long-span defects. Currently, mandibular fibula free flap graft is widely considered as a reliable technique for restoring this kind of defect. It restores the continuity of removed segment and re-establishes the contour of the lower jaw. However, the limited height of grafted fibula does not allow the insertion of regular length implants, therefore favouring vertical distraction osteogenesis as an important treatment choice. This report presents a patient affected by extensive mandibular ameloblastoma who underwent surgical reconstruction by fibula free flap because of partial mandibular resection. Guided distraction osteoneogenesis technique was applied to grafted bone, in order to obtain adequate bone height and to realize a prosthetically guided placement of 8 fixtures. After osseointegration, the patient was rehabilitated with a full arch, screw-retained prosthetic restoration. At five-years follow up, excellent integration of grafted tissue, steady levels of bone around the fixtures and healthy peri-implant tissues were reported. PMID:22623943

  13. Multi-segment detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Peter K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A plurality of stretcher detector segments are connected in series whereby detector signals generated when a bubble passes thereby are added together. Each of the stretcher detector segments is disposed an identical propagation distance away from passive replicators wherein bubbles are replicated from a propagation path and applied, simultaneously, to the stretcher detector segments. The stretcher detector segments are arranged to include both dummy and active portions thereof which are arranged to permit the geometry of both the dummy and active portions of the segment to be substantially matched.

  14. Enhanced distraction by magnocellular salience signals in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Carly J; Robinson, Benjamin M; Hahn, Britta; Gold, James M; Luck, Steven J

    2014-04-01

    Research on schizophrenia has provided evidence of both impaired attentional control and dysfunctional magnocellular sensory processing. The present study tested the hypothesis that these impairments may be related, such that people with schizophrenia would be differentially distracted by stimuli that strongly activate the magnocellular pathway. To accomplish this, we used a visual attention paradigm from the basic cognitive neuroscience literature designed to assess the capture of attention by salient but irrelevant stimuli. Participants searched for a target shape in an array of non-target shapes. On some trials, a salient distractor was presented that either selectively activated the parvocellular system (parvo-biased distractors) or activated both the magnocellular and parvocellular systems (magno+parvo distractors). For both manual reaction times and eye movement measures, the magno+parvo distractors captured attention more strongly than the parvo-biased distractors in people with schizophrenia, but the opposite pattern was observed in matched healthy control participants. These results indicate that attentional control deficits in schizophrenia may arise, at least in part, by means of an interaction with magnocellular sensory dysfunction. PMID:24561035

  15. EEG-Based Attention Tracking During Distracted Driving.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Kai; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2015-11-01

    Distracted driving might lead to many catastrophic consequences. Developing a countermeasure to track drivers' focus of attention (FOA) and engagement of operators in dual (multi)-tasking conditions is thus imperative. Ten healthy volunteers participated in a dual-task experiment that comprised two tasks: a lane-keeping driving task and a mathematical problem-solving task (e.g., 24+15=37?) during which their electroencephalogram (EEG) and behaviors were concurrently recorded. Independent component analysis (ICA) was employed as a spatial filter to separate the contributions of independent sources from the recorded EEG data. The power spectra of six components (i.e., frontal, central, parietal, occipital, left motor, and right motor) extracted from single-task conditions were fed into support vector machine (SVM) based on the radial basis function (RBF) kernel to build an FOA assessment system. The system achieved 84.6±5.8% and 86.2±5.4% classification accuracies in detecting the participants' FOAs on the math versus driving tasks, respectively. This FOA assessment system was then applied to evaluate participants' FOAs during dual-task conditions. The detected FOAs revealed that participants' cognitive attention and strategies dynamically changed between tasks to optimize the overall performance, as attention was limited and competed. The empirical results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a practical system to continuously estimating cognitive attention through EEG spectra. PMID:25850090

  16. The effects of taboo-related distraction on driving performance.

    PubMed

    Chan, Michelle; Madan, Christopher R; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    Roadside billboards containing negative and positive emotional content have been shown to influence driving performance, however, the impact of highly arousing taboo information is unknown. Taboo information more reliably evokes emotional arousal and can lead to greater attentional capture due to its inherent 'shock value.' The objective of the present study was to examine driver distraction associated with four types of information presented on roadside billboards: highly arousing taboo words, moderately arousing positive and negative words, and non-arousing neutral words. Participants viewed blocks of taboo, positive, negative and neutral words presented on roadside billboards while operating a driving simulator. They also responded to target (household-related) words by pressing a button on the steering wheel. At the end of the session, a surprise recall task was completed for all the words they saw while driving. Results showed that taboo words captured the most attention as revealed by better memory recall compared to all the other word types. Interestingly, taboo words were associated with better lane control compared to the other word types. We suggest that taboo-related arousal can enhance attentional focus during a complex task like simulated driving. That is, in a highly arousing situation, attention is selectively narrowed to the road ahead, resulting in better lane control. PMID:27136396

  17. Intradiscal Pressure Changes during Manual Cervical Distraction: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Gudavalli, M R; Potluri, T; Carandang, G; Havey, R M; Voronov, L I; Cox, J M; Rowell, R M; Kruse, R A; Joachim, G C; Patwardhan, A G; Henderson, C N R; Goertz, C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure intradiscal pressure (IDP) changes in the lower cervical spine during a manual cervical distraction (MCD) procedure. Incisions were made anteriorly, and pressure transducers were inserted into each nucleus at lower cervical discs. Four skilled doctors of chiropractic (DCs) performed MCD procedure on nine specimens in prone position with contacts at C5 or at C6 vertebrae with the headpiece in different positions. IDP changes, traction forces, and manually applied posterior-to-anterior forces were analyzed using descriptive statistics. IDP decreases were observed during MCD procedure at all lower cervical levels C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7. The mean IDP decreases were as high as 168.7 KPa. Mean traction forces were as high as 119.2 N. Posterior-to-anterior forces applied during manual traction were as high as 82.6 N. Intraclinician reliability for IDP decrease was high for all four DCs. While two DCs had high intraclinician reliability for applied traction force, the other two DCs demonstrated only moderate reliability. IDP decreases were greatest during moving flexion and traction. They were progressevely less pronouced with neutral traction, fixed flexion and traction, and generalized traction. PMID:24023587

  18. Potentiation rather than distraction in a trace fear conditioning procedure.

    PubMed

    Pezze, M A; Marshall, H J; Cassaday, H J

    2016-07-01

    Trace conditioning procedures are defined by the introduction of a trace interval between conditioned stimulus (CS, e.g. noise or light) offset and unconditioned stimulus (US, e.g. footshock). The introduction of an additional stimulus as a distractor has been suggested to increase the attentional demands of the task and to extend the usefulness of the behavioural model. In Experiment 1, the CS was noise and the distractor was provided by an intermittent light. In Experiment 2, the CS was light and the distractor was provided by an intermittent noise. In both experiments, the introduction of a 10s trace interval weakened associative learning compared with that seen in a 0s delay conditioned group. However, there was no consistent evidence of distraction. On the contrary, in Experiment 1, associative learning was stronger (in both trace and delay conditioned groups) for rats conditioned also in the presence of the intermittent light. In Experiment 2, there was no such effect when the roles of the stimuli were reversed. The results of Experiment 2 did however confirm the particular salience of the noise stimulus. The finding of increased associative learning dependent on salience is consistent with arousal-mediated effects on associative learning. PMID:27060226

  19. Color image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrae, Kimberley A.; Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Oxley, Mark E.

    1994-03-01

    The most difficult stage of automated target recognition is segmentation. Current segmentation problems include faces and tactical targets; previous efforts to segment these objects have used intensity and motion cues. This paper develops a color preprocessing scheme to be used with the other segmentation techniques. A neural network is trained to identify the color of a desired object, eliminating all but that color from the scene. Gabor correlations and 2D wavelet transformations will be performed on stationary images; and 3D wavelet transforms on multispectral data will incorporate color and motion detection into the machine visual system. The paper will demonstrate that color and motion cues can enhance a computer segmentation system. Results from segmenting faces both from the AFIT data base and from video taped television are presented; results from tactical targets such as tanks and airplanes are also given. Color preprocessing is shown to greatly improve the segmentation in most cases.

  20. Root canal morphology of South Asian Indian maxillary molar teeth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shishir; Pawar, Mansing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian Maxillary molars using a tooth clearing technique. Materials and Methods: Hundred teeth each comprising of first, second, and third molars collected from different dental schools and clinics in India were subjected to standard dye penetration, decalcification and clearing procedure before being studied. Results: The first molar mesiobuccal roots exhibited 69% Type I, 24% Type II, 4% Type IV, 2% Type V, and 1% exhibited a Vertuccis Type VIII canal anatomy. In the group with three separate roots the second molar mesiobuccal roots in exhibited 80.6% Type I, 15.3% Type II, 2.7% Type IV, and 1.4% Type V canal anatomy while the third molars mesiobuccal roots exhibited 57.4% Type I, 32% Type II, 2.1% Type III, 8.5% Type IV, 1% had a Type V canal anatomy in the similar group. Conclusion: A varied root canal anatomy was seen in the mesiobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars. PMID:25713497

  1. [Two cases of solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome].

    PubMed

    Catania, P; Conti, C; Poggi, G M; Bardelli, T; Lasagni, D; De Martino, M

    2010-02-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) syndrome is a unique developmental abnormality arising from an unknown event occurring between the 35th and 38th days in utero, and involving mieline structure of the head including the cranial bones, the maxilla and its container dentition (specifically the central incisor tooth germ), together with other midline structures of the body. The SMMCI tooth may be possibly occur as an isolated trait or in association with many other midline developmental anomalies. It is estimated to occur in 1:50000 live births. There is a wide variability in the phenotypic spectrum. SMMCI is considered one of the most minimal expressions of the holoprosencephaly spectrum. Mutation in the Sonic Hedgehog homolog (SHH) gene may be associated with SSMMCI, but recent studies suggests the existence of several other candidate genes. We described two patients with SMMCI. They presented a solitary median maxillary incisor, short stature, hipotelorism and corpus callosus anomalies found on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They also present severe hiponatremia. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of cases of SMMCI with hiponatremia. We suggest that the sodium disorder may be secondary to syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). PMID:20212404

  2. Ossifying fibroma of the maxillary sinus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, J R

    1989-01-01

    A case of ossifying fibroma of the maxillary sinus that occurred in a 45-year-old white female is reported. The lesion's radiographic, histologic and clinical behavior are examined. The clinical and radiographic features of ossifying fibroma distinguish it from monostatic fibrous dysplasia despite histologic similarities. The uncommon location of this ossifying fibroma in the maxillary sinus accounts for its large size, aggressive behavior and widespread osseous destruction. The prognosis is excellent after complete enucleation of the ossifying fibroma has been achieved. The benign fibro-osseous lesions of the jaws share similarities in radiographic and clinical appearance, histogenesis and histopathology, and consequently, pose difficulty in classification and treatment. Common histologic features of these lesions include an active proliferation of fibroblats, young and mature collagenous connective tissue, focal areas of mineralization which may resemble small cemeticles and/or irregular bone trabeculae, and multinucleated giant cells. Differential diagnosis of benign fibro-osseous lesions can therefore be made if clinical behavior, radiographic features, and hematologic changes are correlated with the histologic picture. Representatives of this group include true fibrous dysplasia, ossifying fibroma (both central and peripheral types), osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, cementifying fibroma, florid osseous dysplasia, proliferative periostitis of Garré, focal sclerosing osteomyelitis and osteitis deformans (Paget's disease). PMID:2782841

  3. Maxillary Sinus Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumors: A Review and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Chase C.; Eisenbach, Colby; Torres, Carlos; Graham, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an immunohistochemically diverse entity demonstrating neoplastic and nonneoplastic qualities. Although IMTs can arise in any area of the body, lesions arising in certain sites, namely, the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pterygopalatine fossa, demonstrate a heightened neoplastic and invasive potential. Despite case specific complete tumor regression and disease remission in response to pharmacotherapeutics, a subset of IMTs remain resistant to all forms of therapy. We present such a case, a 34-year-old female patient, with a highly resistant, maxillary sinus IMT. Her refractory, ALK-1 negative IMT has not responded well to novel therapies reported in current literature. This case suggests the role of zonal expressivity within a single lesion as a probable mechanism for its highly resistant nature and should promote determination of each IMT's cytogenetic profile to provide more effective targeted therapy. Paper includes a literature review of all maxillary sinus IMTs from 1985 to 2014 along with their immunohistochemical staining, treatments, and outcomes. PMID:25763286

  4. Ectopic Molar with Maxillary Sinus Drainage Obstruction and Oroantral Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahifakhim, Shahin; Mousaviagdas, Mehrnoush

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ectopic tooth eruption may result owing to one of 3 processes: developmentalDisturbance, iatrogenic activity, or pathologic process, such as a tumor or a cyst. In rare cases, occlusion of the sinus ostia may predispose a patient to develop a maxillary sinus mucocele. When the maxillary sinus is invaded, symptoms usually occur late in the process. Case Report: A 17 years old boy referred to department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of university of medical sciences, Tabriz_Iran in 2010 with chronic recurrent mucoprulent discharge from retromollar trigone , posterior to right superior alveolar ridge. CT scan revealed a dense mass resembling tooth, obstructing sinus ostium with homogenous opacity with ring enhancement, occupying whole sinus and expanding all walls. A Caldwell Luke approach in combination with endoscopy was selected. Conclusion: In the present patient, removal of ectopic tooth resolved the symptoms completely, the fistula obstructed and discharges discontinued. An ectopic tooth is a rare entity obstructing sinus ostium. The etiology of ectopic eruption has not yet been completely clarified, but many theories have been suggested,including trauma, infection, developmental anomalies and pathologic conditions, such as dentigerous cysts. In summary, although the ectopic teeth is rare but it would be assumed in presence of unilateral symptoms of sinonasal cavity. Therefore in peristant unilateral sinonasal symptoms we should complete examining of this site to rule out rare causes of these symptoms. PMID:24303440

  5. Experimental maxillary sinus augmentation using a highly bioactive glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Mecca, Carlos Eduardo; Biguetti, Claudia Cristina; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz; Okamoto, Roberta; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Duarte, Marco Húngaro; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi

    2016-02-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of a biomaterial directly influence its biological behavior and fate. However, anatomical and physiological particularities of the recipient site also seem to contribute with this process. The present study aimed to evaluate bone healing of maxillary sinus augmentation using a novel bioactive glass ceramic in comparison with a bovine hydroxyapatite. Bilateral sinus augmentation was performed in adult male rabbits, divided into 4 groups according to the biomaterial used: BO-particulate bovine HA Bio-Oss(®) (BO), BO+G-particulate bovine HA + particulate autogenous bone graft (G), BS-particulate glass ceramic (180-212 μm) Biosilicate(®) (BS), and BS+G-particulate glass ceramic + G. After 45 and 90 days, animals were euthanized and the specimens prepared to be analyzed under light and polarized microscopy, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro-computed tomography (μCT). Results revealed different degradation pattern between both biomaterials, despite the association with bone graft. BS caused a more intense chronic inflammation with foreign body reaction, which led to a difficulty in bone formation. Besides this evidence, SEM and μCT confirmed direct contact between newly formed bone and biomaterial, along with osteopontin and osteocalcin immunolabeling. Bone matrix mineralization was late in BS group but became similar to BO at day 90. These results clearly indicate that further studies about Biosilicate(®) are necessary to identify the factors that resulted in an unfavorable healing response when used in maxillary sinus augmentation. PMID:26712707

  6. Effects of distracting ads and cognitive control on the processing of online news stories with stereotype-related information.

    PubMed

    Kononova, Anastasia G

    2013-05-01

    An experiment (N=123) examined how individuals cognitively process online news stories depicting African-American characters with stereotype-consistent and -inconsistent attributes and whether distracting online ads interfere with story processing. Two cognitive control functions, updating and inhibition, were predicted to moderate the effects of distracting ads. Recall of characters' attributes and overall characters' description were included in the study as dependent measures. Findings indicated that distracting online ads hinder recall of information about and descriptions of story characters. Inhibition and updating affect dependent measures and moderate the effects of distracting online ads on characters' descriptions. PMID:23574346

  7. Comparison of two protocols of periosteal distraction osteogenesis in a rabbit calvaria model.

    PubMed

    Saulacic, Nikola; Nakahara, Ken; Iizuka, Tateyuki; Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Hofstetter, Willy; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The regenerative pathways during periosteal distraction osteogenesis may be influenced by the local environment composed by cells, growth factors, nutrition and mechanical load. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of two protocols of periosteal distraction on bone formation. Custom made distraction devices were surgically fixed onto the calvariae of 60 rabbits. After an initial healing period of 7 days, two groups of animals were submitted to distraction rates of 0.25 and 0.5 mm/24 h for 10 days, respectively. Six animals per group were sacrificed 10 (mid-distraction), 17 (end-distraction), 24 (1-week consolidation), 31 (2-week consolidation) and 77 days (2-month consolidation) after surgery. Newly formed bone was assessed by means of micro-CT and histologically. Expression of transcripts encoding tissue-specific genes (BMP-2, RUNX2, ACP5, SPARC, collagen I α1, collagen II α1 and SOX9) was analyzed by quantitative PCR. Two patterns of bone formation were observed, originating from the old bone surface in Group I and from the periosteum in Group II. Bone volume (BV) and bone mineral density (BMD) significantly increased up to the 2-month consolidation period within the groups (p < 0.05). Significantly more bone was observed in Group II compared to Group I at the 2-month consolidation period (p < 0.001). Expression of transcripts encoding osteogenic genes in bone depended on the time-point of observation (p < 0.05). Low level of transcripts reveals an indirect role of periosteum in the osteogenic process. Two protocols of periosteal distraction in the present model resulted in moderate differences in terms of bone formation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1121-1131, 2016. PMID:26036193

  8. Visual and cognitive distraction metrics in the age of the smart phone: A basic review.

    PubMed

    McGehee, Daniel V

    2014-01-01

    Sources of distraction are numerous and varied, and defining and measuring distraction and attention is complicated. The driving task requires constant adjustments and reallocation of attention to cognitive, motor, and visual processes. While it is fairly straightforward to measure distraction in an experimental situation (e.g., simulator, closed course), driver distraction in the real world is highly contextual. While no single metric is capable of capturing the complexities of distraction, several have proved useful in helping researchers gain fuller understanding of it. Few have reached a level of consensus among researchers and user interface designers. ISO and SAE may be considered the 'gold standard' for providing mechanisms through which open scientific consensus-based standards can be achieved.While there are a number of metrics used in predicting distraction, three have been studied closely and are going through the SAE and ISO standards process. They are (1) 'the occlusion method'; (2) the Lane Change Test (LCT); and (3) the Detection Response Task (DRT). The metrics described here apply generally to the experimental context where driving is tightly controlled. Like any method, there are limitations with each-and they don't necessarily agree with one another.Experimental methods and analyses are different than those in naturalistic driving (ND). ND relies more on data mining versus traditional experimental manipulation. ND data are a challenge precisely in that they lack experimental control.In future, driver metrics will go beyond specific measurement of task load, and will include how drivers self regulate when they choose to be distracted. PMID:24776223

  9. Visual and cognitive distraction metrics in the age of the smart phone: A basic review

    PubMed Central

    McGehee, Daniel V.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of distraction are numerous and varied, and defining and measuring distraction and attention is complicated. The driving task requires constant adjustments and reallocation of attention to cognitive, motor, and visual processes. While it is fairly straightforward to measure distraction in an experimental situation (e.g., simulator, closed course), driver distraction in the real world is highly contextual. While no single metric is capable of capturing the complexities of distraction, several have proved useful in helping researchers gain fuller understanding of it. Few have reached a level of consensus among researchers and user interface designers. ISO and SAE may be considered the ‘gold standard’ for providing mechanisms through which open scientific consensus-based standards can be achieved. While there are a number of metrics used in predicting distraction, three have been studied closely and are going through the SAE and ISO standards process. They are (1) ‘the occlusion method’; (2) the Lane Change Test (LCT); and (3) the Detection Response Task (DRT). The metrics described here apply generally to the experimental context where driving is tightly controlled. Like any method, there are limitations with each—and they don’t necessarily agree with one another. Experimental methods and analyses are different than those in naturalistic driving (ND). ND relies more on data mining versus traditional experimental manipulation. ND data are a challenge precisely in that they lack experimental control. In future, driver metrics will go beyond specific measurement of task load, and will include how drivers self regulate when they choose to be distracted. PMID:24776223

  10. An enjoyable distraction during exercise augments the positive effects of exercise on mood.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Antonelli, Danielle E; Szal, Abigail L

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested. A sample of 84 undergraduate students rated their mood and arousal before and after a standardized exercise, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at a pace of 3.6 mph for 10 minutes. During the work out session, participants watched the same television show, which they previously rated as enjoyable, or not enjoyable. As added controls, a third group exercised with no distraction (the TV was turned off); a fourth group did not exercise, but watched the television show. The results showed that exercise alone was sufficient to increase pleasant mood (95% CI 0.61, 1.46) and that including an enjoyable distraction during exercise significantly augmented pleasant mood compared to all other groups (95% CI 1.58, 2.99; R(2) = 0.29). These results show that the enjoyment of a distraction is a key factor that can augment the intensity of positive mood following exercise. Key pointsThe hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested.The results support this hypothesis by showing for the first time that while exercise alone was sufficient to increase the intensity of positive mood; combining exercise with an enjoyable distraction resulted in significantly greater increases in pleasant mood compared to exercise alone.Accounting for the enjoyment of a distraction type in future studies can increase the sensitivity of research designs used to detect changes in positive mood post-exercise. PMID:24790478

  11. Combined micro computed tomography and histology study of bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgenstein, Bernd; Deyhle, Hans; Jaquiery, Claude; Kunz, Christoph; Stalder, Anja; Stübinger, Stefan; Jundt, Gernot; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert; Hieber, Simone E.

    2012-10-01

    Bone augmentation is a vital part of surgical interventions of the oral and maxillofacial area including dental implantology. Prior to implant placement, sufficient bone volume is needed to reduce the risk of peri-implantitis. While augmentation using harvested autologous bone is still considered as gold standard, many surgeons prefer bone substitutes to reduce operation time and to avoid donor site morbidity. To assess the osteogenic efficacy of commercially available augmentation materials we analyzed drill cores extracted before implant insertion. In younger patients, distraction osteogenesis is successfully applied to correct craniofacial deformities through targeted bone formation. To study the influence of mesenchymal stem cells on bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis, human mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the distraction gap of nude rat mandibles immediately after osteotomy. The distraction was performed over eleven days to reach a distraction gap of 6 mm. Both the rat mandibles and the drill cores were scanned using synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography. The three-dimensional data were manually registered and compared with corresponding two-dimensional histological sections to assess bone regeneration and its morphology. The analysis of the rat mandibles indicates that bone formation is enhanced by mesenchymal stem cells injected before distraction. The bone substitutes yielded a wide range of bone volume and degree of resorption. The volume fraction of the newly formed bone was determined to 34.4% in the computed tomography dataset for the augmentation material Geistlich Bio-Oss®. The combination of computed tomography and histology allowed a complementary assessment for both bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis.

  12. Thinking About Walking: Effects of Conscious Correction Versus Distraction on Locomotor Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Control of the human walking pattern normally requires little thought, with conscious control used only in the face of a challenging environment or a perturbation. We have previously shown that people can adapt spatial and temporal aspects of walking to a sustained perturbation generated by a split-belt treadmill. Here we tested whether conscious correction of walking, versus distraction from it, modifies adaptation. Conscious correction of stepping may expedite the adaptive process and help to form a new walking pattern. However, because walking is normally an automatic process, it is possible that conscious effort could interfere with adaptation, whereas distraction might improve it by removing competing voluntary control. Three groups of subjects were studied: a control group was given no specific instructions, a conscious correction group was instructed how to step and given intermittent visual feedback of stepping during adaptation, and a distraction group performed a dual-task during adaptation. After adaptation, retention of aftereffects was assessed in all groups during normal treadmill walking without conscious effort, feedback, or distraction. We found that conscious correction speeds adaptation, whereas distraction slows it. Subjects trained with distraction retained aftereffects longest, suggesting that the training used during adaptation predicts the time course of deadaptation. An unexpected finding was that these manipulations affected the adaptation rate of spatial but not temporal elements of walking. Thus conscious processes can preferentially access the spatial walking pattern. It may be that spatial and temporal controls of locomotion are accessible through distinct neural circuits, with the former being most sensitive to conscious effort or distraction. PMID:20147417

  13. An Enjoyable Distraction During Exercise Augments the Positive Effects of Exercise on Mood

    PubMed Central

    Privitera, Gregory J.; Antonelli, Danielle E.; Szal, Abigail L.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested. A sample of 84 undergraduate students rated their mood and arousal before and after a standardized exercise, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at a pace of 3.6 mph for 10 minutes. During the work out session, participants watched the same television show, which they previously rated as enjoyable, or not enjoyable. As added controls, a third group exercised with no distraction (the TV was turned off); a fourth group did not exercise, but watched the television show. The results showed that exercise alone was sufficient to increase pleasant mood (95% CI 0.61, 1.46) and that including an enjoyable distraction during exercise significantly augmented pleasant mood compared to all other groups (95% CI 1.58, 2.99; R2 = 0.29). These results show that the enjoyment of a distraction is a key factor that can augment the intensity of positive mood following exercise. Key points The hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested. The results support this hypothesis by showing for the first time that while exercise alone was sufficient to increase the intensity of positive mood; combining exercise with an enjoyable distraction resulted in significantly greater increases in pleasant mood compared to exercise alone. Accounting for the enjoyment of a distraction type in future studies can increase the sensitivity of research designs used to detect changes in positive mood post-exercise. PMID:24790478

  14. Temporally coherent 4D video segmentation for teleconferencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmann, Jana; Guleryuz, Onur G.

    2013-09-01

    We develop an algorithm for 4-D (RGB+Depth) video segmentation targeting immersive teleconferencing ap- plications on emerging mobile devices. Our algorithm extracts users from their environments and places them onto virtual backgrounds similar to green-screening. The virtual backgrounds increase immersion and interac- tivity, relieving the users of the system from distractions caused by disparate environments. Commodity depth sensors, while providing useful information for segmentation, result in noisy depth maps with a large number of missing depth values. By combining depth and RGB information, our work signi¯cantly improves the other- wise very coarse segmentation. Further imposing temporal coherence yields compositions where the foregrounds seamlessly blend with the virtual backgrounds with minimal °icker and other artifacts. We achieve said improve- ments by correcting the missing information in depth maps before fast RGB-based segmentation, which operates in conjunction with temporal coherence. Simulation results indicate the e±cacy of the proposed system in video conferencing scenarios.

  15. Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

  16. Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

  17. The effects of three different distraction methods on pain and anxiety in children.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nejla Canbulat; Bal, Meltem Demirgoz

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate of three different distraction methods (distraction cards, listening to the music of cartoon and balloon inflation) on pain and anxiety relief of children during phlebotomy. This study is a prospective, randomized, and controlled trial. The sample consisted of 6 to 12 years old children who require blood tests. Children were randomized into four groups as the distraction cards, the music, the balloon inflation, and the control. Data were obtained by conducting interviews with the children, their parents, and the observer before and after the procedure. The pain levels of the children were assessed by the parent and observer reports as well as self-report using the Wong-Baker FACES. The anxiety levels of children were assessed by parent and observer reports using Children Fear Scale. One hundred and twenty children (mean age: 9.1 ± 1.6 years) were included. The self-reported procedural pain levels showed significant differences among the study groups (p = .040). The distraction card group (2.33 ± 3.24) had significantly lower pain levels (p = .057) than the control group (4.53 ± 3.23). The procedural child anxiety levels reported by the observer showed a significant difference among the study groups (p = .032). All the forms of distraction significantly reduced pain and anxiety perception. PMID:26040282

  18. The relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), working memory and distraction--a behavioral and electrophysiological approach.

    PubMed

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Gomes, Ana Coelho; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) have been reported to have memory enhancement effects in humans. A neuro-stimulatory action and an anti-cortisol mechanism of action may contribute to that relation. In order to study DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol relations to working memory and distraction, we recorded the electroencephalogram of 23 young women performing a discrimination (no working memory load) or 1-back (working memory load) task in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. We measured salivary DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol both before each task and at 30 and 60 min. Under working memory load, a higher baseline cortisol/DHEA ratio was related to higher distraction as indexed by an enhanced novelty P3. This suggests that cortisol may lead to increased distraction whereas DHEA may hinder distraction by leading to less processing of the distractor. An increased DHEA production with consecutive cognitive tasks was found and higher DHEA responses attributed to working memory load were related to enhanced working memory processing as indexed by an enhanced visual P300. Overall, the results suggest that in women DHEA may oppose cortisol effects reducing distraction and that a higher DHEA response may enhance working memory at the electrophysiological level. PMID:25105970

  19. Technology-related distracted walking behaviours in Manhattan's most dangerous intersections.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali; Basch, Charles E

    2014-10-01

    Use of mobile devices has been cited as a distraction while driving, and more recently, among pedestrians crossing urban streets. In 2010, over half of New York City traffic fatalities were pedestrians. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of distracted walking due to pedestrians' use of headphones, mobile phones, or both. Data were gathered by direct observations at the 10 intersections in Manhattan with the highest frequency of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. More than 1 in 4 of the >3500 pedestrians observed were distracted by mobile electronic devices while crossing during the 'walk' (28.8%) and 'don't walk' (26.3%) signals. Poisson regression analyses established there was a significant difference in individuals talking on a mobile device during the 'walk' signal versus the 'don't walk' signal; however, no other significant differences in other distracted walking behaviours were observed. This study contributes to the emerging literature on distracted walking behaviour by pedestrians in busy urban areas and can help to inform pedestrian-focused safety efforts. PMID:24667654

  20. Early detection and late cognitive control of emotional distraction by the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    García-Pacios, Javier; Garcés, Pilar; Del Río, David; Maestú, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Unpleasant emotional distraction can impair the retention of non-emotional information in working memory (WM). Research links the prefrontal cortex with the successful control of such biologically relevant distractors, although the temporal changes in this brain mechanism remain unexplored. We use magnetoencephalography to investigate the temporal dynamics of the cognitive control of both unpleasant and pleasant distraction, in the millisecond (ms) scale. Behavioral results demonstrate that pleasant events do not affect WM maintenance more than neutral ones. Neuroimaging results show that prefrontal cortices are recruited for the rapid detection of emotional distraction, at early latencies of the processing (70-130 ms). Later in the processing (360-450 ms), the dorsolateral, the medial and the orbital sections of the prefrontal cortex mediate the effective control of emotional distraction. In accordance with the behavioral performance, pleasant distractors do not require higher prefrontal activity than neutral ones. These findings extend our knowledge about the brain mechanisms of coping with emotional distraction in WM. In particular, they show for the first time that overriding the attentional capture triggered by emotional distractors, while maintaining task-relevant elements in mind, is based on the early detection of such linked-to-survival information and on its later cognitive control by the prefrontal cortex. PMID:26067780

  1. Auditory distraction transmitted by a cochlear implant alters allocation of attentional resources

    PubMed Central

    Finke, Mareike; Sandmann, Pascale; Kopp, Bruno; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses which restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The successful adaptation of auditory cognition to the CI input depends to a substantial degree on individual factors. We pursued an electrophysiological approach toward an analysis of cortical responses that reflect perceptual processing stages and higher-level responses to CI input. Performance and event-related potentials on two cross-modal discrimination-following-distraction (DFD) tasks from CI users and normal-hearing (NH) individuals were compared. The visual-auditory distraction task combined visual distraction with following auditory discrimination performance. Here, we observed similar cortical responses to visual distractors (Novelty-N2) and slowed, less accurate auditory discrimination performance in CI users when compared to NH individuals. Conversely, the auditory-visual distraction task was used to combine auditory distraction with visual discrimination performance. In this task we found attenuated cortical responses to auditory distractors (Novelty-P3), slowed visual discrimination performance, and attenuated cortical P3-responses to visual targets in CI users compared to NH individuals. These results suggest that CI users process auditory distractors differently than NH individuals and that the presence of auditory CI input has an adverse effect on the processing of visual targets and the visual discrimination ability in implanted individuals. We propose that this attenuation of the visual modality occurs through the allocation of neural resources to the CI input. PMID:25798083

  2. Time course of emotion-related responding during distraction and reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Schönfelder, Sandra; Kanske, Philipp; Heissler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of emotion regulation (ER) discriminate various cognitive strategies to voluntarily modify emotional states. Amongst these, attentional deployment (i.e. distraction) and cognitive change (i.e. reappraisal), have been shown to successfully down-regulate emotions. Neuroimaging studies found that both strategies differentially engage neural structures associated with selective attention, working memory and cognitive control. The aim of this study was to further delineate similarities and differences between the ER strategies reappraisal and distraction by investigating their temporal brain dynamics using event-related potentials (ERPs) and their patterns of facial expressive behavior. Twenty-one participants completed an ER experiment in which they had to either passively view positive, neutral and negative pictures, reinterpret them to down-regulate affective responses (reappraisal), or solve a concurrently presented mathematical equation (distraction). Results demonstrate the efficacy of both strategies in the subjective control of emotion, accompanied by reductions of facial expressive activity (Corrugator supercilii and Zygomaticus major). ERP results indicated that distraction, compared with reappraisal, yielded a stronger and earlier attenuation of the late positive potential (LPP) magnitude for negative pictures. For positive pictures, only distraction but not reappraisal had significant effect on LPP attenuation. The results support the process model of ER, separating subtypes of cognitive strategies based on their specific time course. PMID:23988760

  3. Assessment of Mandibular Distraction Regenerate Using Ultrasonography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Dabas, Jitender; Mohanty, Sujata; Chaudhary, Zainab; Rani, Amita

    2016-03-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is becoming a popular method of reconstruction for maxillofacial bony deformities or defects secondary to trauma or surgical tumor ablation. However, the technique is very sensitive in terms of the rate and rhythm of distraction. Because of this, there is a need for monitoring of the distraction regenerate during the distraction as well as the consolidation period. The present study was conducted to assess the regenerate using two imaging modalities, namely, ultrasonography (USG) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to determine their relative efficacies and to weigh their clinical usefulness in assessment of DO regenerate. The study was conducted on 12 patients (18 sites) who underwent mandibular distraction for correction of facial deformities. The results showed that overall USG correlated better with the condition of regenerate (r = 0.606) as compared with CBCT (r = 0.476). However, USG was less effective as compared with CBCT in assessing the regenerate once corticomedullary differentiation occurred in the bone. PMID:26889351

  4. Auditory distraction transmitted by a cochlear implant alters allocation of attentional resources.

    PubMed

    Finke, Mareike; Sandmann, Pascale; Kopp, Bruno; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses which restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The successful adaptation of auditory cognition to the CI input depends to a substantial degree on individual factors. We pursued an electrophysiological approach toward an analysis of cortical responses that reflect perceptual processing stages and higher-level responses to CI input. Performance and event-related potentials on two cross-modal discrimination-following-distraction (DFD) tasks from CI users and normal-hearing (NH) individuals were compared. The visual-auditory distraction task combined visual distraction with following auditory discrimination performance. Here, we observed similar cortical responses to visual distractors (Novelty-N2) and slowed, less accurate auditory discrimination performance in CI users when compared to NH individuals. Conversely, the auditory-visual distraction task was used to combine auditory distraction with visual discrimination performance. In this task we found attenuated cortical responses to auditory distractors (Novelty-P3), slowed visual discrimination performance, and attenuated cortical P3-responses to visual targets in CI users compared to NH individuals. These results suggest that CI users process auditory distractors differently than NH individuals and that the presence of auditory CI input has an adverse effect on the processing of visual targets and the visual discrimination ability in implanted individuals. We propose that this attenuation of the visual modality occurs through the allocation of neural resources to the CI input. PMID:25798083

  5. Brain activation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction in internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated neural substrates related to the loss of control in college students with internet gaming disorder (IGD). We hypothesized that deficit in response inhibition under gaming cue distraction was the possible mechanism for the loss of control internet use. Eleven cases of IGD and 11 controls performed Go/NoGo tasks with/without gaming distraction in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. When the gaming picture was shown as background while individuals were performing Go/NoGo tasks, the IGD group committed more commission errors. The control group increased their brain activations more over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal lobe under gaming cue distraction in comparison with the IGD group. Furthermore, brain activation of the right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe were negatively associated with performance of response inhibition among the IGD group. The results suggest that the function of response inhibition was impaired under gaming distraction among the IGD group, and individuals with IGD could not activate right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe to keep cognitive control and attention allocation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction. This mechanism should be addressed in any intervention for IGD. PMID:24388058

  6. The Relationship between Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), Working Memory and Distraction – A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Gomes, Ana Coelho; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) have been reported to have memory enhancement effects in humans. A neuro-stimulatory action and an anti-cortisol mechanism of action may contribute to that relation. In order to study DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol relations to working memory and distraction, we recorded the electroencephalogram of 23 young women performing a discrimination (no working memory load) or 1-back (working memory load) task in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. We measured salivary DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol both before each task and at 30 and 60 min. Under working memory load, a higher baseline cortisol/DHEA ratio was related to higher distraction as indexed by an enhanced novelty P3. This suggests that cortisol may lead to increased distraction whereas DHEA may hinder distraction by leading to less processing of the distractor. An increased DHEA production with consecutive cognitive tasks was found and higher DHEA responses attributed to working memory load were related to enhanced working memory processing as indexed by an enhanced visual P300. Overall, the results suggest that in women DHEA may oppose cortisol effects reducing distraction and that a higher DHEA response may enhance working memory at the electrophysiological level. PMID:25105970

  7. Perceptual demand and distraction interactions mediated by task-control networks.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Siveshigan; Durgerian, Sally; Sabri, Merav

    2016-09-01

    Modulation of selective attention appears to be under the guidance of a cluster of distinct task-control networks, the frontroparietal (FPN) and cingulo-opercular (CON). Yet, their role in mediating the relationship between task perceptual load and presence/absence of distraction in the auditory modality is unclear. Here, we examined this interaction using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and an auditory signal detection task. The auditory stimulus signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was parametrically manipulated, by varying the amplitude of the Tone while holding the Noise constant, to create four perceptual load conditions presented in combination with or without acoustic distraction. Regions of the FPN (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule) and CON (e.g., dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/medial superior frontal cortex, anterior prefrontal cortex, anterior insula/frontal operculum) were modulated by perceptual load and distraction, such that lower loads induced a pattern of increased activity when there was no distraction. On the other hand, a trend of augmented activity was found in higher loads during distraction. These findings suggest a role for the FPN and CON in mediating the allocation of attentional resources to competing auditory information under varying degrees of perceptual demand. PMID:27261159

  8. Histological evaluation of condylar hyperplasia model of rabbit following distraction osteogenesis of the condylar neck.

    PubMed

    Meng, Q; Chen, G; Long, X; Deng, M; Cai, H; Li, J

    2011-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is the excessive unilateral growth of mandibular leading to facial asymmetry, occlusal disturbance, joint pain and dysfunction. The aim of this study is to evaluate the histological presence of temporomandibular joint in model of condylar hyperplasia by lengthening unilateral condylar neck of distraction osteogenesis. An extra oral distractor was employed to achieve unilateral condylar neck distraction (1·0 mm daily for 7 days). The experimental condylar necks were elongated by 7 mm compared to the contralateral. Eleven adult white rabbits were used. Eight rabbits were, respectively, sacrificed after the post-distraction period (4 or 8 weeks). All animals were evaluated clinically and histomorphometrically. The condyles radiologically showed remodelling, flattening and sclerosis. In 4-week group, thinning of the cartilage was evident, and the trabeculae were long, not multiply connected. A thin, dense fibrous layer covered all over the surface of cartilage. In 8-week group, the cartilaginous layer was similar to thickness of the normal cartilage, but still thinner than control. However, the fibrous layers covering condyle manifested slight degenerative changes, and even depressions and erosions were seen in the cartilage and subchondral bone. The trabeculae showed denser and multiply connected. In 8-week group, the cartilaginous thickness of surgical condyles was significantly thinner than the contralateral. This study indicates that unilateral distraction of condylar neck loads the condyles asymmetrically. Asymmetrical loads affect more on the surgical condyles than the contralateral, and after 8 weeks of the post-distraction, condyle could recover from asymmetrical loads in some degree. PMID:20626572

  9. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kean J.; Babeva, Kalina N.; Feng, Michelle C.; Hummer, Justin F.; Davison, Gerald C.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses), yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor). Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., “uh” or “umm”) and filler words (e.g., “like” or “you know”). Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods. PMID:24904488

  10. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kean J; Babeva, Kalina N; Feng, Michelle C; Hummer, Justin F; Davison, Gerald C

    2014-01-01

    Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses), yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor). Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., "uh" or "umm") and filler words (e.g., "like" or "you know"). Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods. PMID:24904488

  11. Students distracted by electronic devices perform at the same level as those who are focused on the lecture.

    PubMed

    Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2014-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the characteristics of internet distractions that students may engage in during lecture. The objective of this pilot study is to identify some of the internet-based distractions students engage in during in-person lectures. The findings will help identify what activities most commonly cause students to be distracted from the lecture and if these activities impact student learning. Methods. This study is a quasi-experimental pilot study of 26 students from a single institution. In the current study, one class of third-year students were surveyed after a lecture on special needs dentistry. The survey identified self-reported utilization patterns of "smart" devices during the lecture. Additionally, twelve quiz-type questions were given to assess the students' recall of important points in the lecture material that had just been covered. Results. The sample was comprised of 26 students. Of these, 17 were distracted in some form (either checking email, sending email, checking Facebook, or sending texts). The overall mean score on the test was 9.85 (9.53 for distracted students and 10.44 for non-distracted students). There were no significant differences in test scores between distracted and non-distracted students (p = 0.652). Gender and types of distractions were not significantly associated with test scores (p > 0.05). All students believed that they understood all the important points from the lecture. Conclusions. Every class member felt that they acquired the important learning points during the lecture. Those who were distracted by electronic devices during the lecture performed similarly to those who were not. However, results should be interpreted with caution as this study was a small quasi-experimental design and further research should examine the influence of different types of distraction on different types of learning. PMID:25279260

  12. Students distracted by electronic devices perform at the same level as those who are focused on the lecture

    PubMed Central

    Nalliah, Romesh P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the characteristics of internet distractions that students may engage in during lecture. The objective of this pilot study is to identify some of the internet-based distractions students engage in during in-person lectures. The findings will help identify what activities most commonly cause students to be distracted from the lecture and if these activities impact student learning. Methods. This study is a quasi-experimental pilot study of 26 students from a single institution. In the current study, one class of third-year students were surveyed after a lecture on special needs dentistry. The survey identified self-reported utilization patterns of “smart” devices during the lecture. Additionally, twelve quiz-type questions were given to assess the students’ recall of important points in the lecture material that had just been covered. Results. The sample was comprised of 26 students. Of these, 17 were distracted in some form (either checking email, sending email, checking Facebook, or sending texts). The overall mean score on the test was 9.85 (9.53 for distracted students and 10.44 for non-distracted students). There were no significant differences in test scores between distracted and non-distracted students (p = 0.652). Gender and types of distractions were not significantly associated with test scores (p > 0.05). All students believed that they understood all the important points from the lecture. Conclusions. Every class member felt that they acquired the important learning points during the lecture. Those who were distracted by electronic devices during the lecture performed similarly to those who were not. However, results should be interpreted with caution as this study was a small quasi-experimental design and further research should examine the influence of different types of distraction on different types of learning. PMID:25279260

  13. Orthodontic Treatment of Maxillary Incisors with Severe Root Resorption Caused by Bilateral Canine Impaction in a Class II Division 1 Patient.

    PubMed

    Chang, Na-Young; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Mi-Young; Cho, Jin-Woo; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; An, Ki-Yong; Chae, Jong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    This case report shows the successful alignment of bilateral impacted maxillary canines. A 12-year-old male with the chief complaint of the protrusion of his maxillary anterior teeth happened to have bilateral maxillary canine impaction on the labial side of his maxillary incisors. Four maxillary incisors showed severe root resorption because of the impacted canines. The patient was diagnosed as skeletal Class II malocclusion with proclined maxillary incisors. The impacted canine was carefully retracted using sectional buccal arch wires to avoid further root resorption of the maxillary incisors. To distalize the maxillary dentition, two palatal miniscrews were used. After 25 months of treatment, the maxillary canines were well aligned without any additional root resorption of the maxillary incisors. PMID:26950820

  14. Inversion devices: their role in producing lumbar distraction.

    PubMed

    Gianakopoulos, G; Waylonis, G W; Grant, P A; Tottle, D O; Blazek, J V

    1985-02-01

    Twenty persons with chronic low back pain participated in a clinical study to evaluate the effects of gravity traction. Each subject was instructed in the use of three devices, two for inversion and one for upright suspension traction. Baseline pulse and rate blood pressure were recorded before and after traction. Periods of traction did not exceed 20 minutes. The order of use of the devices was randomized. Each participant was monitored for significant side effects and was questioned to determine which device was best tolerated, easiest to use, or caused changes in back symptoms. Lateral lumbar spine radiographs were taken with the subject in the standing position and after varying periods of inversion. Observations included the following: An average increase in blood pressure of 17.2 systolic (range 4-34) and 16.4 diastolic (range 2-50) while in the inverted position. An average decrease in heart rate of 16.4 beats per minute (range, 4-32). No significant physiologic changes of blood pressure or pulse were observed in patients using GLR suspension traction; distraction of the lower lumbar intervertebral spaces (range, 0.3 to 4.0 mm) with inverted traction in all cases; side effects including periorbital and pharyngeal petechiae (one patient), persistent headaches (three patients), persistent blurred vision (three patients), and contact lense discomfort (one patient); and improvement of low back symptoms in 13 of the 16 symptomatic patients. Although these devices make lumbar traction practical in a home setting, their use should be under medical supervision because of possible side effects. PMID:3155939

  15. Dancing to distraction: mediating 'docile bodies' in 'Philippine Thriller video'.

    PubMed

    Mangaoang, Áine

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the conditions behind the 'Philippine Prison Thriller' video, a YouTube spectacle featuring the 1,500 inmates of Cebu Provincial Detention and Rehabilitation Centre (CPDRC) dancing to Michael Jackson's hit song 'Thriller'. The video achieved viral status after it was uploaded onto the video-sharing platform in 2007, and sparked online debates as to whether this video, containing recorded moving images of allegedly forced dancing, was a form of cruel and inhumane punishment or a novel approach to rehabilitation. The immense popularity of the video inspired creative responses from viewers, and this international popularity caused the CPDRC to host a monthly live dance show held in the prison yard, now in its seventh year. The essay explores how seemingly innocuous products of user-generated-content are imbued with ideologies that obscure or reduce relations of race, agency, power and control. By contextualising the video's origins, I highlight current Philippine prison conditions and introduce how video-maker/programme inventor/prison warden Byron Garcia sought to distance his facility from the Philippine prison majority. I then investigate the 'mediation' of 'Thriller' through three main issues. One, I examine the commodification and transformation from viral video to a thana-tourist destination; two, the global appeal of 'Thriller' is founded on public penal intrigue and essentialist Filipino tropes, mixed with a certain novelty factor widely suffused in YouTube formats; three, how dance performance and its mediation here are conducive to creating Foucault's docile bodies, which operate as a tool of distraction for the masses and ultimately serve the interests of the state far more than it rehabilitates(unconvicted and therefore innocent) inmates. PMID:24480892

  16. Infant Mandibular Distraction for Upper Airway Obstruction: A Clinical Audit

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Ashim N.; Heggie, Andrew A.C.; Shand, Jocelyn M.; Bordbar, Patrishia; Pellicano, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) is an effective method of treating upper airway obstruction (UAO) in micrognathic infants. The short-term outcomes include relief of UAO, avoidance of tracheostomy, and prompt discharge from hospital. However, it is a significant surgical procedure with potential associated morbidities. This study describes a cohort of infants managed using MDO over a twelve-year period. Methods: A retrospective chart review was undertaken for children who had MDO before the age of 5 years between 2000 and 2012. This was followed by a clinical review of the same cohort specifically looking for dental anomalies, nerve injuries, and scar cosmesis. Results: Seventy-three children underwent MDO at a mean age of 2 months [interquartile range (IQR), 1.7–4.2] for nonsyndromic infants and 3.3 months (IQR, 2.1–7.4) for those with syndromes. Infants were discharged from hospital, on average, 15 days after procedure. After MDO, of the 9 who were previously tracheostomy dependent, 5 (56%) were decannulated within 12 months and none of the nontracheostomy-dependent children required further airway assistance. The majority of children required supplemental feeding preoperatively but, 12 months postoperatively, 97% of the nonsyndromic infants fed orally. Thirty-nine children (53%) were reviewed clinically [median age, 5.1 y (IQR, 3.9–6.5)] with 18 being syndromic. Many of the mandibular first permanent and second primary molars had developmental defects, but there was a low rate of neurosensory deficit and good scar cosmesis. Conclusions: This study contributes further to the evidence base underpinning the management of micrognathic infants with UAO. PMID:27536491

  17. Dentoskeletal features in individuals with ectopic eruption of the permanent maxillary first molar

    PubMed Central

    Rozzi, Matteo; Cardoni, Giulia; Ricchiuti, Maria Rosaria; Cozza, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence and distribution of ectopic eruption of the permanent maxillary first molar (EEM) in individuals scheduled for orthodontic treatment and to investigate the association of EEM with dental characteristics, maxillary skeletal features, crowding, and other dental anomalies. Methods A total of 1,317 individuals were included and randomly divided into two groups. The first 265 subjects were included as controls, while the remaining 1,052 subjects included the sample from which the final experimental EEM group was derived. The mesiodistal (M-D) crown width of the deciduous maxillary second molar and permanent maxillary first molar, maxillary arch length (A-PML), maxillomandibular transverse skeletal relationships (anterior and posterior transverse interarch discrepancies, ATID and PTID), maxillary and mandibular tooth crowding, and the presence of dental anomalies were recorded for each subject, and the statistical significance of differences in these parameters between the EEM and control groups was determined using independent sample t-tests. Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of other dental anomalies between the two groups. Results The prevalence of maxillary EEM was 2.5%. The M-D crown widths, ATID and PTID, and tooth crowding were significantly greater, while A-PML was significantly smaller, in the EEM group than in the control group. Only two subjects showed an association between EEM and maxillary lateral incisor anomalies, which included agenesis in one and microdontia in the other. Conclusions EEM may be a risk factor for maxillary arch constriction and severe tooth crowding. PMID:26258065

  18. An Analysis of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Dimensions for the Existence of Golden Proportion: Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Nalla; Satwalekar, Parth; Srinivas, Siva; Reddy, Chandra Sekhar; Reddy, G Ramaswamy; Reddy, B Anantha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Appearance of the face is a great concern to everyone, as it is a significant part of self-image. The study analyzed the clinical crown dimensions of the maxillary anterior teeth with respect to their apparent mesiodistal widths, width-to-height ratio to determine whether golden proportion existed among the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 dentulous subjects were chosen for the study (120 males and 120 females) age ranging between 18 and 28 years. Full face and anterior teeth images of the subjects were made on specially designed device resembling a face-bow, mounted onto the wall under a standard light source. The width and height of the maxillary central incisors were measured on the stone casts using a digital caliper. Results: The mean perceived maxillary lateral incisor to central incisor width ratio was 0.67 in males and 0.703 in females. The mean perceived maxillary canine to lateral incisor width ratio was 0.744 in males and 0.714 in females. The mean width-to-height ratio of the maxillary central incisor was 79.49% in males and 79.197% in females. Conclusion: The golden proportion was not found between perceived mesiodistal widths of maxillary central and lateral incisors and nor between perceived mesiodistal widths of maxillary lateral incisors and canines. In the majority of subjects, the width-to-height ratio of maxillary central incisor was within 75-80%. There are no statistically significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth proportions between males and females. The results may serve as guidelines for treatment planning in restorative dentistry and periodontal surgery. PMID:26435610

  19. Impact assisted segmented cutterhead

    DOEpatents

    Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.; Ruzzi, Peter L.

    1992-01-01

    An impact assisted segmented cutterhead device is provided for cutting various surfaces from coal to granite. The device comprises a plurality of cutting bit segments deployed in side by side relationship to form a continuous cutting face and a plurality of impactors individually associated with respective cutting bit segments. An impactor rod of each impactor connects that impactor to the corresponding cutting bit segment. A plurality of shock mounts dampening the vibration from the associated impactor. Mounting brackets are used in mounting the cutterhead to a base machine.

  20. [Atelectasis of the maxillary sinus. Analysis of progression stages. Apropos of 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Hazan, A; Le Roy, A; Chevalier, E; Benzaken, J; Waisberg, A; Cymbalista, M; Adotti, F; Peytral, C

    1998-12-01

    We analyzed atelectasic processes occurring in the maxillary sinus. Several publications in the literature have tempted to analyze the pathogenesis. Clinically the processes are often silent and only revealed when the major opthalmological complication, enophthalmia, becomes patent. In other cases there is a long history of chronic sinusitis. There is a spectacular retraction of the maxillary sinus walls leading to collapse of the orbital floor and enophthalmia. We report four cases of maxillary sinusitis with atelectasia of the sinus walls at different stages of progression. These observations and data in the literature emphasize the importance, whatever the state of development, of endoscopic osteal decompression to avoid ophthalmological complications. PMID:9922835

  1. Maxillary Reconstruction for Sinus Lift Complications With Oro-Antral Fistula: The Le Fort I Approach.

    PubMed

    Pigache, Pénélope; Anavekar, Namrata; Raoul, Gwénaël; Ferri, Joël

    2016-03-01

    Although sinus lift procedures are reliable, some complications can lead to serious maxillary sequelae, including the development of oro-antral fistula (OAF). Maxillary reconstruction in such patients presents a challenge owing to sinus floor alterations, graft remnants, chronic infection, and morbidity from the original sinus lift approach. The current study describes our technique of maxillary reconstruction using a Le Fort 1 approach following major sinus lift complications with associated residual OAF. This technique provides excellent access for sinus curettage, OAF closure, and osseous reconstruction. It allowed a successful rehabilitation in our patients, with no implant loss and good functional and esthetic results. PMID:26825748

  2. Endodontic management of maxillary first molar with type I canal configuration- a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Desai, Niranjan; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya; Mittal, Priya; Patil, Gururaj

    2015-04-01

    Thorough knowledge about the root canal variations is essential for the predictable endodontic treatment outcome. The root and root canal anatomy of maxillary first molar varies greatly. A Pub-med literature search about single rooted single canalled maxillary first molar was done to know its details such as incidence, diagnostic method used, age, sex and ethnic background of patient. This article presented report of a single rooted single canalled maxillary first molar in a 27-year-old healthy Asian female. PMID:26023655

  3. Severe maxillary osteomyelitis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Dental injuries to or abnormalities in functionally important teeth and associated bones in predators may significantly reduce the ability to kill and consume prey (Lazar et al. 2009). This impairment is likely exacerbated in coursing predators, such as Gray Wolves, that bite and hold onto fleeing and kicking prey with their teeth. Damage to carnassials (upper fourth premolar, P4, and lower first molar, M1) and associated bones in Gray Wolves may especially inhibit the consumption of prey because these teeth slice meat and crush bone. Here I report maxillary osteomyelitis involving the carnassials in a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota of such severity that I hypothesize it ultimately caused the Gray Wolf to starve to death.

  4. A rare occurrence of geminated-taloned maxillary lateral incisor.

    PubMed

    Neeraja, R; Kayal, Vizhi G

    2012-05-01

    The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

  5. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Vizhi G

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

  6. Mucormycosis (Mucor fungus ball) of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hang Sun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    A fungus ball is an extramucosal fungal proliferation that completely fills one or more paranasal sinuses and usually occurs as a unilateral infection. It is mainly caused by Aspergillus spp in an immunocompetent host, but some cases of paranasal fungal balls reportedly have been caused by Mucor spp. A Mucor fungus ball is usually found in the maxillary sinus and/or the sphenoid sinus and may be black in color. Patients with mucormycosis, or a Mucor fungal ball infection, usually present with facial pain or headache. On computed tomography, there are no pathognomonic findings that are conclusive for a diagnosis of mucormycosis. In this article we report a case of mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the "Mucor fungus ball." To the best of our knowledge, 5 case reports (8 patients) have been published in which the fungus ball was thought to be caused by Mucor spp. PMID:25397383

  7. Maxillary fixed prosthesis design based on the preoperative physical examination.

    PubMed

    Block, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of physical examination findings that can be used to determine the design characteristics of a full arch restoration in the maxilla. These anatomic findings include 1) the resting and 2) smile line exposures of the central incisor; 3) the vertical position of the edentulous ridge when smiling; 4) the anteroposterior relation of the teeth to the edentulous ridge; 5) the presence of bone posterior to the premolar region; 6) the anterior height of the alveolar bone in relation to the floor of the nose; and 7) the planned inclination of the maxillary teeth. Based on these physical findings, the final prosthetic plan can be established before surgery. Determination of the final restorative plan determines the surgical procedures to be performed. PMID:25659360

  8. A technique to salvage endodontically compromised maxillary anterior tooth.

    PubMed

    Comut, Alper; Foran, Denise; Cunningham, Ralph P

    2014-01-01

    A complication of endodontic treatment is over-preparation of the tooth structure in an attempt to access calcified pulp chambers and root canals. This could result in thin root walls that might compromise the long-term prognosis of the tooth. There are various treatment options when such a complication occurs, among them, extraction of the compromised tooth and its replacement with a dental implant. This clinical report describes a nonsurgical, multidisciplinary treatment alternative where a maxillary anterior tooth with a thinned root wall was successfully saved by repairing the damaged root to its original thickness using a composite resin material and subsequently restoring with a cast post and core and a crown. PMID:24654367

  9. Basal cell adenoma of maxillary sinus mimicking ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bhagde, Priya Anil; Barpande, Suresh Ramchandra; Bhavthankar, Jyoti Dilip; Humbe, Jayanti G

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare basaloid tumor, with only 20% of cases occurring in minor salivary glands. Histologically, BCA is characterized by the presence of basaloid cells and may frequently be mistaken with canalicular adenoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry may aid in arriving at a final diagnosis as in the present case. Reported here is a case of locally aggressive BCA. Histologically, the lesion mimicked ameloblastoma and other entities which posed a diagnostic challenge. There are no reports of BCA presenting as an aggressive lesion available in English literature so far; moreover, merely a single case of BCA of maxillary sinus has been previously reported to the best of our cognition. This case report highlights the rarity of this tumor with regards to its site of origin, clinical behavior and histopathological mimics. PMID:27194878

  10. Basal cell adenoma of maxillary sinus mimicking ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhagde, Priya Anil; Barpande, Suresh Ramchandra; Bhavthankar, Jyoti Dilip; Humbe, Jayanti G

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare basaloid tumor, with only 20% of cases occurring in minor salivary glands. Histologically, BCA is characterized by the presence of basaloid cells and may frequently be mistaken with canalicular adenoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry may aid in arriving at a final diagnosis as in the present case. Reported here is a case of locally aggressive BCA. Histologically, the lesion mimicked ameloblastoma and other entities which posed a diagnostic challenge. There are no reports of BCA presenting as an aggressive lesion available in English literature so far; moreover, merely a single case of BCA of maxillary sinus has been previously reported to the best of our cognition. This case report highlights the rarity of this tumor with regards to its site of origin, clinical behavior and histopathological mimics. PMID:27194878

  11. Apicotomy: surgical management of maxillary dilacerated or ankylosed canines.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Eustáquio A; Araújo, Cristiana V; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2013-12-01

    This clinical article reports a technique, apicotomy, for managing dilacerated or ankylosed canines. The records of 3 patients successfully treated with apicotomy are presented. Orthodontists observe clinically significant incidences of impacted maxillary canines in their daily practices. Several procedures have been described to bring an ankylosed, impacted tooth into occlusion. Luxation is the most widely used solution, but there are risks involved with that approach, and the success rate is low. Surgical repositioning has also been used, but morbidity is high, and the aggressiveness of the procedure might also contraindicate it. Ankylosis might be related to the anatomic position of the canine's root apex and its adjacent anatomic structures. Apicotomy is a guided fracture of a canine root apex, followed by its orthodontic traction. It is a conservative surgical alternative for treating impacted canines with dilacerations or apical root ankylosis. PMID:24286914

  12. Quadruple zygomatic implants supported rehabilitation in failed maxillary bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Nocini, Pier Francesco; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; D'Agostino, Antonio; Zanette, Giovanni; Favero, Vittorio; Procacci, Pasquale

    2016-09-01

    Extreme atrophy of the jaws constitutes a challenge for maxillofacial surgeons. The technique involving Le Fort I osteotomy, bone grafting, and endosseous implants remains the gold standard treatment for class V and class VI atrophy of the maxilla. As severe maxillary atrophy is associated to impaired microvascularization of overlying soft tissues, reconstruction using vascularized free fibula flaps together with endosseous implants is one of the possible treatment plans. When this approach fails, however, retreating these patients using traditional techniques often proves unsatisfactory. This study outlines our clinical experience with full-arch zygoma implant-supported prosthetic rehabilitation to treat severe atrophic maxilla following failure of strategies including multiple Le Fort I procedures or vascularized free fibular flaps. PMID:26911802

  13. Barotrauma secondary to inflammatory maxillary sinus polyp: a case report.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Steven M; Brennan, Joseph

    2002-11-01

    Sinus barotrauma, secondary to mucosal disturbances, is a common finding within the aviation community. Multiple etiologies have all led to mucosal inflammation and thickening with potential obstruction of the sinus osteomeatal complex, especially during the barometric changes of flight. Obstruction can, therefore, lead to problems with sinus pressure equilibration with atmospheric pressure, and can lead to barosinusitis. We present a case of a U.S. Air Force Command Pilot with acute left sinus barotrauma during descent while flying a T-37 aircraft, along with a brief review of the pathophysiologic processes involved during barotrauma. An inflammatory polyp within his sinus was identified by plain radiography, confirmed with computed tomography, and subsequently excised. The patient had complete resolution and clearance to fly after an uneventful 4-wk convalescence and altitude chamber flight. This is the first case of sinus barotrauma secondary to an inflammatory maxillary sinus polyp, confirmed by histologic diagnosis, reported in the aeromedical literature. PMID:12433240

  14. [Pneumomediastinum Due to the Fracture of the Maxillary Antrum].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Ryutaro; Morimoto, Yuki; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Urata, Hisashi; Terabe, Masahiro; Miki, Chikao

    2016-06-01

    A 47-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room, half a day after having fallen down on his right cheek drunkenly onto a concrete block. Physical examination revealed that the contusion was limited to the right side of his face, only around the cheek, without trauma to the neck, chest or abdomen. But wide ranging tactile crepitus with severe swelling was present on his face and neck due to widely spread emphysema. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed some fractures of maxillary antrum, facial and cervical emphysema spreading to the lower part of mediastinum. After a conservative treatment, he recovered without any severe systematic complication. It was found that the facial and cervical emphysema and pneumomediastimum completely disappeared on the follow-up CT scan, 18 days after the event. PMID:27246131

  15. Treatment of Complications after Distraction Osteogenesis for Brachymetatarsia of the Fourth Metatarsal

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Mariko; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Kishi, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Congenital brachymetatarsia most commonly involves the fourth ray and may be combined with metacarpal shortening. Numerous reports have demonstrated the usefulness of gradual lengthening of the metatarsals. However, very few studies have investigated methods of recovering the lost regenerative bone. The patient was a 16-year-old girl with bilateral brachymetatarsia of the fourth metatarsal. After a long consolidation period after gradual lengthening of the fourth metatarsal by 20 mm, the patient had an hourglass-shaped regenerated bone. Therefore, we grafted a bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite and collagen composite. Six months after the surgery, well-regenerated bone could be recognized on radiographic evaluation and was resistant to refracture. Callus distraction is a method that aims to avoid donor site morbidity. The strength of artificial bone is often a problem. Bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite and collagen composite compensates for the lack of regenerated bone and distraction gap and prevents refracture, thus preventing complications after metatarsal distraction.

  16. Treatment of Complications after Distraction Osteogenesis for Brachymetatarsia of the Fourth Metatarsal.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mariko; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Kishi, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    Congenital brachymetatarsia most commonly involves the fourth ray and may be combined with metacarpal shortening. Numerous reports have demonstrated the usefulness of gradual lengthening of the metatarsals. However, very few studies have investigated methods of recovering the lost regenerative bone. The patient was a 16-year-old girl with bilateral brachymetatarsia of the fourth metatarsal. After a long consolidation period after gradual lengthening of the fourth metatarsal by 20 mm, the patient had an hourglass-shaped regenerated bone. Therefore, we grafted a bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite and collagen composite. Six months after the surgery, well-regenerated bone could be recognized on radiographic evaluation and was resistant to refracture. Callus distraction is a method that aims to avoid donor site morbidity. The strength of artificial bone is often a problem. Bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite and collagen composite compensates for the lack of regenerated bone and distraction gap and prevents refracture, thus preventing complications after metatarsal distraction. PMID:27536496

  17. Videotaped modeling and film distraction for fear reduction in adults undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Allen, K D; Danforth, J S; Drabman, R S

    1989-08-01

    We used a combined videotaped coping model and film distraction technique to reduce the distress of patients undergoing hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. Five experimental patients ranging in age from 34 to 68 were shown a videotape that depicted a coping model and then viewed a feature film as a distraction during their first exposure to HBO. In comparison with 6 control patients ranging in age from 17 to 53, the experimental patients experienced less arousal and rated themselves as significantly more relaxed before treatment, completed significantly more prescribed treatments without complication, and required fewer days in the hospital. These results support the use of modeling and distraction techniques as a cost-effective means of reducing distress and improving patients' compliance with HBO therapy. PMID:2768617

  18. Persistent frontal P300 brain potential suggests abnormal processing of auditory information in distractible children.

    PubMed

    Kilpeläinen, R; Luoma, L; Herrgård, E; Yppärilä, H; Partanen, J; Karhu, J

    1999-11-01

    The P300 event-related potential (ERP) was studied at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of an auditory stimulus discrimination task in 70 normal 9-year-old children. Easily distractible children showed frontally a short-latency P300 response to target stimuli throughout the task, whereas in the non-distractible children the corresponding response was distinctly smaller and also showed a tendency to decrease in size towards the end of the task. The short-latency frontal P300 response reflects activation of the brain's orienting networks, and it normally decreases in size when stimuli lose their 'novelty value' with stimulus repetition. Persistent frontal P300 suggest that distractible children continued to show enhanced orienting to stimuli that should have already been well encoded and/or categorized. PMID:10599853

  19. Impact of anticipatory processing versus distraction on multiple indices of anxiety in socially anxious individuals.

    PubMed

    Wong, Quincy J J; Moulds, Michelle L

    2011-10-01

    In models of social phobia, anticipatory processing before a social-evaluative event is a key maintaining factor for the disorder. This study investigated the impact of anticipatory processing versus distraction before a social-evaluative task on affective (self-reported anxiety), psychophysiological (skin conductance), cognitive (self-reported maladaptive self-beliefs) and behavioural (in-situation performance) responses of participants. High and low socially anxious undergraduates were randomly allocated to either an anticipatory processing or distraction condition, and then completed an impromptu speech task. Relative to distraction, anticipatory processing increased self-reported anxiety in all participants, and increased skin conductance and the strength of conditional and high standard beliefs in the high (but not low) socially anxious participants. Unconditional beliefs were not affected. For high socially anxious individuals, anticipatory processing was also indirectly associated with poorer speech performance by increasing self-reported anxiety. Anticipatory processing appears to have multiple adverse effects in socially anxious individuals. PMID:21821231

  20. Brooding, Reflection, and Distraction: Relation to Non-Suicidal Self-Injury versus Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Jurska, Justyna; Quiñones, Victoria; Miranda, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between cognitive response styles (i.e., brooding, reflection, distraction) and cognitive inflexibility in differentially predicting history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) only, suicide attempt (SA) only, or both (NSSI + SA). College students (N = 352) completed self-report measures of rumination, distraction, and self-harm history, a diagnostic interview, and a computerized task measuring cognitive flexibility. Brooding uniquely predicted SA-only history, while reflection uniquely predicted history of NSSI-only and NSSI + SA. Distraction was associated with lower odds of NSSI-only and NSSI + SA. Cognitive inflexibility was not significantly associated with self-harm history. Cognitive vulnerabilities may help identify individuals who are at risk for self-harm and may differentiate between NSSI and SA. PMID:25517765