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1

Segmental maxillary distraction with a novel device for closure of a wide alveolar cleft  

PubMed Central

Treatment of a wide alveolar cleft with initial application of segmental distraction osteogenesis is reported, in order to minimise cleft size prior to secondary alveolar bone grafting. The lesser maxillary segment was mobilised with osteotomy at Le Fort I level and, a novel distractor, facilitated horizontal movement of the dental/alveolar segment along the curvature of the maxillary dental arch. Following a latency period of 4 days distraction was applied for 7 days at a rate of 0.5 mm twice daily. Radiographic, ultrasonographic and clinical assessment revealed new bone and soft tissue formation 8 weeks after completion of the distraction phase. Overall the maxillary segment did move minimising the width of the cleft, which allowed successful closure with a secondary alveolar bone graft. PMID:24987601

Bousdras, Vasilios A.; Liyanage, Chandra; Mars, Michael; Ayliffe, Peter R

2014-01-01

2

Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis in the Hypoplastic Cleft Maxilla  

PubMed Central

Orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis play a prime role in the correction of maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Advancement of the anterior maxilla alone without interfering with the velopharyngeal sphincter may be advantageous in cleft patients, who more commonly have speech deficits and dental crowding. We present a case series of anterior maxillary segmental distraction for maxillary hypoplasia in 5 CLP patients with a one-year follow-up. A custom-made tooth-borne distraction device with a hyrax screw positioned anteroposteriorly was used. The evaluation comprised of hard and soft tissue analysis and speech assessment. A stable occlusion with positive overjet and correction of dental-crowding without extraction was achieved at one year post-distraction. Facial profile and lip support improved. There was no deterioration in speech. PMID:23984033

Rao (Janardhan), Sruthi; Kotrashetti, S. M.; Lingaraj, J. B.; Pinto, P. X.; Keluskar, K. M.; Jain, Siddharth; Sone, Piyush; Rao, Santhosh

2013-01-01

3

Rapid maxillary canine retraction by dental distraction: A clinical study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to perform rapid maxillary canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament and investigate the rate and amount of canine retraction, amount of anchor loss, the nature of tooth movement achieved, and radiographic changes in the periodontal ligament region during and after canine distraction. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 10 distractions ranging in age from 14 years to 25 years who needed canine retraction and first premolar extraction in the maxillary arch. Ten canine distractions were carried out with custom-made, tooth-borne intra-oral distraction device. Results: The results indicate that the periodontal ligament can be distracted just like the mid-palatal suture in rapid palatal expansion and the maxillary canines are retracted rapidly into the first premolar extraction space at the rate of about 2.53 mm/week. Conclusion: Though this study indicates that the periodontal ligament can be distracted to elicit rapid tooth movement, the long-term effects of canine distraction are not well known and need close monitoring.

Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Chitharanjan, Arun; Kailasam, Vignesh

2014-01-01

4

Combined orthognathic distraction procedure: Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy and mandibular curvilinear distraction osteogenesis. A new technique for craniofacial management.  

PubMed

Dentofacial deformities are traditionally treated by maxillary and mandibular osteotomies conducted separately or simultaneously. Recently, distraction osteogenesis has become an irreplaceable part of the surgical armamentarium, for its ability to induce new bone formation between the surfaces of bone segments that are gradually separated by incremental traction, along with a simultaneous expansion of the surrounding soft-tissue envelope. The aim of this article is to describe a combined surgical technique consisting of simultaneous maxillary Le Fort I advancement and mandibular surgical repositioning by means of bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with a curvilinear distractor based on a preliminary computerized presurgical prediction. PMID:24675190

Schendel, Stephen A; Hazan-Molina, Hagai; Aizenbud, Dror

2014-04-01

5

Distraction Osteogenesis in Adolescents with Maxillary Arch Deficiency and Dental Crowding: A 3Year Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In this study, the authors evaluated the long-term results after using anterior segmental osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis for the cor- rection of sagittal maxillary deficiency associated with dental crowding. Methods: Six young adolescents (four boys and two girls) underwent surgery and distraction at a mean age of 11.2 years (range, 10 to 12 years) and were followedupfor3years.Atooth-bornedistractiondevicewasusedforinterdental distraction. The

Cheng Ting Ho; Frank Heller; Lun-Jou Lo; Eric J. W. Liou; C Shing Huang; Yu-Ray Chen

2006-01-01

6

Pseudoaneurysm of internal maxillary artery--an untold complication following distraction osteogenesis--a case report.  

PubMed

Pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery is very rare and only a handful of cases have been reported in the literature thus far and none after placement of a prosthetic condyle and a distraction device. This case report highlights the need for early diagnosis, appropriate steps in management, and a multidisciplinary approach in a tertiary care center in treating this life-threatening condition and proper treatment planning to prevent this condition. PMID:24528567

Pandyan, Deepak Abraham; Siroraj, Pearlcid; Nandakumar; Narayanan, C D

2014-03-01

7

Mandibular effects of maxillary distraction osteogenesis in cleft lip and palate.  

PubMed

Maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a reliable treatment for severe maxillary deficiency in cleft lip and palate (CLP). The objective was to analyze its long-term effects on the mandible. A retrospective study of 24 CLP treated with maxillary DO using the Polley and Figueroa technique was done; patients were followed for more than 4 years. Preoperative (T0), 6-12 months postoperative (T1), and ? 4 years postoperative (T2) cephalometric radiographs were evaluated. A classical cephalometric analysis was used to assess treatment stability, and a Procrustes superimposition method was used to assess local changes in the shape of the mandible. The mean age of patients at T0 was 15.4 ± 4.1 years. SNA increased at T1 and T2 (P < 0.001), with no significant relapse between T1 and T2, indicating stability at 1 year after treatment (T0 = 72.4 ± 5.3°; T1 = 81.3 ± 6.2°; T2 = 79.9 ± 6.1°). SNB, facial angle, gonial angle, and symphyseal angle remained stable. Long-term analysis of the mandible demonstrated a minimal counter-clockwise rotation of the body (mandibular plane = -0.2 ± 3.2°) and ramus (-0.6 ± 4.3°). Maxillary DO in CLP had no significant effect on the shape or rotation of the mandible. The maxillary advancement remained stable after 1 year. PMID:24630071

Doucet, J-C; Herlin, C; Bigorre, M; Bäumler, C; Subsol, G; Captier, G

2014-06-01

8

Evaluation of transverse maxillary expansion after a segmental posterior subapical maxillary osteotomy in cleft lip and palate patients with severe collapse of the lateral maxillary segments.  

PubMed

Objective : The purpose of this longitudinal retrospective study was to evaluate transverse maxillary expansion after a Schuchardt or segmental posterior subapical maxillary osteotomy (SPSMO) in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). A second aim was to compare these data with data for adult patients without CLP who were receiving a surgical assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). Method : The study group comprised 19 patients with CLP and a severe transversally collapsed maxilla who were treated with SPSMO followed by hyrax expansion at the University Hospitals Leuven. Dental casts of the 19 patients were analyzed before treatment, at maximum expansion, during orthodontic treatment, at the completion of orthodontic treatment. and 2 years after orthodontic treatment and were measured at the canine, premolar, and molar levels. Adult patients without CLP who were enrolled in a prospective study served as the control group. Results : Maxillary expansion within the study group was significantly greater (P < .05) at all measured levels compared with the maxillary arch before treatment. No significant relapse was measured in the study group 2 years after orthodontic treatment. When comparing the study and control groups, the only statistical difference was that canine expansion was significantly greater in the study group. Conclusion : SPSMO followed by maxillary expansion and orthodontic treatment is an appropriate treatment option to correct a severe transversally collapsed maxilla in patients with CLP. The overall treatment effect of SPSMO expansion is comparable with the effects of SARPE, although canine expansion was greater in the SPSMO group. PMID:25368909

Carpentier, S; van Gastel, J; Schoenaers, J; Carels, C; Vander Poorten, V; Coucke, W; Verdonck, A

2014-11-01

9

Prevention of lingual inclination of the transport segment in vertical distraction osteogenesis in the mandible.  

PubMed

Vertical distraction osteogenesis can extend not only to hard tissues but also to soft tissues. There is a tendency to cause progressive lingual inclination of the distracted segment. This study describes a method for preventing the lingual inclination of the transport segment in patients with vertical distraction osteogenesis in the anterior region of the mandible and reports the results of long-term follow-up. The subjects included 5 patients who had severely atrophic ridges in the anterior mandible. In all cases, a part of the mental protuberance was scraped out, and the distractor was placed suitably in a labioinclination beforehand. Therefore, the transport segments did not lean to the lingual side and had long-term stability. PMID:22971980

Shibuya, Yasuyuki; Yasuyuki, Shibuya; Takata, Naoki; Ishida, Suguru; Takeuchi, Junichiro; Kobayashi, Masaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Komori, Takahide

2012-10-01

10

Stability after maxillary segmentation for correction of anterior open bite: a cohort study of 33 cases.  

PubMed

The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the stability after multi-segmentation of the maxilla for correction of anterior open bite deformities. A total of 33 patients who underwent segmented maxillary osteotomy between 1994 and 2006 were included in the study. Rigid fixation with plates and postsurgical intermaxillary fixation for 6 weeks was applied to each patient. All patients were then followed in a standardized examination procedure at months 6, 12, 18 and up to 30 months postoperatively. Vertical and horizontal relation of the incisors was measured both clinically and on cast models. The main finding was that statistically significant relapse was found vertically, whereas the horizontal relationship to the mandible was unchanged. The vertical relapses were predominantly seen in patients with severe open bite evident preoperatively. PMID:23321050

Silva, Ingrid; Suska, Felicia; Cardemil, Carina; Rasmusson, Lars

2013-10-01

11

Anterior maxillary osteotomy: A technical note for superior repositioning: A bird wing segment  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a single piece bird wing osteotectomy segment during anterior maxillary osteotomy (AMO) markedly reduces the duration of the surgery by nearly one-half of the time during bone removal with the conventional method thereby reducing the kinking effect to the palatal pedicle and gives good perfusion to the anterior segment. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental Sciences composing of 20 patients in which male: female ratio was 8:12, with a mean age of 25-30 years. This bird wing segment technique is performed following presurgical orthodontics under the guidance of clinical assessment of the gummy smile with an incisal show when the lip is at repose (vertical maxillary excess), especially for the calculated amount of superior repositioning. It is calculated by subtracting 2 mm from the total amount of an incisor show when the lip is at repose. The normal incisal show when the lip is at repose is 2 mm. After conventional primary AMO cut was performed, the precise calculated. Results: All our cases were tested positive for pulp vitality, no relapse, and minimal edema and with no changes in the bite or dentoalveolar relation followed until 1 year postoperatively indicating a good perfusion to the anterior segment and all the patients were satisfied esthetically and free of complaints. Conclusion: This simple technique allows the precise amount of calculated bone removal in a single piece from the nasal floor markedly reduces the duration of the surgery by nearly one-half of the time during bone removal with the conventional method there by reducing the kinking effect to the palatal pedicle and maintains good perfusion.

Kannan, V. Sadesh; Narayanan, G. R. Sathya; Ahamed, A. Saneem; Velaven, K.; Elavarasi, E.; Danavel, C.

2014-01-01

12

Adult patient with hemifacial microsomia treated with combined orthodontics and distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis is an alternative treatment option for patients with facial asymmetry and mandibular hypoplasia. New bone is formed between bone segment surfaces that are gradually separated by incremental traction. The purpose of this article is to report the treatment of a 22-year-old man with hemifacial microsomia, facial asymmetry, and a skeletal Class II profile. The patient's left mandibular ramus was lengthened with distraction osteogenesis, and miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion was used to correct the maxillary transverse deficiency. Postoperative orthodontic treatment achieved tooth alignment and closure of the posterior open bite. The total treatment period was 27 months. These therapeutic treatments improved the patient's facial appearance. PMID:24373657

Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Da-Young; Hwang, Chung-Ju

2014-01-01

13

Stability of the Anterior Maxillary Segment and Teeth after Segmental Le Fort I Osteotomy and Postoperative Skeletal Elastic Fixation With or Without Occlusal Splint  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives To assess the short term dental and skeletal stability of the anterior maxillary segment after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy with postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint. Material and Methods 29 consecutive patients underwent segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and elastic skeletal fixation was applied. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether a fixed occlusal splint was used for six weeks (group A) or dismounted perioperatively (group B). Changes in landmarks and reference planes between the two timepoints were estimated on lateral cephalometric radiographs. Results Group A: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.56 mm (SD 0.77; range -2.04 to 1.08 mm) and a mean posterior movement of -0.93 mm (SD 1.03; range -2.52 to 0.96 mm). The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.33° (SD 2.56; range -6° to 4°) (95% CI: -1.75 to 1.08°). Group B: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.13 mm (SD 1.36; range -1.92 to 3.6 mm) and a mean anterior movement of 0.11 mm (SD 1.78; range -2.88 to 3.84 mm). The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.07° (SD 3.05; range -5° to 5°) (95% CI: -1.83 to 1.69°). There was no statistically significant difference in stability between the two groups at the P value 0.05. Conclusions The skeletal anterior fixation with postoperative elastics for eight weeks may not compromise the early postoperative dental and skeletal stability of the anterior segment in segmental Le Fort I osteotomy. PMID:25386231

Jensen, Thomas; Due, Karen Margrethe; Neumann-Jensen, Bjarne

2014-01-01

14

Comprehensive treatment and rehabilitation of a patient with maxillary arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the maxilla are rare and potentially life-threatening conditions that can pose a therapeutic dilemma. We reported the first case of maxillary AVM in a 15-year-old girl who was treated by marginal hemimaxillectomy including overlying palatal mucosa and immediate replantation of the segment after removing the AVM tissues and teeth and covering by a full-thickness pedicled temporal muscle flap rotated into the mouth. Then, this preserved bone underwent distraction osteogenesis and dental implant rehabilitation successfully. This method was previously used for the definitive treatment of mandibular AVMs, and in this case, we applied this method for the first time in maxillary AVMs. In conclusion, this surgical method may be considered as a safe, convenient, and effective treatment and reconstructive modality for such vascular malformations in the maxilla and restores function and symmetry of the jaws while obviating the need for bone harvesting and future major reconstructive operations. PMID:25148624

Behnia, Hossein; Jafarian, Mohammad; Dehghani, Nima; Dehghani, Siavash; Seyedan, Kaveh

2014-09-01

15

Deadly distractions.  

PubMed

In 2011, the National Transportation Safety Board urged all states to ban the use of portable electronic devices while driving, including hand-held and hands-free devices. Texting while driving concerns several Texas legislators, who have filed bills, backed by the Texas Medical Association, to ban the practice. TMA physicians recognize that the use of hand-held and hands-free devices and other factors associated with distracted driving affect their patients' safety. PMID:23546834

Zuzek, Crystal

2013-04-01

16

Distracted Driving 2012  

MedlinePLUS

... As defined in the Overview of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Driver Distraction Program (Report No. ... Distraction during Crashes In keeping with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s distraction plan ( Overview of the ...

17

Distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

James Sidman, MD, and Sherard A. Tatum, MD, address the following questions for discussion and debate. Is neonatal distraction osteogenesis (DO) better than lip-tongue adhesion or tracheotomy for micrognathic airway compromise? What role does DO have in adult orthognathic surgery situations? In monobloc and Le Fort III procedures, are internal or external devices preferable? What role does DO play in craniofacial microsomia? Is endoscopic DO better than open procedures for synostosis management? How has your technique changed or evolved over the past 5 years and what has doing this technique taught you? PMID:24290998

Sidman, James; Tatum, Sherard Austin

2014-02-01

18

The epidemic of distraction.  

PubMed

Multitasking is a rapidly growing phenomenon affecting all segments of the population but is rarely as successful as its proponents believe. The use of mobile electronic devices contributes importantly to multitasking and cognitive overload. Although personal electronic devices provide many benefits, their adverse effects are frequently overlooked. Personal observation and a review of the scientific literature supports the view that overuse or misuse of personal electronic devices promotes cognitive overload, impairs multitasking and lowers performance at all ages but particularly in the elderly. This phenomenon appears to be rapidly increasing and threatens to become a tsunami as spreading electronic waves cause an 'epidemic of distraction'. Mobile electronic devices often bring benefits to their users in terms of rapid access to information. However, there is a dark side to the increasing addiction to these devices that challenges the health and well-being of the entire population, targeting, in particular, the aged and infirm. New approaches to information gathering can foster creativity if cognitive overload is avoided. PMID:22572729

Weksler, Marc E; Weksler, Babette B

2012-01-01

19

Posterior cranial vault distraction with resorbable distraction devices.  

PubMed

Posterior cranial vault distraction is recognized as a viable initial approach to patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. It offers advantages to initial anterior vault surgery and to traditional 1-stage advancements. Reports of posterior vault distraction have thus far focused on the use of standard titanium distractors. We present a case of posterior vault distraction with resorbable distraction devices, obviating the need for a second surgery and anesthetic for distractor removal. Distraction was performed successfully without complications or device-related issues. PMID:25006906

Maurice, Samuel M; Gachiani, John M

2014-07-01

20

Supervising Children During Parental Distractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the effects of parenting distractions on supervising behaviors in relation to child risky behaviors. Methods Forty preschool-aged children and their parents were randomly assigned to occupy a simulated home living room for 45min with the parent involved in either (a) no planned distraction, (b) a telephone call distraction, (c) a TV show distraction, or (d) a computer

Richard E. Boles; Michael C. Roberts

2008-01-01

21

Learning to Ignore Distracters  

E-print Network

Eye tracking has indicated that older and young adults process distracters similarly when reading single sentences. The present study extended this approach by presenting short paragraphs, sentence by sentence. Eye tracking ...

Rozek, Ellen Kathryn; Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan

2012-03-01

22

What Is Distracted Driving?  

MedlinePLUS

... These types of distractions include: Texting Using a cell phone or smartphone Eating and drinking Talking to passengers ... across America, approximately 660,000 drivers are using cell phones or manipulating electronic devices while driving, a number ...

23

Electronic gaming as pain distraction.  

PubMed

The current study investigated whether active distraction reduces participants' experience of pain more than passive distraction during a cold pressor task. In the first experiment, 60 participants were asked to submerge their hand in cold (2°C) water for as long as they could tolerate. They did this with no distraction, and then with active (electronic gaming system) and passive (television) distraction, in randomly assigned order. Tolerance time, pain intensity ratings and task absorption ratings were measured for each condition. A second experiment attempted to control for participants' expectations about the effects of distraction on pain. Forty participants underwent the same experimental procedure, but were given verbal suggestions about the effects of distraction by the experimenter before each distraction condition. Participants in both experiments had a significantly higher pain tolerance and reported less pain with the active distraction compared with passive or no distraction. Participants reported being more absorbed, and were significantly more willing to do the task again when they had the active distraction compared with both passive distraction and no distraction. They also had more enjoyment, less anxiety and greater reduction in pain with active distraction than with passive distraction. There was no effect of suggestion. These experiments offer further support for the use of electronic games as a method of pain control. PMID:21369538

Jameson, Eleanor; Trevena, Judy; Swain, Nic

2011-01-01

24

Maxillary Air Cyst  

PubMed Central

Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options. PMID:24421932

Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

2013-01-01

25

Segments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a market taxonomy for higher education, including what it reveals about the structure of the market, the model's technical attributes, and its capacity to explain pricing behavior. Details the identification of the principle seams separating one market segment from another and how student aspirations help to organize the market, making…

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

2001-01-01

26

What causes auditory distraction?  

PubMed

The role of separating task-relevant from task-irrelevant aspects of the environment is typically assigned to the executive functioning of working memory. However, pervasive aspects of auditory distraction have been shown to be unrelated to working memory capacity in a range of studies of individual differences. We measured individual differences in global pattern matching and deliberate recoding of auditory sequences, and showed that, although deliberate processing was related to short-term memory performance, it did not predict the extent to which that performance was disrupted by task-irrelevant sound. Individual differences in global sequence processing were, however, positively related to the degree to which auditory distraction occurred. We argue that much auditory distraction, rather than being a negative function of working memory capacity, is in fact a positive function of the acuity of obligatory auditory processing. PMID:19145024

Macken, William J; Phelps, Fiona G; Jones, Dylan M

2009-02-01

27

Controlled multiplanar distraction of the mandible, Part II: Laboratory studies of sagittal (anteroposterior) and vertical (superoinferior) movements.  

PubMed

The application of distraction osteogenesis in craniofacial surgery has significantly altered the treatment of congenital mandibular deficiencies. However, evaluation of results in both animal studies and clinical cases has revealed deficiencies, particularly in two areas. First, distraction using a uniplanar device in an anteroposterior direction can result in a persistent anterior open bite. Second, the lateralization of the distracted hemimandible was often limited, with insufficient incremental gain in the bigonial distance. To overcome these shortcomings, a multiplanar distraction device was developed and tested in the canine model. This report details canine studies addressing the first problem: combined anteroposterior or sagittal (z-axis) and superoinferior or vertical (y-axis) movements. Six dogs underwent bilateral mandibular distraction with an external (extraoral), multiplanar device and completed sagittal plus vertical distraction. Evaluation included clinical examination (facial form, jaw position, and occlusion), photography, cephalograms (posteroanterior, basilar, and lateral), three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions, and examination of dry skulls. The dogs averaged 18.5 mm (range, 15-20 mm) of sagittal distraction and 41.0 degrees (range, 21-50 degrees) of vertical distraction. Marked anterior open bites were produced after vertical distraction secondary to premature contact of the maxillary and mandibular molars. Distraction in the vertical direction also had the additive effect of increasing the sagittal gains by approximately 5% to 10%. In conclusion, a multiplanar distraction device (with the potential for distraction in three planes) was effective in increasing mandibular anteroposterior thrust (sagittal distraction) and also in creating an anterior open bite (vertical or superoinferior distraction). Vertical distraction probably requires bilateral osteotomies to obtain optimal results. The preliminary gains in sagittal length are modified (reduced or increased) after distraction in a second plane (vertical and horizontal). Specifically, vertical distraction in the inferior direction (creating an open bite) also leads to isolated increases in the anteroposterior plane. Conversely, vertical distraction in the superior direction (closing an open bite), as seen in a human malocclusion, may lead to isolated decreases in the anteroposterior plane, but this question remains to be investigated in the laboratory. PMID:10029762

Williams, J K; Rowe, N M; Mackool, R J; Levine, J P; Hollier, L H; Longaker, M T; Cutting, C B; Grayson, B H; McCarthy, J G

1998-11-01

28

Distraction Dodger Lessons for High School Students  

E-print Network

distractions and their relative impact on driving ability, including kinesthetic, visual and consequences) associated with distracted driving. #12; Intelligent Transportation Systems Distraction Dodger Lessons for High School Students Intelligent Transportation

Minnesota, University of

29

Neural Basis of Visual Distraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to maintain focus and avoid distraction by goal-irrelevant stimuli is critical for performing many tasks and may be a key deficit in attention-related problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that irrelevant stimuli that are consciously perceived may be filtered out on a neural level and not cause the distraction triggered by…

Kim, So-Yeon; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

2010-01-01

30

"Cat's cradle" midfacial fixation in distraction osteogenesis after Le Fort III osteotomy.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis has provided a powerful technique for the treatment of severe midfacial hypoplasia. Skeletal fixation is a critical component of successful distraction osteogenesis. This is a report on the development of a new approach to bone fixation for distraction osteogenesis of the midface, based on circumferential suspension of the entire midfacial skeleton using surgical wires placed through the soft palate. This technique offers the advantages of (1) complete control of the attitude of the midface in terms of a precise dispersion of forces that can determine the desired pitch, yaw, and roll of this skeletal complex during the active phase of distraction, (2) being compatible with young children in the deciduous dentition stage because it obviates the need for rigid fixation devices on the maxillary lateral walls in the proximity of numerous dental follicles of the unerupted adult dentition, (3) actually serving as the instrument for posterior maxillary "lift" in cases of skeletal open bite malocclusions (frequently seen in the craniosynostoses), thereby allowing the clinician to determine the final occlusal and palatal planes and simultaneously close the open bite. An illustrative case of a 5(1/2)-year-old girl with Apert syndrome is presented wherein her ventilatory obstruction and ocular proptosis were significantly improved. PMID:15547380

Havlik, Robert J; Seelinger, Michael J; Fashemo, Deji V; Hathaway, Ronald

2004-11-01

31

Orthodontic treatment in combination with Le Fort II bone distraction in patient with Apert syndrome.  

PubMed

We report a case of an 11-year-old girl presenting with Apert syndrome characterized by midface concavity, protrusion of the eyeballs, and ocular hypertelorism. She had class III anterior crossbite, narrow upper and lower arches, and marked crowding. Based on cephalometric analysis, anterior crossbite associated with marked midfacial hypoplasia was diagnosed. Orthodontic treatment in combination with Le Fort II maxillary distraction was scheduled. The dentition was laterally extended using a Rapid palatal expander in the upper jaw and a Bihelix in the lower jaw. Multi-bracket appliances were simultaneously applied for leveling. Next, Le Fort II maxillary osteotomy was performed to distract the midface bone 16 mm anteroinferiorly using a rigid external distraction system. Orthodontic treatment was completed at 3.8 years after initiation. Bone distraction moved the upper jaw anteriorly downward, and the lower jaw subsequently rotated posteriorly downward, leading to a marked improvement in facial appearance and occlusion. Elongation of the dorsum of the nose, in particular, allowed esthetic improvement of the saddle nose. These improvements remain stable at 2 years after orthodontic treatment. PMID:23614948

Miyazaki, Haruyo; Katada, Hidenori; Ichinokawa, Yoshimi; Hirabayashi, Shinichi; Sueishi, Kenji

2013-01-01

32

Get the message: distracted driving and teens.  

PubMed

Distracted driving is a growing problem in the United States. With the integration of wireless devices into everyday life, cell phone use behind the wheel is a distraction requiring increasing concern. Teen drivers are most susceptible to the dangers of distracted driving as made evident in the overrepresentation of teens in distraction-related motor vehicle crashes. This article describes the causes, consequences, and statistics related to distracted driving in teenagers and an injury prevention program for teenagers. PMID:24005117

Adeola, Ruth; Gibbons, Mallory

2013-01-01

33

Distraction techniques for venepuncture: a review.  

PubMed

Venepuncture is one of the most feared hospital procedures for children and inadequate pain management has the potential to affect future care. Distraction has been shown to help to reduce procedural distress in children. A thematic analysis of relevant literature on distraction techniques revealed that passive distraction is more effective than active distraction during venepuncture and that the effectiveness of a particular technique depends on the attention capacity of the child and their engagement in the distraction activity. PMID:19397122

Murphy, Gemma

2009-04-01

34

Context effects on auditory distraction  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.

2014-01-01

35

Distracted driving: a neglected epidemic.  

PubMed

In 2009, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimated nearly 6,000 distracted driver fatalities and 515,000 injuries in the United States alone. Distracted driving is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed. Software is available to disable cell phone usage while driving, but using the advanced technology may require legislation along with a renewed sense of driver responsibility. PMID:23061239

Dildy, Dale W

2012-10-01

36

Mandibular midline distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

In orthodontics, bone structure, its density and dimensions play an essential role by explaining limitations in magnitude, size and extent of tooth movement. Severe anterior crowding is one of the most frequently encountered dental malocclusions. Its therapy is mostly limited by lack of basal and alveolar bone and it often involves tooth extractions. Mandibular midline distraction osteogenesis is a method of natural bone generation and also a treatment option to achieve space regaining in a much-reduced lower jaw with distinctive frontal place deficit and severe anterior crowding, without sacrificing permanent teeth. McCarthy and Guerrero were of the first researchers reporting on this method applied on human lower jaws and they increased clinical interest in this approach. Although this method has been clinically used ever since, many questions concerning effects on bone regeneration speed, bone quality, tooth movement into regenerated area, periodontal health and long-time stability of treatment outcomes have not been sufficiently investigated. This overview should present the current clinical and biological state of knowledge about bone gain and tooth movement through regenerate bone. Furthermore it should encourage interest in further research on this topic. PMID:24390034

Botzenhart, Ute Ulrike; Végh, András; Jianu, Rodica; Gedrange, Tomasz

2013-12-01

37

75 FR 45696 - Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...initiative on distracted driving may be found at http://www.distractions.gov. Information...practice of distracted driving on our nation's...use of PEDs while driving, and while performing...PED) Related Distractions. Advisory:...

2010-08-03

38

Young and Older Adults’ Reading of Distracters  

E-print Network

Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age ...

Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju

2008-05-01

39

Pivot technique combined with mandibular backward distraction osteogenesis for the patient with high risk for relapse.  

PubMed

Severe skeletal relapse is one of the most difficult problems after mandibular advancement, and the management to overcome such problems tends to require more compromised methods and longer treatment period. We described that mandibular backward distraction osteogenesis with maxillomandibular fixation at an appropriate occlusion. Furthermore, to avoid inappropriate distraction vector, the distal plates of the distraction device were fixed with 1 screw to work as a pivot after the manipulation of the condyle to the glenoid fossa at the end of distraction activation. This technique was applied to 3 female patients with mandibular deficiency. The intraoral distractors were set on the lateral surface of the mandibular body; the fixation of the distal plate was fixed with 1 monocortical screw to make the proximal segment including the condyle manipulating at the end of the distraction phase by releasing the maxillomandibular fixation. The distraction rate was 1 mm/d, and the latency period was 7 days. The follow-up period after mandibular backward distraction osteogenesis ranged from 26 to 56 months. No specific complication, such as broken device, severe infection, or bony nonunion, occurred. Postoperative relapse was not observed during the follow-up period. This technique might become 1 choice to apply for mandibular deficiency in a patient with high risk for relapse. PMID:22565870

Yamauchi, Kensuke; Takahashi, Tetsu; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Lethaus, Bernd

2012-05-01

40

Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We

Claudia M. Campbell; Kenny Witmer; Mpepera Simango; Alene Carteret; Marco L. Loggia; James N. Campbell; Jennifer A. Haythornthwaite; Robert R. Edwards

2010-01-01

41

The influence of attitude and distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the influence of several common distractions on cumulative addition, paired-associates learning, arithmetical problem solving, and two recreational reading activities. The general effect of distractions was to make the conditions more difficult to work under and to lower efficiency. The subjects already had a set to work, and distractions caused them to exert greater effort. In

H. Cason

1938-01-01

42

DRIVER DISTRACTION: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately one quarter of vehicle crashes in the United States are estimated to result from the driver being inattentive, or distracted. As more wireless communication, entertainment and driver assistance systems proliferate the vehicle market, the incidence of distraction-related crashes is expected to escalate. In North America, Europe and Japan, driver distraction is a priority issue in road safety. However, the

Kristie Young; Michael Regan; Mike Hammer

43

An overview of driving distraction measure methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver inattention is the leading factor in most crashes and near-crashes. If the driver distraction could be measured as soon as possible, crashes should be decreased. Driver distraction research has assessed the effects of various different devices and activities on numerous driving performance measures. Some typical methods that have been used to measure driver distraction have been discussed in this

Qun Wu

2009-01-01

44

Reducing Driver Distraction through Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced Driver Assistance (ADA) systems currently operate within vehicles, offering drivers assistance to either avoid hazardous situations, or information to make travelling easier. However, these devices have the potential to contribute to driver distraction as they require a certain level of driver attention in order to provide a benefit, taking cognitive, visual, auditory, and manual resources away from the main

Chad Brooks; Andry Rakotonirainy; Frederic Maire

45

Controlled multiplanar distraction of the mandible. Part III: Laboratory studies of sagittal (anteroposterior) and horizontal (mediolateral) movements.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis has proven to be an effective technique for the correction of mandibular deficiencies. However, problems have been encountered in achieving a final, idealized form of the mandible when using distraction devices capable of moving the bone segments in only one dimension (uniplanar). Specifically, occlusal irregularities and deficiencies in lower facial contour have been seen following uniplanar distraction. To address these problems, a distraction device capable of independent movements in three planes (multiplanar) was developed. Previously reported studies in a canine model have demonstrated that this device can successfully distract the mandible along both the sagittal axis (anteroposterior or z-axis) and the vertical axis (superoinferior or y-axis). This study examines the ability of the multiplanar device to distract along the sagittal and horizontal axes (mediolateral or x-axis). A total of 12 dogs were included in the study. All animals underwent unilateral or bilateral mandibular distraction using an external multiplanar device. After a latency period of 5 days, primary distraction along the anteroposterior axis at a rate of 1 mm/day for 10 days (10 mm total) was performed. During the following 10 days, along with an additional 11 mm to 20 mm of anteroposterior axis distraction, concomitant secondary distraction was performed along the horizontal (mediolateral) axis at a rate of 5 degrees/day (50 degrees total). Cephalometric radiographs were obtained preoperatively and at the conclusion of both anteroposterior and combined anteroposterior-mediolateral distraction. Computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained preoperatively and at the end of consolidation (28 days), after which all animals were sacrificed and the dry skulls examined. In all animals, distraction along the mediolateral or x-axis was found to change the anteroposterior projection of the mandible. Varus angulation of the device with respect to the midline of the mandible caused compression of the distracted segments and reduced the anteroposterior thrust of the mandible. In contrast, valgus positioning of the device, with respect to the midline of the mandible, created the opposite effect, increasing the distracted length in the anteroposterior direction. The bone (mandibular) segments being distracted assumed the orientation of the device only for valgus positioning of the device (producing a decrease in the bigonial distance). Conversely, there was no effect from the mediolateral angulation on the distracted segments during varus positioning of the device. A possible explanation for this finding may be a greater resistance to an increase in the bigonial distance (varus positioning of the device) posed by obstruction of lateral movement of the condyle. This stands in contrast to a decrease in the bigonial distance observed following valgus positioning of the device. These findings confirm the clinical impression that distraction along the anteroposterior or sagittal axis remains the critical or keystone therapeutic maneuver in distraction of the mandible. Mediolateral or horizontal axis distraction is best used only as a supplementary movement; in essence, it only affects the anteroposterior dimension with little impact on clinically relevant changes to the bigonial distance. PMID:11314135

Hollier, L H; Rowe, N M; Mackool, R J; Williams, J K; Kim, J H; Longaker, M T; Grayson, B H; McCarthy, J G

2000-03-01

46

Mucopyocele of the maxillary sinus  

PubMed Central

Mucoceles are defined as chronic, cystic lesions in the paranasal sinuses. When the mucocele content becomes infected, the lesion is defined as mucopyocele. Most mucoceles are located in the frontal and anterior ethmoid sinuses and normally they involve the frontal-ethmoid complex, expanding to the superior-medial region of the orbit, leading to ocular disorders; maxillary sinus presentation is rare. In the present article, the authors described a rare case of mucopyocele in the maxillary sinus. PMID:24688571

Kshar, Avinash; Patil, Abhijeet; Umarji, Hemant; Kadam, Sonali

2014-01-01

47

Histomorphometrical and radiological comparison of low-level laser therapy effects on distraction osteogenesis: experimental study.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is the application of traction to the callus formed between bone segments and stimulation of bone formation by creating stress on the callus with this traction. Shorten the duration of DO and increasing the capacity of bone formation is important to prevent the possible complications of DO. For this reason, it was considered that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may affect positively DO and it can decrease the complication range by shortening the period. Unilateral mandibular distractors were applied on 16 female white New Zealand rabbit to prove this hypothesis with micro CT, plain radiograph and histomorphometric analyses. Eight rabbits were applied LLLT with GaAlAs laser on the distraction area during the distraction period. On the post-distraction 28th day, four rabbits from study group and four rabbits from control groups were sacrificed. The rest of the rabbits were sacrificed on post-distraction 56th day. As a result of this study, significant positive effects of LLLT on post-distraction 28th day were revealed with all analyses. In histomorphometrical analyses, new bone formation was significantly higher in short-term laser applied group comparing to that of short-term control group (p = 0.029). In both microCT and plain radiograph, the highest radioopacity values were observed in short-term laser group when compared with that of the controls (p = 0.043 and p = 0.025, respectively). Even though LLLT increased the healing capacity on short-term, it was not sufficient on long-term (post-distraction 56th day) healing. LLLT application on distraction period, activate healing on bone so it may decrease DO period. The result of this study should be supported with clinical studies and the most effective laser source, dose and application time should be revealed with experimental and clinical studies. PMID:23604845

Kan, Bahadir; Tasar, Ferda; Korkusuz, Petek; Ersoy, Orkun; Cetinkaya, Alper; Gur, Cagla Z; Celik, Hamdi; Meral, Gokce

2014-01-01

48

77 FR 15452 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...site on distracted driving, Distraction.gov, NHTSA's...evaluating the level of distraction associated with other non-driving-related tasks...rulemaking/pdf/Distraction_NPFG-02162012...problem of distracted driving in general is...

2012-03-15

49

77 FR 12907 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...site on distracted driving, Distraction.gov, NHTSA's...evaluating the level of distraction associated with other non-driving-related tasks...rulemaking/pdf/Distraction_NPFG-02162012...problem of distracted driving in general is...

2012-03-02

50

Distraction osteogenesis in the Cbfa-1 +\\/? mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distraction osteogenesis involves division of a bone and gradually pulling the bone ends apart. This delivers mechanical stimulation to mesenchymal cells in the distraction gap, where new bone is regenerated predominantly by intramembranous ossification. The transcription factor Cbfa1 has been reported to be essential for the differentiation of mesenchymal cells to osteoblasts. In homozygous Cbfa1 knockout mice, both intramembranous and

S. Isefuku; C. J. Joyner; A. A. C. Reed; A. H. R. W. Simpson

2004-01-01

51

Distractions in the School Science Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I…

Hamza, Karim M.

2013-01-01

52

A novel method to monitor driver's distractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many attempts were made in the past to monitor a driver's visual and cognitive distractions. Yet, most of the techniques did not become a practical application due to their contact-based nature of monitoring. In this paper, we describe research that aims to monitor the driver's distractions from a distance. The proposed method is based on the thermal signature of the

Avinash Wesley; Dvijesh Shastri; Ioannis Pavlidis

2010-01-01

53

The Neural Bases of Distraction and Reappraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive control, and limbic regions, interpreted as mediating emotional responses. However, no study has directly compared distraction

McRae, Kateri; Hughes, Brent; Chopra, Sita; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Gross, James J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

2010-01-01

54

Factors influencing subjective ranking of driver distractions.  

PubMed

Driver distraction is recognised as a significant cause of road traffic incidents. However, the more objective measurement and ranking of the relative importance of individual distractions in contributing to incidents tend to differ from subjectively-held rankings. To investigate this, the present study examines qualitative characteristics of 14 driver distractions to determine if these characteristics might explain the discrepancy. The conclusion is that for laypersons, qualitative characteristics, such as equity and familiarity, do contribute to their ranking of driver distractions. This poses some interesting issues for risk managers. For example, should safety interventions aimed at driver distractions be based purely on factual data and life-saving potential, or should they accommodate qualitative factors of salience to the public? PMID:18215573

Patel, Jayesh; Ball, David J; Jones, Huw

2008-01-01

55

Evaluation of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Regeneration by Bifocal Distraction Osteogenesis with Retrograde Transportation of Horseradish Peroxidase in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Bifocal distraction osteogenesis has been shown to be a reliable method for reconstructing segmental mandibular defects. However, there are few reports regarding the occurrence of inferior alveolar nerve regeneration during the process of distraction. Previously, we reported inferior alveolar nerve regeneration after distraction, and evaluated the regenerated nerve using histological and electrophysiological methods. In the present study, we investigated axons regenerated by bifocal distraction osteogenesis using retrograde transportation of horseradish peroxidase in the mandibles of dogs to determine their type and function. Methods and Findings Using a bifocal distraction osteogenesis method, we produced a 10-mm mandibular defect, including a nerve defect, in 11 dogs and distracted using a transport disk at a rate of 1 mm/day. The regenerated inferior alveolar nerve was evaluated by retrograde transportation of HRP in all dogs at 3 and 6 months after the first operation. At 3 and 6 months, HRP-labeled neurons were observed in the trigeminal ganglion. The number of HRP-labeled neurons in each section increased, while the cell body diameter of HRP-labeled neurons was reduced over time. Conclusions We found that the inferior alveolar nerve after bifocal distraction osteogenesis successfully recovered until peripheral tissue began to function. Although our research is still at the stage of animal experiments, it is considered that it will be possible to apply this method in the future to humans who have the mandibular defects. PMID:24732938

Isomura, Emiko Tanaka

2014-01-01

56

Toy-mediated distraction: Clarifying the role of distraction agent and preneedle distress in toddlers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Distraction has recently gained attention as a technique that may help reduce acute pain in infants and toddlers; however, results remain equivocal. It appears that these mixed results stem from a variety of methodological differences with regard to how distraction is implemented. OBJECTIVES: To offer more definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy and mechanisms of distraction for pain management during infancy. Specifically, the goal was to examine whether the agent of distraction (ie, the specific person conducting the distraction) and preneedle distress behaviours impact the efficacy of distraction when toddlers were held by parents. METHODS: A total of 99 toddlers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (typical care, research assistant-directed distraction or parent-directed distraction). Toddler distress behaviours were assessed pre- and postneedle. Toddlers were further grouped according to distress behaviours preneedle (low/no distress versus high distress). Parental soothing behaviours were also assessed as a manipulation check. RESULTS: Toddler postneedle pain did not significantly differ among groups. However, toddlers who were distressed preneedle displayed significantly more pain postneedle, regardless of the treatment group. There were no significant interactions between treatment group and preneedle distress behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, when being held by a parent, distraction using a toy does not result in lower pain scores in the context of immunization, regardless of who offers the distraction. Furthermore, these findings raise the notion that if clinicians ensured toddlers were regulated before attempting an immunization, postneedle pain may be significantly reduced. PMID:23936893

Hillgrove-Stuart, Jessica; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Horton, Rachel; Greenberg, Saul

2013-01-01

57

Distractions in the School Science Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I examined in close detail the conversations of three groups of high school students trying to explain how a real galvanic cell works. The three groups experienced the same two distractions, (1) a nonworking light-emitting diode and (2) negative readings on a voltmeter. The analysis reveals how one of the groups, through a series of contingencies, successively made the two distractions continuous with the main purpose of the activity. In the remaining two groups, no such continuity was established. The results show that (a) experiences initially being distracting, perplexing, and confusing may indeed acquire significance for the students' possibilities of coping with the main purpose of the activity but that (b) the outcome is highly contingent on the particular experiences drawn upon by the students to cope with the distractions. Consequently, I discuss ways in which teachers may turn distractions encountered in laboratory activities into educative experiences for more than a few lucky students.

Hamza, Karim M.

2013-08-01

58

Distraction as a determinant of processing speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing speed is often described as a fundamental resource determining individual (e.g., I.Q.) and group (e.g., developmental)\\u000a differences in cognition. However, most tests that measure speed present many items on a single page. Because many groups\\u000a with slowed responding are also distractible, we compared younger and older adults on high-distraction (i.e., standard) versus\\u000a low-distraction versions of two classic speed tasks.

Cindy Lustig; Lynn Hasher; Simon T. Tonev

2006-01-01

59

Distraction ‘on the buses’: A novel framework of ergonomics methods for identifying sources and effects of bus driver distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver distraction represents a significant problem in the public transport sector. Various methods exist for investigating distraction; however, the majority are difficult to apply within the context of naturalistic bus driving. This article investigates the nature of bus driver distraction at a major Australian public transport company, including the sources of distraction present, and their effects on driver performance, through

Paul M. Salmon; Kristie L. Young; Michael A. Regan

2011-01-01

60

The effects of distraction on metacognition and metacognition on distraction: evidence from recognition memory  

PubMed Central

The effects of auditory distraction in memory tasks have, to date, been examined with procedures that minimize participants’ control over their own memory processes. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to metacognitive control factors which might affect memory performance. In this study, we investigate the effects of auditory distraction on metacognitive control of memory, examining the effects of auditory distraction in recognition tasks utilizing the metacognitive framework of Koriat and Goldsmith (1996), to determine whether strategic regulation of memory accuracy is impacted by auditory distraction. Results replicated previous findings in showing that auditory distraction impairs memory performance in tasks minimizing participants’ metacognitive control (forced-report test). However, the results revealed also that when metacognitive control is allowed (free-report tests), auditory distraction impacts upon a range of metacognitive indices. In the present study, auditory distraction undermined accuracy of metacognitive monitoring (resolution), reduced confidence in responses provided and, correspondingly, increased participants’ propensity to withhold responses in free-report recognition. Crucially, changes in metacognitive processes were related to impairment in free-report recognition performance, as the use of the “don’t know” option under distraction led to a reduction in the number of correct responses volunteered in free-report tests. Overall, the present results show how auditory distraction exerts its influence on memory performance via both memory and metamemory processes. PMID:24860543

Beaman, C. Philip; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Jones, Dylan M.

2014-01-01

61

The Neural Bases of Distraction and Reappraisal  

E-print Network

Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive ...

McRae, Kateri

62

Intraoperative distraction in the upper extremity.  

PubMed

Intraoperative distraction aids in the restoration of length, facilitates reduction, assists in maintaining rotational alignment, and provides a temporary stable platform for definitive fixation of acute fractures, malunions, and nonunions. This technique has been described at length in the lower extremity; however, there is a paucity of literature regarding its use in the upper extremity. Distraction is the application of tension across a fracture site. Proximal and distal fixation may be achieved in several ways, with common instrumentation including the use of an external fixator set. Intraoperative distraction may be invaluable in the treatment of displaced fractures of the upper extremity. The objective of this paper was to detail the technique of intraoperative distraction in the surgical treatment of fractures of the clavicle, humerus, radius, and ulna. PMID:19516131

Boykin, Robert E; Baskies, Michael A; Harrod, Christopher C; Jupiter, Jesse B

2009-06-01

63

Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens  

PubMed Central

Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

2014-01-01

64

Temperament, Distraction, and Learning in Toddlerhood  

PubMed Central

The word and non-word learning abilities of toddlers were tested under various conditions of environmental distraction, and evaluated with respect to children’s temperamental attentional focus. Thirty-nine children and their mothers visited the lab at child age 21-months, where children were exposed to fast-mapping word learning trials and nonlinguistic sequential learning trials. It was found that both word and nonword-learning was adversely affected by the presentation of environmental distractions. But it was also found that the effect of the distractions sometimes depended on children’s level of attentional focus. Specifically, children high in attentional focus were less affected by environmental distractions than children low in attentional focus when attempting to learn from a model, whereas children low in attentional focus demonstrated little learning from the model. Translationally, these results may be of use to child health-care providers investigating possible sources of cognitive and language delay. PMID:17138290

Dixon, Wallace E.; Salley, Brenda J.; Clements, Andrea D.

2006-01-01

65

The Biobasis for Distraction and Dyslexia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines the neurological basis for hyperactivity/distraction and dyslexia. Overlapping symptoms are listed, nutritional and organic basis for hyperkinesis considered, and visual and motoric factors in dyslexia discussed. (CL)

Buckley, Robert E.

1981-01-01

66

Mobile telephones, distracted attention, and pedestrian safety.  

PubMed

Driver distraction is a major cause of traffic accidents, with mobile telephones as a key source of distraction. In two studies, we examined distraction of pedestrians associated with mobile phone use. The first had 60 participants walk along a prescribed route, with half of them conversing on a mobile phone, and the other half holding the phone awaiting a potential call, which never came. Comparison of the performance of the groups in recalling objects planted along the route revealed that pedestrians conversing recalled fewer objects than did those not conversing. The second study had three observers record pedestrian behavior of mobile phone users, i-pod users, and pedestrians with neither one at three crosswalks. Mobile phone users crossed unsafely into oncoming traffic significantly more than did either of the other groups. For pedestrians as with drivers, cognitive distraction from mobile phone use reduces situation awareness, increases unsafe behavior, putting pedestrians at greater risk for accidents, and crime victimization. PMID:18215534

Nasar, Jack; Hecht, Peter; Wener, Richard

2008-01-01

67

The sensilla on the labial and maxillary palps of the nymph of Baetis rhodani (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nymph of Baetis rhodani shows an orthognathous head in which only the tips of the maxillary and labial palps contact the substrate. In these areas many setae are located. These setae have been investigated under scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) in order to disclose their sensory function. The labial palps consist of three segments. The most represented

ELDA GAINO; MANUELA REBORA

68

Effect of chemotherapeutic agents on distraction osteogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limb-salvage operations such as vascularised or non-vascularised osseous grafts and allograft and callus distraction methods\\u000a have replaced amputations because of the increase in the life expectancy of patients with malignant tumours. In this study\\u000a we aimed to evaluate the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on distraction osteogenesis. For this purpose, 23 rabbits randomly\\u000a divided into two groups were included in the

Mehmet Subasi; Ahmet Kapukaya; Cumhur Kesemenli; Tansel Ansal Balci; Huseyin Buyukbayram; Mustafa Ozates

2001-01-01

69

Boredom and Distraction in Multiple Unmanned Boredom and Distraction in Multiple Unmanned Vehicle Supervisory Control  

E-print Network

Boredom and Distraction in Multiple Unmanned 1 Boredom and Distraction in Multiple Unmanned Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA Operators currently controlling Unmanned Aerial Vehicles report operator input every 10, 20, or 30 minutes were tested in a four-hour study using a multiple unmanned

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

70

75 FR 45697 - Safety Advisory Notice: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...initiative on distracted driving may be found at http://www.distractions.gov. Information...operation of PEDs while driving any motor vehicle. See DOT Distracted Driving Web site, http://www.distractions.gov; see also...

2010-08-03

71

Fibrosarcoma of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Fibrosarcoma arising in the sinonasal cavities are very rare. By the time of clinical diagnosis, they are usually advanced. Lack of adequate surgical margins predisposes these patients to tumor recurrences. Most common sites are the extremities, with only one percent of fibrosarcoma arising in the head and neck area. The imaging features of these tumors reflect their aggressive behavior. We report the case of a maxillary sinus fibrosarcoma in a 16 year-old male patient. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, medial maxillectomy, adjuvant chemotherapy and subsequent external irradiation was perfomed. PMID:23120255

Mansouri, Hamid; Rzin, Mohamed; Marjani, Mohamed; Sifat, Hassan; Hadadi, Khalid; Hassouni, Khalid; Jidal, Bouchaib; El Gueddari, Brahim

2006-01-01

72

Combining cognitive and visual distraction: Less than the sum of its parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver distraction has become a leading cause of motor-vehicle crashes. Although visual and cognitive distraction has been studied extensively, relatively little research has addressed their combined effects on drivers’ behavior. To fill this gap, a medium-fidelity simulator study examined the driver behavior before, during and after three types of distraction. Driving without distraction was compared to visual distraction, cognitive distraction,

Yulan Liang; John D. Lee

2010-01-01

73

Driver's exposure to distractions in their natural driving environment.  

PubMed

Unobtrusive video camera units were installed in the vehicles of 70 volunteer drivers over 1-week time periods to study drivers' exposure to distractions. The video data were coded based on a detailed taxonomy of driver distractions along with important contextual variables and driving performance measures. Results show distractions to be a common component of everyday driving. In terms of overall event durations, the most common distractions were eating and drinking (including preparations to eat or drink), distractions inside the vehicle (reaching or looking for an object, manipulating vehicle controls, etc.), and distractions outside the vehicle (often unidentified). Distractions were frequently associated with decreased driving performance, as measured by higher levels of no hands on the steering wheel, eyes directed inside rather than outside the vehicle, and lane wanderings or encroachments. Naturalistic driving studies can provide a useful supplement to more controlled laboratory and field studies to further our understanding of the effects of all types of distractions on driving safety. PMID:16011827

Stutts, Jane; Feaganes, John; Reinfurt, Donald; Rodgman, Eric; Hamlett, Charles; Gish, Kenneth; Staplin, Loren

2005-11-01

74

The influence of distracter and target features on distracter induced blindness  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effect of the processing of target-like distracters has already been shown to affect the conscious detection of simple motion and simple orientation stimuli in a random dot kinematogram. In two experiments we examined the effects of single-feature motion distracters, single-feature orientation distracters, and combined-feature distracters containing both motion and orientation information. The target was specified as a coherent motion episode (Experiment 1) or as a combined-feature episode where the coherent motion was accompanied by an abrupt change in line orientation (Experiment 2). Results showed that (a) the respective feature-specific inhibitory processes operate separately even when the distracter features are presented simultaneously and (b) both inhibitory processes contribute to the blindness effect when the conjunction of two features is defined as the target. Again, this inhibitory-process is feature-specific: Only features that are defined in the task are represented in the inhibitory task set. In case of combined- feature task-sets, these representations remain separate, so that combined-feature distracters as well as single-feature distracters are able to induce blindness effects. PMID:22419967

Michael, Lars; Kiefer, Markus; Niedeggen, Michael

2012-01-01

75

Model to assess duration of distraction compared with degree of incisal crowding in symphyseal distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate symphyseal distraction in relation to duration of expansion, and to propose an optimised procedure. Eighteen patients (mean (SD) age 19 (7) years) with transverse mandibular deficiency were treated by symphyseal distraction osteogenesis. The mean (SD) anterior dental crowding measured was 6.8 (4.2) mm. We retrospectively compared the width of expansion between the canines (ICE) and expansion between the first molars (IFME) after symphyseal distraction according to the distraction time. The median (range) duration of expansion was 13.6 (7-21) days. The median (range) ICE distraction width was 5.5 (3.4-8) mm and IFME width 3.3 (1-7.9) mm (p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between expansion width and distraction time (p<0.001). The transverse anterior and posterior expansion widths differed significantly until 14 days after expansion. The expansion ratio (ICE:IFME) decreased as expansion time increased. The results suggest that the duration of activated expansion can be predicted from the degree of incisal crowding using the formula: distraction time (days)=0.84+3.4×[IC (mm)]-0.2×[IC (mm)](2). PMID:23906850

Savoldelli, Charles; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Cizsek, Emmanuel; Lesne, Valentin; Manière-Ezvan, Armelle; Bettega, Georges

2013-12-01

76

Cognitive distraction and women's sexual functioning.  

PubMed

Past research on the role of cognitive distraction in sexual dysfunction typically has focused on males and has been conducted in the laboratory using artificial stimuli. In the current study, young adult women (N = 74) with coital experience completed questionnaires regarding cognitive distraction and their sexuality. Those women who reported greater cognitive distraction during sexual activity with a partner also reported relatively lower sexual esteem, less sexual satisfaction, less consistent orgasms, and higher incidence of pretending orgasm even after the women's general affect, sexual desire, general self-focus, general sexual attitudes, and body dissatisfaction were statistically controlled. Results are discussed with regard to directions for future research and implications for sex therapy. PMID:10693117

Dove, N L; Wiederman, M W

2000-01-01

77

Rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis: part III. Gradual distraction versus acute lengthening.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis is a well-established method of endogenous tissue engineering. This technique has significantly augmented our armamentarium of reconstructive craniofacial procedures. Although the histologic and ultrastructural changes associated with distraction osteogenesis have been extensively described, the molecular mechanisms governing successful membranous distraction remain unknown. Using an established rat model, the molecular differences between successful (i.e., osseous union with gradual distraction) and ineffective (i.e., fibrous union with acute lengthening) membranous bone lengthening was analyzed. Herein, the first insight into the molecular mechanisms of successful membranous bone distraction is provided. In addition, these data provide the foundation for future targeted therapeutic manipulations designed to improve osseous regeneration. Vertical mandibular osteotomies were created in 52 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the animals were fitted with customized distraction devices. Twenty-six animals underwent immediate acute lengthening (3 mm; a length previously shown to result in fibrous union) and 26 animals were gradually distracted (after a 3-day latency period, animals were distracted 0.25 mm twice daily for 6 days; total = 3 mm). Four mandibular regenerates were harvested from each group for RNA analysis on 5, 7, 9, 23, and 37 days postoperatively (n = 40). Two mandibular regenerates were also harvested from each group and prepared for immunohistochemistry on postoperative days 5, 7, and 37 (n = 12). In addition to the 52 experimental animals, 4 control rats underwent sham operations (skin incision only) and mandibular RNA was immediately collected. Control and experimental specimens were analyzed for collagen I, osteocalcin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA and protein expression. In this study, marked elevation of critical extracellular matrix molecules (osteocalcin and collagen I) during the consolidation phase of gradual distraction compared with acute lengthening is demonstrated. In addition, the expression of an inhibitor of extracellular matrix turnover, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, remained strikingly elevated in gradually distracted animals. Finally, this study demonstrated that neither gradual distraction nor acute lengthening appreciably alters vascular endothelial growth factor expression. These results suggest that gradual distraction osteogenesis promotes successful osseous bone repair by regulating the expression of bone-specific extracellular matrix molecules. In contrast, decreased production or increased turnover of bone scaffolding proteins (i.e., collagen) or regulators of mineralization (i.e., osteocalcin) may lead to fibrous union during acute lengthening. PMID:11214060

Warren, S M; Mehrara, B J; Steinbrech, D S; Paccione, M F; Greenwald, J A; Spector, J A; Longaker, M T

2001-02-01

78

Assessment of Distracted Driving At Highway-Rail Grade Crossings  

E-print Network

with distracted driving #12;Types of Secondary Tasks Talking to front seat passenger Eating/drinking Cell phone violations (25%) included distracted driving (cell phone use, smoking, reaching for in-vehicle object) Larger was talking to passenger followed by cell phone usage Cell phone usage is perhaps one of the few distractive

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

79

Driver's exposure to distractions in their natural driving environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unobtrusive video camera units were installed in the vehicles of 70 volunteer drivers over 1-week time periods to study drivers’ exposure to distractions. The video data were coded based on a detailed taxonomy of driver distractions along with important contextual variables and driving performance measures. Results show distractions to be a common component of everyday driving. In terms of overall

Jane Stutts; John Feaganes; Donald Reinfurt; Eric Rodgman; Charles Hamlett; Kenneth Gish; Loren Staplin

2005-01-01

80

Distraction as a source of drive in social facilitation research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distraction–conflict theory maintains that findings from social facilitation research result from the fact that the presence of others distracts Ss, thereby creating attentional conflict, which in turn produces drive effects. In support of this position, there already is a large amount of data indicating that presenting various forms of distraction during task settings produces drive effects. The present research demonstrated

Robert S. Baron; Danny Moore; Glenn S. Sanders

1978-01-01

81

Using distraction forces to drive an autodistractor during limb lengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distraction osteogenesis can result in high forces developing in the limb. To determine and control the distraction forces (DF), a motorized distractor driven by feedback from DF was developed and used to lengthen the tibiae of 6 sheep undergoing distraction osteogenesis. The forces were measured continually, and, in 4 of the sheep, a force threshold was set, above which an

Jinyong Wee; Tariq Rahman; Robert E. Akins; Rahamim Seliktar; David G. Levine; Dean W. Richardson; George R. Dodge; Ahmed M. Thabet; Laurens Holmes; William G. Mackenzie

2011-01-01

82

The animal experiment of a new optimised distraction implant.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate the function of a new optimised distraction implant. Six dogs with alveolar bone defects had a total of 18 distraction, and 6 normal, implants inserted into edentulous mandibular ridges after osteotomy. Five days after insertion the distraction implants were activated at a rate of 1 mm/2 days to achieve a distraction height of 6mm. Radiographs were taken at 0, 1, 2, and 3 months after distraction. Two dogs were killed after 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively, and 12 distraction implants taken from the different time points were evaluated by microcomputed tomographic (MicroCT) scanning and histological examination. The other 6 distraction, and the 6 normal, implants were compared after osseointegration with a fatigue test. The results showed that all the distraction implants had successfully distracted the bone to the anticipated height. Radiographs showed that the density of the regenerated bone increased steadily during the consolidation period. MicroCT showed that the regenerated bone was comparable with the native bone 3 months after distraction. Both native and regenerated bone had osseointegrated histologically by 1 month and 3 months after distraction. The experiment successfully confirmed the usefulness and feasibility of this new distraction implant, and suggests interesting clinical uses. PMID:23601834

Shao, Bo; Sun, Yingying; Gao, Yuan; Li, Tao; Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yongqiang; Ge, Xu; Liu, Baolin; Kong, Liang

2013-12-01

83

Accidental displacement of impacted maxillary third molar: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual case of an impacted right maxillary third molar that was accidentally displaced into the maxillary sinus during exodontia and was surgically retrieved almost 2 years later is described. The tooth was removed under general anesthesia, after maxillary sinus exposure through Caldwell-Luc approach. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Six months after the retrieval surgery, the maxillary sinus was completely healed

Cassio Edvard Sverzut; Alexandre Elias Trivellato; Luiz Marcel de Figueiredo; Emanuela Prado Ferraz; Alexander Tadeu Sverzut

2005-01-01

84

Being Nowhere: Distraction, Disintegration and Spatiality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concepts of distraction developed in nineteenth century research associate it with transformed urban landscapes in nineteenth century modern cultures. But from the 1930s to 50s Britain, it becomes associated with disorders of domestic spatiality, and a disregard of those design principles of order and hygiene, purpose and function, which were understood to define 'problem families'. Researchers drew on psychological models

Gillian Swanson

85

Percutaneous Distraction Osteogenesis for Treatment of Brachymetatarsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brachymetatarsia is not an unusual deformity and is often associated with functional and cosmetic issues that warrant surgical reconstruction. Lengthening of the affected metatarsal can be undertaken on an acute basis in a single operative procedure that involves the use of a bone graft or by means of gradual callus distraction. Because of the risk of metatarsophalangeal joint malalignment, it

Bradley M. Lamm

2010-01-01

86

Television and Schooling: Displacement and Distraction Hypotheses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on two hypotheses regarding television's possible negative effect on children's academic achievement is reviewed. A lack of support is found for the displacement hypothesis (time spent with television is taken away from more academically beneficial activities) and limited support for the distraction hypothesis (exposure to television…

Roberts, Donald F.; And Others

1993-01-01

87

Human tracking based on attention distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The face tracker system of a humanoid, ISAC (Intelligent Soft Arm Control), is integrated with two modalities for localizing humans in order to direct ISAC's attention and to prevent ISAC from being quickly distracted. The sound source localization and passive infrared (PIR) motion detection systems are used to provide the face tracker system with candidate regions for finding a face.

A. Sekmen; A. Alford; T. Rogers; M. Wilkes

2000-01-01

88

THE EFFECTS OF TELEMATICS ON DRIVER DISTRACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used both cellular phones and analogue radio to measure driver distraction and workload in a low fidelity driving simulator. Thirty-four participants performed a simulated driving task while using either a cell phone or a radio in conjunction with a secondary task assessing their spare attentional capacity. The results showed that more lane deviations were made during the cell

Patrick Siebert; Mustapha Mouloua; Kendra Burns; Jennifer Marino

2002-01-01

89

Driver distraction from a control theory perspective.  

PubMed

Distraction from cell phones, navigation systems, information/entertainment systems, and other driver-interactive devices now finding their way into the highway vehicles is a serious national safety concern. However, driver distraction is neither well defined nor well understood. In an effort to bring some better definition to the problem, a framework is proposed based on the ideas of control theory. Loci and causes of distraction are represented as disturbances to various functional elements of a control loop involving driver intending (goal setting), sensing, deciding on control response, dynamics of the vehicle, and human body activation and energetics. It is argued that activation should be classed separately from the other functions. Attention switching from environmental observation/control to internal device manipulation is modeled as sampled-data control. Also fit within the control framework are mental modeling and anticipation of events in the driver's preview. The control framework is shown to suggest some salient research questions and experiments. Actual or potential applications of this research include a refined understanding of driver distraction and better modeling and prediction of driving performance as a function of vehicle and highway design. PMID:15709322

Sheridan, Thomas B

2004-01-01

90

Maxillary expansion: a meta analysis.  

PubMed

The utility of maxillary expansion has been equivocal for more than 100 years. The advent of meta-analysis and evidence-based learning has provided an opportunity to look objectively at this treatment modality. Medline was searched from 1978 to 1999 for all studies examining the stability of transverse expansion of the human maxilla using initial search terms of maxillary expansion and palatal expansion which were limited to those English language and human subjects. The more than 5000 articles were reduced to 12 based on the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The two investigators participating in the study were blinded, the studies' authors and origins blacked out and the evaluation coded and scored. A cumulative 'Meta evaluation score' was computed for each study. Six studies remained for the final analysis. The mean expansion after adjustment according to the principles of meta analysis was 6.00 mm with a standard deviation of 1.29 mm. Of the 6-mm average, 4.89 mm was retained while wearing retainers. Five of the papers provided retention data and post-retention data, but only three studies provided both retention and post-retention data. The average age of patients in these reports was 10.8 years. The 6-mm average expansion with retention in the short-term (<1 year) yielded a 4.71-mm residual expansion. Subsequently, this expansion during the short-term post-retention period was reduced to 3.88 mm. Finally, in the long-term post-retention study period only 2.4 mm of the residual expansion was reported to have remained. This 2.4 mm of expansion remaining after more than a year or more of post-retention period was no greater than what has been documented as normal growth. There is insufficient data to conclude that any useful expansion beyond that can be expected through normal growth was retained. PMID:11553090

Schiffman, P H; Tuncay, O C

2001-05-01

91

Dynamics of Driver Distraction: The process of engaging and disengaging.  

PubMed

Driver distraction research has a long history, spanning nearly 50 years, but intensifying over the last decade. The dominant paradigm guiding this research defines distraction in terms of excessive workload and limited attentional resources. This approach largely ignores how drivers come to engage in these tasks and under what conditions they engage and disengage from driving-the dynamics of distraction. The dynamics of distraction identifies breakdowns of interruption management as an important contributor to distraction, leading to describe distraction in terms of failures of task timing, switching, and prioritization. The dynamics of distraction also identifies disengagement in driving (e.g., mind wandering) as a substantial challenge that secondary tasks might exacerbate or mitigate. Increasing vehicle automation accentuates the need to consider these dynamics of distraction. Automation offers drivers more opportunity to engage in distractions and disengage from driving, and can surprise drivers by unexpectedly requiring drivers to quickly re-engage in driving-placing greater importance of interruption management expertise. This review describes distraction in terms of breakdowns in interruption management and problems of engagement, and summarizes how contingency, conditioning, and consequence traps lead to problems of engaging and disengaging in driving and distractions. PMID:24776224

Lee, John D

2014-01-01

92

Maxillary tuberosity fracture and subconjunctival hemorrhage following extraction of maxillary third molar  

PubMed Central

Extraction of teeth is the most common minor surgical procedure performed. Complication of extraction ranges from periodontal injury to fracture of jaw in the mandible and fracture of tuberosity and oroantral communication in the maxilla. Subconjunctival hemorrhage after extraction of maxillary molar is a very rare complication, and so far, only one case is reported in the literature. We report a case of subconjunctival hemorrhage with maxillary tuberosity fracture after maxillary third molar extraction. PMID:23633874

Thirumurugan, Kanagasabapathy; Munzanoor, Rathinam Ramesh Babu; Prasad, Gnanasekaran Arun; Sankar, Kannan

2013-01-01

93

Living dangerously: driver distraction at high speed.  

PubMed

Recent research indicates that cell phone use can distract drivers from safe vehicle operation. However, estimates of the prevalence of cell phone use while driving have been limited to daytime hours and low-speed roadways. This paper describes the results of a study to estimate rates of cell phone use and other distractions by examining approximately 40,000 high-quality digital photographs of vehicles and drivers on the New Jersey Turnpike. The photographs, which originally were collected as part of a separate study, were taken both during the day and during the night and at different locations across the span of the Turnpike. A radar gun linked to the camera recorded the speeds of vehicles as they passed. This provided us with the speeds of every vehicle photographed, and allowed us to determine population counts of vehicles. A panel of three trained coders examined each photograph and recorded the presence of cell phone use by the drivers or any other distracting behavior. Demographic information on the driver was obtained during previous examinations of the photographs for an unrelated study. A rating was considered reliable when two out of the three coders agreed. Population estimates (and confidence intervals) of cell phone use and other distractions were estimated by weighting the cases by the inverse probability of vehicle selection. Logistic regression was used to predict cell phone use from demographic and situational factors. The results indicated that the most frequent distraction was cell phone use: 1.5% of the drivers on the Turnpike were using cell phones compared to the 3 to 4% use rates reported in the National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS) surveys conducted during the daytime on lower speed roadways. The Turnpike survey indicated that cell phones were used less on weekends and at night, and when the driver was exceeding the speed limit or had a passenger in the car. PMID:14754669

Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert B; Lacey, John H; McKnight, A Scott; Lange, James E

2004-03-01

94

Managing the severely proclined maxillary anteriors by extracting traumatized right maxillary central incisor.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old girl reported with severely proclined maxillary anterior teeth with fractured and discolored right maxillary central incisor with questionable prognosis. Autotransplantation of premolar to replace central incisor was considered a risky option as patient was 14-year-old with presence of advanced root development of premolar. The immediate placement of the prosthetic implant was also not possible because of patient's age. Therefore, it was decided to use the space obtained by extracting questionable maxillary right central incisor for orthodontic purpose and also sacrificing the healthy premolar is invariably an excessive biological cost for a modest functional and aesthetic gain. Hence, the treatment plan for this case includes extraction of right maxillary central incisor and left maxillary first premolar, movement of right maxillary lateral incisor mesially, achieving normal axial inclination of maxillary anteriors with normal overjet and overbite. Mandibular arch was treated nonextraction due to congenitally missing central incisors with presence of normally inclined lower anteriors thereby maintaining Angles class I occlusion. Tipping, usually, seen in Begg mechanotherapy was used for our advantage to correct severely proclined maxillary anteriors with simultaneous bite opening mechanics. Case was completed in 19 months and posttreatment records including photographs, radiographs and study models were made. Begg wrap around the retainer was placed in the maxillary arch allowing natural settling of occlusion. PMID:25395777

Jain, Mahesh; Mogra, Subraya; Chalasani, Srikrishna; D'mello, Kuldeep; Dhakar, Nidhi

2014-10-01

95

Combining cognitive and visual distraction: less than the sum of its parts.  

PubMed

Driver distraction has become a leading cause of motor-vehicle crashes. Although visual and cognitive distraction has been studied extensively, relatively little research has addressed their combined effects on drivers' behavior. To fill this gap, a medium-fidelity simulator study examined the driver behavior before, during and after three types of distraction. Driving without distraction was compared to visual distraction, cognitive distraction, and combined visual and cognitive distraction. The results show that the visual and combined distraction both impaired vehicle control and hazard detection and resulted in frequent, long off-road glances. The combined distraction was less detrimental than visual distraction alone. Cognitive distraction made steering less smooth, but improved lane maintenance. All distractions caused gaze concentration and slow saccades when drivers looked at the roadway, and cognitive and combined distraction increased blink frequency. Steering neglect, under-compensation, and over-compensation were three typical steering failures that were differentially associated with the different distractions: steering neglect and over-compensation with visual distraction and under-compensation with cognitive distraction. Overall, visual distraction interferes with driving performance more than cognitive distraction, and visual distraction dominates the performance decrements during combined distraction. These results suggest that minimizing visual demand is particularly important in the design of in-vehicle systems and in the development of distraction countermeasures. PMID:20380916

Liang, Yulan; Lee, John D

2010-05-01

96

Early treatment of the Class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion and maxillary protraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study comprised a sample of 31 patients with Class III malocclusion (21 girls and 10 boys), with ages ranging from 5 years 2 months to 11 years 6 months. All patients were in the deciduous or mixed dentition. The indicated treatment was rapid maxillary expansion, immediately followed by maxillary protraction with the facial mask. Mean treatment time was 8

Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho; Adriana Cecilia Magro; Leopoldino Capelozza Filho

1998-01-01

97

Relationship among level of distraction, evoked potentials, spinal cord ischemia and integrity, and clinical status in animals.  

PubMed

Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and neurogenic-motor evoked potentials (NMEPs) were recorded after overdistraction of the spinal cord at T5-T6, T12-L1, or L3-L4. Measures of spinal cord perfusion and clinical status were also administered. Results indicated that stiffer spinal segments allowed less distraction than more flexible segments. SEPs and NMEPs were lost quickly after overdistraction in stiff segments and slowly in more flexible segments. However, SEPs were less sensitive than NMEPs to effects from overdistraction. Spinal cord perfusion and integrity were consistent with reduced perfusion and structural damage after overdistraction in stiff segments; extremely reduced perfusion but no structural changes in more flexible segments. The application of these results to the clinical situation was provided. PMID:2259970

Owen, J H; Naito, M; Bridwell, K H

1990-09-01

98

Extensive nasopharyngeal angiofibromas: the maxillary swing approach.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and outcome using the maxillary swing approach for the management of extensive nasopharyngeal angiofibromas. A retrospective analysis in a tertiary care center revealed five cases with extensive nasal angiofibromas operated using the maxillary swing approach between 2010 and 2012. All patients had tumor extension to the lateral-most portions of the infratemporal fossa with complete occupation and destruction of the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus causing abutment to the cavernous sinus and complete involvement of the pterygopalatine fossa and pterygoid base. One patient displayed full occupancy of the maxillary sinus as a consequence of erosion of the posterior and medial walls of the maxillary sinus, while another had severe temporal lobe compression through the roof of the infratemporal fossa. All patients underwent tumor excision using the maxillary swing approach. Patients were followed up for a minimum period of 1 year after surgery. The maxillary swing approach gave optimal exposure of the entire central skull base including the infratemporal fossa and its extreme lateral and superior aspects. Adequate tumor exposure and vascular control could be achieved in all cases resulting in complete tumor excision. The mean operative time was 4.5 h. Post-operative healing was satisfactory with palatal fistula formation in two cases and all patients remaining disease-free up to the present time. One had minimal misalignment of the halves of the upper jaw and two had epiphora, of which one required dacryocystorhinostomy. The maxillary swing is an effective approach in the management of extensive nasopharyngeal angiofibromas and leads to optimal anatomical exposure with minimal morbidity. PMID:24389983

Mathur, Neeraj Narayan; Vashishth, Ashish

2014-11-01

99

Driving Distraction Analysis by ECG Signals: An Entropy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a novel method in driving distraction analysis: entropy analysis of ECG signals. ECG signals were recorded\\u000a continuously while 15 drivers were driving with a simulator. Mental computation task was employed as driving distraction.\\u000a Sample entropy and power spectrum entropy of drivers. ECG signals while they were driving with and without distraction were\\u000a derived. The result indicated that

Lu Yu; Xianghong Sun; Kan Zhang

100

Distracted driving in elderly and middle-aged drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an

Kelsey R. Thompson; Amy M. Johnson; Jamie L. Emerson; Jeffrey D. Dawson; Erwin R. Boer; Matthew Rizzo

101

Automated Continuous Distraction Osteogenesis May Allow Faster Distraction Rates: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if automated continuous distraction osteogenesis at rates > 1mm/day would result in clinical and radiographic bone formation in a minipig model. Materials and Methods An automated, continuous, curvilinear distraction device was placed across a mandibular osteotomy in 10 minipigs. After 12 mm of distraction and 24 days fixation, animals were sacrificed and bone healing evaluated. The continuous distraction rates were 1.5 (n=5) and 3 mm/day (n=5). A semiquantitative scale was used to assess ex-vivo clinical appearance of the distraction gap (3= osteotomy not visible; 2= <50%; 1= >50%; 0= 100% visible); stability (3 = no mobility; 2 and 1 = mobility in 2 or 1 plane respectively; 0= mobility in 3 planes); radiographic density (4 = 100% gap opaque, 3= >75%, 2 = 50% – 75%, 1= <50%, or 0 = radiolucent). Groups of 4 minipigs distracted discontinuously at 1, 2, and 4 mm/day served as controls. Results The continuous DO 1.5 mm/day group had significantly higher scores for appearance and radiographic density compared to the discontinuous 4 mm/day group. The continuous DO 3mm/day group had significantly higher scores for appearance and radiographic density compared to the discontinuous 4 mm/day group, and higher stability compared to the discontinuous 2 and 4 mm/day groups. Conclusions Results of this preliminary study indicate that continuous DO at rates of 1.5 and 3.0 mm/day produces better bone formation when compared to discontinuous DO at rates faster than 1mm/day. PMID:23499159

Peacock, Zachary S.; Tricomi, Brad; Murphy, Brian; Magill, John; Kaban, Leonard B.; Troulis, Maria

2013-01-01

102

Combined effects of alcohol and distraction on driving performance.  

PubMed

Although alcohol and distraction are often cited as significant risk factors for traffic crashes, most research has considered them in isolation. It is therefore necessary to consider the interactions between alcohol and distraction impairment sources, especially when examining the relationship between behavior and crash risk. In a driving simulator, the primary goal was to maintain a safe headway to a lead vehicle and the secondary goal was to maintain stable lane position. All participants engaged in distractions that represented different levels of resource competition and half of the participants consumed alcohol (target BAC 0.08 g/dl). Specific comparisons were made between sober driving while distracted and driving intoxicated without distraction. Distraction tasks produced more changes in driving behavior than did alcohol for both longitudinal (primary) and lateral (secondary) driving goals. Alcohol impairment was evident only in relation to lateral driving performance, however there was an amplification of impairment when alcohol and distraction conditions were combined. Distraction resulted in a general level of impairment across all driving goals, whereas participants with alcohol appeared to shed secondary driving goals to "protect" primary driving goals. Drivers' strategies to cope with alcohol (and distraction) may not be sufficient to offset the increased crash risk. PMID:18760103

Rakauskas, Michael E; Ward, Nicholas J; Boer, Erwin R; Bernat, Edward M; Cadwallader, Meredith; Patrick, Christopher J

2008-09-01

103

ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE  

PubMed Central

Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

2011-01-01

104

Subtractive Fuzzy Classifier Based Driver Distraction Levels Classification Using EEG  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] In earlier studies of driver distraction, researchers classified distraction into two levels (not distracted, and distracted). This study classified four levels of distraction (neutral, low, medium, high). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty Asian subjects (n=50, 43 males, 7 females), age range 20–35 years, who were free from any disease, participated in this study. Wireless EEG signals were recorded by 14 electrodes during four types of distraction stimuli (Global Position Systems (GPS), music player, short message service (SMS), and mental tasks). We derived the amplitude spectrum of three different frequency bands, theta, alpha, and beta of EEG. Then, based on fusion of discrete wavelet packet transforms and fast fourier transform yield, we extracted two features (power spectral density, spectral centroid frequency) of different wavelets (db4, db8, sym8, and coif5). Mean ± SD was calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. A fuzzy inference system classifier was applied to different wavelets using the two extracted features. [Results] The results indicate that the two features of sym8 posses highly significant discrimination across the four levels of distraction, and the best average accuracy achieved by the subtractive fuzzy classifier was 79.21% using the power spectral density feature extracted using the sym8 wavelet. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that EEG signals can be used to monitor distraction level intensity in order to alert drivers to high levels of distraction. PMID:24259914

Wali, Mousa Kadhim; Murugappan, Murugappan; Ahmad, Badlishah

2013-01-01

105

The biology of distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular and craniomaxillofacial defects: A review  

PubMed Central

Limb lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was first described in 1905. The technique did not gain wide acceptance until Gavril Ilizarov identified the physiologic and mechanical factors governing successful regeneration of bone formation. Distraction osteogenesis is a new variation of more traditional orthognathic surgical procedure for the correction of dentofacial deformities. It is most commonly used for the correction of more severe deformities and syndromes of both the maxilla and the mandible and can also be used in children at ages previously untreatable. The basic technique includes surgical fracture of deformed bone, insertion of device, 5-7 days rest, and gradual separation of bony segments by subsequent activation at the rate of 1 mm per day, followed by an 8-12 weeks consolidation phase. This allows surgeons, the lengthening and reshaping of deformed bone. The aim of this paper is to review the principle, technical considerations, applications and limitations of distraction osteogenesis. The application of osteodistraction offers novel solutions for surgical-orthodontic management of developmental anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton as bone may be molded into different shapes along with the soft tissue component gradually thereby resulting in less relapse. PMID:24688555

Natu, Subodh Shankar; Ali, Iqbal; Alam, Sarwar; Giri, Kolli Yada; Agarwal, Anshita; Kulkarni, Vrishali Ajit

2014-01-01

106

The biology of distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular and craniomaxillofacial defects: A review.  

PubMed

Limb lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was first described in 1905. The technique did not gain wide acceptance until Gavril Ilizarov identified the physiologic and mechanical factors governing successful regeneration of bone formation. Distraction osteogenesis is a new variation of more traditional orthognathic surgical procedure for the correction of dentofacial deformities. It is most commonly used for the correction of more severe deformities and syndromes of both the maxilla and the mandible and can also be used in children at ages previously untreatable. The basic technique includes surgical fracture of deformed bone, insertion of device, 5-7 days rest, and gradual separation of bony segments by subsequent activation at the rate of 1 mm per day, followed by an 8-12 weeks consolidation phase. This allows surgeons, the lengthening and reshaping of deformed bone. The aim of this paper is to review the principle, technical considerations, applications and limitations of distraction osteogenesis. The application of osteodistraction offers novel solutions for surgical-orthodontic management of developmental anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton as bone may be molded into different shapes along with the soft tissue component gradually thereby resulting in less relapse. PMID:24688555

Natu, Subodh Shankar; Ali, Iqbal; Alam, Sarwar; Giri, Kolli Yada; Agarwal, Anshita; Kulkarni, Vrishali Ajit

2014-01-01

107

Distraction 'on the buses': a novel framework of ergonomics methods for identifying sources and effects of bus driver distraction.  

PubMed

Driver distraction represents a significant problem in the public transport sector. Various methods exist for investigating distraction; however, the majority are difficult to apply within the context of naturalistic bus driving. This article investigates the nature of bus driver distraction at a major Australian public transport company, including the sources of distraction present, and their effects on driver performance, through the application of a novel framework of ergonomics methods. The framework represents a novel approach for assessing distraction in a real world context. The findings suggest that there are a number of sources of distraction that could potentially distract bus drivers while driving, including those that derive from the driving task itself, and those that derive from the additional requirements associated with bus operation, such as passenger and ticketing-related distractions. A taxonomy of the sources of bus driver distraction identified is presented, along with a discussion of proposed countermeasures designed to remove the sources identified or mitigate their effects on driver performance. PMID:20883979

Salmon, Paul M; Young, Kristie L; Regan, Michael A

2011-05-01

108

The correction of the relapsed club foot by closed distraction.  

PubMed

Correction of a relapsed clubfoot deformity by distraction with an external fixator is a recognized alternative to open surgery. Most published series report a good outcome but none are prospective observational studies using the scoring system of the International Clubfoot Study Group (ICFSG). We present a series of 9 relapsed club feet treated with closed gradual distraction using this scoring method. PMID:21286357

Saghieh, Said; Bashoura, Abdo; Berjawi, Ghina; Afeiche, Nadim; Elkattah, Rayan

2010-12-01

109

Neuronal Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27…

Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

2013-01-01

110

Are child occupants a significant source of driving distraction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver distraction represents a well-documented and growing contribution to the road safety problem. This study used a naturalistic, observational approach to examine if children in vehicles are a significant source of driving distraction. Families with children aged between 1 and 8 years drove an instrumented “study vehicle” on their regular trips for 3 weeks. A discrete video recording system in

Sjaan Koppel; Judith Charlton; Chelvi Kopinathan; David Taranto

2011-01-01

111

Undistracted driving: a mobile phone that doesn't distract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distracted driving is a major problem that leads to unnecessary accidents and human casualties everywhere in the world. The ubiquity of mobile phones is one cause of distracted driving. In United States alone, operating mobile phones while driving has been cited as a factor in crashes that have led to 995 deaths and 24,000 injuries in 2009. To mitigate the

Janne Lindqvist; Jason Hong

2011-01-01

112

EEG-based brain dynamics of driving distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distraction during driving has been recognized as a significant cause of traffic accidents. The aim of this study is to investigate Electroencephalography (EEG) -based brain dynamics in response to driving distraction. To study human cognition under specific driving tasks in a simulated driving experiment, this study utilized two simulated events including unexpected car deviations and mathematics questions. The raw data

Chin-Teng Lin; Shi-An Chen; Li-Wei Ko; Yu-Kai Wang

2011-01-01

113

Combined effects of alcohol and distraction on driving performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although alcohol and distraction are often cited as significant risk factors for traffic crashes, most research has considered them in isolation. It is therefore necessary to consider the interactions between alcohol and distraction impairment sources, especially when examining the relationship between behavior and crash risk. In a driving simulator, the primary goal was to maintain a safe headway to a

Michael E. Rakauskas; Nicholas J. Ward; Erwin R. Boer; Edward M. Bernat; Meredith Cadwallader; Christopher J. Patrick

2008-01-01

114

Alcohol and distraction interact to impair driving performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations,

Emily L. R. Harrison; Mark T. Fillmore

2011-01-01

115

The Impact of Distraction Mitigation Strategies on Driving Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of distraction mitigation strategies on drivers? performance and productivity while engaged in an in-vehicle information system task. Background: Previous studies show that in-vehicle tasks undermine driver safety and there is a need to mitigate driver distraction. Method: An advising strategy that alerts drivers to potential dangers and a locking strategy that

Birsen Donmez; Linda Ng Boyle; John D. Lee

2006-01-01

116

Distraction while driving: The case of older drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the impairment of older drivers is especially found in perception and attention, one could assume that they are especially prone to distraction effects of secondary tasks performed while driving. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of age on driving performance as well as the compensation strategies of older drivers under distraction. 10 middle-aged and 10

Julia Fofanova; Mark Vollrath

2011-01-01

117

Distraction-related EEG dynamics in virtual reality driving simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver distraction has been recognized as a significant cause of traffic incidents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate electroencephalography (EEG) dynamics in response to distraction during driving. To study human cognition under specific driving task, we used virtual reality (VR) based driving simulation to simulate events including unexpected car deviations and mathematics questions (math) in real driving.

Chin-teng Lin; Hong-zhang Lin; Tzai-wen Chiu; Chih-feng Chao; Yu-chieh Chen; Sheng-fu Liang; Li-wei Ko

2008-01-01

118

The correction of the relapsed club foot by closed distraction  

PubMed Central

Correction of a relapsed clubfoot deformity by distraction with an external fixator is a recognized alternative to open surgery. Most published series report a good outcome but none are prospective observational studies using the scoring system of the International Clubfoot Study Group (ICFSG). We present a series of 9 relapsed club feet treated with closed gradual distraction using this scoring method. PMID:21286357

Bashoura, Abdo; Berjawi, Ghina; Afeiche, Nadim; Elkattah, Rayan

2010-01-01

119

Modifying the impact of persuasive communications with external distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engaging in an irrelevant, distracting activity while simultaneously processing a persuasive communication has a salutary effect upon attitude change if the audience is set to attend primarily to the message, but the opposite effect if they are set toward the distracting activity. The conditions necessary for demonstrating this relationship are sensitive to operational details which were not sufficiently well controlled

Philip Zimbardo

1970-01-01

120

Interference by Process, Not Content, Determines Semantic Auditory Distraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic…

Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2009-01-01

121

Electrophysiological evidence of enhanced distractibility in ADHD children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal involuntary attention leading to enhanced distractibility may account for different behavioral and cognitive problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This was investigated in the present experiment by recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to distracting novel sounds during performance of a visual discrimination task. The overall performance in the visual task was less accurate in the ADHD

V. Gumenyuk; O. Korzyukov; C. Escera; M. Hämäläinen; M. Huotilainen; T. Häyrinen; H. Oksanen; R. Näätänen; L. von Wendt; K. Alho

2005-01-01

122

A moving goalkeeper distracts penalty takers and impairs shooting accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

When facing penalty kicks in football (soccer), goalkeepers frequently incorporate strategies that are designed to distract the kicker. However, no direct empirical evidence exists to ascertain what effect such visual distractions have on the attentional control, and performance, of footballers. Eighteen experienced footballers took five penalty kicks under counterbalanced conditions of threat (low vs. high) and goalkeeper movement (stationary vs.

Greg Wood; Mark R. Wilson

2010-01-01

123

Distracted walking: Cell phones increase injury risk for college pedestrians  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionDistraction on cell phones jeopardizes motor-vehicle driver safety, but few studies examine distracted walking. At particular risk are college students, who walk frequently in and near traffic, have increased pedestrian injury rates compared to other age groups, and frequently use cell phones. Method: Using an interactive and immersive virtual environment, two experiments studied the effect of cell phone conversation on

Despina Stavrinos; Katherine W. Byington; David C. Schwebel

2011-01-01

124

CASE REPORT Pan-Suture Synostosis After Posterior Vault Distraction  

PubMed Central

Objective: Posterior vault remodeling by distraction osteogenesis is a relatively new technique used for initial correction of turribrachycephaly in children with bicoronal craniosynostosis. We present a new potential complication from this procedure; a case of pan-suture synostosis subsequent to posterior vault distraction. Methods: We report an infant girl who presented with bicoronal synostosis in the setting of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. She underwent posterior vault distraction and was distracted a total of 34 millimeters, with successful osteogenesis at the site. Results: One year postoperatively, the patient was found to have incidental, asymptomatic pan-suture synostosis on computed tomography. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of delayed craniosynostosis after posterior vault distraction in the literature. The possible pathogenesis and significance of this case are discussed with a review of the current literature. PMID:24106565

Chu, Katrina F.; Sullivan, Stephen R.; Taylor, Helena O.

2013-01-01

125

Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction  

PubMed Central

Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of “distracting the periodontal ligament” is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks. PMID:22628978

Prabhat, K. C.; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Gupta, N. D.; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Goyal, Lata

2012-01-01

126

Diverticular perforation masquerading as maxillary sinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although diverticular perforation and diverticulitis is usually a straightforward diagnosis, an occasional case can be difficult. In this report, we describe a patient who initially presented with symptoms suggestive of maxillary sinusitis and hip fracture. Findings of subcutaneous craniofacial emphysema eventually led to the diagnosis of a perforated sigmoid diverticulum with abscess.

Michael C. Hollingshead; David M. Warshauer

2006-01-01

127

Midfacial Degloving Approach for Malignant Maxillary Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this work is to study the use of this technique in extirpation of malignant tumors of the maxillary sinus. This includes the exposure for adequate tumor resection and the preservation of as much as possible functional tissue integrity. This approach will be evaluated including the advantages and disadvantages as regards the physiological function, aesthetic outcome and

ASHRAF S. ZAGHLOUL; M. AKRAM NOUH; HISHAM ABD; EL FATAH

2004-01-01

128

Emotional distraction in boys with ADHD: neural and behavioral correlates.  

PubMed

Although, in everyday life, patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequently distracted by goal-irrelevant affective stimuli, little is known about the neural and behavioral substrates underlying this emotional distractibility. Because some of the most important brain responses associated with the sudden onset of an emotional distracter are characterized by their early latency onset and short duration, we addressed this issue by using a temporally agile neural signal capable of detecting and distinguishing them. Specifically, scalp event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while 20 boys with ADHD combined type and 20 healthy comparison subjects performed a digit categorization task during the presentation of three types of irrelevant, distracting stimuli: arousing negative (A-), neutral (N) and arousing positive (A+). Behavioral data showed that emotional distracters (both A- and A+) were associated with longer reaction times than neutral ones in the ADHD group, whereas no differences were found in the control group. ERP data revealed that, compared with control subjects, boys with ADHD showed larger anterior N2 amplitudes for emotional than for neutral distracters. Furthermore, regression analyses between ERP data and subjects' emotional ratings of distracting stimuli showed that only in the ADHD group, emotional arousal (ranging from calming to arousing) was associated with anterior N2: its amplitude increased as the arousal content of the visual distracter increased. These results suggest that boys with ADHD are more vulnerable to the distracting effects of irrelevant emotional stimuli than control subjects. The present study provides first data on the neural substrates underlying emotional distractibility in ADHD. PMID:23867737

López-Martín, Sara; Albert, Jacobo; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Carretié, Luis

2013-10-01

129

Information Technology Solutions Distracted driving is a dangerous epidemic on America's roadways. In 2010  

E-print Network

Information Technology Solutions Distracted driving is a dangerous epidemic on America's roadways. In 2010 alone, over 3,000 people were killed in distracted driving crashes. The message is simple ­ if you with distracted driving and realize the effects that distracted driving can have while operating a vehicle

Behmer, Spencer T.

130

ANALYSIS OF FACIAL FEATURES OF DRIVERS UNDER COGNITIVE AND VISUAL DISTRACTIONS  

E-print Network

distraction 1. INTRODUCTION Driver distraction detection is an important yet challenging task, given challenge is that each distraction's type af- fects the driver in different ways, so it is important are immersed in internal thoughts such as daydreaming and thinking. These distractions directly impair

Busso, Carlos

131

Distraction by a monotube fixator to achieve limb lengthening: predictive factors for tibia trauma  

PubMed Central

Background Management of post trauma tibia bone gap varied with orthopedic surgeons’ experience and tools available. Study aims to determine predictive factors for distraction by a monotube fixator (DMF) outcome in post tibia trauma limb length discrepancy. Methods A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of post traumatized tibia bone gap and limb length discrepancy patients at tertiary hospitals. Patient’s informed consent and institutional ethical committee approval were obtained. Bio-data, clinical and healing indexes were documented. DMF was applied for patient that met inclusion criteria. The Statistic tests used included the Chi-square, the Student’s two-tailed t test, and the Wilcox on rank-sum test when appropriate. Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for poor outcome potential risk factors were recorded. Bivariate correlation and logistic regression were evaluated. Significance level was set at a p value <0.05. Results Thirty-six patients with mean age, 37.2?±?10.3 year and male/female ratio of 1:1.25 had DMF applied. Motorcycle accident accounted for 50.0% of patients and diaphyseal segment was most commonly affected 25 (69.4%). The mean bone lengthened was 10.1?±?4.0 cm (range: 5-21 cm) and mean duration of bone transport was 105.6?±?38.2 days. The means of rate of distraction, healing index and percentage of lengthening were 0.99?±?0.14 mm/day, 15.6?±?4.3 days/cm and 38.0?±?14.3 respectively. The mean follow up was 9.7 ±4.9 months (range: 2–17.0). Per operative complications varied and outcome was satisfactory in 30 (83.3%). Obesity (p <0.0001), multiple surgery (p?=?0.012) and transfusion (p?=?0.001) correlated to poor outcome. Percentage lengthening???50%, bone gap >10 cm, anemia, blood transfusion, general anesthesia administration, distraction rate >1 mm/day, osteomyelitis and prolong partial weight bearing were significant predictive factors for poor outcome in post traumatic tibia distraction. Conclusion Distraction by a monotube fixator appears effective in achieving correction >38.0% original tibia lengthening following traumatic bone gap. Predictive factors for poor outcome were useful for prognostication. PMID:23672599

2013-01-01

132

Subchondral bone remodeling is related to clinical improvement after joint distraction in the treatment of ankle osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective In osteoarthritis (OA), subchondral bone changes alter the joint’s mechanical environment and potentially influence progression of cartilage degeneration. Joint distraction as a treatment for OA has been shown to provide pain relief and functional improvement through mechanisms that are not well understood. This study evaluated whether subchondral bone remodeling was associated with clinical improvement in OA patients treated with joint distraction. Method Twenty-six patients with advanced post-traumatic ankle OA were treated with joint distraction for three months using an Ilizarov frame in a referral center. Primary outcome measure was bone density change analyzed on CT scans. Longitudinal, manually segmented CT datasets for a given patient were brought into a common spatial alignment. Changes in bone density (Hounsfield Units (HU), relative to baseline) were calculated at the weight-bearing region, extending subchondrally to a depth of 8 mm. Clinical outcome was assessed using the ankle OA scale. Results Baseline scans demonstrated subchondral sclerosis with local cysts. At one and two years of follow-up, an overall decrease in bone density (?23% and ?21%, respectively) was observed. Interestingly, density in originally low-density (cystic) areas increased. Joint distraction resulted in a decrease in pain (from 60 to 35, scale of 100) and functional deficit (from 67 to 36). Improvements in clinical outcomes were best correlated with disappearance of low-density (cystic) areas (r=0.69). Conclusions Treatment of advanced post-traumatic ankle OA with three months of joint distraction resulted in bone density normalization that was associated with clinical improvement. PMID:21324372

Intema, F.; Thomas, T.P.; Anderson, D.D.; Elkins, J.M.; Brown, T.D.; Amendola, A.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.; Saltzman, C.L.

2011-01-01

133

The causes and consequences of distraction in everyday driving.  

PubMed

To document drivers' exposure to potential distractions and the effects of these distractions on driving performance, inconspicuous video camera units were mounted in the vehicles of 70 volunteer subjects. The camera units automatically recorded a closeup view of the driver's face, a broader view of the interior of the vehicle, and the roadway immediately ahead of the vehicle whenever it was powered on. Three hours of randomly selected data per subject were coded based on a taxonomy of driver distractions (talking on cell phone, eating, tuning radio, etc.), contextual variables (whether vehicle stopped or moving, road type, traffic level, etc.) and observable measures of driver performance (eyes directed inside or outside vehicle, hands on or off steering wheel, and vehicle position in travel lane). Results were analyzed descriptively and using nonparametric bootstrap analysis techniques. The most common distractions in terms of overall event durations were eating and drinking (including preparations to eat or drink), distractions inside the vehicle (reaching or looking for an object, manipulating vehicle controls, etc.), and distractions outside the vehicle (often unidentified). Although many of the distractions were also associated with negative driving performance outcomes, further research is needed to clarify their impact on driving safety. PMID:12941228

Stutts, Jane; Feaganes, John; Rodgman, Eric; Hamlett, Charles; Reinfurt, Donald; Gish, Kenneth; Mercadante, Michael; Staplin, Loren

2003-01-01

134

Attentional distraction, ?-suppression and empathic perspective-taking.  

PubMed

Social mirroring has been proposed to be an automatic process whereby an observer understands the intentions of others by using his/her motor system to simulate others' actions. Automaticity implies that if the observer's eyes are fixed on another person, the observer's mirror system will engage whether attention is focused on the other person or not. This proposal has not been fully tested, however. The current study therefore addressed whether ?-suppression, an electroencephalographic measure of putative mirror neuron activity, induced by observing the actions of others would be affected by attentional distraction. Participants performed two different distraction tasks while watching a video of a hand repeatedly touching the forefinger and thumb together. ?-suppression was compared across three different blocks: (1) video with no distraction, (2) video with mental imagery distraction and (3) video with word generation distraction. While the no distraction condition yielded the typical level of ?-suppression, the word generation distraction task eliminated any evidence of ?-suppression suggesting that simply fixating the eyes on an action without focusing attention is insufficient to induce ?-suppression. A secondary goal of the current experiment was to replicate correlational findings between ?-suppression and empathic perspective-taking. A counterintuitive, negative relationship between ?-suppression and perspective-taking was replicated, and a theoretical model for explaining this relationship is offered. PMID:23807476

Woodruff, C Chad; Klein, Shelley

2013-09-01

135

Assessing the awareness of performance decrements in distracted drivers.  

PubMed

Many studies have documented the performance decrements associated with driver distractions; however, few have examined drivers' awareness of these distraction effects. The current study measured how well-calibrated drivers are with respect to performance decrements from distracting tasks. In this test track study, 40 younger and older drivers completed a series of tasks on a hand-held or hands-free cell phone while driving around a course in an instrumented vehicle. Subjective estimates of performance decrements were compared to actual performance decrements. Although their driving performance suffered in dual-task conditions, drivers were generally not well-calibrated to the magnitude of the distraction effects (r=-.38 to .16). In some cases, estimates of distraction were opposite of the observed effects (i.e., smaller estimates of distraction corresponded to larger performance deficits). Errors in calibration were unassociated with several measures of overconfidence in safety and skill, among other variables. We discuss the implications of these findings for potential mitigation strategies for distracted driving. PMID:18329420

Horrey, William J; Lesch, Mary F; Garabet, Angela

2008-03-01

136

Two-stage distraction lengthening of the forearm.  

PubMed

Single-stage lengthening of the forearm using callus distraction is well described; however, forearm lengthening using a 2-stage technique of distraction followed by bone grafting has received less attention. A 2-staged technique can be a better alternative in cases where the surgeon desires extensive lengthening. A retrospective review was undertaken of eleven 2-stage forearm lengthening procedures performed by 1 surgeon over a 15-year period. Indications were radial longitudinal deficiency (8 patients), neonatal ischemic contractures (2 patients), and septic growth arrest (1 patient). Average follow-up was 2.8 years. Distraction was performed on patients an average of 82 mm over an average duration of 24 weeks. Average time to union from the time of distractor removal and grafting was 87 days. Average healing index was 32.1 d/cm. Distraction problems were common and related to the length of time that the distractor was in place; they included pain, pin-related infections, and multiple mechanical device difficulties. Three patients had nonunion, and another had delayed union; however, additional procedures resulted in ultimate bony union in all patients. Demineralized bone matrix and autologous corticocancellous bone grafts yielded predictable healing and good functional results in short-distance distractions. For longer distractions, free vascularized fibula transfer produced the best outcomes. Intercalary cortical allografts did not heal well. Patients with neonatal Volkmann contractures had the most difficulty with distraction and healing, ultimately obtaining little to no lengthening and poor functional outcomes. PMID:23348260

Taghinia, Amir H; Al-Sheikh, Ayman A; Panossian, Andre E; Upton, Joseph

2013-01-01

137

Active and passive distraction in children undergoing wound dressings.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test how distraction influences pain, distress and anxiety in children during wound care. Sixty participants aged 5-12 years were randomized to three groups: serious gaming, the use of lollipops and a control group. Self-reported pain, distress, anxiety and observed pain behaviour were recorded in conjunction with wound care. Serious gaming, an active distraction, reduced the observed pain behaviour and self-reported distress compared with the other groups. A sense of control and engagement in the distraction, together, may be the explanation for the different pain behaviours when children use serious gaming. PMID:22819747

Nilsson, Stefan; Enskär, Karin; Hallqvist, Carina; Kokinsky, Eva

2013-04-01

138

Infantile maxillary sinus osteomyelitis mimicking orbital cellulitis.  

PubMed

Periorbital soft tissue swelling may result due to primary orbital pathology or from adjacent facio-maxillary or sino-nasal inflammatory causes. Osteomyelitis of maxilla in the pediatric age group is a rare entity in this era of antibiotics. We present an 11-month-old female infant who was brought with peri-orbital selling and purulent nasal discharge. Computed Tomography showed erosions of the walls of maxillary sinus suggestive of osteomyelitis. Culture of sinus scraping showed Staphylococcus aureus growth and the child improved with intravenous cloxacillin therapy. This case is presented due to the rarity of its presentation in this age group and for awareness to consider this entity in children having fever and peri-orbital swelling. PMID:25191055

Krishnan, Nagarajan; Ramamoorthy, Nathan; Panchanathan, Suresh; Balasundaram, Jothiramalingam S

2014-07-01

139

Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI

Roger K Hall

2006-01-01

140

Non malignant maxillary lesions: our experience.  

PubMed

A wide variety of lesions occur in maxilla. Non specificity of clinical and radiological features makes diagnosis of these lesions a difficult task. We report six interesting cases of maxillary swelling among a total number of 37 such lesions of maxilla. These six cases are as follows two cases of central giant cell granuloma, two cases of fibrous dysplasia, one case of pigmented melanotic neuroectodermal tumor and one case of solitary myofibroma. PMID:24427620

Damera, Naveen Chandra Rao; Vallabhaneni, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Tripuraneni, Satish Chandra; Madala, Sudhakar; Diddi, Ranga Rao

2013-07-01

141

Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow  

PubMed Central

A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma. PMID:22788782

2012-01-01

142

Osteodynamics around orthodontically loaded short maxillary implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate experimentally the effect of long-term orthodontic loading on the activity and location of osteodynamic changes around short titanium screw implants. For this purpose 6 maxillary premolars (1P1,2P2,3P3) were extracted from each of 2 foxhounds. After a 16-week healing period, 8 implants (4 per dog) were inserted in the edentulous areas. Simultaneously 2

Heinrich Wehrbein; Murat Yildirim; Peter Diedrich

1999-01-01

143

Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies  

PubMed Central

Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

2014-01-01

144

Testing Thayer's hypothesis: can camouflage work by distraction?  

PubMed

One of the oldest theories of animal camouflage predicts that apparently conspicuous markings enhance concealment. Such 'distraction' marks are hypothesized to work by drawing the viewer's attention away from salient features, such as the body outline, that would otherwise reveal the animal. If distraction marks enhance concealment, then they offer a route for animals to combine camouflage markings with conspicuous signalling strategies, such as warning signals. However, the theory has never been tested and remains controversial. By using camouflaged artificial prey presented to wild avian predators, we test whether distractive markings enhance concealment. In contrast to predictions, we find that markings, both circular and irregular shapes, increase predation compared with unmarked targets. Markings became increasingly costly as their contrast against the prey increased. Our experiments failed to find any empirical support for the hypothesis that distraction markings are an important aspect of camouflage in animals. PMID:18842567

Stevens, Martin; Graham, Julia; Winney, Isabel S; Cantor, Abi

2008-12-23

145

Correction of a deformed thumb by distraction of the phalanx.  

PubMed

We used distraction osteogenesis to correct six deformed thumbs in four patients ranging in age from 4 to 7 years. Two of the patients had Apert syndrome (syndromic craniosynostosis with symmetrical syndactyly) and two had polydactyly. We used a small fixator with a ball joint and successfully corrected the angular deformity after lengthening the proximal phalanx by distraction. This single inclusive procedure was extremely useful. We found the optimal distraction regimen for the digital phalanx was a one day waiting period and lengthening at 1 mm/day. The mean healing indexes were 37.2 days/cm (range 24.2 to 41.5) in those with Apert syndrome and 64.3 days/cm in those with polydactyly (62.5 and 66.0). Our results suggest that osteogenesis at the distraction site may be quicker in patients with Apert syndrome than in those with polydactyly. PMID:12564817

Matsumoto, Kazuya; Nakanishi, Hideki; Koizumi, Yoshio; Seike, Takuya; Tanimoto, Yukiho; Yokozeki, Masahiko; Hiura, Kenji; Moriyama, Keiji; Minami, Mitsuyoshi; Urano, Yoshio; Hirabayashi, Shinichi

2002-01-01

146

ACM HotMobile 2013 Poster: Mitigating Distractions from Smartphones  

E-print Network

. But that same user can quickly become addicted to his/her device, constantly checking Facebook notifications). External user distractions are sim- ply the opposite (e.g. an incoming email or Facebook notification

Nelakuditi, Srihari

147

External distraction impairs categorization performance in older adults.  

PubMed

The detrimental influence of distraction on memory and attention is well established, yet it is not as clear whether irrelevant information impacts categorization abilities and whether this impact changes in aging. We examined categorization with morphed prototype stimuli in both younger and older adults, using an adaptive staircase approach to assess participants' performance in conditions with and without visual distractors. Results showed that distraction did not affect younger adults, but produced a negative impact on older adults' categorization such that there was an interaction of age and distraction. These results suggest a relationship between the increased susceptibility to visual distraction in normal aging and impairment in categorization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25244485

Wais, Peter E; Gazzaley, Adam

2014-09-01

148

Osteolytic nasal polyp of the maxillary sinus mimicking malignancy  

PubMed Central

We present an osteolytic nasal polyp of the maxillary sinus with clinical features and radiographic features mimicking that of a malignancy. Maxillary sinusitis being a common inflammatory condition progressed to cause destruction of the maxillary bone and spread into the facial soft tissue, which is quite a rare occurrence. We have discussed in detail the clinical, radiological, histopathology and management of this uncommon presentation of a common case.

Karikal, Arvind; Sharma, Sampathila Mahalinga; Gopinath, Anju; Karikal, Arathi

2014-01-01

149

Gender differences in the content of cognitive distraction during sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared 220 college men and 237 college women on two types of self?reported cognitive distraction during sex, performance? and appearance?based. We assessed affect, psychological distress, sexual knowledge, attitudes, fantasies, experiences, body image, satisfaction, and sexual function with the Dewgatis Sexual Functioning Inventory and the Sexual History Form to determine associations with distraction. Between?gender analyses revealed that women reported

Marta Meana; Sarah E. Nunnink

2006-01-01

150

Dentigerous cyst associated with ectopic maxillary third molar in maxillary antrum  

PubMed Central

The treatment of ectopic maxillary tooth is surgical removal via a Caldwell-Luc procedure. Trans-nasal extraction of tooth may be attempted if the tooth is small and sited near the maxillary antrum. It is also mandatory to completely remove all pathological antral tissue and thoroughly assess all resected soft tissue histologically. This is important as certain antral pathologies such as dentigerous cyst, as in this case, may co-exist with an ectopic molar. It is thus important to follow-up such patients. In the absence of any unusual histology, surgery provides the patient with a definitive cure of his symptoms. PMID:22696724

Thakur, Gagan; Nair, Preeti P; Thomas, Shaji; Ahuja, Ruchi; Kothari, Rohit

2011-01-01

151

[Naso-ethmoido-maxillary protrusion (NEMP): a specific dysmorphosis].  

PubMed

Naso-ethmoido-maxillary protrusion (NEMP) is a rare dental and facial dysmorphosis, with excessive growth of basicranium, ethmoid, maxillary, and nasal bones. The clinical presentation includes nasal and upper lip protrusion, telecanthus, a class 2 malocclusion with maxillary protrusion and exoclusion. The craniofacial field is increased in Delaire's analysis. Contrary to isolated maxillary protrusion secondary to membranous ossification dysfunction, NEMP is a constitutional anomaly resulting from an excessive primary growth of the chondrocranium. The therapeutic management of NEMP should take into account these specificities. PMID:24630318

Konopnicki, S; Nicot, R; Sauvé, C; Raoul, G; Ferri, J

2014-04-01

152

The neural bases of distracter-resistant working memory.  

PubMed

A major difference between humans and other animals is our capacity to maintain information in working memory (WM) while performing secondary tasks, which enables sustained, complex cognition. A common assumption is that the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for WM performance in the presence of distracters, but direct evidence is scarce. We assessed the relationship between fMRI activity and WM performance within subjects, with performance matched across distracter and no-distracter conditions. Activity in the ventrolateral PFC during WM encoding and maintenance positively predicted performance in both conditions, whereas activity in the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) predicted performance only under distraction. Other parts of the dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFCs predicted performance only in the no-distracter condition. These findings challenge a lateral-PFC-centered view of distracter resistance, and suggest that the lateral PFC supports a type of WM representation that is efficient for dealing with task-irrelevant input but is, nonetheless, easily disrupted by dual-task demands. PMID:24366656

Wager, Tor D; Spicer, Julie; Insler, Rachel; Smith, Edward E

2014-03-01

153

Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis with intra-articular distraction.  

PubMed

Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis has shown high rates of union comparable to those with open arthrodesis but with substantially less postoperative morbidity, shorter operative times, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stays. To easily perform arthroscopic resection of the articular cartilage, sufficient distraction of the joint is necessary to insert the arthroscope and instruments. However, sometimes, standard noninvasive ankle distraction will not be sufficient in post-traumatic ankle arthritis, with the development of arthrofibrosis and joint contracture after severe ankle trauma. In the present report, we describe a technique to distract the ankle joint by inserting a 4.6-mm stainless steel cannula with a blunt trocar inside the joint. The cannula allowed sufficient intra-articular distraction, and, at the same time, a 4.0-mm arthroscope can be inserted through the cannula to view the joint. Screws can be inserted to fix the joint under fluoroscopic guidance without changing the patient's position or removing the noninvasive distraction device and leg holder, which are often necessary during standard arthroscopic arthrodesis with noninvasive distraction. PMID:24717518

Kim, Hyong Nyun; Jeon, June Young; Noh, Kyu Cheol; Kim, Hong Kyun; Dong, Quanyu; Park, Yong Wook

2014-01-01

154

ZHANG, YU. Visual and Cognitive Distraction Effects on Driver Behavior and an Approach to Distraction State Classification. (Under the direction of Dr. David B. Kaber).  

E-print Network

to driving. Despite the diversity of technology, there are two principal forms of driver distraction driving safety threats. Unfortunately, the majority of previous studies in driving distraction have and cognitive distracter tasks in previous studies failed to pose cognitive conflicts with driving tasks, or did

Kaber, David B.

155

Rapid Maxillary Anterior Teeth Retraction En Masse by Bone Compression: A Canine Model  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study sought to establish an animal model to study the feasibility and safety of rapid retraction of maxillary anterior teeth en masse aided by alveolar surgery in order to reduce orthodontic treatment time. Method Extraction of the maxillary canine and alveolar surgery were performed on twelve adult beagle dogs. After that, the custom-made tooth-borne distraction devices were placed on beagles' teeth. Nine of the dogs were applied compression at 0.5 mm/d for 12 days continuously. The other three received no force as the control group. The animals were killed in 1, 14, and 28 days after the end of the application of compression. Results The tissue responses were assessed by craniometric measurement as well as histological examination. Gross alterations were evident in the experimental group, characterized by anterior teeth crossbite. The average total movements of incisors within 12 days were 4.63±0.10 mm and the average anchorage losses were 1.25±0.12 mm. Considerable root resorption extending into the dentine could be observed 1 and 14 days after the compression. But after consolidation of 28 days, there were regenerated cementum on the dentine. There was no apparent change in the control group. No obvious tooth loosening, gingival necrosis, pulp degeneration, or other adverse complications appeared in any of the dogs. Conclusions This is the first experimental study for testing the technique of rapid anterior teeth retraction en masse aided by modified alveolar surgery. Despite a preliminary animal model study, the current findings pave the way for the potential clinical application that can accelerate orthodontic tooth movement without many adverse complications. Clinical Relevance It may become a novel method to shorten the clinical orthodontic treatment time in the future. PMID:22039479

Zhang, Jincai; Xu, Pingping

2011-01-01

156

Endoscopic trans-nasal-vestibular approach to the maxillary sinus--application for mucoceles of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Endoscopic endonasal surgery has been applied to the treatment of paranasal mucoceles. The approach is, however, hard to be adopted for maxillary mucoceles when the cyst is situated in the anterior and/or lateral portion of the maxillary sinus, has a thick bony lateral wall of the inferior nasal meatus, and when the patients develop compartmentalized cysts following facial trauma or sinus operation. We devised an endoscopic approach via the vestibule of the nose to reach any part of the maxillary sinus and applied it for the treatment of postoperative maxillary mucoceles, which could not be opened following the usual endoscopic approach with favorable outcomes. PMID:11772493

Shiomi, Yosaku; Shiomi, Yoshiko; Oda, Naoharu

2002-01-01

157

Maxillary nerve block in management of maxillary bone fractures: Our experience  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the intraoral high tuberocity maxillary nerve block technique in zygoma and arch fracture reduction and fixation. Study and Design: This study was carried out at Arvind Multi-Specialty Hospital, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu on seven male patients with zygomatic bone and arch fracture. Materials and Methods: Intraoral high tuberocity maxillary nerve block administered in seven patients for management of isolated zygomatic bone and arch fracture. Lidocaine 2% measuring 4 mL with 1:80000 adrenaline anesthetic solutions was used to anesthetize maxillary nerve through a 3.2 cm length and 24G, needle. The following parameters were evaluated namely onset of anesthesia, nerve block duration, outcome of treatment and Patient's comfort. Results: The blocks were effective and patients were comfortable without pain during initial stage of surgery, but in latter stages two patients had mild to moderate pain. Duration of block varied from 60 to 90 min while onset varied from 3 to 10 min. There were vascular punctures in three patients, however, without hematoma. Conclusions: The maxillary nerve block is a good alternative option in selective cases of zygomatic bone fracture reduction.

Thangavelu, K; Kumar, N. Senthil; Kannan, R.; Arunkumar, J.; Rethish, E.

2012-01-01

158

Aspergillosis of the maxillary sinus secondary to a foreign body (amalgam) in the maxillary antrum.  

PubMed

We report a case of a Maxillary sinus aspergilloma, which presented after 2 years of symptoms of chronic sinusitis. There was an isolatable triggering event of extrusion of an amalgam filling material into the sinus. This was a complication of surgical extraction of the upper right second molar by his general dental practitioner. PMID:19250722

Burnham, Richard; Bridle, Chris

2009-06-01

159

Reduced Distractibility in a Remote Culture  

PubMed Central

Background In visual processing, there are marked cultural differences in the tendency to adopt either a global or local processing style. A remote culture (the Himba) has recently been reported to have a greater local bias in visual processing than Westerners. Here we give the first evidence that a greater, and remarkable, attentional selectivity provides the basis for this local bias. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, Eriksen-type flanker interference was measured in the Himba and in Western controls. In both groups, responses to the direction of a task-relevant target arrow were affected by the compatibility of task-irrelevant distractor arrows. However, the Himba showed a marked reduction in overall flanker interference compared to Westerners. The smaller interference effect in the Himba occurred despite their overall slower performance than Westerners, and was evident even at a low level of perceptual load of the displays. In Experiment 2, the attentional selectivity of the Himba was further demonstrated by showing that their attention was not even captured by a moving singleton distractor. Conclusions/Significance We argue that the reduced distractibility in the Himba is clearly consistent with their tendency to prioritize the analysis of local details in visual processing. PMID:22046275

de Fockert, Jan W.; Caparos, Serge; Linnell, Karina J.; Davidoff, Jules

2011-01-01

160

Impact of distracted driving on safety and traffic flow.  

PubMed

Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16-25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) Poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner that impacts safety and traffic flow negatively when distracted. PMID:23465745

Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L; Garner, Annie A; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C; Ball, Karlene K; Sisiopiku, Virginia P; Fine, Philip R

2013-12-01

161

Infraorbital hypesthesia after maxillary sinus barotrauma.  

PubMed

We report a case of a diver who suffered an episode of maxillary sinus barotrauma that presented with decreased sensation over the cutaneous distribution of the infraorbital nerve after an ascent which produced facial pain and crepitus. This case illustrates a potential confusion between a decompression sickness etiology and a barotraumatic etiology for the observed sensory deficit. The clinical features of this case were most consistent with a barotraumatic etiology for the findings noted. The anatomy of the trigeminal nerve and previous reports of cranial nerve deficits following barotrauma are reviewed. PMID:10642073

Butler, F K; Bove, A A

1999-01-01

162

Simultaneous actinomycosis with aspergillosis in maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

We report a case with review of literature of actinomycosis accompanied with aspergillosis arising in unilateral maxillary sinus, in which it was completely cured after endoscopic sinus surgery and short term antibiotic therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in literature reporting actinomycosis in combination with aspergillosis in the paranasal sinus. Also, we suggest short term antibiotic therapy within one month may be sufficient if the surgical opening of paranasal sinus involved by actinomycosis could be well preserved. PMID:22445647

Won, Ho-Ryun; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Kyung Soo

2013-06-01

163

Immediate maxillary denture base extension for posterior palatal seal.  

PubMed

A procedure for extension of the maxillary denture base for development of a posterior palatal seal is described. The technique involves provisional extension with paraffin wax and adding direct relining resin supported by a silicone putty core. This simple, quick procedure achieves immediate recovery of retention for underextended maxillary dentures without additional laboratory procedures. PMID:10709049

Sato, Y; Hosokawa, R; Tsuga, K; Yoshida, M

2000-03-01

164

Immediate maxillary denture base extension for posterior palatal seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for extension of the maxillary denture base for development of a posterior palatal seal is described. The technique involves provisional extension with paraffin wax and adding direct relining resin supported by a silicone putty core. This simple, quick procedure achieves immediate recovery of retention for underextended maxillary dentures without additional laboratory procedures. (J Prosthet Dent 2000;83:371-3.)

Yuuji Sato; Ryuji Hosokawa; Kazuhiro Tsuga; Mitsuyoshi Yoshida

2000-01-01

165

The Effects of Interactive and Passive Distraction on Cold Pressor Pain in Preschool-aged Children  

PubMed Central

Objective?Using a mixed model design, this study examined the effects of interactive versus passive distraction on healthy preschool-aged children’s cold pressor pain tolerance.?Methods?Sixty-one children aged 3–5 years were randomly assigned to one of the following: interactive distraction, passive distraction, or no distraction control. Participants underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by interactive distraction trial, passive distraction trial, or second baseline trial. One or two additional trials followed. Children originally assigned to distraction received the alternate distraction intervention. Controls participated in both interactive and passive distraction trials in counterbalanced order.?Results?Participants showed significantly higher pain tolerance during both interactive and passive distraction relative to baseline. The two distraction conditions did not differ.?Conclusions?Interactive and passive video game distraction appear to be effective for preschool-aged children during laboratory pain exposure. Future studies should examine whether more extensive training would enhance effects of interactive video game distraction. PMID:21278378

Dahlquist, Lynnda M.; Wohlheiter, Karen

2011-01-01

166

Neuronal effects of auditory distraction on visual attention  

PubMed Central

Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27 healthy adults during two versions of the visual sustained attention to response task (SART) that differ in difficulty (and thus attentional load). A significant condition (noise or silence) by task (easy or difficult) interaction was observed in several areas, including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), fusiform gyrus (FG), posterior cingulate (PCC), and pre-supplementary motor area (PreSMA). Post-hoc analyses of interaction effects revealed deactivation of DLPFC, PCC, and PreSMA during distracting noise under conditions of low attentional load, and activation of FG and PCC during distracting noise under conditions of high attentional load. These results suggest that distracting noise may help alert subjects to task goals and reduce demands on cortical resources during tasks of low difficulty and attentional load. Under conditions of higher load, however, additional cognitive resources may be required in the presence of noise. PMID:23291265

Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

2013-01-01

167

Early sensory processing deficits predict sensitivity to distraction in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Patients with schizophrenia frequently report difficulties paying attention during important tasks, because they are distracted by noise in the environment. The neurobiological mechanism underlying this problem is, however, poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine if early sensory processing deficits contribute to sensitivity to distracting noise in schizophrenia. To that end, we examined the effect of environmentally relevant distracting noise on performance of an attention task in 19 patients with schizophrenia and 22 age and gender-matched healthy comparison subjects. Using electroencephalography, P50 auditory gating ratios also were measured in the same subjects and were examined for their relationship to noise-induced changes in performance on the attention task. Positive symptoms also were evaluated in patients. Distracting noise caused a greater increase in reaction time in patients, relative to comparison subjects, on the attention task. Higher P50 auditory gating ratios also were observed in patients. P50 gating ratio significantly correlated with the magnitude of noise-induced increase in reaction time. Noise-induced increase in reaction time was associated with delusional thoughts in patients. P50 ratios were associated with delusional thoughts and hallucinations in patients. In conclusion, the observation of noise effects on attention in patients is consistent with subjective reports from patients. The observed relationship between noise effects on reaction time and P50 auditory gating support the hypothesis that early inhibitory processing deficits may contribute to susceptibility to distraction in the illness. PMID:23590872

Smucny, Jason; Olincy, Ann; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Lyons, Emma; Tregellas, Jason R.

2013-01-01

168

Miniature osmotic actuators for controlled maxillofacial distraction osteogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully demonstrated miniature actuators that are capable of converting chemical potential directly into steady mechanical movements for maxillofacial distraction osteogenesis. Pistons and diaphragms powered by osmosis are employed to provide the desired linear and volumetric displacements for bone distraction and potentially the release of bone morphogenetic proteins, respectively. The cylindrical-shaped miniature actuators are composed of polymeric materials and fabricated by molding and assembly processes. In the prototype demonstration, vapor-permeable thermoplastic polyurethane was employed as the semi-permeable material. 3 cm long actuators with piston and diaphragm radii of 1 mm and 500 µm, respectively, were fabricated and characterized. The maximum distraction force from the piston-type actuator is found to be 6 N while the piston travels at a constant velocity of 32 µm h-1 (or 0.77 mm/day) for about 1 week. Meanwhile, the release rate from the diaphragm-type actuator is measured to be constant, 0.15 µl h-1 (or 3.6 µl/day), throughout the experiment. Moreover, the sizes and output characteristics of the self-regulating actuators could readily be tailored to realize optimal distraction rate, rhythm and osteogenic activity. As such, the demonstrated miniature osmotic actuators could potentially serve as versatile apparatuses for maxillofacial distraction osteogenesis and fulfill the needs of a variety of implantable and biomedical applications.

Li, Yu-Hsien; Su, Yu-Chuan

2010-06-01

169

Arterial blood supply of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the arterial supply of the maxillary sinus region is essential for surgical treatment in this area (e.g., implantation of grafting materials, repair of injuries, sinus floor elevation). The goal of this study was to describe the arterial architecture of the maxillary sinus region in respect to sinus lift procedures. In 18 unfixed human cadavers, the arterial vessels of the head were injected with a mixture of latex and barium sulfate. Afterward, the arteries entering the maxilla were prepared. The number and calibers as well as anastomoses were carefully documented. In addition, we measured the distance between the alveolar ridge and the lower main branches. The arterial supply of the maxilla originated from the posterior superior alveolar artery as well as from the infraorbital artery. In all specimens we found an intraosseous anastomosis between these two vessels. The oral mucosa in the area of interest is supplied by the posterior superior alveolar artery and the infraorbital artery, and an extraosseous anastomosis was found in 44% of our cases. The two anastomoses build up a double arterial arcade, supplying the lateral wall of the antrum and parts of the alveolar process. PMID:10545857

Traxler, H; Windisch, A; Geyerhofer, U; Surd, R; Solar, P; Firbas, W

1999-01-01

170

Nonvascularized toe phalangeal transfer and distraction lengthening for symbrachydactyly.  

PubMed

Symbrachydactyly describes a spectrum of congenital hand differences consisting of digital loss resulting in fused short fingers. As the principles for distraction lengthening have evolved, the technique of nonvascularized toe phalangeal transfer to the hand with shortened digits has provided patients with improved outcomes. Nonvascularized toe phalanx to hand transplant with distraction lengthening restores functional length to a skeletally deficient, poorly functioning hand while maintaining an overlying layer of vascular and sensate tissue. The primary goal is improvement of digital length to enhance mechanical advantage and prehension. We describe the technique of nonvascularized toe phalangeal transfer and distraction lengthening for symbrachydactyly, including the following steps: nonvascularized proximal toe phalanx harvest, toe phalanx transfer to hand, pin placement, osteotomy, and closure. PMID:20353864

Patterson, Ryan W; Seitz, William H

2010-04-01

171

Driver distraction and driver inattention: definition, relationship and taxonomy.  

PubMed

There is accumulating evidence that driver distraction and driver inattention are leading causes of vehicle crashes and incidents. However, as applied psychological constructs, they have been inconsistently defined and the relationship between them remains unclear. In this paper, driver distraction and driver inattention are defined and a taxonomy is presented in which driver distraction is distinguished from other forms of driver inattention. The taxonomy and the definitions provided are intended (a) to provide a common framework for coding different forms of driver inattention as contributing factors in crashes and incidents, so that comparable estimates of their role as contributing factors can be made across different studies, and (b) to make it possible to more accurately interpret and compare, across studies, the research findings for a given form of driver inattention. PMID:21658505

Regan, Michael A; Hallett, Charlene; Gordon, Craig P

2011-09-01

172

Gaze aversion: spared inhibition for visual distraction in older adults.  

PubMed

Our everyday environment is filled with irrelevant and potentially distracting information. Recent research has shown that during retrieval people tend to look away from distraction or close their eyes and that averting one's gaze benefits retrieval. We examined the extent to which there are age-related differences in the benefits of gaze aversion and whether the benefits of gaze aversion extend to encoding. Relative to looking at complex stimuli, closing the eyes and looking at simple stimuli produced reliable improvements in memory for both younger and older adults at both encoding and retrieval. Contrary to the expectation that older adults have general inhibitory deficits, the benefits of gaze aversion were similar for younger and older adults at both encoding and retrieval. These results are consistent with the view that older adults have spared inhibitory functioning for distraction appearing in fixed locations. PMID:11773225

Einstein, Gilles O; Earles, Julie L; Collins, Heather M

2002-01-01

173

Composite bone and soft tissue loss treated with distraction histiogenesis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe the use of shortening and angulation to manage composite bone and soft tissue loss associated with combat-related type IIIB open tibia fractures. Four patients underwent placement of a software-driven circular fixator with acute shortening and angulation to manage composite bone and soft tissue loss. Frames were applied using the Rings First Method, and an induced deformity was created with the soft tissue defect within the concavity. Distraction histiogenesis was utilized to restore limb length and regenerate soft tissues. Three patients had healed fractures and mature regenerate allowing frame removal, while one remained in his frame for further consolidation. Mechanical alignment and limb length were restored in all patients. No major frame adjustments were required and all distracted soft tissues healed without complication. The article concludes that composite bone and soft tissue loss is effectively managed with distraction histiogenesis and the use of a software-driven circular fixator. PMID:20371003

Beltran, Michael J; Ochoa, Leah M; Graves, Richard M; Hsu, Joseph R

2010-01-01

174

Segmental neurofibromatosis  

PubMed Central

Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare disorder, characterized by neurofibromas or caf?-au-lait macules limited to one region of the body. Its occurrence on the face is extremely rare and only few cases of segmental neurofibromatosis over the face have been described so far. We present a case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the buccal mucosa, tongue, cheek, ear, and neck on the right side of the face.

Galhotra, Virat; Sheikh, Soheyl; Jindal, Sanjeev; Singla, Anshu

2014-01-01

175

Distracted driving and implications for injury prevention in adults.  

PubMed

Distracted driving, a significant public safety issue, is typically categorized as cell phone use and texting. The increase of distracted driving behavior (DDB) has resulted in an increase in injury and death. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and perception of DDB in adults. A 7-question SurveyMonkey questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of adults. Standard demographics included age, gender, and highest levels of education. Primary outcome questions were related to frequency of DDB, and overall perceptions specific to distracted driving. Results were compared on the basis of demographics. Chi-square testing and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance were applied, with statistical significance defined as P ? .05. There were 1857 respondents to the survey: 1721 were aged 23-64 years (93%); 1511 were women (81%); 1461 had high school education or greater (79%). A total of 168 respondents (9%) reported being involved in a car accident while distracted. The highest reported frequency of DDB included cell phone use (69%), eating/drinking (67%), and reaching for an object in the care (49%). Younger age (18-34 years) and higher level of education (bachelor's degree or greater) were statistically associated with these DDB; gender demonstrated no statistical significance. Text messaging was reported by 538 respondents (29%), with a statistically significant association with age (18-34 years), higher education (bachelor's degree or greater), and gender (males). A total of 1143 respondents (63%) believed that they could drive safely while distracted. This study demonstrates that DDB in adults is not restricted to reading and sending text messages. Moreover, these results indicated that people fail to perceive the dangers inherent in distracted driving. Prevention and outreach education should not be limited to texting and cell phone use but should target all forms of DDB. The age group 18-34 years should be the primary target in the adult population. PMID:23459429

Hoff, Jane; Grell, Jennifer; Lohrman, Nicole; Stehly, Christy; Stoltzfus, Jill; Wainwright, Gail; Hoff, William S

2013-01-01

176

Real-Time Detection of Driver Cognitive Distraction Using Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As use of in-vehicle information systems (IVISs) such as cell phones, navigation systems, and satellite radios has increased, driver distraction has become an important and growing safety concern. A promising way to overcome this problem is to detect driver distraction and adapt in-vehicle systems accordingly to mitigate such distractions. To realize this strategy, this paper applied support vector machines (SVMs),

Yulan Liang; Michelle L. Reyes; John D. Lee

2007-01-01

177

Reducing Distracted Driving: Regulation and Education to Avert Traffic Injuries and Fatalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we consider the legal and policy implications of distracted driving (the tendency of people to use electronic devices while operating a motor vehicle). After reviewing the empirical evidence showing that distracted driving has serious adverse consequences, we discuss the legal basis for governmental interventions to reduce distracted driving. These interventions include laws restricting the use of electronic

Lawrence O. Gostin; Peter D. Jacobson

2010-01-01

178

CarSafe App: Alerting Drowsy and Distracted Drivers using Dual Cameras on Smartphones  

E-print Network

978-1-4503-1672-9/13/06 ...$15.00. 1. INTRODUCTION Driving while being tired or distracted directly attributed to distracted drivers [37]. Surprisingly, many people drive while being tired or drowsy dangerous driving behavior, such as drowsiness or distracted driving; some cars even trigger automatic

Torresani, Lorenzo

179

An empirical study to examine sex differences in cognitive distraction among drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are basically 3 different types of driver distraction: manual, visual and cognitive. This paper focused on cognitive distraction on drivers. Cognitive distraction is occurred when a driver's mind is off from the road. Drivers are might probably see and realize objects and the environment on the road, and manually handle their vehicle safely, but their minds are thinking something

Afizan Azman; Qinggang Meng; Aminah Ahmad; Chandrika Mohd Jayothisa

2010-01-01

180

Multi-class identification of driver's cognitive distraction with error-correcting output coding (ECOC) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cognitive state monitoring is quite important for active safety which is a technology to prevent accidents. While driving, cognitive distraction like conversation or thoughts unrelated to driving has potential hazards. Identification of cognitive distraction has already been reported in literature. However, multi-class identification of cognitive distraction has yet to be reported. This paper suggests a multi-class identification with the

Atsushi Nagase; Haruki Kawanaka; M. S. Bhuiyan; K. Oguri

2009-01-01

181

Cogn itive Distraction an d Wom en 's Sex ual Functionin g  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research on the role of cognitive distraction in sexual dysfunc- tion typically has focused on males and has been conducted in the laboratory using artificial stimuli. In the current study, young adult women (N = 74) with coital experience completed questionnaires regarding cognitive distraction and their sexuality. Those women who reported greater cognitive distraction during sexual activity with a

NATALIE L. DOVE; MICHAEL W. WIEDERMAN

2000-01-01

182

Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

2010-01-01

183

The Color-Word Interference Test and Its Relation to Performance Impairment under Auditory Distraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to resist distraction is an important requirement for air traffic controllers. The study examined the relationship between performance on the Stroop color-word interference test (a suggested measure of distraction susceptibility) and impairment under auditory distraction on a task requiring the subject to generate random sequences of…

Thackray, Richard I.; And Others

184

The effects of an oral distraction on cattle during a painful procedure.  

PubMed

An oral distraction was investigated as a way to reduce struggle and heart rate of beef cattle undergoing freeze branding. Oral distraction reduced the struggle of steers, regardless of branding treatment. No effect on heart rate was found. Distractions may provide a way to reduce struggle by animals during restraint. PMID:24155450

Aitken, Brooke L; Stookey, Joseph M; Noble, Scott; Watts, Jon; Finlay, Don

2013-06-01

185

Distraction osteogenesis in maxillofacial surgery using internal devices: Review of five cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this report is to show the feasibility and potential advantages of using internal devices for distraction osteogenesis in the management of maxillofacial skeletal deficiencies.atients and Methods: Distraction osteogenesis was used to correct a variety of maxillofacial skeletal deformities in five patients. One patient underwent bilateral Le Fort III advancement aided by distraction, three patients underwent mandibular

Martin Chin; Bryant A Toth

1996-01-01

186

Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone.  

PubMed

Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. PMID:23579597

Edell, Aimée R; Jung, Jesse J; Solomon, Joel M; Palu, Richard N

2013-01-01

187

Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone  

PubMed Central

Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. PMID:23579597

Edell, Aimee R; Jung, Jesse J; Solomon, Joel M; Palu, Richard N

2013-01-01

188

Analytics For Distracted Driver Behavior Modeling in Dilemma Zone  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present the results obtained and insights gained through the analysis of TRB contest data. We used exploratory analysis, regression, and clustering models for gaining insights into the driver behavior in a dilemma zone while driving under distraction. While simple exploratory analysis showed the distinguishing driver behavior patterns among different popu- lation groups in the dilemma zone, regression analysis showed statically signification relationships between groups of variables. In addition to analyzing the contest data, we have also looked into the possible impact of distracted driving on the fuel economy.

Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL] [ORNL; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL; Thakur, Gautam [ORNL] [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

189

Craniofacial morphological differences between Down syndrome and maxillary deficiency children.  

PubMed

Maxillary deficiency is one of the facial features of Down syndrome (DS). Differences in craniofacial morphology between DS and nonsyndromic skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary deficiency remain unclear. This study compared the craniofacial differences of white male children from Central-Western Brazil with DS (n = 30, mean age: 8 years 3 months), skeletal Class III profile with maxillary deficiency (n = 30, mean age: 7 years 9 months), and skeletal Class I profile (n = 30, mean age: 8 years 2 months), using lateral cephalometric radiographs. The differences among the three groups were compared with analysis of variance and Tukey's tests. The DS group showed reduced anterior cranial base (S-N, P < 0.001] and facial dimensions (Co-Gn, N-Me, N-ANS, and ANS-Me, P < 0.001), except in posterior dimensions (S-Go, P < 0.005; Ar-Go, P > 0.005). Maxillary length (Co-A, P < 0.001) and facial convexity (NAP, P < 0.005) were reduced when compared with the control group, although maxillary position to cranial base (SNA, P < 0.005) was within the normal range. A flattened cranial base (BaSN, P < 0.001) also contributed to differentiating DS from nonsyndromic groups. The group with maxillary deficiency showed a more unfavourable maxillomandibular relationship (MMD, P < 0.001) and a mandibular protrusion (SNB, P < 0.001). Subjects with DS differed from Class III with maxillary deficiency with respect to the flatter cranial base and reduced maxillary length. Maxillary deficiency was not so expressive in the face of DS subjects because of the overall reduction in craniofacial dimensions. PMID:21911842

Silva Jesuino, Flávia Aline; Valladares-Neto, José

2013-02-01

190

Three-dimensional assessment of maxillary changes associated with bone anchored maxillary protraction  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bone-anchored maxillary protraction has been shown to be an effective treatment modality for the correction of Class III malocclusions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 3-dimensional changes in the maxilla, the surrounding hard and soft tissues, and the circummaxillary sutures after bone-anchored maxillary protraction treatment. Methods Twenty-five consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean, 11.10 ± 1.1 years) were treated with Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (2 in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and 2 in the anterior mandible). Cone-beam computed tomographs were taken before initial loading and 1 year out. Three-dimensional models were generated from the tomographs, registered on the anterior cranial base, superimposed, and analyzed by using color maps. Results The maxilla showed a mean forward displacement of 3.7 mm, and the zygomas and the maxillary incisors came forward 3.7 and 4.3 mm, respectively. Conclusions This treatment approach produced significant orthopedic changes in the maxilla and the zygomas in growing Class III patients. PMID:22133943

Nguyen, Tung; Cevidanes, Lucia; Cornelis, Marie A.; Heymann, Gavin; de Paula, Leonardo K.; De Clerck, Hugo

2013-01-01

191

Primary neuroblastoma of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Although neuroblastoma is the most common of extracranial solid tumors of childhood and infancy, we report the first case of an isolated neuroblastoma of a paranasal sinus. A 15-year-old girl with a right maxillary sinus mass was asymptomatic except for persistent epiphora. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans showed that the mass extended into the nasal cavity, encroached on the lamina papyracea, and obstructed the nasofrontal duct. An extensive workup revealed no evidence of systemic disease. The patient underwent right craniofacial resection. Immunohistochemistry and electronmicroscopic findings were consistent with conventional neuroblastoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was performed with probes selected to demonstrate genetic alterations associated with neuroblastoma. Studies revealed deletion of chromosome arm 1p, gain of chromosome 17, and normal N-myc gene copy number. In summary, the tumor exhibited morphologic features and genetic alterations more consistent with those of neuroblastoma than with those of esthesioneuroblastoma. PMID:11955607

Wei, Julie L; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Smith, Justin S; Jenkins, Robert B; Passe, Sandra M; Arndt, Carola A S; Strome, Scott E

2002-04-25

192

Metastasis of mesothelioma to the maxillary gingiva  

PubMed Central

Malignant mesothelioma predominantly arises from the serosal surfaces of the pleural or peritoneal cavity. There is currently no effective standard treatment for mesothelioma and the prognosis for patients is poor; the majority of patients with malignant mesothelioma succumb between 12 and 17 months following diagnosis. The association of all forms of malignant mesothelioma with asbestos exposure has been well documented. However, metastasis to the oral gingiva is rare, as only four cases have previously been reported; two cases of metastasis to the tongue and four cases to the jaw bone. In the current report, the case of a 62-year-old male with metastatic mesothelioma is presented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the metastasis of this type of neoplasm to the maxillary gingiva. PMID:25120691

OHNISHI, YUICHI; SUGITATSU, MITSUCHIKA; WATANABE, MASAHIRO; FUJII, TOMOKO; KAKUDO, KENJI

2014-01-01

193

Tap, Swipe, or Move: Attentional Demands for Distracted Smartphone Input  

E-print Network

Tap, Swipe, or Move: Attentional Demands for Distracted Smartphone Input Matei Negulescu 1 Jaime Mountain View, CA 94043 yangli@acm.org ABSTRACT Smartphones are frequently used in environments where for smartphones involves hardware and software buttons and surface gestures, researchers have recently posited

Pregibon, Daryl

194

Improving Multi-Robot Teleoperation by Inferring Operator Distraction  

E-print Network

A high-quality human-robot interface is essential for the success of search and rescue operationsImproving Multi-Robot Teleoperation by Inferring Operator Distraction (Extended Abstract) Bennie robots greatly increases the complexity of the human's cognitive task, since the opera- tor

Sukthankar, Gita Reese

195

Open cranial vault remodeling: the evolving role of distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

In this article, we review some of the traditional techniques used to treat craniosynostosis. In addition to sharing our current approach to treating craniosynostosis with open techniques, we discuss our opinions on the evolving roles of newer modalities such as spring-assisted cranioplasty and cranial vault expansion using distraction osteogenesis. PMID:22337415

Derderian, Christopher A; Bartlett, Scott P

2012-01-01

196

Anterior Cingulate Cortex Makes 2 Contributions to Minimizing Distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we detect conflicting irrelevant stimuli (e.g., nearby conversations), we often minimize distraction by increasing attention to relevant stimuli. However, dissociating the neural substrates of processes that detect conflict and processes that increase attention has proven exceptionally difficult. Using a novel cross-modal attentional cueing task in humans, we observed regional specialization for these processes in the cognitive division of the

Joseph M. Orr; Daniel H. Weissman

2008-01-01

197

Memory for pain and the delayed effects of distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

that a neutral abstractor does not reduce people's reports of pain. However, it may be that distraction's effect is not detectable in immediate ratings, when the need to rate the pain forces the sufferer to concentrate on it ITT*^. after a delay, when the pain itself is gone and the person must base the judgment on a memory of the

Nicholas Christenfeld

1997-01-01

198

Repressive coping: Distraction using pleasant thoughts and memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

To avoid exposure to unpleasant or unwanted emotional material, some people may distract them- selves by summoning up pleasant thoughts such as happy memories. Manipulation of negative affect might therefore result in heightened accessibility of pleasant thoughts and memories, contrary to hypotheses of mood-congruent recall. In Experiment 1, repressors were faster to recall happy memo- ries after watching an unpleasant

Joseph M. Boden; Roy F. Baumeister

1997-01-01

199

Upper airway outcomes following midface distraction osteogenesis: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to systematically review the airway outcomes following distraction osteogenesis of midface with the goal of (1) deriving clinically oriented insights and (2) identifying gaps in knowledge to stimulate future research. Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched and studies were included if subjects of any age had midface retrusion/hypoplasia and underwent midface distraction osteogenesis. Outcome measures of interest were any respiratory or airway associated measures, and reports of adverse events. A total of 368 abstracts were generated from the literature searches; 16 studies met the criteria for data extraction and analysis. All 16 studies were observational. Generally, midface distraction osteogenesis was reported to improve respiratory status and was well tolerated. Specifically, favorable outcomes in cephalometry (9 studies), polysomnography (9 studies), and decannulation rates (8 studies) were reported. In conclusion, upper airway status was improved in most patients who underwent midface distraction osteogenesis, yet long-term results and consistent objective measures are lacking. Studies reviewed were retrospective case series and details regarding patients who did not improve were deficient. A standardized prospective multicenter cohort trial with long-term patient follow up is required. PMID:24631233

Taylor, B A; Brace, M; Hong, P

2014-07-01

200

U.s. State and federal laws targeting distracted driving.  

PubMed

Distracted driving has burgeoned with the proliferation of cell phones, global positioning systems and other in-vehicle and personal electronic devices. Annually more than 3,300 people are killed and an additional 400,000 are injured in the United States in distracted driving crashes. The United States (U.S.) federal and state governments have responded to this public health problem with policies and laws; however, a more comprehensive and more effective approach is still needed. Some restrictions on the use of electronic devices while driving by federal employees and some voluntary guidelines and recommendations have been issued. Public opinion polls show support for addressing the issue of distracted driving with state laws. The majority of states have laws banning text messaging while driving and prohibiting the use of an electronic device by teenage or novice drivers. Some states prohibit all drivers from using a hand-held cellphone. Currently no state has a total ban on the use of personal electronic devices while driving. Successful past traffic safety campaigns changing driver behavior have demonstrated the necessity to adopt a "three Es" approach of Enactment of a law, Education of the public about the law, and rigorous Enforcement of the law. Experience reveals that this approach, along with future federal regulation of in-vehicle electronic devices and the employment of technology to limit the use of electronic devices while driving, is needed to alter personal behavior in order to reduce distractions and keep drivers focused on the driving task. PMID:24776229

Catherine Chase, J D

2014-01-01

201

U.S. State and Federal Laws Targeting Distracted Driving  

PubMed Central

Distracted driving has burgeoned with the proliferation of cell phones, global positioning systems and other in-vehicle and personal electronic devices. Annually more than 3,300 people are killed and an additional 400,000 are injured in the United States in distracted driving crashes. The United States (U.S.) federal and state governments have responded to this public health problem with policies and laws; however, a more comprehensive and more effective approach is still needed. Some restrictions on the use of electronic devices while driving by federal employees and some voluntary guidelines and recommendations have been issued. Public opinion polls show support for addressing the issue of distracted driving with state laws. The majority of states have laws banning text messaging while driving and prohibiting the use of an electronic device by teenage or novice drivers. Some states prohibit all drivers from using a hand-held cellphone. Currently no state has a total ban on the use of personal electronic devices while driving. Successful past traffic safety campaigns changing driver behavior have demonstrated the necessity to adopt a “three Es” approach of Enactment of a law, Education of the public about the law, and rigorous Enforcement of the law. Experience reveals that this approach, along with future federal regulation of in-vehicle electronic devices and the employment of technology to limit the use of electronic devices while driving, is needed to alter personal behavior in order to reduce distractions and keep drivers focused on the driving task. PMID:24776229

Catherine Chase, J.D.

2014-01-01

202

The effect of visual and cognitive distraction on driver’s anticipation in a simulated car following scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distraction is a common cause of accidents (e.g. NHTSA, 2009), and different distraction conditions influence the driving behaviour in a specific way. Despite a lot of research in this area, most studies concentrate on perception errors as a result of visual distraction. The effects of different distraction conditions on higher cognitive processes are still unclear. The fact that accidents happen

Elke Muhrer; Mark Vollrath

2011-01-01

203

Wnt6 is required for maxillary palp formation in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background Wnt6 is an evolutionarily ancient member of the Wnt family. In Drosophila, Wnt6 loss-of-function animals have not yet been reported, hence information about fly Wnt6 function is lacking. In wing discs, Wnt6 is expressed at the dorsal/ventral boundary in a pattern similar to that of wingless, an important regulator of wing size. To test whether Wnt6 also contributes towards wing size regulation, we generated Wnt6 knockout flies. Results Wnt6 knockout flies are viable and have no obvious defect in wing size or planar cell polarity. Surprisingly, Wnt6 knockouts lack maxillary palps. Interestingly, Wnt6 is absent from the genome of hemipterans, correlating with the absence of maxillary palps in these insects. Conclusions Wnt6 is important for maxillary palp development in Drosophila, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that loss of Wnt6 may also have led to loss of maxillary palps on an evolutionary time scale. PMID:24090348

2013-01-01

204

The effect of distractions on the crash types of teenage drivers.  

PubMed

Teenage drivers are overrepresented in crashes when compared to middle-aged drivers. Driver distraction is becoming a greater concern among this group as in-vehicle devices, opportunities for distractions, and teenage drivers' willingness to engage in these activities increase. The objective of this study was to determine how different distraction factors impact the crash types that are common among teenage drivers. A multinomial logit model was developed to predict the likelihood that a driver will be involved in one of three common crash types: an angular collision with a moving vehicle, a rear-end collision with a moving lead vehicle, and a collision with a fixed object. These crashes were evaluated in terms of four driver distraction categories: cognitive, cell phone related, in-vehicle, and passenger-related distractions. Different driver distractions have varying effects on teenage drivers' crash involvement. Teenage drivers that were distracted at an intersection by passengers or cognitively were more likely to be involved in rear-end and angular collisions when compared to fixed-object collisions. In-vehicle distractions resulted in a greater likelihood of a collision with a fixed object when compared to angular collisions. Cell phone distractions resulted in a higher likelihood of rear-end collision. The results from this study need to be evaluated with caution due to the limited number of distraction related cases available in the U.S. GES crash database. Implications for identifying and improving the reporting of driver distraction related factors are therefore discussed. PMID:16996017

Neyens, David M; Boyle, Linda Ng

2007-01-01

205

Uncontrolled epistaxis secondary to traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the maxillary artery.  

PubMed

We describe a rare case of traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the maxillary artery following a fall. The patient presented with epistaxis that could not be controlled with anterior and posterior nasal packing. She was urgently taken to the angiography suite for evaluation and ultimately underwent embolization of a left maxillary artery pseudoaneurysm with 500-700?micron Contour PVA followed by coiling with two 3?mm Tornado coils. Bleeding subsided after embolization, and the patient suffered no neurologic sequelae. PMID:22937363

Adil, Eelam; Setabutr, Dhave; Carr, Michele M

2011-01-01

206

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a rare tumor, mostly affecting the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity. We report a case of PLGA which occurred within the maxillary sinus in a 59-year-old woman. The tumor was resected through a transnasal endoscopic approach with wide margins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case with primary PLGA of the maxillary sinus. PMID:23714964

Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

2013-05-01

207

Validity of palatal superimposition of 3-dimensional digital models in cases treated with rapid maxillary expansion and maxillary protraction headgear  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the 3-dimensional (3D) superimposition method of digital models in patients who received treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and maxillary protraction headgear. Methods The material consisted of pre- and post-treatment maxillary dental casts and lateral cephalograms of 30 patients, who underwent RME and maxillary protraction headgear treatment. Digital models were superimposed using the palate as a reference area. The movement of the maxillary central incisor and the first molar was measured on superimposed cephalograms and 3D digital models. To determine whether any difference existed between the 2 measuring techniques, intra-class correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were analyzed. Results The measurements on the 3D digital models and cephalograms showed a very high correlation in the antero-posterior direction (ICC, 0.956 for central incisor and 0.941 for first molar) and a moderate correlation in the vertical direction (ICC, 0.748 for central incisor and 0.717 for first molar). Conclusions The 3D model superimposition method using the palate as a reference area is as clinically reliable for assessing antero-posterior tooth movement as cephalometric superimposition, even in cases treated with orthopedic appliances, such as RME and maxillary protraction headgear. PMID:23173116

Choi, Jin-Il; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg; Choi, Dong-Soon; Jang, In-San

2012-01-01

208

[Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome].  

PubMed

Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor syndrome is a rare condition (prevalence 1:50,000), with the characteristic dental feature of a solitary central incisor in the maxilla, positioned exactly in the midline. This single incisor is symmetrical and can be present in the deciduous as well as in the permanent dentition. The syndrome can occur as a mild form of the broad holoprosencephaly-spectrum, but can also be associated with other characteristics. The etiology is still largely unknown, but the syndrome is probably based especially on genetic causes. Early recognition of the syndrome is of great importance for establishing the diagnosis, for additional investigation, for possible treatment of associated anomalies and for the correct advice concerning the risk of inheritance of severe congenital birth defects, related to holoprosencephaly. Dentists and orthodontists can play an important role in this regard and should therefore be able to recognise the clinical features of this condition and know how to refer a patient for further diagnostic counselling. PMID:25296470

Scholtes, E; Kawamoto, T; Ockeloen, C W; Kleefstra, T; Carels, C E L

2014-09-01

209

A bioarcheological study of maxillary sinusitis.  

PubMed

Maxillary sinusitis was studied as an indicator of poor air quality. Seven skeletal samples were examined from North America, England, and Nubia, and selected to represent different geographic locations, environments, and subsistence economies. Frequency rates varied from 17.2 to 51.5% of individuals affected with one or both sinuses preserved. Hardin Village had the highest frequency (51.5%), followed by the Aleuts (42.9%), "Illinois" (38.6%), Indian Knoll (38.5%), Kulubnarti (21.8%), Christchurch, Spitalfields (18.0%), and "South Dakota" (17.2%). Male frequencies ranged from 16.7 to 36.7%, but the female frequency ranged more widely from 18.0 to 76.5%. At most sites female rates exceeded male. The effect of urban and rural environment on sinusitis occurrence, and also subsistence economy, biological sex, and social status were explored, and comparative sites also considered; urban agricultural sites had a mean frequency of 48.5%, rural agricultural sites had a mean frequency of 45.0%, and hunter-gatherer sites had a mean frequency of 40.0%. In the urban sites male and female frequencies were near equal, but in the rural agricultural and hunter-gatherer sites female frequencies exceeded male frequencies. Dental disease was not found to have much impact on sinusitis frequency. The importance of the link between poor air quality and respiratory health is highlighted in clinical studies in both developed and developing countries, but also in bioarcheological studies. PMID:17427926

Roberts, Charlotte A

2007-06-01

210

Horizontal Root Fracture Accompanied by Luxation of Coronal Fragment in a Maxillary Central Incisor: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Root fracture injuries affect up to 7% of permanent teeth. This type of injury is rarely seen in teeth with open apices and depending on the fracture site, the prognosis is good. This case report describes a horizontal intra-alveolar root fracture in the middle third of a maxillary central incisor associated with an extrusive luxation of the coronal segment and its treatment in a 6-year-old girl. The patient was observed under a regular follow-up regime. After 2 years, clinical examination showed normal tooth color and position, with a positive response to the pulp test. PMID:24578824

Gharechahi, Maryam

2013-01-01

211

A Osteogenesis Distraction Device Enabling Control of Vertical Direction for Syndromic Craniosynostosis  

PubMed Central

Background: We have developed a hybrid facial osteogenesis distraction system that combines the advantages of external and internal distraction devices to enable control of both the distraction distance and vector. However, when the advanced maxilla has excessive clockwise rotation and shifts more downward vertically than planned, it might be impossible to pull it up to correct it. We invented devices attached to external distraction systems that can control the vertical vector of distraction to resolve this problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the result of utilizing the distraction system for syndromic craniosynostosis. Methods: In addition to a previously reported hybrid facial distraction system, the devices for controlling the vertical direction of the advanced maxilla were attached to the external distraction device. The vertical direction of the advanced maxilla can be controlled by adjustment of the spindle units. This system was used for 2 patients with Crouzon and Apert syndrome. Results: The system enabled control of the vertical distance, with no complications during the procedures. As a result, the maxilla could be advanced into the planned position including overcorrection without excessive clockwise rotation of distraction. Conclusion: Our system can alter the cases and bring them into the planned position, by controlling the vertical vector of distraction. We believe that this system might be effective in infants with syndromic craniosynostosis as it involves 2 osteotomies and horizontal and vertical direction of elongation can be controlled.

Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Maegawa, Jiro

2014-01-01

212

Effects of auditory distractions on driving behavior during lane change course negotiation: estimation of spare mental capacity as a index of attention distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a procedure to quantitatively estimate auditory distractions that are not accompanied by any visual diversions to clarify the influence of non-visual distractions on driving. In a laboratory experiment, spare mental capacities (measured in bits\\/s) for three arithmetic tasks were estimated for each subject driver, using the functional relation between the reaction time and the number of alternatives

Hiroshi Uno; Kaneo Hiramatsu

2000-01-01

213

Music is as distracting as noise: the differential distraction of background music and noise on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found that introverts' performance on complex cognitive tasks is more negatively affected by distracters, e.g. music and background television, than by extraverts' performance. This study extended previous research by examining whether background noise would be as distracting as music. In the presence of silence, background garage music and office noise, 38 introverts and 38 extraverts carried out

Adrian Furnham; Lisa Strbac

2002-01-01

214

The relation between pogonion advancement and posterior maxillary impaction.  

PubMed

Controversy exists about the relation between the amount of posterior maxillary impaction and pogonion (P) advancement. The aims of the current study were to (1) propose a formula to predict the amount of P advancement due to posterior maxillary impaction surgery, (2) predict the amount of posterior maxillary impaction by means of a formula to achieve the best facial harmony, and (3) identify the compatibility between proposed formulas and the actual resultant mandibular position after posterior maxillary impaction surgery. For obtaining the formulas, 2 cephalograms were taken from 1 patient in centric occlusion and rest position. Afterward, mandibular rotational center was obtained by superimposing the cephalograms; by the help of which the 2 formulas were obtained. To check the reliability of the formulas, 10 patients with the mean age of 21 +/- 1.5 years who had undergone posterior maxillary impaction were selected. The presurgical and postsurgical cephalograms of patients were obtained. These cephalograms were superimposed to find the center of mandibular rotation. Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the relation between the suggested formulas and the clinical data. This test showed that there were significant correlations between maxillary impaction and P advancement in both the formulas and clinical evaluation. This correlation (r) was 0.993 (P < 0.001) based on formulas and r = 0.806 (P < 0.005) based on tracing. This study showed that the amounts of anterior facial height reduction and P advancement were almost the same, and the anterior facial height was reduced 1.5 times more than the amount of maxillary impaction. PMID:19349906

Jamilian, Abdolreza; Showkatbakhsh, Abdolrahman; Gholami, Dariush; Kamali, Zinat

2009-05-01

215

Segmented combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combustor liner segment includes a panel having four sidewalls forming a rectangular outer perimeter. A plurality of integral supporting lugs are disposed substantially perpendicularly to the panel and extend from respective ones of the four sidewalls. A plurality of integral bosses are disposed substantially perpendicularly to the panel and extend from respective ones of the four sidewalls, with the bosses being shorter than the lugs. In one embodiment, the lugs extend through supporting holes in an annular frame for mounting the liner segments thereto, with the bosses abutting the frame for maintaining a predetermined spacing therefrom.

Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

216

Preliminary clinical research on epiphyseal distraction in osteosarcoma in children  

PubMed Central

Background The feasibility of distal femur epiphysis preservation through epiphyseal distraction by external fixator in childhood osteosarcoma was explored. Methods Between July 2007 and May 2011, 10 children who were suffering from distal femur osteosarcoma received epiphyseal distraction by external fixator, combined with tumor resection and repair with massive allograft bone to preserve the epiphysis of the distal femur and knee function. There were six male and four female patients, 9- to 14-years old (average 10.5 years old). The tumors were staged clinically according to the Enneking staging method: six cases were classified as stage in IIA and four cases as stage in IIB. All patients were diagnosed by biopsy, then received chemotherapy before and after surgery. All patients received tumor bone resection and the defects of the bone were repaired with massive allograft bone that was fixed by intramedullary nails; the distracted epiphysis and allograft bone were fixed with cancellous screws. Results All cases received follow-up from 15 to 56 months (average 38.5 months). There were no local recurrences. One case died of lung metastasis and one case had poor incision healing for rejection of allograft bone. According to the functional evaluation criteria of the International Society of Limb Salvage (ISOLS) after operation, five cases were rated excellent, four cases good and one case fair. The ratio of excellent or good was 90.0%. There was no statistically significant difference in length between the operated and the normal lower limbs during the last review. Conclusions Epiphyseal distraction by external fixator can result in satisfactory limb length and joint function for children with a malignant bone tumor. PMID:25099460

2014-01-01

217

Distracting effect of TV watching on children's reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment, aimed to evaluate the distracting effect of television, was carried out on 122 children, divided into three\\u000a groups. All groups performed the auditory vigilance test (AVT) to assess reaction time (RT) to an auditory stimulus and the\\u000a number of errors in responding to the stimulus. Children in group 1 performed the AVT while in front of a blank

Carlo V. Bellieni; Giulio Fontani; Franco Corradeschi; Lorenzo Iantorno; Marianna Maffei; Silvia Migliorini; Serafina Perrone; Giuseppe Buonocore

2010-01-01

218

Dissociable Neural Systems Resolve Conflict from Emotional versus Nonemotional Distracters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human brain protects the processing of task-relevant stimuli from interference (''conflict'') by task-irrelevant stimuli via atten- tional biasing mechanisms. The lateral prefrontal cortex has been implicated in resolving conflict between competing stimuli by selectively enhancing task-relevant stimulus representations in sensory cortices. Conversely, recent data suggest that conflict from emotional distracters may be resolved by an alternative route, wherein the

Tobias Egner; Amit Etkin; Seth Gale; Joy Hirsch

2007-01-01

219

Valuation of AW: modeling the impacts of distractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Auditory and visual distractions originating in the workspace have been shown to negatively impact the performance of knowledge workers on complex tasks. The paper aims to theorize that an adaptable workspace (AW) can mitigate the negative impacts on performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A conceptual multi-attribute utility model is presented to facilitate decision-maker's choice between a static and an adaptable

Kathy O. Roper; Parminder Juneja

2007-01-01

220

Distraction osteogenesis with conventional external fixator for tibial bone loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1991 and 2002, we treated 21 patients with tibial bone loss using a conventional external fixator. Nine patients had an infected open fracture and 12 patients an infected nonunion. After corticotomy, the bone was distracted at the rate of 1 mm (1 mm\\/step) on alternate days or every 48 h. The mean follow-up period was 18.7 (6–108) months after fixator removal. The

Chanchit Sangkaew

2004-01-01

221

Does Distraction Reduce Pain-Produced Distress Among College Students?  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students in four experiments placed their hands in ice water (the cold-pressor task) and reported their distress. They simultaneously engaged in different reaction-time (RT) tasks that varied in the amount of attention required for successful performance. In each experiment, which differed in numerous procedural details, RT, error-rate, and self-report measures all demonstrated that the distraction tasks differed in the

Kevin D. McCaul; Nancy Monson; Ruth H. Maki

1992-01-01

222

Distraction: its utilization and efficacy with children undergoing dental treatment.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the utilization and efficacy of distraction in reducing the anxious and disruptive behavior of 4 children undergoing dental treatment. During the distraction procedure, the children were shown a poster and told a story about it during dental treatment. They earned a prize if they attended to the poster and story and could correctly answer questions about them following each intervention visit. The children's disruptive behavior was assessed via direct observation, and results were analyzed within a multiple baseline design. The children exhibited high levels of anxious and disruptive behavior across baseline visits, regardless of the length of time in treatment or number of visits. Anxious and disruptive behavior decreased upon introduction of the intervention for all children. This was accompanied by the children meeting the criterion for correct answers on the distraction quiz. However, 2 of the children demonstrated an increase in their anxious and disruptive behavior across intervention visits. Results are discussed in terms of the need to evaluate treatment strategies that promote maintenance as well as initial changes. PMID:2793636

Stark, L J; Allen, K D; Hurst, M; Nash, D A; Rigney, B; Stokes, T F

1989-01-01

223

Concealed by conspicuousness: distractive prey markings and backgrounds  

PubMed Central

High-contrast markings, called distractive or dazzle markings, have been suggested to draw and hold the attention of a viewer, thus hindering detection or recognition of revealing prey characteristics, such as the body outline. We tested this hypothesis in a predation experiment with blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and artificial prey. We also tested whether this idea can be extrapolated to the background appearance and whether high-contrast markings in the background would improve prey concealment. We compared search times for a high-contrast range prey (HC-P) and a low-contrast range prey (LC-P) in a high-contrast range background (HC-B) and a low-contrast range background (LC-B). The HC-P was more difficult to detect in both backgrounds, although it did not match the LC-B. Also, both prey types were more difficult to find in the HC-B than in the LC-B, in spite of the mismatch of the LC-P. In addition, the HC-P was more difficult to detect, in both backgrounds, when compared with a generalist prey, not mismatching either background. Thus, we conclude that distractive prey pattern markings and selection of microhabitats with distractive features may provide an effective way to improve camouflage. Importantly, high-contrast markings, both as part of the prey coloration and in the background, can indeed increase prey concealment. PMID:19324754

Dimitrova, Marina; Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H. Martin; Merilaita, Sami

2009-01-01

224

Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on sleep characteristics in children  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthopedic treatment procedure routinely used to treat constricted maxillary arches and also a potential additional treatment in children presenting with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RME on sleep characteristics in children. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on children of 8-13 years of age before expansion (T0), after expansion (T1) and after a period of 3 months after retention (T2). Bonded rapid maxillary expander was cemented in all children. Inter-molar distance was also measured at T0 and T2. Statistical Analysis: Nonparametric Friedman test was used for comparing the averages of sleep parameters at different time period (T0, T1, T2). Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for comparing the averages of inter-molar width (T0-T2). P < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: All children showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, decreased in arousal and desaturation index after expansion. Total sleep time showed a statistically significant increase after expansion. A statistically significant increase in inter-molar distance was obtained after expansion. Conclusions: Rapid maxillary expansion is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep even in normal children without SDB. It also induces widening of the maxilla, corrects posterior crossbites and improves maxillary and mandibular dental arch coordination.

Ashok, Navya; Varma, N. K. Sapna; Ajith, V. V.; Gopinath, Siby

2014-01-01

225

COGNITIVE DISTRACTION AND AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN’S ENDORSEMENT OF GENDER ROLE STEREOTYPES  

E-print Network

The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants’ awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they each completed a series of questionnaires assessing beliefs about gender role stereotypes. Participants who were distracted showed differences in endorsement of male gender role stereotypes from those who weren’t distracted but not for female gender role stereotypes. Results underscore the effect of cognitive distraction on gender stereotyping. Findings contribute to understanding of social cognitive processing and extend the small body of research in this area that focuses on African Americans.

Kalynda Smith; Kellina Craig-henderson

2010-01-01

226

The effect of distractions in the operating room during endourological procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Professionals working in the operating room (OR) are subject to various distractions that can be detrimental to their task\\u000a performance and the quality of their work. This study aimed to quantify the frequency, nature, and effect on performance of\\u000a (potentially) distracting events occurring during endourological procedures and additionally explored urologists’ and residents’\\u000a perspectives on experienced ill effects due to distracting

Marjolein C. PersoonHans; Hans J. H. P. Broos; J. Alfred Witjes; Ad. J. M. Hendrikx; Albert J. J. M. Scherpbier

2011-01-01

227

The Effects of Visual and Cognitive Distraction on Driver Situation Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Driver distraction has become a major concern for transportation safety due to the increasing use of in–vehicle devices. To\\u000a reduce safety risk, it is crucial to understand how fundamental aspects of distracting activities affect driver cognition\\u000a in terms of roadway situation awareness. This study used a simulator-based experiment to investigate the effects of visual,\\u000a cognitive and simultaneous distraction on operational

Meghan Rogers; Yu Zhang; David Kaber; Yulan Liang; Shruti Gangakhedkar

228

Interaction between visual status, driver age and distracters on daytime driving performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of visual status, driver age and the presence of secondary distracter tasks on driving performance. Twenty young (M=26.8years) and 19 old (M=70.2years) participants drove around a closed-road circuit under three visual (normal, simulated cataracts, blur) and three distracter conditions (none, visual, auditory). Simulated visual impairment, increased driver age and the presence of a distracter task

Joanne Wood; Alex Chaparro; Louise Hickson

2009-01-01

229

Non-Erotic Cognitive Distractions During Sexual Activity in Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences\\u000a exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction\\u000a is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well\\u000a as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an

Katharine Lacefield; Charles Negy

230

Maxillary osteosarcoma in a prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).  

PubMed

To date, few tumors have been identified in prairie dogs, with odontoma being the most common. Osteosarcoma has been documented in a wide range of species, including a number of rodents. In this case, a locally invasive maxillary osteosarcoma was diagnosed in a prairie dog. Gross examination revealed a pale, tan, lobulated, sessile maxillary mass extending ventrally into the oral cavity from the hard palate and the gingiva surrounding the upper right cheek teeth. The mass invaded the right nasal cavity and retrobulbar space causing exophthalmia. Microscopically, the mass consisted of densely packed spindle-shaped cells with occasional multinucleated giant cells. Brightly eosinophilic osteoid was multifocally scattered in the tumor mass. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented report of maxillary osteosarcoma in a prairie dog. PMID:16789726

Mouser, Pamela; Cole, Alex; Lin, Tsang Long

2006-05-01

231

Maxillary odontogenic sinusitis, complicated with cerebral abscess--case report.  

PubMed

Maxillary sinus inflammation, when untreated or incorrectly treated, may extend locoregionally, the remaining paranasal sinuses being the first affected anatomical structures. This is why the understanding of the inflammatory pathology of the maxillary sinus, and particularly of the complications it can generate, is extremely important. The purpose of this presentation is to point out that inflammations of the paranasal sinuses are susceptible to develop complications in certain conditions and threaten the patient's life due to the proximity of vital structures. This is the case of a 16 years old male patient who developed a left maxillary and frontal sinusitis, complicated with cerebral abscess. Early detection, multidisciplinary approach and proper indication of surgical treatment, as well as early suspicion of complication, especially in young male adolescents, are extremely important. PMID:22712359

Oni?or-Gligor, F; Lung, T; Pintea, B; Mure?an, O; Pop, P B; Juncar, M

2012-01-01

232

Age-Related Preservation of Top-Down Control over Distraction in Visual Search  

PubMed Central

Visual search studies have demonstrated that older adults can have preserved or even increased top-down control over distraction. However, the results are mixed as to the extent of this age-related preservation. The present experiment assesses group differences in younger and older adults during visual search, with a task featuring two conditions offering varying degrees of top-down control over distraction. After controlling for generalized slowing, the analyses revealed that the age groups were equally capable of utilizing top-down control to minimize distraction. Furthermore, for both age groups, the distraction effect was manifested in a sustained manner across the reaction time distribution. PMID:20544447

Costello, Matthew C.; Madden, David J.; Shepler, Anne M.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; Leber, Andrew B.

2009-01-01

233

Rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis: latency, rate, and rhythm determine the adaptive response.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis is a well-established technique of endogenous tissue engineering. The biomechanical factors thought to affect the quality of the distraction regenerate include the latency, rate, rhythm, and consolidation period. In an effort to understand the impact of these parameters on regenerate bone formation, this study was designed to decipher the most adaptive response in a rat model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Ninety-six adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 16 subgroups (n = 6 per subgroup) based on variations in the distraction parameters (i.e., latency, rate, and rhythm). After a 28-day consolidation period, the mandibles were harvested, decalcified, and sectioned. A standardized histologic ranking system was used to evaluate the effect of each protocol on the adaptive response of the regenerate bone. In this study, we have demonstrated that the latency period dramatically affects the success of distraction osteogenesis. Furthermore, distraction rates up to 0.50 mm per day stimulated excellent regenerate bone formation, whereas greater distraction rates produced a fibrous union. Finally, higher frequency distraction (i.e., increased rhythm) appeared to accelerate regenerate bone formation. We believe that defining the critical parameters of this model will improve future analysis of gene expression during rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis and may facilitate the development of biologically based strategies designed to enhance regenerate bone formation. PMID:11314629

Paccione, M F; Mehrara, B J; Warren, S M; Greenwald, J A; Spector, J A; Luchs, J S; Longaker, M T

2001-03-01

234

Capillary Hemangioma in Maxillary Anterior Region: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Hemangiomas are relatively common benign proliferative lesion of vascular tissue origin. They are often present at birth and may become more apparent throughout life. They are seen on facial skin, tongue, lips, buccal mucosa and palate as well as muscles. Hemangiomas occur more common in females than males. This case report presents a case of capillary hemangioma in maxillary anterior region in a 10-year-old boy. How to cite this article: Satish V, Bhat M, Maganur PC, Shah P, Biradar V. Capillary Hemangioma in Maxillary Anterior Region: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):144-147. PMID:25356016

Bhat, Manohar; Maganur, Prabhadevi C; Shah, Parth; Biradar, Vijay

2014-01-01

235

Zygoma implant reconstruction of acquired maxillary bony defects.  

PubMed

The reconstruction of acquired maxillary bony defects after pathologic ablation, infectious debridement, avulsive trauma, or previously failed reconstructions with zygoma implants represents a treatment alternative that is safe, predictable, and cost-effective. Still the single most important factor for treatment success of these complex reconstructions is the implementation of a team approach between the surgeon and the restorative dentist. The focus of this article is to review the surgical and prosthetic nuances to successfully reconstruct acquired maxillary defects with zygoma implants. PMID:23642670

Vega, Luis G; Gielincki, William; Fernandes, Rui P

2013-05-01

236

Interdisciplinary approach for the management of bilaterally impacted maxillary canines  

PubMed Central

Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. This case report describes the orthodontic management of a 16-year-old adolescent female patient with bilateral labially impacted maxillary canines. The problems associated with impacted maxillary canines and the biomechanical interventions used for this patient are discussed. The treatment protocol involved surgical intervention, followed by sequential traction of the impacted teeth. An interdisciplinary approach to treatment with different mechanical strategies led to the achievement of the desired esthetic, functional, and occlusal treatment goals.

Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P.; Tandon, Pradeep

2014-01-01

237

A case of monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon benign disease of the bone, with slow progression. Monostotic involvement of the paranasal sinuses is rare. We report a 54-year-old woman who had complaints of facial asymmetry, chronic sinusitis, recurrent headaches, and nasal obstruction for two years. Conventional radiography showed opacification and expansion of the maxillary sinus. Axial and coronal computed tomography scans showed a heterogeneous mass that expanded the right maxillary sinus, leading to nasal obstruction and cortical thickening of the maxilla. No signs of destruction or erosion in the cortical bone were identified. An endonasal endoscopic biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia was confirmed histologically. PMID:12970595

Erdem, L Oktay; Erdem, C Zuhal; Kargi, Sebnem

2003-05-01

238

Immediate implants in anterior maxillary arch  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the osseo-integration and soft tissue status of the endosseous implants placed in immediate extraction socket. Methodology: Seven patients (4 males and 3 females) aged 20-30 years were selected for the study. Nine implants were placed in seven patients in the maxillary arch. All the patients were clinically ?nd thoroughly examined. Under local anesthesia, the indicated tooth was extracted. The extracted socket was prepared using standard drills with palatal wall as guide. The longest and widest implants were placed (Hi-Tec Implants). All implants showed good primary stability. The implants used in the study were tapered design endosseous implants with Threaded implants (TI) unit plasma-sprayed surface. Surgical re-entry (secondary surgery) was performed to remove the healing cap after 6 months for supra crestal fabrication. All patients were reviewed periodically at 3rd and 6th month interval and the following clinical parameters including modified plaque index (mPlI), modified bleeding index (mBI), probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL), and distance between the implant shoulder and mucosal margin (DIM), distance between the implant shoulder and first bone-implant contact, and Clinical Mobility Index were recorded. The results were computed and subjected to statistical evaluation. Results: The mPlI, mBI, PD, AL, and DIM were evaluated around the implants at baseline, 3rd and 6th month intervals and analyzed statistically by Friedman T-test. The results of the above were shown to be statistically non-significant. The distance between the implant shoulder and first bone implant contact was evaluated around the implants at base line, 3rd and 6th month intervals. The results proved to be statistically significant (0.01) implying that there was a bone apposition around the implants. Conclusion: During the course of the study, soft tissue status around implants was found to be healthy. Osseointegration as assessed by clinical and radiographic findings was found to be sound. PMID:24678203

Anitha, K.; Kumar, S. Senthil; Babu, M. R. Ramesh; Candamourty, Ramesh; Thirumurugan

2014-01-01

239

Neural signatures of the response to emotional distraction: a review of evidence from brain imaging investigations  

PubMed Central

Prompt responses to emotional, potentially threatening, stimuli are supported by neural mechanisms that allow for privileged access of emotional information to processing resources. The existence of these mechanisms can also make emotional stimuli potent distracters, particularly when task-irrelevant. The ability to deploy cognitive control in order to cope with emotional distraction is essential for adaptive behavior, while reduced control may lead to enhanced emotional distractibility, which is often a hallmark of affective disorders. Evidence suggests that increased susceptibility to emotional distraction is linked to changes in the processing of emotional information that affect both the basic response to and coping with emotional distraction, but the neural correlates of these phenomena are not clear. The present review discusses emerging evidence from brain imaging studies addressing these issues, and highlights the following three aspects. First, the response to emotional distraction is associated with opposing patterns of activity in a ventral “hot” affective system (HotEmo, showing increased activity) and a dorsal “cold” executive system (ColdEx, showing decreased activity). Second, coping with emotional distraction involves top–down control in order to counteract the bottom-up influence of emotional distraction, and involves interactions between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Third, both the response to and coping with emotional distraction are influenced by individual differences affecting emotional sensitivity and distractibility, which are linked to alterations of both HotEmo and ColdEx neural systems. Collectively, the available evidence identifies specific neural signatures of the response to emotional challenge, which are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of emotion-cognition interactions in healthy functioning, and the changes linked to individual variation in emotional distractibility and susceptibility to affective disorders. PMID:23761741

Iordan, A. D.; Dolcos, S.; Dolcos, F.

2013-01-01

240

A CT scan technique for quantitative volumetric assessment of the mandible after distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis has become an accepted method of treatment for patients requiring reconstruction of hypoplastic mandibles. We present a quantitative analysis of volumetric changes after distraction osteogenesis in a series of 10 patients. Group I (n = 5 patients, 3 unilateral craniofacial microsomia, 1 Goldenhaar syndrome, and 1 bilateral craniofacial microsomia) underwent unilateral distraction of the mandible. Group II (n = 5 patients, 1 Nager syndrome, 1 bilateral craniofacial microsomia, 1 developmental micrognathia, and 2 Treacher Collins syndrome) underwent bilateral distraction of the mandible. Predistraction and postdistraction axial and three-dimensional computed tomographic (CT) scans were digitized and transferred to a computer for analysis with image-processing software to determine the changes in volume of the mandible and bony regenerate. The CT-derived volume method was validated by scanning three dry cadaver mandible specimens and comparing the volume data with those derived from a water-displacement method. The difference between the two methods was less than 5 percent. The mean distracted length, as recorded from the calibrated device, was 22.6 mm in the 10 patients. In the unilateral distraction group, the mean increase in hemimandibular bone volume was 2.8 cc, with a mean percentage increase of 27 percent in the distracted hemimandible. In the bilaterally distracted patients, the mean increase in total mandibular volume was 7.9 cc, with a mean percentage increase in bone volume of 25 percent. This study represents the first attempt to quantify the increase in bone volume resulting from distraction osteogenesis. Quantitative volumetric analysis of CT scans is an accurate method to measure the amount of bone regenerate in patients undergoing distraction osteogenesis of the mandible or the extremities. The concept and utility of quantifying the volumetric changes in bone following distraction osteogenesis may become more important as multiplanar devices are developed and used in other areas of the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:9105350

Roth, D A; Gosain, A K; McCarthy, J G; Stracher, M A; Lefton, D R; Grayson, B H

1997-04-01

241

Beneficial effects of growth hormone therapy for ossification defects after bone distraction in X linked hypophosphataemic rickets.  

PubMed

A report on two homozygous twin girls affected by X linked hypophosphataemic rickets. They were examined due to short stature and genu varum of both tibias. They were treated with calcitriol and Joulie's solution, whereon it was observed that serum parathyroid hormone and phosphaturia decreased while phosphataemia increased. They underwent a tibial osteotomy (by means of the insertion of Kirchner needles) at 7.7?years of age for correction of genu varum and a normal consolidation was reached 1?month later. Nonetheless, height was percentile <1 after menarche, so both sisters asked for bone lengthening. Because of this, at 15?years of age femoral distraction was performed, but no bone callus was observed 14?months later. Consequently, they were treated with subcutaneous growth hormone, showing bone callus at 6?months. Finally, the external fixators were removed due to ossification in the lengthened segments. PMID:25115781

Cañete, Ramón; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Aguilar-Quintero, María; Vázquez-Rueda, Fernando

2014-01-01

242

Structure and distribution of sensilla on maxillary palps and labella of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies.  

PubMed

The typology, number, size, and distribution pattern of labellar and palpal sensilla of male and female Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) sand flies were analyzed by scanning electron and light microscopy, contributing to the construction of a gustatory and olfactory map in this important vector species. About 35 trichoid sensilla, sorted into three different classes according to their lengths, are present on the two labellar lobes. Five distinct structures are observed in the maxillary palps, which could be classified as noninnervated (microtrichia and scales) or the following innervated structures: 1) campaniform sensilla, found near the distal end of palpal segments II and III; 2) multiporous capitate peg sensilla, found in reduced number (1-6) on segment II, but located in a group of 15-25 on the distal third part of segment III; and 3) trichoid sensilla, distributed linearly on segment IV and spirally on segment V. Light microscopy analysis of silver-stained specimens indicated the presence of pores in the trichoid sensilla and their chemosensory function is discussed, as well as the possible function of the other sensilla. PMID:16003785

Spiegel, Carolina N; Oliveira, Sandra M P; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Soares, Maurilio J

2005-04-15

243

Maxillary sinus posterior wall remodeling following surgery for silent sinus syndrome.  

PubMed

Silent SINUS SYNDROME is a clinical syndrome defined by unilateral maxillary sinus opacification with atelectasis of the uncinate process. Clinically, this disorder is characterized by enophthalmos and hypoglobus. The current case report illustrates dramatic bony remodeling of the maxillary sinus following maxillary antrostomy. Although the remodeling is noted in the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus, this demonstrates the dynamic nature of bone remodeling in silent sinus syndrome, which may obviate the need for surgical correction of enophthalmos and hypoglobus. Following maxillary antrostomy, observation with staged orbital surgery, if required, is recommended. PMID:24962949

Kram, Yoseph Aaron; Pletcher, Steven D

2014-01-01

244

Effects of calcitonin and alendronate on distraction osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

In this experimental animal study the effects of calcitonin and alendronate on distraction osteogenesis are investigated. Forty-five mature female New Zealand type rabbits were used. Rabbits were randomized into three groups, each consisting of 15 animals. Under optimal operating conditions a pre-reconstructed circular external fixator was applied to the right tibia of rabbits, and osteotomy was performed with a Gigli saw just below the tibial tuberosity. During the ten days of distraction, a placebo was administered for group I (control group), group II received 10 U of calcitonin, and group III was treated with alendronate (0.5 mg/kg/day) gavages. Rabbits were examined histologically (at the third and eighth weeks, according to Huddlestone et al.), radiologically (at the third, sixth, and eighth weeks, according to Lane and Sandhu), and mechanically (at the eighth week, as torsional loading). During the first three weeks, the groups did not differ much with regard to radiological parameters. However, in the calcitonin and alendronate groups improved histological scores were detected compared with the control group. Radiological images obtained at the end of six weeks demonstrated improved consolidation in the calcitonin and alendronate groups compared with the control group. At the end of eight weeks postoperatively, radiological and histological parameters did not differ among the groups, while torsional failure load was found to be much improved in the calcitonin group (p=0.006). During the distraction osteogenesis period, calcitonin and alendronate affected the quality of regenerate favourably. This effect is sustained until the end of the consolidation period. However, this finding needs to be supported by experimental and human studies. PMID:16523336

Sen, Cengiz; Erdem, Mehmet; Koseoglu, Resid Dogan; Filiz, Nurper Onuk

2006-01-01

245

Extraction of Maxillary Central Incisors: An Orthodontic-Restorative Treatment  

PubMed Central

Malformed central incisors with poor prognosis could be candidates for extraction especially in crowded dental arches. This case report refers to a 12-year-old boy who suffered from malformed upper central incisors associated with severe attrition. Upper lateral incisors were positioned palatally and canines were rotated and positioned in the high buccal area. The patient had class II malocclusion and space deficiency in both dental arches. Due to incisal wear and malformed short maxillary central incisors and the need for root canal therapy with a major crown build-up, these teeth were extracted. The maxillary lateral incisors were substituted. Thus the maxillary canines were substituted for lateral incisors and the first premolars were substituted for canines. In the lower dental arch the first bicuspids were extracted. Composite resin build-up was performed on the maxillary lateral incisors and canines. This allowed for the crowding and the malocclusion to be corrected. Subsequent gingivectomy improved the patient's gingival margins and smile esthetics one month after orthodontic therapy.

Hedayati, Zohreh; Zare, Maryam; Bahramnia, Fateme

2014-01-01

246

[Maxillary orthopedics and sleep-related respiratory disorders in children].  

PubMed

Early maxillary orthopedics can improve jaw relations and the jaw-skull base relationship. The objectives are clear: to correct the shape and improve function. A better proportioned skeletal framework is achieved, in which the underlying soft tissues become more resistant to collapse. PMID:21354497

Cobo Plana, Juan; de Carlos Villafranca, Félix

2010-12-01

247

Cognitive distraction and relaxation training for the control of side effects due to cancer chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty cancer chemotherapy patients were randomly assigned to one of six conditions formed by a 3(cognitive distraction, relaxation training, no intervention)×2(high anxiety, low anxiety) factorial design. All patients were followed for five consecutive chemotherapy sessions. Outcome measures included patient reports, nurse observations, and physiological indices. Results indicated that distraction patients reported less nausea prior to chemotherapy and lower systolic blood

Jennifer Vasterling; Richard A. Jenkins; Denise Matt Tope; Thomas G. Burish

1993-01-01

248

Ilizarov distraction-lengthening in congenital anomalies of the upper limb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine patients underwent Ilizarov distraction-lengthening for congenital anomalies. All were late cases and had undergone other procedures. In five radial club hand patients with very short forearms, we achieved an average 5.8 cm increase in length with each distraction cycle. In two patients with symbrachydactyly of the cleft hand type, we achieved pinch grip between a radial and an ulnar

S. Hülsbergen-Krüger; P. Preisser; B. D. Partecke

1998-01-01

249

Poaching and Distraction in Asynchronous Agent Activities Mike H. Chia, Daniel E. Neiman, Victor R. Lesser  

E-print Network

Poaching and Distraction in Asynchronous Agent Activities Mike H. Chia, Daniel E. Neiman, Victor R describe two types of agent behaviors, poaching and distraction, arising from the asynchronous natureof effectively [3]. We in- vestigate two types of behavior resulting from this lack of coordination: poaching

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

250

Measurement of forces generated during distraction of growing-rods in early onset scoliosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To measure the forces applied during distraction of growing-rods in early onset scoliosis (EOS), aimed at developing a motorized elongation device. METHODS: A consecutive series of measurements were carried out to analyze the forces applied by the surgeon during distraction of single growing-rods in 10 patients affected by EOS (mean age 8.3 years; range 6 to 10 years) undergoing the first distraction 6 months following implantation of the rods. For each measurement, output from the transducer of a dedicated pair of distraction calipers was recorded at zero load status and at every 1 mm of distraction, up to a maximum of 12 mm for each of the two connected rods. RESULTS: Twenty measurements were obtained showing a linear increase of the load with increasing distraction, with a mean peak force of 485 N at 12 mm distraction and a single reading over 500 N. We did not observe bone fractures or ligament disruptions during or after rod elongations. There was one case of superficial wound infection in the cohort. CONCLUSION: The safe peak force carrying capacity of a motorized device for distraction of growing-rods is 500N. PMID:22470846

Teli, Marco; Grava, Giuseppe; Solomon, Victor; Andreoletti, Giuseppe; Grismondi, Emanuele; Meswania, Jay

2012-01-01

251

Distract-R: Rapid Prototyping and Evaluation of In-Vehicle Interfaces  

E-print Network

, such empirical studies are time-consuming and expensive, and also require a working prototype of the new distraction. Recent work [14] has utilized a cognitive model of driver behavior developed in the ACT +1 215 895 2674 salvucci@cs.drexel.edu ABSTRACT As driver distraction from in-vehicle devices

Salvucci, Dario D.

252

Regulating responses to anger: Effects of rumination and distraction on angry mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found that self-focused rumination maintains or increases depressed mood, whereas distraction decreases depressed mood (S. Nolen-Hoeksema & J. Morrow, 1993; S. Nolen- Hoeksema, J, Morrow, & B. L. Fredrickson, 1993). The present series of experiments examined these mood regulation strategies in the context of an angry mood. In Experiments 1 and 3, rumination increased anger, whereas distraction

Cheryl L. Rusting; Susan Nolen-Hoeksema

1998-01-01

253

The Use of Choice-Based Distraction to Decrease the Distress of Children at the Dentist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was conducted to examine whether choice-based distraction provides an effective means of reducing the distress of children undergoing routine dental treatment. Sixty children between the ages of 5-12 who required restorative dental treatment were assigned randomly to either a Control group or a Distraction group in which the…

Filcheck, Holly A.; Allen, Keith D.; Ogren, Hilary; Darby, James Brandt; Holstein, Brian; Hupp, Steve

2005-01-01

254

An Investigation of Driver Distraction Near the Tipping Point of Traffic Flow Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship between driver distraction and characteristics of driver behavior associated with reduced highway traffic efficiency. Background: Research on the three-phase traffic theory and on behavioral driving suggests that a number of characteristics associated with efficient traffic flow may be affected by driver distraction. Previous studies have been limited, however, by

Joel M. Cooper; Ivana Vladisavljevic; Nathan Medeiros-Ward; Peter T. Martin; David L. Strayer

2009-01-01

255

The impact of smart driving aids on driving performance and driver distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) have been shown to increase driver workload and cause distraction, both of which are causal factors for accidents. This simulator study evaluates the impact that two prototype ergonomic designs for a smart driving aid have on workload, distraction and driving performance. Scenario complexity was also manipulated as an independent variable. Results showed that real-time delivery of

Stewart A. Birrell; Mark S. Young

2011-01-01

256

iPod Distraction: Effects of Portable Music-Player Use on Driver Performance  

E-print Network

interaction on driver behavior and performance. Author Keywords Driving, iPod, driver distraction, mobileiPod Distraction: Effects of Portable Music-Player Use on Driver Performance Dario D. Salvucci concerns and challenges -- in-vehicle use while driving. We present the first study of portable music

Salvucci, Dario D.

257

An exploration of the role of driver distraction in serious road crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Little is known about the real-world effect of distractions on driving. We conducted a case-control study in Perth, Western Australia to examine the role of self reported driver distraction in serious road crashes resulting in hospital attendance. Method: Cases were drivers aged 17 years or over who had been involved in a crash and presented to an emergency department.

Suzanne McEvoy; Mark Stevenson

258

Selective Attention in Schizophrenic and Manic Psychoses: The Effect of Distraction on Information Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to identify the general level of cognitive processing that is especially vulnerable to distraction in schizophrenia. Attempts to determine at what level auditory distraction interferes with schizophrenics' performance, as opposed to normals, on simple recall tasks. (Editor/RK)

Oltmanns, Thomas F.

1978-01-01

259

Rumination and Distraction Among Chronic Depressives in Treatment: A Structural Equation Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response Styles Theory hypothesizes that rumination about one's symptoms amplifies and prolongs depressed mood, whereas distraction has the opposite effect. Response styles are also hypothesized to be trait-like dispositions. The generalizability of Response Styles Theory, as well as the linkages that may account for correlations between rumination, distraction, and depression, were explored with structural equation modeling in a sample of

Bruce A. Arnow; Diane Spangler; Daniel N. Klein; David D. Burns

2004-01-01

260

Object-Based Attention Overrides Perceptual Load to Modulate Visual Distraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to ignore task-irrelevant information and overcome distraction is central to our ability to efficiently carry out a number of tasks. One factor shown to strongly influence distraction is the perceptual load of the task being performed; as the perceptual load of task-relevant information processing increases, the likelihood that…

Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

2012-01-01

261

Distraction Arthrodesis of the Subtalar Joint Using Allogeneic Bone Graft: A Review of 15 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distraction arthrodesis of the subtalar joint is often used for the correction of neglected calcaneal fractures. Although different techniques have been advocated, there remains some debate as to the optimal type of bone graft for this purpose. This study retrospectively reviewed one surgeon's results for distraction arthrodesis of the talocalcaneal joint for 15 consecutive feet in 15 patients using 12

Michael S. Lee; Valerie Tallerico

2010-01-01

262

Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N=27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders were trained along with their parents to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Distraction produced significant positive effects for observer-rated distress scores for the low hypnotizable children. Discusses…

Smith, Julien T.; And Others

1996-01-01

263

Predicting Homework Distraction at the Secondary School Level: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Students continue to struggle with homework distraction well into the secondary school years. Recently, the concern over homework distraction has been growing, as new electronic media have offered diverse and nearly ubiquitous forms of diversion to students while they are doing homework. It is surprising to note, however, that a…

Xu, Jianzhong

2010-01-01

264

[Upper maxillary cysts: embryogenic and surgical considerations in our cases].  

PubMed

Upper maxillary cysts are a chapter in otorhinolaryngological pathology which have been relatively neglected by the Literature. The reason for this most likely lies in the difficulty in producing a nosographic picture of these pathologies which border on other surgical fields (dentistry, maxillofacial surgery), and because they show significant clinical and etiopathogenic polymorphism. The elements that characterize upper maxillary cysts as a separate clinical entity are basically their cystic nature and origin within the upper maxillary bone, although they can expand widely within the medio-facial region (nasal vestibule, oral vestibule, nasolabial region, palate, maxillary sinus). After having reviewed the various classification schemes proposed over the years, and briefly examining the main clinical and etiopathogenic characteristics and principles for surgical treatment, the present work offers a surgical case study, together with the related iconography. Moreover this work does not neglect embryogenic considerations which are indispensable for the study of some of these pathologies. In this manner the results for 35 surgical procedures on upper maxillary cysts performed from 1989 to 1996 are presented and classified following the Cudennec classification module (1991). This study shows the variety of possible clinical manifestations for these pathologies. Such a variety makes correct diagnosis imperative--today facilitated by modern imaging techniques--and requires diversifying the surgical approach, conditioned not only by the site, extension and nature of the specific lesion, but also by the related symptoms. The significant progress in surgical techniques has made increasingly functional surgery possible and led to the abandonment of such conventional radical techniques as the Caldwell-Luc procedure. Moreover, CT and NMR have provided good image definition, specifying precisely the limits and extensions and, in most cases, facilitating diagnosis of the nature of the disorder with direct and indirect signs of the cystic nature of the lesions whenever the clinical data proves inadequate. PMID:11139876

Galletti, B; Bucolo, S; Abbate, G; Canton Bascuas, M; Romano, G; Fera, G; Freni, F

2000-06-01

265

Distractor with supporting computer program for the reconstruction of arc defects in mandible by distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis as a technique seems to be a promising method in craniofacial bone lengthening and reconstruction through the process of bone and soft-tissue regeneration under stimulation of gradual tensile stress. Distractor plays a very important role especially in the reconstruction of large, irregular bone defects. We designed a new-type distractor and supporting computer program for the reconstruction of arc defects in the mandible by distraction osteogenesis. This distractor was applied for the reconstruction of the monkeys' artificial mandibular median defects. Owing to computer program, perfect distracting plan was made to finish this task. X-ray files showed that the mandibular defects in all animals were repaired successfully, and the anterior mandibular contours were similar to the normal ones. The success of distraction osteogenesis for repair of mandibular median defects in monkeys suggests that this distractor and supporting computer program met the needs of the reconstruction of arc defects in the mandible by distraction osteogenesis. PMID:21403551

Ying, Binbin; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Songsong; Li, Jihua

2011-03-01

266

Silence and the shaping of memory: How distracted listeners affect speakers' subsequent recall of a computer game experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on how distracted listening affects subsequent memory for narrated events. Undergraduate students experienced a computer game in the lab and talked about it with either a responsive or distracted friend. One month later, those who initially spoke with distracted listeners showed lower retention of information about the computer game, and their subsequent memories were also less

Monisha Pasupathi; Tim Hoyt

2010-01-01

267

PRAL/DISTRACT: A platform for distributed active objects applications  

SciTech Connect

The object-oriented approach is now widely used in the world of sequential programming and is very promising for concurrent programming. Object-oriented models generally provide concurrency by allowing asynchronous message passing. Each object can be seen as an autonomous entity, called {open_quotes}active object{close_quotes}, with its own computing resources. The purpose of this paper is to describe a language, PRAL, based on the notion of active object, and its implementation. PRAL is a compiled language whose target code is a C++ extension, called {open_quotes}DISTRACT{close_quotes}. It permits the distribution of active objects on several logical sites, which can be on different workstations, by using the notion of execution kernel, that is the computing resource giving autonomy to the active objects. Several execution kernels can be chosen among SUN`s {open_quotes}lightweight process{close_quotes}, Solaris {open_quotes}threads{close_quotes}, Motif or XView notifier. All these capabilities make PRAL/DISTRACT very efficient and interesting when developing distributed object oriented applications.

Roux, P.; Fouquier, G.; Bras, D. [LETI, Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others

1995-12-31

268

Bicycling safety and distracted behavior in The Hague, the Netherlands.  

PubMed

As planners and public health officials in many cities around the world seek to increase bicycle ridership, bicyclists who are performing a secondary task (such as listening to a portable music device) may pose a risk to public safety. This study examines bicycling safety and potentially distracted behavior in The Hague, the Netherlands, a place where bicycling is a common, everyday travel mode among all walks of life and where bicycling infrastructure is well developed. Based on 1360 observations of bicycling behavior, this study shows that bicyclists who were using a cell phone, listening to a portable music device, or talking with other bicyclists exhibited more unsafe behaviors than those bicyclists who were not performing a secondary task. Furthermore, bicyclists who were performing a secondary task also more frequently created situations where other people had to evade them to avoid an accident. As with distracted car driving, the performance of a secondary task while bicycling may be unsafe for the person engaging in the behavior as well as for other people around them. PMID:23643938

Terzano, Kathryn

2013-08-01

269

Driver distraction and performance effects of highway logo sign design.  

PubMed

Driver distraction and safety concerns have been identified for new highway logo sign configurations. This study assessed driver perception of logo signs and distraction under nine-panel, overflow-combination, or standard six-panel formats. A nine-panel sign has nine business panels within a single sign; a six-panel sign has six panels within a sign; an overflow-combination consists of a standard six-panel sign and a six-panel sign displaying two different services (e.g., food and gas). In this study, twenty-four participants searched for target food business logos while driving in a high-fidelity driving simulation under each signage condition. Gas and lodging signs were also displayed along the road in conventional six-panel formats. Dependent variables included signal detection, visual attention allocation, and vehicle control measures. Experiment results showed nine-panel signs drew greater visual attention and produced lower average speed than overflow-combination signs, and produced a lower speeding percentage compared to six-panel signs. However, there was no evidence the new configurations (nine-panel and overflow) caused substantive performance changes with safety implications. This study suggested the use of nine-panel and overflow-combination logo signs may be suitable for interchanges where there are more than six qualifying businesses in a category in terms of driver performance and safety. PMID:23141432

Zhang, Yu; Harris, Elizabeth; Rogers, Meghan; Kaber, David; Hummer, Joseph; Rasdorf, William; Hu, Jia

2013-05-01

270

Restoring a long-edentulous maxillary ridge segment with adjacent implants.  

PubMed

Using dental implants for restoration of long-edentulous sites on the maxilla in the esthetic zone can be a challenge with regard to soft-tissue architecture. This article discusses a case report in which natural gingival contours were achieved at a decades-old edentulous site on the maxilla through proper treatment planning along with the use of an appropriately selected implant system, custom abutment design, and restorative material. PMID:25198880

McArdle, Barry F

2014-01-01

271

Age differences in the frontoparietal cognitive control network: implications for distractibility.  

PubMed

Current evidence suggests that older adults have reduced suppression of, and greater implicit memory for, distracting stimuli, due to age-related declines in frontal-based control mechanisms. In this study, we used fMRI to examine age differences in the neural underpinnings of attentional control and their relationship to differences in distractibility and subsequent memory for distraction. Older and younger adults were shown a rapid stream of words or nonwords superimposed on objects and performed a 1-back task on either the letters or the objects, while ignoring the other modality. Older adults were more distracted than younger adults by the overlapping words during the 1-back task, and they subsequently showed more priming for these words on an implicit memory task. A multivariate analysis of the imaging data revealed a set of regions, including the rostral PFC and inferior parietal cortex, that younger adults activated to a greater extent than older adults during the ignore-words condition, and activity in this set of regions was negatively correlated with priming for the distracting words. Functional connectivity analyses using right and left rostral PFC seeds revealed a network of putative control regions, including bilateral parietal cortex, connected to the frontal seeds at rest. Older adults showed reduced functional connectivity within this frontoparietal network, suggesting that their greater distractibility may be due to decreased activity and coherence within a cognitive control network that normally acts to reduce interference from distraction. PMID:22659108

Campbell, Karen L; Grady, Cheryl L; Ng, Charisa; Hasher, Lynn

2012-07-01

272

The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain.  

PubMed

This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness. Sixty-two children (6-13 years old) underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered both with and without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found. Children's coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles. PMID:23184062

Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Thompson, Caitlin; Hahn, Amy; Herbert, Linda; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan

2014-02-01

273

Bilateral supplemental maxillary central incisors: a case report.  

PubMed

Hyperdontia is a developmental anomaly that is hypothesized to arise from multiple causes. Supernumerary teeth may remain embedded in the alveolar bone or can erupt into the oral cavity. When such teeth remain embedded, they may cause disturbances to developing teeth. Erupted supernumerary teeth can cause aesthetic or functional problems, especially when situated in the maxillary anterior region. Before a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan can be developed, it is essential to clinically and radiographically enumerate and identify supernumerary teeth. Supplemental central incisors are rare and bilateral cases are even rarer: only five cases have been reported in the literature to date. We describe a case of bilateral supplemental maxillary central incisors and discuss the management of supernumerary teeth. PMID:21959671

Hans, Manoj K; Shetty, Shashit; Shekhar, Rhitu; Sirohi, Sanjula

2011-09-01

274

Intraoral Mass Presenting as Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. It is of unknown etiology, and occurs more commonly in the elderly men, with a routinely shown aggressive behavior and poor prognosis for survival. Radiographically, it looks like severe osteomyelitis. Histopathologic study is essential to confirm diagnosis, and the undifferentiated histologic appearance often necessitates immunohistochemical studies for differentiation from other high-grade neoplasms. We present an 83-year-old man complaining of pain and unilateral swelling on the left side of the face due to a rare malignant tumor of maxillary sinus origin, a sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. He underwent hemimaxillectomy and radiotherapy, but refused chemotherapy. Maxillary sinus malignancy may be presented with unspecific symptoms mimicking sinusitis or dental pain. Coming across such symptoms, the physician or dentist must consider malignancies as well, and carry out medical and dental workups. PMID:24910668

Mahdavi, Omid; Boostani, Najmehalsadat; Karimi, Sharareh; Tabesh, Adel

2013-01-01

275

Malignant inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the maxillary sinus  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are extremely rare neoplasms with a variable natural history and biologic behavior, ranging from completely benign to malignant tumors with fatal outcome. They have no common identifiable cause, although some authors have assumed that any inflammatory stimulus may cause these pseudotumors. They are most commonly found in the lungs. Extrapulmonary sites include abdomen, retroperitoneum and extremities. IMTs rarely affect the head and neck, but the most common subsites in this region include the orbit, larynx, mouth, tonsils, parapharyngeal space, thyroid, parotid and lacrimal glands. There are few reports of inflammatory pseudotumors in the paranasal sinuses. In the maxillary sinus, the initial presenting sign is usually a nonspecific sinonasal mass, which has been growing over a period of weeks or months. On rare occasions, IMT may exhibit malignant transformation. Herein we present a rare case of pathologically proved IMT with malignant transformation which originated in the maxillary sinus of a 29-year-old male. PMID:24250100

Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Pazouki, Mahdi; Gerayeli, Mohammad Ali

2013-01-01

276

Automating skeletal expansion: An implant for distraction osteogenesis of the mandible  

PubMed Central

Background Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a technique of bone lengthening that makes use of the body’s natural healing capacity. An osteotomy is created and a rigid distraction device is attached to the bone. After a latency period, the device is activated 2–4 times per day for a total of 1 mm/day of bone lengthening. This technique is used to correct a variety of congenital and acquired deformities of the mandible, midface and long bones. To shorten the treatment period and to eliminate the complications of patient activation of the device, an automated continuous distraction device would be desirable. It has been reported that continuous distraction generates adequate bone with lengthening at a rate of 2 mm/day, thereby reducing the treatment time. Method of Approach The device we describe here uses miniature high-pressure hydraulics, position feedback, and a digital controller to achieve closed-loop control of the distraction process. The implanted actuator can produce up to 40N of distraction force on linear trajectories as well as curved distraction paths. In the paper we detail the spring-powered hydraulic reservoir, controller, and user interface. Results Experiments to test the new device design were performed in a porcine cadaver head and in live pigs. In the cadaver head, the device performed an 11-day/11 mm distraction with a root-mean-squared position error of 0.09 mm. The device functioned for periods of several days in each of five live animals, though some component failures occurred, leading to design revisions. Conclusions The test series showed that the novel design of this system provides the capabilities necessary to automate distraction of the mandible. Further developments will focus on making the implanted position sensor more robust and then carrying out clinical trials. PMID:20740071

Magill, John C.; Byl, Marten F.; Goldwaser, Batya; Papadaki, Maria; Kromann, Roger; Yates, Brent; Morency, Joseph R.; Kaban, Leonard B.; Troulis, Maria J.

2010-01-01

277

Radicular Cyst in Deciduous Maxillary Molars: A Rarity  

PubMed Central

Radicular cyst arising from deciduous teeth is exceedingly rare accounting for <1% of all radicular cysts. A total of 122 cases have been reported to date in the English language literature. We present a rare case of a radicular cyst associated with a decayed deciduous maxillary molar tooth without any history of prior pulp therapy. Our aim is to emphasize the recognition of inflammatory radicular lesions associated with deciduous teeth which may adversely impact underlying permanent successor. PMID:20237985

Shetty, Shibani; Rekha, K.

2009-01-01

278

Patient-specific abutments for anterior maxillary implants.  

PubMed

Many factors influence the long-term functional and esthetic success of implant-supported restorations. This article reviews recent findings related to several of these factors, including the implant-abutment junction, bacterial adhesion to implant surfaces, and the esthetic and functional consequences of implant and abutment material choices, particularly titanium-nitride-coated abutments. Restoration of a failed maxillary central incisor using a platformswitched implant and titanium-nitride-coated abutment is presented. PMID:25188214

Ramsey, Christopher D; Leal, Karina F; Lyle, Deborah M

2014-06-01

279

Prevalence of sinus augmentation associated with maxillary posterior implants.  

PubMed

Pneumatization of the maxillary sinus limits the quantity of alveolar bone available for implant placement and may result in a lack of primary stability and difficulty in achieving osseointegration. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze a group of patients who had implants placed in the posterior maxilla, calculate the prevalence of sinus augmentation, and identify factors related to sinus augmentation. With institutional review board approval, dental records from a population of patients who had implants placed in the maxillary posterior region between January 2000 and December 2004 were used to create a database. Independent variables were classified as continuous (age of the patient at stage 1 implant surgery [S1], time between extraction and S1, time between extraction and sinus augmentation, and time between sinus augmentation and S1) and categorical (gender, implant failure, American Society of Anesthesiologists system classification, smoking, osteoporosis, residual crestal bone height, implant position, implant proximity, prostheses type, and implant diameter and length). The dependent variable was the incidence of a sinus augmentation procedure. Simple logistic regression was used to assess the influence of each factor on the presence of sinus augmentation (P < .05). The final database included 502 maxillary posterior implants with an overall survival rate of 93.2% over a mean follow-up period of 35.7 months. Of 502 implants, 272 (54.2%) were associated with a sinus augmentation procedure. Among variables, residual crestal bone height (P < .001), implant position (P < .001), implant proximity (P < .001), prosthesis type (P < .001), implant failure (P < .01), and implant diameter (P < .01), were statistically associated with sinus augmentation. Within the limitations of this retrospective study, the results suggest that more than half (54.2%) of the maxillary posterior implants were involved with a sinus augmentation procedure. The prevalence of sinus augmentation increased with decreased residual crestal bone height, more posterior implant locations, and complete or partial edentulism. Sinus augmentation was significantly associated with implant failure and wide implants. PMID:21651386

Seong, Wook-Jin; Barczak, Michael; Jung, Jae; Basu, Saonli; Olin, Paul S; Conrad, Heather J

2013-12-01

280

Impacted maxillary second premolars: a report of four cases.  

PubMed

Impacted teeth are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Apart from their symptomatic nature and the probable functional disruption they can cause, impacted teeth have the potential to cause more severe and serious problems such as development of dentigerous cysts and other complications due to their proximity to the nasal and oral cavity. In this report, we highlight a series of four cases involving maxillary second premolars, teeth that are not often impacted. PMID:25320255

Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Chikkaramaiah, Shivashankar; Panja, Pritam; Koratagere, Nagesh

2014-01-01

281

Distraction techniques for children undergoing procedures: a critical review of pediatric research.  

PubMed

Pediatric patients are often subjected to procedures that can cause pain and anxiety. Although pharmacologic interventions can be used, distraction is a simple and effective technique that directs children's attention away from noxious stimuli. However, there is a multitude of techniques and technologies associated with distraction. Given the range of distraction techniques, the purpose of this article was to provide a critical assessment of the evidence-based literature that can inform clinical practice and future research. Recommendations include greater attention to child preferences and temperament as a means of optimizing outcomes and heightening awareness around child participation in health care decision making. PMID:21925588

Koller, Donna; Goldman, Ran D

2012-12-01

282

The effects of visual distracter complexity on auditory evoked p3b in contact sports athletes.  

PubMed

"Classic" P3b auditory oddball paradigms are insensitive to subtle deficits. An auditory oddball paradigm paired with visual distracters was used to compare football players with history of concussion, football players without history of concussion, and non-contact sport athletes. As hypothesized, increasing complexity of, and attention to, visual distracters reduced P3b amplitude. P3b amplitudes from non-contact athletes were larger than those from football players; however, players with and without a history of concussion were not significantly different. An auditory oddball paradigm with simple visual distracter improves sensitivity to cognitive deficits. Subconcussive impacts may contribute to brain damage frequently attributed to concussions. PMID:24571930

Wilson, Matthew J; Harkrider, Ashley W; King, Kristin A

2014-01-01

283

Chronic maxillary sinusitis associated with dental impression material.  

PubMed

A 62-year-old man was referred for routine treatment of hyperplasia of the mucosa in the anterior lower jaw. An oroantral fistula was detected in the right superior alveolar ridge. The patient had no complaints. Plain radiographs showed a radiopaque foreign body in the posterior region associated with opacification of the maxillary sinus. Computed tomography showed the same hyperdense foreign body located in the posterior lower part of the sinus and an abnormal soft tissue mass in the entire right maxillary sinus. When asked about sinusitis, the patient mentioned occasional episodes of pus taste and intermittent crises of headache lasting for one week. The patient has been edentulous for 20 years. Sinus debridement was performed and the oroantral fistula was closed. The clinical suspicion of the presence of zinc oxide-eugenol paste was confirmed by microscopical and chemical analysis. After 6 months of follow-up, the fistula continued to be closed and sinusitis did not recur. This clinical case of maxillary chronic sinusitis illustrates a different odontogenic origin. PMID:19333183

Rodrigues, Moacyr-Tadeu V; Munhoz, Etiene-de Andrade; Cardoso, Camila-Lopes; de Freitas, César-Antunes; Damante, José-Humberto

2009-04-01

284

Survival rate of Astra Tech implants with maxillary sinus lift  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical survival rate of Astra Tech implants in the maxillary molar region performed with sinus lift and bone graft. Materials and Methods Ninety-nine Astra Tech implants (Osseospeed) placed in the maxillary molar region using sinus lift from September 2009 to February 2012 were selected with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year. The height of alveolar bone, sinus approach technique, bone material and implant survival rate were evaluated. Results Of the 99 implants, the survival rate was 90.9%; 8 implants failed within 1 year after implant placement, and 1 implant failed 1 year after implant loading. All failed implants were placed with sinus lift simultaneously. The average height of alveolar bone before implant placement was 6.9 mm, while the height of alveolar bone of failed implants was 2.1 mm, on average. Conclusion Astra Tech implants placed in the maxillary molar region had generally good survival rates, but the relationship between reduced pre-implant alveolar bone height and implant failure requires further attention. PMID:24627838

Yoon, Wook-Jae; Jeong, Kyung-In; You, Jae-Seek; Oh, Ji-Su

2014-01-01

285

[Resection of nasopharyngeal mucoepidermoid carcinoma using the maxillary swing approach].  

PubMed

Mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) are a common neoplasm of the minor salivary glands. However, nasopharyngeal MECs are an extremely rare entity. We describe herein our experience in the resection of a nasopharyngeal MEC using the maxillary swing approach (MSA). A 42-year-old man was referred to our institute complaining of a feeling of fullness in his left ear. The tumor was found to localized in the nasopharynx. The ragiological findings showed a solid, 30 x 27 x 26mm tumor lying on the lateral wall of the nasopharynx. The histological examination revealed MEC. The tumor was removed with maxillary swing approach. The patient has remained free from recurrence for 2 years and 7 months after surgery. There are many reports to recommend surgery-based treatment for MECs of the head and neck region. It is moreover thought that nasopharyngeal MECs are no exception. To our knowledge, only 7 cases of MEC of the nasopharynx have been reported in Japan. From our experience, the MSA is one of the useful approaches to achieve minimum facial deformity and maxillary dysfunction. We discuss the etiology with a review of the literature. PMID:24191590

Tomiyama, Yoichiro; Yamanaka, Shin; Maeda, Yohei; Monju, Shodai; Sano, Tsutomu

2013-09-01

286

Myoepithelial carcinoma arising in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Myoepithelial carcinoma is characterized by nearly exclusive myoepithelial differentiation and evidence of malignancy. It may arise de novo or in preexisting benign tumors including pleomorphic adenoma and benign myoepithelioma. A 39-year-old lady presented with painless progressive swelling on the right cheek and right side of palate. On surgery, there was a mass in right maxillary sinus which was surgically excised and diagnosed on histopathology as pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequently, there were two recurrences. The first recurrence was in the right maxilla after 2 years that was removed surgically and diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. One year later, she came with rapidly progressive swelling in bilateral cheeks and face. Intraoperatively, there was a large tumor in both maxillary sinuses with extensive local infiltration. Histologically, it was diagnosed as myoepithelial carcinoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is usually a high grade malignancy. It occurs most commonly in parotid gland followed by submandibular glands, minor salivary glands and occasionally in sublingual gland. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of myoepithelial carcinoma arising in a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in the maxillary sinus. PMID:24574666

Gupta, Ashumi; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Michael, Rajiv

2013-09-01

287

Myoepithelial carcinoma arising in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in maxillary sinus  

PubMed Central

Myoepithelial carcinoma is characterized by nearly exclusive myoepithelial differentiation and evidence of malignancy. It may arise de novo or in preexisting benign tumors including pleomorphic adenoma and benign myoepithelioma. A 39-year-old lady presented with painless progressive swelling on the right cheek and right side of palate. On surgery, there was a mass in right maxillary sinus which was surgically excised and diagnosed on histopathology as pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequently, there were two recurrences. The first recurrence was in the right maxilla after 2 years that was removed surgically and diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. One year later, she came with rapidly progressive swelling in bilateral cheeks and face. Intraoperatively, there was a large tumor in both maxillary sinuses with extensive local infiltration. Histologically, it was diagnosed as myoepithelial carcinoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is usually a high grade malignancy. It occurs most commonly in parotid gland followed by submandibular glands, minor salivary glands and occasionally in sublingual gland. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of myoepithelial carcinoma arising in a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in the maxillary sinus. PMID:24574666

Gupta, Ashumi; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Michael, Rajiv

2013-01-01

288

Boundaries of semantic distraction: Dominance and lexicality act at retrieval.  

PubMed

Three experiments investigated memory for semantic information with the goal of determining boundary conditions for the manifestation of semantic auditory distraction. Irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic category- exemplars to an equal degree regardless of whether the speech coincided with presentation or test phases of the task (Experiment 1), and this occurred regardless of whether it comprised random words or coherent sentences (Experiment 2). The effects of background speech were greater when the irrelevant speech was semantically related to the to-be-remembered material, but only when the irrelevant words were high in output dominance (Experiment 3). The implications of these findings in relation to the processing of task material and the processing of background speech are discussed. PMID:24993544

Marsh, John E; Perham, Nick; Sörqvist, Patrik; Jones, Dylan M

2014-11-01

289

A revised method for measuring distraction by tactile stimulation  

PubMed Central

Sensory hypersensitivity (SH) refers to the tendency to attend to subtle stimuli, to persist in attending to them, and to find them noxious. SH is relatively common in several developmental disorders including Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder (TS/CTD). This study was an attempt to quantify the extent to which a mild tactile stimulus distracts one’s attention in TS/CTD. Fourteen adults with TS/CTD and 14 tic-free control subjects completed questionnaires regarding SH and ADHD, and TS/CTD subjects completed self-report measures of current and past tic disorder symptoms and of current obsessions and compulsions. All subjects performed a sustained attention choice reaction time task during alternating blocks in which a mildly annoying stimulus (von Frey hair) was applied to the ankle (“ON”) or was not applied (“OFF”). We present here the clinical and cognitive task data for each subject.

Schechter, Jacqueline R.; Greene, Deanna J.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Black, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

290

Inhibitory Control During Emotional Distraction Across Adolescence and Early Adulthood  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the changing relation between emotion and inhibitory control during adolescence. One hundred participants between 11 and 25 years of age performed a go-nogo task in which task-relevant stimuli (letters) were presented at the center of large task-irrelevant images depicting negative, positive, or neutral scenes selected from the International Affective Picture System. Longer reaction times for negative trials were found across all age groups, suggesting that negative but not positive emotional images captured attention across this age range. However, age differences in accuracy on inhibitory trials suggest that response inhibition is more readily disrupted by negative emotional distraction in early adolescence relative to late childhood, late adolescence or early adulthood. PMID:23506340

Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

2013-01-01

291

Audiovisual distraction reduces pain perception during aural microsuction  

PubMed Central

Introduction Aural microsuction is a common ear, nose and throat procedure used in the outpatient setting. Some patients, however, find it difficult to tolerate owing to discomfort, pain or noise. This study evaluated the effect of audiovisual distraction on patients’ pain perception and overall satisfaction. Methods A prospective study was conducted for patients attending our aural care clinic requiring aural toileting of bilateral mastoid cavities over a three-month period. All microsuction was performed by a single clinical nurse specialist. Any patients with active infection were excluded. For each patient, during microsuction of one ear, they watched the procedure on a television screen while for the other ear they did not view the procedure. All patients received the same real time explanations during microsuction of both ears. After the procedure, each patient completed a visual analogue scale (VAS) to rate the pain they experienced for each ear, with and without access to the television screen. They also documented their preference and reasons why. Results A total of 37 patients were included in the study. The mean pain score for patients viewing the procedure was 2.43 compared with a mean of 3.48 for patients with no television view. This difference in patients’ pain perception was statistically lower in the group who observed the procedure on the television (p=0.003), consistent with the majority of patients reporting a preference to viewing their procedure (65%). Conclusions Audiovisual distraction significantly lowered patients’ VAS pain scores during aural microsuction. This simple intervention can therefore reduce patients’ perceived pain and help improve acceptance of this procedure. PMID:23317724

Amer, I; Daniels, M; Wareing, MJ

2013-01-01

292

The short- and mid-term effect of dynamic interspinous distraction in the treatment of recurrent lumbar facet joint pain  

PubMed Central

Owing to failure to achieve positive long-term effects, the currently performed treatment methods for lumbar facet joint syndrome (LFJS) are still under debate. Interspinous distraction devices unload the facet joints. Thus, these devices might be an alternative surgical treatment method for LFJS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of an interspinous distraction device for the treatment of LFJS. Subjects had verified single level LFJS at level L4–5. They received percutaneous facet joint denervation (PFJD). If pain persisted, they were offered implantation of an interspinous device (Coflex) and/or repeat PFJD. Clinical and radiological outcome was determined before and after PFJD or surgery up to 2 years afterwards in all cases. Forty-one patients with LFJS at L4–5 underwent PFJD. Twenty patients with persisting pain underwent a subsequent surgery for implantation of an interspinous device. Five patients with recurrent pain at 6–12 months opted for an additional PFJD. Three obese patients (body weight >100 kg) had persistent pain at 3 months after surgery and received additionally dorsal semi-dynamic stabilization. The clinical outcome improved significantly in the surgically treated patients; however, it did not differ compared with patients receiving PFJD only after 24 months. Radiological evaluation revealed a restricted range of motion (ROM) of the operated and an elevated ROM of the adjacent segment. Surgical or device-related complications were not observed. In conclusions, the implantation of an interspinous Coflex device in case of recurrent facet joint pain succeeds to improve facet joint pain in clinical short-and mid-term settings. However, it does not exceed the outcome of denervated patients. PMID:19727852

Abbushi, Alexander; Woiciechowsky, Christian; Kroppenstedt, Stefan

2009-01-01

293

Combined Orthodontic and Surgical Approach in the Correction of a Class III Skeletal Malocclusion with Mandibular Prognathism and Vertical Maxillary Excess Using Bimaxillary Osteotomy  

PubMed Central

For patients whose orthodontic problems are so severe that neither growth modification nor camouflage offers a solution, surgery to realign the jaws or reposition dentoalveolar segments is the only possible treatment. Surgery is not a substitute for orthodontics in these patients. Instead, it must be properly coordinated with orthodontics and other dental treatments to achieve good overall results. Dramatic progress in recent years has made it possible for combined surgical orthodontic treatment to be carried out successfully for patients with a severe dentofacial problem of any type. This case report provides an overview of the current treatment methodology in managing a combination of asymmetrical mandibular prognathism and vertical maxillary excess. PMID:24455321

Jose Cherackal, George; Thomas, Eapen; Prathap, Akhilesh

2013-01-01

294

Happily Distracted: Mood and a Benefit of Attention Dysregulation in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Positive mood states are believed to broaden the focus of attention in younger adults, but it is unclear whether the same is true for older adults. Here we examined one consequence of broader attention that has been shown in young adults: that memory for distraction is greater for those in a positive mood. In the current study, positive and neutral moods were induced in older adults (M?=?67.9) prior to a 1-back task in which participants were instructed to attend to relevant pictures and ignore distracting words. Following a 10-min filled interval, participants performed a word fragment completion task that tested implicit memory for the distracting words from the 1-back task. Older adults in the positive mood group showed greater implicit memory for previous distraction compared to those in the neutral mood group. These findings suggest that affect influences the ability to regulate attention in a similar manner for younger and older adults. PMID:23162488

Biss, Renee K.; Weeks, Jennifer C.; Hasher, Lynn

2012-01-01

295

Eye movements of young and older adults while reading with distraction  

E-print Network

The authors used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' online performance in the reading in distraction paradigm. Participants read target sentences and answered comprehension questions following each sentence. In some sentences...

Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Kramer, Art

2006-03-01

296

Driver distraction: a perennial but preventable public health threat to adolescents.  

PubMed

Although public health efforts have made some progress in reducing risk of adolescent motor vehicle crashes over the last three decades, new technologies and evolving behavior patterns have focused attention on the risk of distracted driving. For many of the same reasons that alcohol-impaired driving represents a distinct risk for adolescents, distracted driving has an elevated impact on this age group. Similarly, many of the strategies used to reduce alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents might be applied to driver distraction, including adults serving as role models with high standards of behavior. The unique challenge posed by the proliferation of new technological distractions may accelerate this risk behavior and may lend itself to innovative prevention efforts. PMID:24759438

Bingham, C Raymond

2014-05-01

297

Le Fort IV + I distraction osteogenesis using an internal device for syndromic craniosynostosis.  

PubMed

Monobloc and Le Fort III distractions can improve midfacial hypoplasia, a characteristic feature of syndromic craniosynostosis. The purpose of treating midfacial hypoplasia is to improve exophthalmos and dental occlusion. Typically, in Le Fort III or monobloc distractions, the midface is mobilized en bloc, and the extent and direction of the mobilization is determined according to the preferred intermaxillary occlusion. However, to obtain the preferred functional and esthetic results while correcting midface hypoplasia, the most sensible approach is the use of different degrees of mobilization and vectors for the upper and lower halves of the midface. This report describes the case of an adolescent with Crouzon syndrome showing frontal recession exophthalmos and an anterior crossbite. His condition was treated with monobloc minus Le Fort I and Le Fort I distraction using only internal devices, which the authors have designated Le Fort IV plus I distraction. PMID:24280175

Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Hideo; Tamada, Ikkei; Sakamoto, Teruo

2014-04-01

298

The Relationship of Rhythmic and Melodic Perception with Background Music Distraction in College Level Students  

E-print Network

This study investigated relationships among the ability to audiate musical stimuli, background music condition, familiarity, gender, general academic achievement, age, and frequency of use on the level of distraction caused by background music...

Dove, Michael Karl

2009-04-27

299

Le Fort II midfacial distraction combined with orthognathic surgery in the treatment of nasomaxillary hypoplasia.  

PubMed

Patients with nasomaxillary hypoplasia have severe facial concavity and compromised skeletal class III malocclusion. Its treatment is still a challenge to surgeons. Our aim was to evaluate the combination of midfacial distraction and orthognathic surgery in the treatment of nasomaxillary hypoplasia. Four patients with nasomaxillary hypoplasia were enrolled in this study. After Le Fort II osteotomy, the rotational distraction of nasomaxillary complex was performed to rehabilitate facial convexity. Then bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy with or without Le Fort I osteotomy was used to correct malocclusion. All patients healed uneventfully, and the maxillae moved forward conspicuously. No obvious pain and severe discomfort were complained during distraction. A significant advancement and downward movement of the maxilla were shown by cephalometric analysis. The combination of midfacial distraction and orthognathic surgery provides us an ideal alternative in the treatment of nasomaxillary hypoplasia. PMID:24777005

Yu, Hongbo; Dai, Jiewen; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Wenbin; Shen, Steve Guofang

2014-05-01

300

Changes in the protein expression of hedgehog and patched-1 in perisutural tissues induced by cranial distraction.  

PubMed

With the modern emphasis on minimally invasive therapies, the concept of distraction is being applied in the treatment of craniosynostosis. Although specific genetic mutations have been identified in craniosynostotic patients, changes in the gene expression induced by cranial distraction have not yet been explored. The effects of cranial distraction on hedgehog and patched-1 expression were evaluated in a rabbit model for craniosynostosis. Rabbits (n = 8) were divided into four groups: affected rabbits, wild-type rabbits, affected rabbits subject to cranial distraction, and wild-type rabbits subject to distraction. Perisutural tissue was examined using immunohistochemistry in four areas: suture, endosteum, periosteum, and osteocytes, for the expression of Indian hedgehog, sonic hedgehog, and desert hedgehog and their receptor, patched-1. Two experimental groups were compared: (1) wild-type before distraction to wild-type after distraction, and (2) synostotic before distraction to synostotic after distraction. Distraction produced several variable and interesting changes in hedgehog protein presence. In wild-type rabbits, the predominant effect was a mild decrease in Indian hedgehog levels. Sonic and desert hedgehog and patched-1 protein levels were unchanged. In synostotic rabbits, the predominant effect of distraction was to decrease Indian hedgehog, sonic hedgehog, and patched-1 protein levels. This was especially true in the periosteum and endosteum. Cranial distraction of normal and affected rabbits differentially changed both the expression levels and patterns of the hedgehog and patched-1 proteins in the cranial tissues examined. These results suggest that molecular and genetic parameters of distraction and bone response may be different in craniosynostotic individuals, which may influence treatment protocols in these patients. PMID:12142671

Nott, Rhoda L; Stelnicki, Eric J; Mack, Judith A; Ben, Yixin; Mitchell, Ronal; Mooney, Mark P

2002-08-01

301

Effects of low-level laser therapy on bone formed after distraction osteogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the chemical composition, crystallinity and crystalline structure of bone at the site of distraction osteogenesis. Five rabbits were subjected to distraction osteogenesis (latency = 3 days; rate and frequency = 0.7 mm\\/day for 7 days; consolidation = 10 days), and three were given LLLT with arsenide-gallium-aluminum (AsGaAl; 830 nm,

Roberto Hübler; Eduardo Blando; Paulo Eduardo Kreisner; Letícia Kirst; Marília Gerhardt de Oliveira

2009-01-01

302

Effects of Simulator Practice and Real-World Experience on Cell-Phone-Related Driver Distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our research examined the effects of practice on cell-phone—related driver distraction. Background: The driving literature is ambiguous as to whether practice can reduce driver distraction from concurrent cell phone conversation. Methods: Drivers reporting either high or low real-world cell phone usage were selected to participate in four 90-min simulated driving sessions on successive days. The research consisted of two

Joel M. Cooper; David L. Strayer

2008-01-01

303

Implant supported prosthesis after ridge augmentation procedure by distraction osteogenesis for atrophic mandible.  

PubMed

Rehabilitation of deficient alveolar ridges has long been a challenge. The distraction osteogenesis procedure before placement of dental implants has solved the puzzle and its advantages over block grafting includes simultaneous expansion of soft tissue, high degree of dimensional stability, abbreviated overall treatment time, and no graft required. In this case report distraction osteogenesis of deficient anterior mandibular ridge was performed and then an implant supported fixed prosthesis was fabricated. PMID:24431801

Khongshei, Arlingstone; Banerjee, Saurav; Gupta, Tapas; Banerjee, Ardhendu

2013-12-01

304

Trends in Fatalities From Distracted Driving in the United States, 1999 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined trends in distracted driving fatalities and their relation to cell phone use and texting volume. Methods. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) records data on all road fatalities that occurred on public roads in the United States from 1999 to 2008. We studied trends in distracted driving fatalities, driver and crash characteristics, and trends in cell phone use and texting volume. We used multivariate regression analysis to estimate the relation between state-level distracted driving fatalities and texting volumes. Results. After declining from 1999 to 2005, fatalities from distracted driving increased 28% after 2005, rising from 4572 fatalities to 5870 in 2008. Crashes increasingly involved male drivers driving alone in collisions with roadside obstructions in urban areas. By use of multivariate analyses, we predicted that increasing texting volumes resulted in more than 16 000 additional road fatalities from 2001 to 2007. Conclusions. Distracted driving is a growing public safety hazard. Specifically, the dramatic rise in texting volume since 2005 appeared to be contributing to an alarming rise in distracted driving fatalities. Legislation enacting texting bans should be paired with effective enforcement to deter drivers from using cell phones while driving. PMID:20864709

Stimpson, Jim P.

2010-01-01

305

The Molecular and Cellular Events That Take Place during Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary: Gradual bone lengthening using distraction osteogenesis principles is the gold standard for the treatment of hypoplastic facial bones. However, the long treatment time is a major disadvantage of the lengthening procedures. The aim of this study is to review the current literature and summarize the cellular and molecular events occurring during membranous craniofacial distraction osteogenesis. Mechanical stimulation by distraction induces biological responses of skeletal regeneration that is accomplished by a cascade of biological processes that may include differentiation of pluripotential tissue, angiogenesis, osteogenesis, mineralization, and remodeling. There are complex interactions between bone-forming osteoblasts and other cells present within the bone microenvironment, particularly vascular endothelial cells that may be pivotal members of a complex interactive communication network in bone. Studies have implicated number of cytokines that are intimately involved in the regulation of bone synthesis and turnover. The gene regulation of numerous cytokines (transforming growth factor-?, bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor-1, and fibroblast growth factor-2) and extracellular matrix proteins (osteonectin, osteopontin) during distraction osteogenesis has been best characterized and discussed. Understanding the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate membranous distraction osteogenesis may guide the development of targeted strategies designed to improve distraction osteogenesis and accelerate bone regeneration that may lead to shorten the treatment duration.

Rachmiel, Adi

2014-01-01

306

The Effect of Distracting Noise on the Neuronal Mechanisms of Attention in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective The inability to ignore irrelevant environmental noise is a common problem for people with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to determine if the neuronal response to distracting noise is related to mechanisms of altered attention observed in the illness. Method Twenty-two outpatients with schizophrenia and seventeen healthy comparison subjects performed a selective attention task in the presence or absence of distracting environmental noise while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. A separate condition examining passive response to the distracting noise also was included. Results Group differences in neuronal response during the attention task were magnified by distracting noise, with the greatest difference being less response by patients, relative to comparison subjects, in the temporoparietal junction. Separate passive listening to distracting noise resulted in greater hippocampal response in patients, relative to comparison subjects. Across all subjects, hippocampal response to noise was inversely related to the degree to which the attention-task-related network was up-regulated to perform the task during distracting noise. Conclusions Given the observed hippocampal hyperactivity in response to environmental noise in patients and the inverse relationship between hippocampal response to noise and the effects of noise on the task-related network, hippocampal hyperactivity may contribute to impaired recruitment of attention networks in schizophrenia. PMID:23062751

Tregellas, Jason R.; Smucny, Jason; Eichman, Lindsay; Rojas, Donald C.

2014-01-01

307

Interactive and passive virtual reality distraction: effects on presence and pain intensity.  

PubMed

The current study explores the effects of interactive versus passive Virtual Reality (VR) distraction on the sense of presence and pain intensity. Sixty-eight healthy students (mean age 21.8, SD = 4.3) underwent two consecutive cold-pressor trials (subject's hand immersed into 6 °C water as long as possible, with a time limit of five minutes), one without VR and another providing a VR distraction "Surreal World." Participants were randomly assigned to an interactive VR distraction condition, where a number of interactions with the environment were possible, or to a passive VR distraction condition, where they were also exposed to the surreal world, but instead of interacting with the virtual environment, they watched the navigation generated by another participant assigned to the interactive condition. After the VR cold-pressor trial, each subject provided ratings of pain intensity and rated the degree to which they had felt "present" in the virtual environment. Results showed that most of the participants who experienced the interactive VR distraction reported less pain intensity relative to the no-VR trial. However, in the passive VR condition, only 5.9% of participants showed a decreased level of pain intensity relative to the no-VR trial. Also, the amount of presence reported was significantly higher during the interactive VR distraction and correlated negatively with pain intensity scores. PMID:21685644

Gutierrez-Maldonado, Jose; Gutierrez-Martinez, Olga; Cabas-Hoyos, Katia

2011-01-01

308

Stuck in the 70s: the role of social norms in distracted driving.  

PubMed

Successful campaigns to end distracted driving must understand prevailing social norms for behaviors such as texting and phoning while driving. The current work examined this issue by asking younger drivers to read car crash scenarios and rate the responsibility of the driver for the crash, and to levy fines and assign jail time, as a function of whether the driver was attentive, had been drinking, or was distracted by phoning or texting. In the first experiment, ratings were performed in the absence of injunctive norm information (laws against drunk and distracted driving). In the second experiment, injunctive norm information was included. Impaired drivers were viewed as more responsible in both experiments, with texting drivers viewed as the most responsible. However, drunk drivers received the most fines and jail time. When compared to data from the 1970s, the results show that anti-drunk driving campaigns have changed how younger drivers view drunk driving, but that norms have not yet changed for distracted driving, despite consistent results showing they know the risk of driving distracted. Implications for social norm distracted driving campaigns are discussed. PMID:22664691

Atchley, Paul; Hadlock, Chelsie; Lane, Sean

2012-09-01

309

Visual distraction during word-list retrieval does not consistently disrupt memory  

PubMed Central

Glenberg et al. (1998) reported that episodic memory is impaired by visual distraction and argued that this effect is consistent with a trade-off between internal and external attentional focus. However, their demonstration that visual distraction impairs memory for lists used 15 consecutive word-lists, with analysis only of mid-list items, and has never been replicated. Experiment 1 (N = 37) replicated their methodology and found the same pattern of impairment for mid-list recall, but found no evidence of impairment for other items on the lists. Experiment 2 (N = 64) explored whether this pattern arises because the mid-list items are poorly encoded (by manipulating presentation rate) or because of interference. Experiment 3 (N = 36) also looked at the role of interference whilst controlling for potential item effects. Neither study replicated the pattern seen in Experiment 1, despite reliable effects of presentation rate (Experiment 2) and interference (Experiments 2 and 3). Experiment 2 found no effect of distraction for mid-list items, but distraction did increase both correct and incorrect recall of all items suggestive of a shift in willingness to report. Experiment 3 found no effects of distraction whatsoever. Thus, there is no clear evidence that distraction consistently impairs retrieval of items from lists and therefore no consistent evidence to support the embodied cognition account used to explain the original finding. PMID:24795688

Rae, Pamela J. L.; Perfect, Timothy J.

2014-01-01

310

Humeral lengthening by distraction osteogenesis: a safe procedure?  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the safety of humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame. We retrospectively reviewed 26 humeral segments in 17 patients that were lengthened at our department between 1993 and 2011. There were varying aetiologies including achondroplasia, epiphyseal dysplasia, Oilier disease, trauma or infection of the proximal humeral growth-plate, unicameral bone cyst and brachial plexus injury. Mean age at start of surgery was 17.05 years (range : 5-40). The mean lengthening achieved was 8.85 (3-13) cm. Mean lengthening percentage was 353% (range : 10-48). Average healing index was 30.56 days/cm (range : 17.46-4232). There was a significant difference in healing index between achondroplasia patients (28.79 days/cm) compared to others (33.41 days/cm). Minor problems included pin tract infection (14 segments). More important obstacles were temporary elbow flexion contracture (7 segments), premature consolidation (6 segments), radial nerve dysaesthesia (6 segments) and loosening of a Schanz screw (1 segment). Complications included one fracture and one progressive bowing after frame removal. One planned lengthening was not completely achieved. Despite a lot of obstacles, humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame provided a reliable method to treat the functional or cosmetic problems of upper limb shortening. PMID:24563967

Ruette, Peter; Lammens, Johan

2013-12-01

311

A variation in tooth position-180° rotated maxillary second premolar.  

PubMed

Rotation of a tooth around an axis which is perpendicular to the occlusal plane through angles which approach 180° is a rare anomaly which is found in the human dentition. Such aberrations present a multi-factorial model in their origin. Both genetic and local factors seem to contribute to this abnormality. If the contribution of local factors could be identified, a way could open to an early treatment and prevention of secondary rotations of opposing and contiguous teeth. A case of a 180° rotation of maxillary left second premolar in a male patient of Indian origin has been described here. PMID:24086921

Nayak, Gurudutt; Singh, Inderpreet

2013-08-01

312

A Variation in Tooth Position-180? Rotated Maxillary Second Premolar  

PubMed Central

Rotation of a tooth around an axis which is perpendicular to the occlusal plane through angles which approach 180° is a rare anomaly which is found in the human dentition. Such aberrations present a multi–factorial model in their origin. Both genetic and local factors seem to contribute to this abnormality. If the contribution of local factors could be identified, a way could open to an early treatment and prevention of secondary rotations of opposing and contiguous teeth. A case of a 180° rotation of maxillary left second premolar in a male patient of Indian origin has been described here. PMID:24086921

Nayak, Gurudutt; Singh, Inderpreet

2013-01-01

313

Complete Bilateral Gemination of Maxillary Incisors with Separate Root Canals  

PubMed Central

Developmental anomalies in the hard tissue are seen frequently in dental practice. Gemination and fusion are the most commonly encountered anomalies, and distinction between the two is always challenging. Gemination, also called double tooth, is an anomaly exhibiting two joined crowns and usually a single root. It represents an incomplete attempt of a single tooth germ to split. It is considered multifactorial in etiology, with genetic and environmental causes. This paper discusses a rare example of bilateral gemination (prevalence 0.04%) of maxillary central incisors with completely separated roots. Multidisciplinary care ensured a successful esthetic and functional outcome. PMID:25254121

Mahendra, Lodd; Govindarajan, Sujatha; Jayanandan, Muruganandhan; Shamsudeen, Shaik Mohammed; Kumar, Nalin; Madasamy, Ramasamy

2014-01-01

314

Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME): a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transverse maxillary hypoplasia, in adolescents and adults, is frequently seen in non-syndromal and syndromal patients including cleft patients. In skeletally matured patients, the uni- or bilateral transverse hypoplasia can be corrected by means of a surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The treatment is a combination of orthodontics and surgical procedures and provides dental arch space for alignment of teeth. The

M. J. Koudstaal; L. J. Poort; K. G. H. van der Wal; E. B. Wolvius; B. Prahl-Andersen; A. J. M. Schulten

2005-01-01

315

Early correction of class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion and face mask therapy.  

PubMed

A case report is presented of a class III malocclusion with a class III skeletal pattern and maxillary retrusion. Patient, a 10-year-old boy was treated with an orthopedic face mask in conjunction with rapid maxillary expansion and standard pre-adjusted edgewise appliance. Treatment was completed after 3 years and proved to be stable following the active treatment. PMID:23956600

Karthi, Muthukumar; Anbuselvan, Gobichettipalayam Jagatheeswaran; Kumar, Bhandari Pawan

2013-07-01

316

Orthodontic tooth movement after extraction of previously autotransplanted maxillary canines and ridge augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case report is detailed in which autotransplanted maxillary canines were removed and the spaces closed. Substantial surrounding bone loss was associated with the upper right canine, and a bone graft was needed to reestablish normal dentoalveolar ridge morphology. Bone was taken from the maxillary tuberosity and placed in the canine extraction site, fixed with a bone screw, and covered

Anthony R. Collett; Basil Fletcher

2000-01-01

317

Osteoradionecrosis of sphenoid and temporal bones in a patient with maxillary sinus carcinoma: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of radionecrosis of sphenoid and temporal bones is reported. The patient received a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for his left maxillary sinus carcinoma. After the combined therapy, necrosis accompanying inflammation developed in the maxillary and temporal regions. Excision of the necrotic tissues was done, and the left ascending ramus of the mandible was resected because of

T. Inokuchi; K. Sano; M. Kaminogo

1990-01-01

318

Evaluation of Distraction in a Driver-Vehicle-Environment Framework: An Application of Different Data-Mining Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distraction during driving task is one of the most serious problems affecting traffic safety, being one of the main causes\\u000a of accidents. Therefore, a method to diagnose and evaluate Distraction appears to be of paramount importance to study and\\u000a implement efficient counter-measures. This research aims at illustrating our approach in diagnosis of Distraction status,\\u000a comparing some of the widely used

Fabio Tango; Marco Botta

2009-01-01

319

Tissue structure modification in knee osteoarthritis by use of joint distraction: an open 1-year pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundModification of joint tissue damage is challenging in late-stage osteoarthritis (OA). Few options are available for treating end-stage knee OA other than joint replacement.ObjectivesTo examine whether joint distraction can effectively modify knee joint tissue damage and has the potential to delay prosthesis surgery.Methods20 patients (<60 years) with tibiofemoral OA were treated surgically using joint distraction. Distraction (?5 mm) was applied

Femke Intema; Peter M Van Roermund; Anne C A Marijnissen; Sebastian Cotofana; Felix Eckstein; Rene M Castelein; Johannes W J Bijlsma; Simon C Mastbergen; Floris P J G Lafeber

2011-01-01

320

Complications in alveolar distraction osteogenesis of the atrophic mandible.  

PubMed

To improve the starting point for placement of dental implants, 45 patients suffering from atrophied edentulous mandibles, with a vertical height varying between 7.3 and 15.8mm, were treated by alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis (VDO). The mean follow-up period was 3 years, ranging from 1 to 7 years. Associated complications, as occurred during instalment of the distractor device, VDO period and consolidation phase, and also after dental implant placement, were evaluated. Observed complications were: early fractures (2%), late fractures (17%), bleeding or haematoma (4%), infections (6%), skin perforation (2%), mucosal dehiscence (8%), sensory disturbances (28%), sagging chin (13%) and failure of dental implants (13%). In 10 patients 2 complications and in 1 patient 3 complications were monitored. All complications occurred in the first year. It is concluded that VDO to restore vertical bone height in patients with mandibular atrophy is a surgically delicate technique with a high risk of various complications. The likelihood of the most striking complication, namely fracture occurrence, increases with decreasing residual bone height. PMID:17919888

Perdijk, F B T; Meijer, G J; Strijen, P J van; Koole, R

2007-10-01

321

Propolis accelerates the consolidation phase in distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of propolis on new bone formation after distraction osteogenesis (DO). This study examined 3 groups: control group, P100, and P200. Rabbits underwent DO of the left mandible after an osteotomy between the first molar and the mental foramen. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were evaluated using dual-energy x-ray absorption 1 and 4 weeks after the procedure. The volume of connective tissue and new bone and the number of capillaries were measured using stereologic analysis after the subjects were killed. Dual-energy x-ray absorption showed that the bone mineral content and bone mineral density were higher in the groups treated with propolis by week 4, and these parameters were higher in the P200 group. Stereologic analysis showed no significant differences in connective tissue volume and number of capillaries among the groups. New bone volume was lowest in the P200 group. We concluded that propolis accelerates bone formation and may shorten the consolidation phase with DO. PMID:25203585

Bereket, Cihan; Ozan, Fatih; Sener, Ismail; Tek, Mustafa; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Semirgin, Sibel Uçak; Senel, Erman; Ozdemir, Muhsin

2014-09-01

322

Biomechanics of the canine mandible during bone transport distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

This study compared biomechanical patterns between finite element models (FEMs) and a fresh dog mandible tested under molar and incisal physiological loads in order to clarify the effect of the bone transport distraction osteogenesis (BTDO) surgical process. Three FEMs of dog mandibles were built in order to evaluate the effects of BTDO. The first model evaluated the mandibular response under two physiological loads resembling bite processes. In the second model, a 5.0?cm bone defect was bridged with a bone transport reconstruction plate (BTRP). In the third model, new regenerated bony tissue was incorporated within the defect to mimic the surgical process without the presence of the device. Complementarily, a mandible of a male American foxhound dog was mechanically tested in the laboratory both in the presence and absence of a BTRP, and mechanical responses were measured by attaching rosettes to the bone surface of the mandible to validate the FEM predictions. The relationship between real and predicted values indicates that the stress patterns calculated using FEM are a valid predictor of the biomechanics of the BTDO procedures. The present study provides an interesting correlation between the stiffness of the device and the biomechanical response of the mandible affected for bone transport. PMID:25162918

Zapata, Uriel; Dechow, Paul C; Watanabe, Ikuya; Elsalanty, Mohammed E; Opperman, Lynne A

2014-11-01

323

Escaping capture: bilingualism modulates distraction from working memory.  

PubMed

We ask whether bilingualism aids cognitive control over the inadvertent guidance of visual attention from working memory and from bottom-up cueing. We compare highly-proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals with Spanish monolinguals in three visual search conditions. In the working memory (WM) condition, attention was driven in a top-down fashion by irrelevant objects held in WM. In the Identify condition, attention was driven in a bottom-up fashion by visual priming. In the Singleton condition, attention was driven in a bottom-up fashion by including a unique distracting object in the search array. The results showed that bilinguals were overall faster than monolinguals in the three conditions, replicating previous findings that bilinguals can be more efficient than monolinguals in the deployment of attention. Interestingly, bilinguals were less captured by irrelevant information held in WM but were equally affected by visual priming and unique singletons in the search displays. These observations suggest that bilingualism aids top-down WM-mediated guidance of attention, facilitating processes that keep separate representations in WM from representations that guide visual attention. In contrast, bottom-up attentional capture by salient yet unrelated input operates similarly in bilinguals and monolinguals. PMID:21890125

Hernández, Mireia; Costa, Albert; Humphreys, Glyn W

2012-01-01

324

The role of driver distraction in crashes: an analysis of 1995-1999 Crashworthiness Data System Data.  

PubMed

Five years (1995-1999) of national Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) data are analyzed to determine the role of driver distraction in traffic crashes and the specific sources of this distraction. Results show that 8.3 percent of the drivers were distracted at the time of their crash; after adjustment for the large percentage of drivers with unknown distraction status, the percentage rose to 12.9 percent. The most frequently cited sources of driver distraction were persons, objects or events outside the vehicle (29.4% of distracted drivers), adjusting the radio, tape or CD player (11.4%), and other occupants in the vehicle (10.9%). Other specific distractions (moving objects in vehicle, other objects brought into vehicle, adjusting vehicle or climate controls, eating and drinking, cell phones, and smoking) were each cited in only one to four percent of the cases. The likelihood of being distracted and the source of distraction varied by driver age but not by gender. Results are discussed in light of the limitations inherent in the CDS and other crash data, and the need for expanded data collection initiatives. PMID:12214356

Stutts, J C; Reinfurt, D W; Rodgman, E A

2001-01-01

325

Effects of distracting ads and cognitive control on the processing of online news stories with stereotype-related information.  

PubMed

An experiment (N=123) examined how individuals cognitively process online news stories depicting African-American characters with stereotype-consistent and -inconsistent attributes and whether distracting online ads interfere with story processing. Two cognitive control functions, updating and inhibition, were predicted to moderate the effects of distracting ads. Recall of characters' attributes and overall characters' description were included in the study as dependent measures. Findings indicated that distracting online ads hinder recall of information about and descriptions of story characters. Inhibition and updating affect dependent measures and moderate the effects of distracting online ads on characters' descriptions. PMID:23574346

Kononova, Anastasia G

2013-05-01

326

Effects of the position of artificial teeth and load levels on stress in the complete maxillary denture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of Problem. Complete maxillary dentures are subjected to significant variations in force. The influence of tooth position on the stress patterns of a complete maxillary denture during gradual load increases has not been determined. Purpose. This study was designed to measure the effects of the position of artificial teeth and load levels on stress patterns in the complete maxillary

Anthony Prombonas; Dimitris Vlissidis

2002-01-01

327

An Enjoyable Distraction During Exercise Augments the Positive Effects of Exercise on Mood  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested. A sample of 84 undergraduate students rated their mood and arousal before and after a standardized exercise, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at a pace of 3.6 mph for 10 minutes. During the work out session, participants watched the same television show, which they previously rated as enjoyable, or not enjoyable. As added controls, a third group exercised with no distraction (the TV was turned off); a fourth group did not exercise, but watched the television show. The results showed that exercise alone was sufficient to increase pleasant mood (95% CI 0.61, 1.46) and that including an enjoyable distraction during exercise significantly augmented pleasant mood compared to all other groups (95% CI 1.58, 2.99; R2 = 0.29). These results show that the enjoyment of a distraction is a key factor that can augment the intensity of positive mood following exercise. Key points The hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested. The results support this hypothesis by showing for the first time that while exercise alone was sufficient to increase the intensity of positive mood; combining exercise with an enjoyable distraction resulted in significantly greater increases in pleasant mood compared to exercise alone. Accounting for the enjoyment of a distraction type in future studies can increase the sensitivity of research designs used to detect changes in positive mood post-exercise. PMID:24790478

Privitera, Gregory J.; Antonelli, Danielle E.; Szal, Abigail L.

2014-01-01

328

Combined micro computed tomography and histology study of bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone augmentation is a vital part of surgical interventions of the oral and maxillofacial area including dental implantology. Prior to implant placement, sufficient bone volume is needed to reduce the risk of peri-implantitis. While augmentation using harvested autologous bone is still considered as gold standard, many surgeons prefer bone substitutes to reduce operation time and to avoid donor site morbidity. To assess the osteogenic efficacy of commercially available augmentation materials we analyzed drill cores extracted before implant insertion. In younger patients, distraction osteogenesis is successfully applied to correct craniofacial deformities through targeted bone formation. To study the influence of mesenchymal stem cells on bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis, human mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the distraction gap of nude rat mandibles immediately after osteotomy. The distraction was performed over eleven days to reach a distraction gap of 6 mm. Both the rat mandibles and the drill cores were scanned using synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography. The three-dimensional data were manually registered and compared with corresponding two-dimensional histological sections to assess bone regeneration and its morphology. The analysis of the rat mandibles indicates that bone formation is enhanced by mesenchymal stem cells injected before distraction. The bone substitutes yielded a wide range of bone volume and degree of resorption. The volume fraction of the newly formed bone was determined to 34.4% in the computed tomography dataset for the augmentation material Geistlich Bio-Oss®. The combination of computed tomography and histology allowed a complementary assessment for both bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis.

Ilgenstein, Bernd; Deyhle, Hans; Jaquiery, Claude; Kunz, Christoph; Stalder, Anja; Stübinger, Stefan; Jundt, Gernot; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert; Hieber, Simone E.

2012-10-01

329

Visual and cognitive distraction metrics in the age of the smart phone: A basic review  

PubMed Central

Sources of distraction are numerous and varied, and defining and measuring distraction and attention is complicated. The driving task requires constant adjustments and reallocation of attention to cognitive, motor, and visual processes. While it is fairly straightforward to measure distraction in an experimental situation (e.g., simulator, closed course), driver distraction in the real world is highly contextual. While no single metric is capable of capturing the complexities of distraction, several have proved useful in helping researchers gain fuller understanding of it. Few have reached a level of consensus among researchers and user interface designers. ISO and SAE may be considered the ‘gold standard’ for providing mechanisms through which open scientific consensus-based standards can be achieved. While there are a number of metrics used in predicting distraction, three have been studied closely and are going through the SAE and ISO standards process. They are (1) ‘the occlusion method’; (2) the Lane Change Test (LCT); and (3) the Detection Response Task (DRT). The metrics described here apply generally to the experimental context where driving is tightly controlled. Like any method, there are limitations with each—and they don’t necessarily agree with one another. Experimental methods and analyses are different than those in naturalistic driving (ND). ND relies more on data mining versus traditional experimental manipulation. ND data are a challenge precisely in that they lack experimental control. In future, driver metrics will go beyond specific measurement of task load, and will include how drivers self regulate when they choose to be distracted. PMID:24776223

McGehee, Daniel V.

2014-01-01

330

Idiopathic bilateral antral exostoses: A rare case in maxillary sinus  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Exostoses in paranasal sinuses have been reported in the otolaryngology literature, but they have not been described in the dental literature to our knowledge. The aim of this article is to describe an idiopathic and rare case of bilateral exostosis obtained by cone-beam computed tomography. PRESENTATION OF CASE The case shows a healthy and asymptomatic patient with a different size and form of exostoses in both maxillary sinuses. DISCUSSION It is difficult to clinically diagnose the antral exostosis due the asymptomatic nature of this condition, unless the approach would be through endoscope. Sometimes this condition is related with nasal irrigants, however in this case the patient asserted not having used nasal irrigation ever; thus, it is impossible to relate this kind of treatment as a principal cause. CONCLUSION The published data of exostoses in maxillary sinus seem to be limited in the dental literature, and this condition is important to consider in an implant treatment planning. Also, it is important to perform a follow-up of the cases in trying to find the possible causes of exostosis. PMID:25128728

Borie, Eduardo; Watanabe, Plauto C.A.; Orsi, Iara A.; Fuentes, Ramon

2014-01-01

331

Mesenchymal phosphaturic neoplasm in the maxillary sinus: a case report.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of oncogenic osteomalacia due to a mesenchymal phosphaturic tumour in the maxillary sinus. This is a paraneoplastic syndrome in which a tumour produces a peptide hormone-like substance (phosphatonin) that causes a urinary loss of phosphates resulting in a debilitating systemic condition. In this case, the patient experienced muscle stiffness, reduction of muscle tone, loss of weight and pathological fractures. Clinical and radiological examination revealed a tumour in the right maxillary sinus; all other results were negative. The diagnosis following pathology examination was mesenchymal phosphaturic tumour with a haemangiopericytoma-like vascular pattern. Different histological types of mesenchymal tumours can be associated with paraneoplastic syndrome, but their localization in the paranasal sinuses is rare. The correct diagnosis allows the appropriate therapeutic approach, which can lead to an almost immediate resolution of the clinical situation after surgical removal of the neoplasm as in the present case. Oncogenic osteomalacia is rare, particularly in the maxillofacial region, and only a few cases have been reported. PMID:20483563

Pedrazzoli, M; Colletti, G; Ferrari, M; Rossetti, G; Moneghini, L; Autelitano, L

2010-10-01

332

An airway study of different maxillary and mandibular sagittal positions.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the oropharyngeal (OP) and nasal passage (NP) volumes along with various airway variables of patients with normal nasorespiratory functions having different dentofacial skeletal patterns and to evaluate the correlations between different variables and the airway. One hundred and one patients (57 males and 44 females, aged 14-18 years) having pre-treatment cone beam computed tomography images and complete medical records were selected. The patients were divided into five groups as Class I (CI, 81 ? SNA ? 77; 80 ? SNB ? 76; 3 ? ANB ? 1), Class II maxillary protrusion (CIIMaxP, SNA > 81; 80 ? SNB ? 76; ANB > 3), Class II mandibular retrusion (CIIMandR, 81 ? SNA ? 77; SNB < 76; ANB > 3), Class III maxillary retrusion (CIIIMaxR, SNA < 77; 80 ? SNB ? 76; ANB < 1), and Class III mandibular protrusion (CIIIMandP, 81 ? SNA ? 77; SNB > 80; ANB < 1). Posterior airway space, area of the most constricted region at the base of the tongue (minAx), and OP volume were significantly higher for the CIIIMandP group, whereas CIIMandR subjects had the lowest values. The only significant difference for the NP volume was between CI and CIIMandR groups where a smaller volume for the CIIMandR group was observed. The minAx was the variable that presented the best correlation with the OP airway volume. It seems that a detailed analysis of airway may prove to be a valuable diagnostic addition in orthodontics. PMID:22045695

El, Hakan; Palomo, Juan Martin

2013-04-01

333

Endoscopic lift of the maxillary sinus floor in beagles.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to introduce a modified endoscopic lift of the floor of the maxillary sinus in beagles. Twelve operations (bilateral and randomly chosen) were done in 6 beagles each in the test group (modified endoscopic operation), and the control group, in which the operation was done with an osteotome. All operations were evaluated by two indices of safety (perforation of the sinus membrane and nasal bleeding) and 3effective indices (the intraoperative height after lifting, volume of bone grafts, and dislocation of the sinus grafts). The sinus membrane was not perforated and there were no nasal bleeds in either group. The intraoperative height after lifting was 13.7 (0.8) mm in the test group and 9.1 (0.5) mm in the control group, so it was significantly higher in the test group than the control group (p=0.0001). Similarly, the volume of bone graft was 0.9 (0.04) ml in the test group and 0.5 (0.02) ml in the control group (p=0.0001). The volume of the anterior and posterior bone grafts in the implant cavity in the test group did not differ significantly (p=0.102), while there were significant differences in the control group (p=0.002). Endoscopic lifting of the floor of the maxillary sinus is a safe and effective approach based on direct observation in beagles. PMID:25174319

Zheng, JiSi; Zhang, ShanYong; Lu, ErYi; Yang, Chi; Zhang, WenJie; Zhao, JingYang

2014-11-01

334

Improving dental experiences by using virtual reality distraction: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Dental anxiety creates significant problems for both patients and the dental profession. Some distraction interventions are already used by healthcare professionals to help patients cope with unpleasant procedures. The present study is novel because it a) builds on evidence that natural scenery is beneficial for patients, and b) uses a Virtual Reality (VR) representation of nature to distract participants. Extending previous work that has investigated pain and anxiety during treatment, c) we also consider the longer term effects in terms of more positive memories of the treatment, building on a cognitive theory of memory (Elaborated Intrusions). Participants (n?=?69) took part in a simulated dental experience and were randomly assigned to one of three VR conditions (active vs. passive vs. control). In addition, participants were distinguished into high and low dentally anxious according to a median split resulting in a 3×2 between-subjects design. VR distraction in a simulated dental context affected memories a week later. The VR distraction had effects not only on concurrent experiences, such as perceived control, but longitudinally upon the vividness of memories after the dental experience had ended. Participants with higher dental anxiety (for whom the dental procedures were presumably more aversive) showed a greater reduction in memory vividness than lower dental-anxiety participants. This study thus suggests that VR distractions can be considered as a relevant intervention for cycles of care in which people's previous experiences affect their behaviour for future events. PMID:24621518

Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Pahl, Sabine; White, Mathew P; Andrade, Jackie; Qian, Cheng; Bruce, Malcolm; May, Jon; Moles, David R

2014-01-01

335

Technology-related distracted walking behaviours in Manhattan's most dangerous intersections.  

PubMed

Use of mobile devices has been cited as a distraction while driving, and more recently, among pedestrians crossing urban streets. In 2010, over half of New York City traffic fatalities were pedestrians. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of distracted walking due to pedestrians' use of headphones, mobile phones, or both. Data were gathered by direct observations at the 10 intersections in Manhattan with the highest frequency of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. More than 1 in 4 of the >3500 pedestrians observed were distracted by mobile electronic devices while crossing during the 'walk' (28.8%) and 'don't walk' (26.3%) signals. Poisson regression analyses established there was a significant difference in individuals talking on a mobile device during the 'walk' signal versus the 'don't walk' signal; however, no other significant differences in other distracted walking behaviours were observed. This study contributes to the emerging literature on distracted walking behaviour by pedestrians in busy urban areas and can help to inform pedestrian-focused safety efforts. PMID:24667654

Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali; Basch, Charles E

2014-10-01

336

Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment  

PubMed Central

Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses), yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor). Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., “uh” or “umm”) and filler words (e.g., “like” or “you know”). Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods. PMID:24904488

Hsu, Kean J.; Babeva, Kalina N.; Feng, Michelle C.; Hummer, Justin F.; Davison, Gerald C.

2014-01-01

337

Determining skill transferability of action games as a method to reduce in-vehicle phone distractions.  

PubMed

Distracted driving has been shown to be a safety issue in numerous studies. To combat this problem, in-vehicle technology, legislation, media interventions, and other methods have been proposed and attempted. However research indicates that the drivers themselves may circumvent, ignore, or not be able to react in time for these interventions to be effective. Therefore research into training programs for drivers may improve reaction time under distraction. Research indicates that action game players have faster reaction times and more attentional resources than non-players on paper-based tests. However, transferability to driving has not been studied yet. This paper outlines a study to determine if action game players perform better at a driving task based on frequency of game-play. Participants will be placed into two groups of play (high vs. low) and tested against two levels of distraction (none vs. phone conversation). It is expected that participants who play higher frequency of action games will perform better under distraction than lower frequency players. Driver performance, conversation recall, frequency and durations of eye fixations will be analyzed based on previous research which has validated those variables as a measure of distraction and higher workload. PMID:22317717

Rupp, M; McConnell, D S; Smither, J A

2012-01-01

338

Comparative evaluation of the mandibular distraction zone using ultrasonography and conventional radiography.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of ultrasonography (USG) for the evaluation of bone formation in the mandibular distraction wound and to compare this with radiographic evaluation, which is currently the standard modality. Twenty-two patients underwent mandibular distraction (30 sides) with a variety of distraction devices. The wounds were assessed with plain radiographs and USG at established time intervals. Estimates of bone formation using a semiquantitative bone fill score were made for radiographs and USG. USG bone fill scores were correlated with radiography scores. At week 4 the difference between the scores was statistically significant (P=0.01); at all other time points, USG and radiography scores were comparable. At week 4, USG scores were significantly higher than the corresponding radiography scores, indicating that USG is an earlier indicator of calcification in the distraction zone as compared to radiography. USG evaluation of the distraction osteogenesis (DO) zone has many inherent advantages over conventional methods. The results of this study indicate that USG is an accurate non-invasive technique that may prove to be useful in assessing the mandibular DO regenerate in patients. PMID:24393569

Issar, Y; Sahoo, N K; Sinha, R; Satija, L; Chattopadhyay, P K

2014-05-01

339

Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment.  

PubMed

Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses), yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor). Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., "uh" or "umm") and filler words (e.g., "like" or "you know"). Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods. PMID:24904488

Hsu, Kean J; Babeva, Kalina N; Feng, Michelle C; Hummer, Justin F; Davison, Gerald C

2014-01-01

340

Students distracted by electronic devices perform at the same level as those who are focused on the lecture  

PubMed Central

Background. Little is known about the characteristics of internet distractions that students may engage in during lecture. The objective of this pilot study is to identify some of the internet-based distractions students engage in during in-person lectures. The findings will help identify what activities most commonly cause students to be distracted from the lecture and if these activities impact student learning. Methods. This study is a quasi-experimental pilot study of 26 students from a single institution. In the current study, one class of third-year students were surveyed after a lecture on special needs dentistry. The survey identified self-reported utilization patterns of “smart” devices during the lecture. Additionally, twelve quiz-type questions were given to assess the students’ recall of important points in the lecture material that had just been covered. Results. The sample was comprised of 26 students. Of these, 17 were distracted in some form (either checking email, sending email, checking Facebook, or sending texts). The overall mean score on the test was 9.85 (9.53 for distracted students and 10.44 for non-distracted students). There were no significant differences in test scores between distracted and non-distracted students (p = 0.652). Gender and types of distractions were not significantly associated with test scores (p > 0.05). All students believed that they understood all the important points from the lecture. Conclusions. Every class member felt that they acquired the important learning points during the lecture. Those who were distracted by electronic devices during the lecture performed similarly to those who were not. However, results should be interpreted with caution as this study was a small quasi-experimental design and further research should examine the influence of different types of distraction on different types of learning. PMID:25279260

Nalliah, Romesh P.

2014-01-01

341

Students distracted by electronic devices perform at the same level as those who are focused on the lecture.  

PubMed

Background. Little is known about the characteristics of internet distractions that students may engage in during lecture. The objective of this pilot study is to identify some of the internet-based distractions students engage in during in-person lectures. The findings will help identify what activities most commonly cause students to be distracted from the lecture and if these activities impact student learning. Methods. This study is a quasi-experimental pilot study of 26 students from a single institution. In the current study, one class of third-year students were surveyed after a lecture on special needs dentistry. The survey identified self-reported utilization patterns of "smart" devices during the lecture. Additionally, twelve quiz-type questions were given to assess the students' recall of important points in the lecture material that had just been covered. Results. The sample was comprised of 26 students. Of these, 17 were distracted in some form (either checking email, sending email, checking Facebook, or sending texts). The overall mean score on the test was 9.85 (9.53 for distracted students and 10.44 for non-distracted students). There were no significant differences in test scores between distracted and non-distracted students (p = 0.652). Gender and types of distractions were not significantly associated with test scores (p > 0.05). All students believed that they understood all the important points from the lecture. Conclusions. Every class member felt that they acquired the important learning points during the lecture. Those who were distracted by electronic devices during the lecture performed similarly to those who were not. However, results should be interpreted with caution as this study was a small quasi-experimental design and further research should examine the influence of different types of distraction on different types of learning. PMID:25279260

Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

2014-01-01

342

Dancing to distraction: mediating 'docile bodies' in 'Philippine Thriller video'.  

PubMed

This essay examines the conditions behind the 'Philippine Prison Thriller' video, a YouTube spectacle featuring the 1,500 inmates of Cebu Provincial Detention and Rehabilitation Centre (CPDRC) dancing to Michael Jackson's hit song 'Thriller'. The video achieved viral status after it was uploaded onto the video-sharing platform in 2007, and sparked online debates as to whether this video, containing recorded moving images of allegedly forced dancing, was a form of cruel and inhumane punishment or a novel approach to rehabilitation. The immense popularity of the video inspired creative responses from viewers, and this international popularity caused the CPDRC to host a monthly live dance show held in the prison yard, now in its seventh year. The essay explores how seemingly innocuous products of user-generated-content are imbued with ideologies that obscure or reduce relations of race, agency, power and control. By contextualising the video's origins, I highlight current Philippine prison conditions and introduce how video-maker/programme inventor/prison warden Byron Garcia sought to distance his facility from the Philippine prison majority. I then investigate the 'mediation' of 'Thriller' through three main issues. One, I examine the commodification and transformation from viral video to a thana-tourist destination; two, the global appeal of 'Thriller' is founded on public penal intrigue and essentialist Filipino tropes, mixed with a certain novelty factor widely suffused in YouTube formats; three, how dance performance and its mediation here are conducive to creating Foucault's docile bodies, which operate as a tool of distraction for the masses and ultimately serve the interests of the state far more than it rehabilitates(unconvicted and therefore innocent) inmates. PMID:24480892

Mangaoang, Áine

2013-01-01

343

Station Tour: Russian Segment  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

344

Video endoscopic oro-nasal visualisation of the anterior wall of maxillary sinus: a new technique.  

PubMed

The anterior wall of the maxillary sinus represents a blind spot in maxillary sinus endoscopic surgery because of the absence of proper visualisation and instrumentation to reach it. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach through the oral cavity into the nose with a flexible video endoscope (oro-nasal endoscopic approach; ONEA) to visualise the entire anterior maxillary wall including the anteromedial angle. We started from a dried bone cadaver model, and then dissected fresh-frozen cadavers. The maxillary sinus was explored with a rigid and a flexible endoscope entering from the nose. Next, a flexible endoscope was introduced through the mouth and back up through the choana, it accessed the maxillary middle antrostomy, entering inside the sinus and looking at the anterior wall. A small ruler inserted inside the sinus demonstrated all the angles visualised. The new ONEA technique allows complete visualisation of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus with inspection of all blind spots. It is therefore possible to detect lesions that would normally not be visible with a normal rigid endoscope. We demonstrate the validity of a novel technique that allows visualisation of the infero-medial angle of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus. PMID:25210220

Trimarchi, M; Tomazic, P V; Bertazzoni, G; Rathburn, A; Bussi, M; Stammberger, H

2014-08-01

345

SEGMENTED MIRROR TELESCOPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the basic structural and optical issues that cause us to be interested in segmented mirror telescopes as a path\\u000a for building large telescopes. The history of segmented mirror telescopes is brie.y reviewed. Segmentation geometries that\\u000a might be suitable are reviewed with their advantages and disadvantages. A key issue, the asphericity of individual segments\\u000a is reviewed and its impact

Jerry Nelson

2005-01-01

346

In-vehicle distraction and fatal accidents in England and Wales.  

PubMed

The paper describes the coding and analysis of a database of police fatal accident reports to investigate the extent to which in-vehicle distraction is a contributory factor in vehicle crashes. A particular focus has been the involvement of mobile telephones and entertainment systems. Analysis of accidents occurring over the period 1985-1995 shows that in-vehicle distraction is reported as a contributory factor in about 2% of fatal accidents (although this figure may be a conservative estimate). Specific examples of distraction attributed to entertainment systems and telephones have been identified. Electronic driver information systems are also of particular interest, but have not featured in the available data. Work is progressing, on an annual cycle, to obtain, code and analyse further data and this is expected to provide an invaluable source of information for accident researchers. PMID:11426684

Stevens, A; Minton, R

2001-07-01

347

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome and respiratory obstruction: a novel use of distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, or distal arthrogryposis type IIA (DA 2A), is a rare and severe multiple congenital contracture syndrome that is associated with upper airway obstruction. This obstruction has been clinically significant enough to warrant tracheostomy and has been associated with mortality. We describe a patient who presented to us as a neonate and the novel management of her respiratory obstruction in the setting of DA 2A. Bilateral mandibular osteotomies were performed and bilateral internal mandibular distracters were placed. She was distracted a total of 3 cm over 15 days without event and successfully extubated on the postoperative day 16. Preoperative polysomnogram demonstrated an obstructive apnea hypopnea index of 43.7, but a repeat polysomnogram demonstrated an apnea hypopnea index of 8.1. In this study, we report the first use of distraction osteogenesis in the setting of severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome secondary to DA 2A. PMID:24777016

Toranto, Jason D; Ward, Sally Davidson; Lin, Aaron; Urata, Mark M

2014-05-01

348

[Frontofacial monobloc advancement using the Rigid External Distraction (RED-II) system].  

PubMed

One-stage frontofacial monobloc advancement has been used to treat patients with craniofacial synostosis including Crouzon disease. Nishimoto et al. first applied a rigid external distraction system for two patients. However, precise surgical techniques and proper indication for this gradual distraction method have not yet been established. This report describes the advantages and detailed surgical methods of frontofacial monobloc advancement using a Rigid External Distraction (RED- II) System. Three patients with severe craniofacial synostosis including Crouzon disease and Treacher Collins syndrome were treated. The ages of patients were 9, 9, and 8 year old, respectively. The RED- II System was safely applied for these young children and cosmetic results were sufficient. No major postoperative complications occurred. PMID:17695776

Kamoshima, Yuuta; Sawamura, Yutaka; Iwasaki, Motoyuki; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Kawashima, Kunihiro

2007-08-01

349

Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation?: A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model  

PubMed Central

Objective This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method A diverse community sample (55% African-American) of males (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of age (M = 25.80) were randomly assigned to one of two beverage conditions (i.e., alcohol, no-alcohol control) and one of two distraction conditions (i.e., distraction, no-distraction). Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks and a verbal insult from a fictitious male opponent. Participants’ attention-allocation to aggression words (i.e., aggression bias) and physical aggression were measured using a dot probe task and a shock-based aggression task, respectively. Results Intoxicated men whose attention was distracted displayed significantly lower levels of aggression bias and enacted significantly less physical aggression than intoxicated men whose attention was not distracted. However, aggression bias did not account for the lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in the distraction, relative to the no-distraction, condition. Conclusions These results replicated and extended past evidence that cognitive distraction is associated with lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in highly provoked males and provide the first known cognitive data to support the attentional processes posited by the attention-allocation model. Discussion focused on how these data inform intervention programming for alcohol-related aggression. PMID:21500889

Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

2011-01-01

350

This was printed from Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal Add iPods to things that distract  

E-print Network

: Technology In the wake of a federal agency urging a ban on any cell phone use while driving comes a study player's effects. "Knowing how distracting cell phones can be, it may not be surprising that using an iPod while driving can also be distracting. More surprising is the size of the effect," he wrote. Salvucci

Salvucci, Dario D.

351

Driver distraction: The effects of concurrent in-vehicle tasks, road environment complexity and age on driving performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of a simulator study that examined the effects of distraction upon driving performance for drivers in three age groups. There were two in-vehicle distracter tasks: operating the vehicle entertainment system and conducting a simulated hands-free mobile phone conversation. The effect of visual clutter was examined by requiring participants to drive in simple and complex road

Tim Horberry; Janet Anderson; Michael A. Regan; Thomas J. Triggs; John Brown

2006-01-01

352

The Effect of Auditory and Visual Distracters on the Useful Field of View: Implications for the Driving Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. The driving environment is becoming increasingly complex, including both visual and auditory distractions within the in-vehicle and external driving environments. This study was designed to investigate the effect of visual and auditory distractions on a performance measure that has been shown to be related to driving safety, the useful field of view. METHODS. A laboratory study recorded the useful

Joanne Wood; Alex Chaparro; Louise Hickson; Nick Thyer; Philippa Carter; Julie Hancock; Adrene Hoe; Ivy Le; Louisa Sahetapy; Floravel Ybarzabal

2006-01-01

353

Evaluation of functional and esthetic outcome after correction of mandibular hypoplasia secondary to temporomandibular ankylosis treated by distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Patient with TMJ ankylosis are affected with mandibular hypoplasia which in turn causes functional and esthetic problems. Restoration of normal function and esthetics is the prime goal in treatment of such patients with distraction becoming an important treatment option. The present study also was conducted on patients with mandibular hypoplasia secondarily to TMJ ankylosis treated with distraction. Since function and esthetics improvement was the prime aim behind the treatment with distraction, evaluation of functional and esthetics outcome becomes an important aspect. Thus the study was indigenously designed and aimed at qualitative evaluation of the functional and esthetic outcome after correction of mandibular hypoplasia secondary to temporomandibular ankylosis with Distraction osteogenesis. Patients treated with distraction were evaluated on the basis of parameters for function and esthetics. Parameters for function were occlusion, airway, mouth opening and chewing-biting perception of patient pre and post distraction. Parameters for esthetics used were patient and panel perception. All parameters for function and occlusion improved with distraction in all the patients except one in whom occlusion and chewing- biting pattern worsened. It is concluded that distraction is a good option for improving patients functional and esthetic outcome in cases of mandibular hypoplasia secondary to temporomandibular ankylosis as the results achieved are stable with negligible chances of relapse. PMID:24822007

Gupta, Gaurav Mahesh; Gupta, Pranjali; Sharma, Ashish; Patel, Nehal; Singh, Abhishek

2014-06-01

354

The distracting effects of music on the cognitive test performance of creative and non-creative individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of background music upon performance of creative and non-creative individuals on a reading comprehension task. In the presence of musical distraction and silence, 54 individuals (27 creative) carried out reading comprehension tasks in a repeated measures design. An interaction was predicted, such that musical distraction would have a greater negative effect on the performance of

Maddie Doyle; Adrian Furnham

355

Two-Rooted Maxillary First Molars with Two Canals: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Thorough understanding of the anatomic and internal morphology of a root canal system is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. Since permanent maxillary first molars have shown variation in internal anatomy, morphology, this tooth has been reviewed extensively. Presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. In this report, three cases are presented, which involve the root canal treatment of maxillary first molars with fusion of the two buccal roots. PMID:23412400

Shakouie, Sahar; Mokhtari, Hadi; Ghasemi, Negin; Gholizadeh, Seddigheh

2013-01-01

356

Full-arch maxillary rehabilitation fixed on 6 implants  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objective The purpose of this study is to report a case of full-arch rehabilitation on six endosseous implants loaded following the standard procedure. Methods An implant-prosthetic treatment was proposed to a 53-year-old woman with a total prosthesis in the upper jaw. Six implants on upper maxillary were placed keeping the upper complete denture during the osseointegration period. The implants were left submerged to allow the patient to wear removable prostheses and the prosthesis was rebase with Hydrocast to not compress the sites of healing during the osseointegration period. The impression of implants was made with silicones for addition (VPS) with different viscosities after 8 weeks. The final restoration was carried out taking into account the aesthetic and functional canons. Conclusions Correct diagnosis and accurate implant planning are key for success in implant rehabilitation. PMID:23991278

GARGARI, M.; PRETE, V.; PUJIA, A.; CERUSO, F.M.

2013-01-01

357

Barotrauma secondary to inflammatory maxillary sinus polyp: a case report.  

PubMed

Sinus barotrauma, secondary to mucosal disturbances, is a common finding within the aviation community. Multiple etiologies have all led to mucosal inflammation and thickening with potential obstruction of the sinus osteomeatal complex, especially during the barometric changes of flight. Obstruction can, therefore, lead to problems with sinus pressure equilibration with atmospheric pressure, and can lead to barosinusitis. We present a case of a U.S. Air Force Command Pilot with acute left sinus barotrauma during descent while flying a T-37 aircraft, along with a brief review of the pathophysiologic processes involved during barotrauma. An inflammatory polyp within his sinus was identified by plain radiography, confirmed with computed tomography, and subsequently excised. The patient had complete resolution and clearance to fly after an uneventful 4-wk convalescence and altitude chamber flight. This is the first case of sinus barotrauma secondary to an inflammatory maxillary sinus polyp, confirmed by histologic diagnosis, reported in the aeromedical literature. PMID:12433240

Baughman, Steven M; Brennan, Joseph

2002-11-01

358

A technique to salvage endodontically compromised maxillary anterior tooth.  

PubMed

A complication of endodontic treatment is over-preparation of the tooth structure in an attempt to access calcified pulp chambers and root canals. This could result in thin root walls that might compromise the long-term prognosis of the tooth. There are various treatment options when such a complication occurs, among them, extraction of the compromised tooth and its replacement with a dental implant. This clinical report describes a nonsurgical, multidisciplinary treatment alternative where a maxillary anterior tooth with a thinned root wall was successfully saved by repairing the damaged root to its original thickness using a composite resin material and subsequently restoring with a cast post and core and a crown. PMID:24654367

Comut, Alper; Foran, Denise; Cunningham, Ralph P

2014-01-01

359

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of maxillary sinus: An unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) are a group of neoplasms that originate from the cells of the lymphoreticular system. Forty percent of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arises from extranodal sites. The nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses are rarely affected by primary NHL. Common primary extranodal sites of lymphomas include stomach, liver, soft tissue, dura, bone, intestine and bone marrow. Most patients present with rapidly enlarging masses, often with symptoms both locally and systemically (fever, recurrent night sweats, or weight loss). The vast majority of patients with localized disease are curable with combined modality therapy or combination chemotherapy alone. About 50% patients are cured with doxorubicin based combination chemotherapy and rituximab. An atypical case of extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of maxillary sinus is discussed. PMID:23662270

Adwani, Dwarkadas Gokuldas; Arora, Rajender Singh; Bhattacharya, Anirudh; Bhagat, Bhushan

2013-01-01

360

Maxillary aneurysmal bone cyst: report of a rare case.  

PubMed

Everyone likes to see, hear, and know about rare things. An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an uncommon non-neoplastic lesion of the bone, mostly affecting long bones and spine. This rare jaw lesion usually affects the mandible but origin from the maxillary anterior region is even rarer. This paper describes a case of an ABC in an 8-year-old female child with a progressively increasing swelling in the right nasomaxillary region developed over a period of 1.5 months. Treatment consisted of the excision and enucleation of the lesion through an intraoral approach under general anesthesia. The higher prevalence in young adulthood has made the role of pedodontists vital in diagnosing ABCs, at the earliest. PMID:21273722

Sheth, M B; Sujan, S G; Poonacha, K S

2010-01-01

361

Mitigating the effects of in-vehicle distractions through use of the Psychological Refractory Period paradigm.  

PubMed

Modern driving involves frequent and potentially detrimental interactions with distracting in-vehicle tasks. Distraction has been shown to slow brake reaction time and decrease lateral and longitudinal vehicle control. It is likely that these negative effects will become more prevalent in the future as advances are made in the functionality, availability, and number of in-vehicle systems. This paper addresses this problem by considering ways to manage in-vehicle task presentation to mitigate their distracting effects. A driving simulator experiment using 48 participants was performed to investigate the existence of the Psychological Refractory Period in the driving context and its effect on braking performance. Drivers were exposed to lead vehicle braking events in isolation (single-task) and with a preceding surrogate in-vehicle task (dual-task). In dual-task scenarios, the time interval between the in-vehicle and braking tasks was manipulated. Brake reaction time increased when drivers were distracted. The in-vehicle task interfered with the performance of the braking task in a manner that was dependent on the interval between the two tasks, with slower reactions following a shorter inter-task interval. This is the Psychological Refractory Period effect. These results have implications for driver safety during in-vehicle distraction. The findings are used to develop recommendations regarding the timing of in-vehicle task presentation so as to reduce their potentially damaging effects on braking performance. In future, these guidelines could be incorporated into a driver workload management system to minimise the opportunity for a driver to be distracted from the ongoing driving task. PMID:22999382

Hibberd, Daryl L; Jamson, Samantha L; Carsten, Oliver M J

2013-01-01

362

The impact of task relevance and degree of distraction on stimulus processing  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of task relevance on event-related potential amplitudes of early visual processing was previously demonstrated. Study designs, however, differ greatly, not allowing simultaneous investigation of how both degree of distraction and task relevance influence processing variations. In our study, we combined different features of previous tasks. We used a modified 1-back task in which task relevant and task irrelevant stimuli were alternately presented. The task irrelevant stimuli could be from the same or from a different category as the task relevant stimuli, thereby producing high and low distracting task irrelevant stimuli. In addition, the paradigm comprised a passive viewing condition. Thus, our paradigm enabled us to compare the processing of task relevant stimuli, task irrelevant stimuli with differing degrees of distraction, and passively viewed stimuli. EEG data from twenty participants was collected and mean P100 and N170 amplitudes were analyzed. Furthermore, a potential connection of stimulus processing and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was investigated. Results Our results show a modulation of peak N170 amplitudes by task relevance. N170 amplitudes to task relevant stimuli were significantly higher than to high distracting task irrelevant or passively viewed stimuli. In addition, amplitudes to low distracting task irrelevant stimuli were significantly higher than to high distracting stimuli. N170 amplitudes to passively viewed stimuli were not significantly different from either kind of task irrelevant stimuli. Participants with more symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity showed decreased N170 amplitudes across all task conditions. On a behavioral level, lower N170 enhancement efficiency was significantly correlated with false alarm responses. Conclusions Our results point to a processing enhancement of task relevant stimuli. Unlike P100 amplitudes, N170 amplitudes were strongly influenced by enhancement and enhancement efficiency seemed to have direct behavioral consequences. These findings have potential implications for models of clinical disorders affecting selective attention, especially ADHD. PMID:24079268

2013-01-01

363

Postretention stability after orthodontic closure of maxillary interincisor diastemas  

PubMed Central

Anterior spaces may interfere with smile attractiveness and compromise dentofacial harmony. They are among the most frequent reasons why patients seek orthodontic treatment. However, midline diastema is commonly cited as a malocclusion with high relapse incidence by orthodontists. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the stability of maxillary interincisor diastemas closure and the association of their relapse and interincisor width, overjet, overbite and root parallelism. Material and Methods Sample comprised 30 patients with at least a pretreatment midline diastema of 0.5 mm or greater after eruption of the maxillary permanent canines. Dental casts and panoramic radiographs were taken at pretreatment, posttreatment and postretention. Results Before treatment, midline diastema width was 1.52 mm (SD=0.88) and right and left lateral diastema widths were 0.55 mm (SD=0.56) and 0.57 mm (SD=0.53), respectively. According to repeated measures analysis of variance, only midline diastema demonstrated significant relapse. In the overall sample the average relapse of midline diastema was 0.49 mm (SD=0.66), whilst the unstable patients showed a mean space reopening of 0.78 mm (SD=0.66). Diastema closure in the area between central and lateral incisors showed great stability. Multivariate correlation tests showed that only initial diastema width (?=0.60) and relapse of overjet (?=0.39) presented association with relapse of midline diastema. Conclusions Midline diastema relapse was statistically significant and occurred in 60% of the sample, while lateral diastemas closure remained stable after treatment. Only initial diastema width and overjet relapse showed association with relapse of midline diastema. There was no association between relapse of interincisor diastema and root parallelism.

de MORAIS, Juliana Fernandes; de FREITAS, Marcos Roberto; de FREITAS, Karina Maria Salvatore; JANSON, Guilherme; CASTELLO BRANCO, Nuria

2014-01-01

364

Biennial Workshop on DSP for In-Vehicle Systems, Kiel, Germany, 2011 Assessment of driver's distraction using perceptual evaluations, self assessments  

E-print Network

to characterize driver distractions. The study relies on a database collected from subjects driving the UTDrive's distraction using perceptual evaluations, self assessments and multimodal feature analysis Jinesh J Jain situations. Monitoring driver's distraction is an important re- search problem, especially with new forms

Busso, Carlos

365

Effects of low-level laser therapy on bone formed after distraction osteogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the chemical composition, crystallinity and crystalline\\u000a structure of bone at the site of distraction osteogenesis. Five rabbits were subjected to distraction osteogenesis (latency\\u000a = 3 days; rate and frequency = 0.7 mm\\/day for 7 days; consolidation = 10 days), and three were given LLLT with arsenide–gallium–aluminum\\u000a (AsGaAl; 830 nm, 40 mW): 10 J\\/cm2 dose per spot,

Roberto Hübler; Eduardo Blando; Lêonilson Gaião; Paulo Eduardo Kreisner; Letícia Kirst Post; Cristina Braga Xavier; Marília Gerhardt de Oliveira

2010-01-01

366

The effect of distracters on student performance on the Force Concept Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have compared students' responses on four multiple-choice force concept inventory (FCI) questions with similar responses to equivalent open-ended questions. Our results indicate a good agreement between the percentages of correct responses in each of the two formats, indicating that distracters on the FCI do not adversely affect performance as measured by the number of correct answers. However, a significant percentage of the open-ended responses fall into categories that are not included in the FCI multiple choices. When these alternative categories were presented to the students as distracters in a revised multiple-choice format, a significant percentage of the students chose these alternative responses.

Rebello, N. S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2005-10-21

367

What is a segment?  

PubMed Central

Animals have been described as segmented for more than 2,000 years, yet a precise definition of segmentation remains elusive. Here we give the history of the definition of segmentation, followed by a discussion on current controversies in defining a segment. While there is a general consensus that segmentation involves the repetition of units along the anterior-posterior (a-p) axis, long-running debates exist over whether a segment can be composed of only one tissue layer, whether the most anterior region of the arthropod head is considered segmented, and whether and how the vertebrate head is segmented. Additionally, we discuss whether a segment can be composed of a single cell in a column of cells, or a single row of cells within a grid of cells. We suggest that ‘segmentation’ be used in its more general sense, the repetition of units with a-p polarity along the a-p axis, to prevent artificial classification of animals. We further suggest that this general definition be combined with an exact description of what is being studied, as well as a clearly stated hypothesis concerning the specific nature of the potential homology of structures. These suggestions should facilitate dialogue among scientists who study vastly differing segmental structures. PMID:24345042

2013-01-01

368

Orthodontic tooth movement through the maxillary sinus in an adult with multiple missing teeth.  

PubMed

This case report describes the successful orthodontic tooth movement through the maxillary sinus in an adult patient. A 41-year-old Asian woman had severe lip protrusion and multiple missing posterior teeth. Her orthodontic treatment included the extraction of 2 teeth, maximum retraction of the incisors using the extraction spaces and the existing spaces from the missing molars, and closure of all remaining spaces. Even though the treatment time was extended because of the anatomic and biologic challenges associated with moving posterior teeth over a long distance through the maxillary sinus, a successful outcome was obtained, with significant bone modeling of the maxillary sinus. The results demonstrate that a carefully selected force system can overcome the anatomic limitations of moving tooth against the cortical bone of the maxillary sinus wall in adult patients. PMID:25263152

Oh, Heesoo; Herchold, Kiri; Hannon, Stephanie; Heetland, Kelly; Ashraf, Golnaz; Nguyen, Vince; Cho, Heon Jae

2014-10-01

369

Olfactory receptors on the maxillary palps of small ermine moth larvae: evolutionary history of benzaldehyde sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In lepidopterous larvae the maxillary palps contain a large portion of the sensory equipment of the insect. Yet, knowledge\\u000a about the sensitivity of these cells is limited. In this paper a morphological, behavioral, and electrophysiological investigation\\u000a of the maxillary palps of Yponomeuta cagnagellus (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) is presented. In addition to thermoreceptors, CO2 receptors, and gustatory receptors, evidence is reported for

Peter Roessingh; Sen Xu; Steph B. J. Menken

2007-01-01

370

Chronic maxillary sinusitis associated with the mushroom Schizophyllum commune in a patient with AIDS.  

PubMed

Invasive infection with fungi of the Basidiomycota (rusts, smuts, toadstools, mushrooms, and puffballs) is extremely rare. We report such an infection in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus disease who presented with chronic maxillary sinusitis associated with the mushroom Schizophyllum commune. The organism was isolated from the surgical drainage material, and septate hyphae were seen invading the maxillary submucosa. The limited literature on this subject is reviewed. PMID:1571461

Rosenthal, J; Katz, R; DuBois, D B; Morrissey, A; Machicao, A

1992-01-01

371

Investigation on the utility of permanent maxillary molar cusp areas for sex estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital photogrammetric methods were employed to assess the level of sexual dimorphism present in permanent maxillary molar\\u000a cusp areas of black South Africans (130 males, 105 females). Odontometric standards were then developed for diagnosing sex,\\u000a based on the cusp area data derived for these teeth. Results demonstrated that all cusp area measurements of both the first\\u000a and second maxillary molars

P. James Macaluso Jr

2011-01-01

372

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the maxillary sinus: a case report.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman presented to the ENT clinic with a huge swelling on the right side of her face that had originated 6 years earlier. The mass was ultimately diagnosed as a carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the maxillary sinus. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma itself is uncommon, and its origin in the maxillary sinus is very rare. We discuss the presentation, histopathologic picture, and management of this case. PMID:23288822

Sreedharan, Suja; Prasad, Kishore Chandra; Hegde, Mahesh Chandra; Sahoo, Kausalya; Alva, Arathi

2012-12-01

373

Maxillary esthetics, mandibular function: a rationale for predictable treatment of the moderately worn dentition.  

PubMed

An older patient presented with concerns about tooth wear. A treatment plan driven by the dominant risk factors of esthetics and function was preceded by a comprehensive evaluation to determine the etiology of the moderately worn dentition. Treatment goals included lengthening maxillary teeth, leveling the posterior occlusal planes, opening the vertical dimension of occlusion, and establishing bilateral simultaneous posterior occlusion. Esthetic parameters were established with the maxillary arch, enabling the functional goals to be addressed with treatment in the mandibular arch. PMID:25199031

Hermanides, Leon; Larson, Kim

2014-09-01

374

Healing pattern of the mucous membrane after tooth extraction in the maxillary sinus  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the healing pattern of the mucous membrane after tooth extraction necessitated by periodontal disease in the maxillary sinus. Methods One hundred and three patients with 119 maxillary sinuses were investigated. Before implant placement, cone-beam computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed. The causes of extraction, the time elapsed since extraction, smoking, periodontal disease in adjacent teeth, and gender were recorded. In addition, the thickness of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus and the height of residual alveolar bone at the extracted area were calculated from CT images. Results The thickness of the mucous membrane in the periodontal disease group (3.05±2.71 mm) was greater than that of the pulp disease group (1.92±1.78 mm) and the tooth fracture group (1.35±0.55 mm; P<0.05). The causes of extraction, the time elapsed since extraction, and gender had relationships with a thickening of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus (P<0.05). In contrast, the height of the residual alveolar bone at the extracted area, periodontal disease in adjacent teeth, and smoking did not show any relation to the thickening of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus. Conclusions The present study revealed distinct differences in healing patterns according to the causes of extraction in the maxillary sinus, especially periodontal disease, which resulted in more severe thickening of the mucous membrane. PMID:21394294

Yoo, Ji-Young; Pi, Sung-Hee; Kim, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Seong-Nyum

2011-01-01

375

Enophthalmos due to atelectasis of the maxillary sinus: silent sinus syndrome.  

PubMed

Silent sinus syndrome is a clinical entity with the constellation of progressive enophthalmos and hypoglobus due to gradual collapse of the orbital floor with opacification of the maxillary sinus, in the presence of subclinical maxillary sinusitis. It occurs secondary to maxillary sinus hypoventilation due to obstruction of the ostiomeatal unit. In this paper, a 35-year-old woman with a complaint of asymmetry in her left eye and denting of upper eyelid was reported. In the left eye, upper sulcus was deepened and there was 3-mm hypoglobus. There was no diplopia or restriction of eye movements in any gaze positions. Hertel exophthalmometry revealed a 4-mm enophthalmos on the left eye. Computed tomographic scan of the orbita and paranasal sinuses showed left maxillary sinusitis, air-fluid level, and collapse of left maxillary sinus walls. In addition, inferior bulging in the left orbital floor was also reported. The treatment was a 2-stage operation. In the first stage, she underwent endoscopic septoplasty plus left maxillary antrostomy, and in the second stage, she underwent a subciliary orbital floor repair of the iliac bone resulting in the improvement of the enophthalmos and her cosmetic appearance. Regarding this case, the literature is also reviewed in detail. PMID:19884840

Arikan, Osman Kür?at; Onaran, Zafer; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Yilmazba?, Pelin; Yazici, Ilker

2009-11-01

376

The impact of frenulum height on strains in maxillary denture bases  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The midline fracture of maxillary complete dentures is a frequently encountered complication. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of frenulum height on midline strains of maxillary complete dentures. MATERIALS AND METHODS A removable maxillary complete denture was fabricated and duplicated seven times. Four different labial frenulum heights were tested for stresses occurring on the palatal cameo surface. The strains were measured with strain gauges placed on 5 different locations and the stresses were calculated. To mimic occlusal forces bilaterally 100 N of load was applied from the premolar and molar region. RESULTS A statistically significant association between the height of the labial frenulum and the calculated stresses and strains was shown (P<.05) predominantly on the midline and especially on the incisive papilla. The results showed that stress on the anterior midline of the maxillary complete denture increases with a higher labial frenulum. CONCLUSION Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that the stress on the anterior midline of the maxillary complete denture increases with a higher labial frenulum. Surgical or mechanical precautions should be taken to prevent short-term failure of maxillary complete dentures due to stress concentration and low cycle fatigue tendency at the labial frenulum region. PMID:24353878

Bilhan, Hakan; Baysal, Gokhan; Sunbuloglu, Emin; Bozdag, Ergun

2013-01-01

377

The Effect of Programmed Distraction on the Pain Caused by Venipuncture among Adolescents on Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is described as the fifth vital sign, and inadequate pain management is linked to numerous immediate and long-term negative outcomes. Venipuncture is one of the most painful medical procedures and one of the most frequently performed ones, and children and adolescents on hemodialysis are anxious about repeated venipunctures. Distraction is one of the most effective ways to relieve pain,

Fatemah Alhani; Hamedeh Shad; Monireh Anoosheh; Ebrahim Hajizadeh

2010-01-01

378

Bias caused by self-reporting distraction and its impact on crash estimates.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, driver distractions, such as cell phone use and texting, have become a significant contributor to roadway crashes. Some states now have legislation that severely restricts or bans driver activities deemed distracting. However, many policies and engineered countermeasures are based on self-reported crash data. This raises the issue of potential bias and when not controlled for in analysis supporting policy decisions, can lead to poor allocation of public resources. This study explores the impact of self-reporting driver distraction on the likelihood estimates of the injury severity category of vehicle crashes. Using a two-step correction technique, the presence of bias is tested, when present corrected, and its impact is interpreted. The findings show that self-reporting bias is present in the national database, a database often used to help evaluate policy and engineering options, self-reporting bias understates the true effect of driver distraction on injury severity, and it is not uniform across injury categories. As a result, the forecast of potential savings of countermeasure policies or in-vehicle devices will be distorted leading to inefficient allocation of public resources. PMID:22578905

Hanley, Paul F; Sikka, Nikhil

2012-11-01

379

Speech Recognition and In-Vehicle Telematics Devices: Potential Reductions in Driver Distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech Recognition is frequently cited as a potential remedy to distraction resulting from drivers' operation of in-vehicle devices. This position typically assumes that the introduction of speech recognition will result in reduced cognitive workload and improved driving performance. Past research neither fully supports nor fully discounts this assumption. However, it is difficult to compare many of these studies, due to

Marvin C. McCallum; John L. Campbell; Joel B. Richman; James L. Brown; Emily Wiese

2004-01-01

380

What Does Distractibility in ADHD Reveal about Mechanisms for Top-Down Attentional Control?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we attempted to clarify whether distractibility in ADHD might arise from increased sensory-driven interference or from inefficient top-down control. We employed an attentional filtering paradigm in which discrimination difficulty and distractor salience (amount of image "graying") were parametrically manipulated. Increased…

Friedman-Hill, Stacia R.; Wagman, Meryl R.; Gex, Saskia E.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

2010-01-01

381

Increased amplitude and duration of acoustic stimuli enhance distraction Alvin Aaden Yim-Hol Chan a  

E-print Network

that prey animals could be in greater danger from predators when in an environment with auditory protective response Extraneous sounds have a variety of effects on animals; they may interfere distractions. Ã? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

Grether, Gregory

382

Brain systems underlying attentional control and emotional distraction during working memory encoding.  

PubMed

Goal-directed behavior requires that cognitive operations can be protected from emotional distraction induced by task-irrelevant emotional stimuli. The brain processes involved in attending to relevant information while filtering out irrelevant information are still largely unknown. To investigate the neural and behavioral underpinnings of attending to task-relevant emotional stimuli while ignoring irrelevant stimuli, we used fMRI to assess brain responses during attentional instructed encoding within an emotional working memory (WM) paradigm. We showed that instructed attention to emotion during WM encoding resulted in enhanced performance, by means of increased memory performance and reduced reaction time, compared to passive viewing. A similar performance benefit was also demonstrated for recognition memory performance, although for positive pictures only. Functional MRI data revealed a network of regions involved in directed attention to emotional information for both positive and negative pictures that included medial and lateral prefrontal cortices, fusiform gyrus, insula, the parahippocampal gyrus, and the amygdala. Moreover, we demonstrate that regions in the striatum, and regions associated with the default-mode network were differentially activated for emotional distraction compared to neutral distraction. Activation in a sub-set of these regions was related to individual differences in WM and recognition memory performance, thus likely contributing to performing the task at an optimal level. The present results provide initial insights into the behavioral and neural consequences of instructed attention and emotional distraction during WM encoding. PMID:24185015

Ziaei, Maryam; Peira, Nathalie; Persson, Jonas

2014-02-15

383

Eye Closure Reduces the Cross-Modal Memory Impairment Caused by Auditory Distraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eyewitnesses instructed to close their eyes during retrieval recall more correct and fewer incorrect visual and auditory details. This study tested whether eye closure causes these effects through a reduction in environmental distraction. Sixty participants watched a staged event before verbally answering questions about it in the presence of…

Perfect, Timothy J.; Andrade, Jackie; Eagan, Irene

2011-01-01

384

The Roles of Popularised Distraction During Exposure and Researcher Allegiance During Outcome Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper presents the argument that distraction techniques utilised during exposure frequently lead to a dissipation of therapeutic gains over time. Such dissolution particularly affects anxiety and depressive symptomatology,and becomes more pronounced over time. It is argued that such a pattern is beginning to emerge in the case of Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). It is hypothesised that

Grant J. Devilly

385

Does Response Variability Predict Distractibility among Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased intraindividual variability in response time (RTSD) has been observed reliably in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has often been used as a measure of inattention. RTSD is assumed to reflect attentional lapses and distractibility, though evidence for the validity of this connection is lacking. We assessed whether RTSD…

Adams, Zachary W.; Roberts, Walter M.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

2011-01-01

386

Eating behavior and other distracting behaviors while driving among patients with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study sought to better characterize eating behavior, binge-eating behavior, and other potentially problematic, distracting behaviors while driving in patients with eating disorders. Forty patients with eating disorders who reported eating in their car at least once per week were included. Thirty subjects with eating disorders reported binge-eating while driving. A surprisingly high number of subjects reported engaging in

John Glass; James E Mitchell; Martina de Zwaan; Steve Wonderlich; Ross D Crosby; James Roerig; Melissa Burgard; Kathryn Lancaster; Janeen Voxland

2004-01-01

387

Self-report measures of distractibility as correlates of simulated driving performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relationship between self-reported measures pertaining to attention difficulties and simulated driving performance while distracted. Thirty-six licensed drivers participated in a simulator driving task while engaged in a cell phone conversation. The participants completed questionnaires assessing their tendency toward boredom, cognitive failures, and behaviors associated with attention deficit and hyperactivity. Scores on these measures were significantly

Steven J. Kass; Kristen E. Beede; Stephen J. Vodanovich

2010-01-01

388

In Vivo Distraction-Coping in the Treatment of Test Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Treated test-anxious college students with cognitive behavior therapy, relaxation training, and thermal biofeedback training. Experimental subjects also received in vivo distraction coping training. Overall program efficacy was demonstrated by reductions in anxiety and increases in rationality of personal belief systems. In vivo training did not…

Thyer, Bruce A.; And Others

1981-01-01

389

77 FR 24764 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Administration, Vehicle Research and Test Center...Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices...distracting devices in vehicles. These NHTSA Guidelines...required to operate the vehicle safely and that are...Test Track Studies; Driver Eye Glance Behavior During...

2012-04-25

390

The effects of nicotine dose expectancy and motivationally relevant distracters on vigilance.  

PubMed

The imminence of drug use (i.e., drug availability) has been found to be related to intensity of drug craving, but its effects on attentional bias to drug cues are unclear. This study investigated the effects of nicotine availability on attentional bias to smoking, affective, and neutral cues in a sample of adult smokers during a vigilance task. At the beginning of each of 4 laboratory sessions, overnight nicotine-deprived smokers (n = 51) were instructed that they would smoke a cigarette containing either nicotine (Told-NIC) or no nicotine (Told-DENIC) after completing the rapid visual information processing task with central emotional distracters (RVIP-CED). The RVIP-CED presented digits at a rapid pace, with participants instructed to respond with button presses to every third consecutive even or odd digit. Some digits were preceded by smoking, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral distracter slides. During Told-NIC conditions, participants produced significantly longer reaction time (RT) latency than during Told-DENIC conditions. RT sensitivity (d'), a measure of the ability to discriminate true positives from false positives, was significantly lower during the Told-NIC than during the Told-DENIC conditions to targets following cigarette distracters. These results suggest that nicotine-deprived smokers expecting to imminently smoke a cigarette experience greater distraction, particularly to smoking-related stimuli, than when expecting to smoke a denicotinized cigarette. PMID:24841184

Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffery M; Cui, Yong; Versace, Francesco; Waters, Andrew J; Gilbert, David G; Gritz, Ellen R; Cinciripini, Paul M

2014-09-01

391

Why Are Auditory Novels Distracting? Contrasting the Roles of Novelty, Violation of Expectation and Stimulus Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past studies show that novel auditory stimuli, presented in the context of an otherwise repeated sound, capture participants' attention away from a focal task, resulting in measurable behavioral distraction. Novel sounds are traditionally defined as rare and unexpected but past studies have not sought to disentangle these concepts directly. Using…

Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Elsley, Jane V.; Andres, Pilar; Barcelo, Francisco

2011-01-01

392

Speech Perception by 6- to 8-Month-Olds in the Presence of Distracting Sounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of selective attention in infant phonetic perception was examined using a distraction masker paradigm. We compared perception of /bu/ versus /gu/ in 6- to 8-month-olds using a visual fixation procedure. Infants were habituated to multiple natural productions of 1 syllable type and then presented 4 test trials (old-new-old-new). Perception…

Polka, Linda; Rvachew, Susan; Molnar, Monika

2008-01-01

393

Cognitive/Attentional Distraction in the Control of Conditioned Nausea in Pediatric Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated use of cognitive/attentional distraction (via commercially available video games) to control conditioned nausea in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Video game-playing resulted in significantly less nausea. The introduction and withdrawal of the opportunity to play video games produced significant changes (reduction…

Redd, William H.; And Others

1987-01-01

394

Guided tissue regeneration enhances osteogenesis in a rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) utilizes barrier materials to create environments that favor tissue regeneration. In the current study, we applied the principle of GTR to our rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) model in an attempt to enhance bone regeneration.Methods: Osteoconductive Gore Resolut XT membranes (a co-polymer of polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid) were used in this study. Twelve (n

Tony D. Fang; Randall Nacamuli; HanJoon Song; Kenton Fong; Stephen Warren; Michael T. Longaker

2004-01-01

395

Midsymphyseal distraction osteogenesis with lingual tooth-supported distractor: a case report.  

PubMed

This report presents the treatment of a patient with severe mandibular anterior crowding caused by anterior transverse deficiency of the mandible. The treatment plan called for midsymphyseal distraction osteogenesis. A tooth-supported distractor placed on the lingual aspect of the mandible was used for mandibular widening. PMID:25080724

Garg, Anuradha; Utreja, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satinder Pal; Rattan, Vidya; Jena, Ashok Kumar

2014-03-01

396

Potential complications and precautions in vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis: a retrospective study of 40 patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the outcome of 44 cases of vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis (ADO) and to investigate the complications, precautions, and treatment associated with ADO. The 44 alveolar distractions were performed on 40 patients. Extraosseous distraction was used in all cases. Complications associated with the intraoperative, postoperative, distraction, and consolidation periods were recorded and evaluated. Intraoperative complications were noted in two patients (4.5%) where fracture of the basal bone was evident. Three (6.8%) complications were recorded postoperatively, and 12 (27.3%) complications were recorded during the activation period. During the consolidation period, 4.5% of the patients (n = 2) were affected. The total prevalence of complications was 43.2% (n = 19), and the success rate of the ADO was 95.5%. Most complications occurred in the anterior mandibular region. Although complications associated with vertical ADO were not rare, the use of this procedure for maxillofacial defects results in satisfactory outcomes. Early diagnosis and management of related complications are crucial for increasing the success rate of ADO procedures. PMID:23375448

Ugurlu, Faysal; Sener, B Cem; Dergin, Guhan; Garip, Hasan

2013-10-01

397

Duplex-mechanism account of auditory distraction 1 In press in PsyCH Journal  

E-print Network

applied deliberately to perform a focal task. In contrast, attentional capture is produced when the sound. Interference-by-process is produced when the involuntary processing of the sound competes for a similar process of this essential openness to task- irrelevant stimuli is unwanted distraction: Focal mental processing

Royal Holloway, University of London

398

Structural and functional differences in medial prefrontal cortex underlie distractibility and suppression deficits in ageing.  

PubMed

Older adults experience deficits in working memory (WM) that are acutely exacerbated by the presence of distracting information. Human neurophysiological studies have revealed that these changes are accompanied by a diminished ability to suppress visual cortical activity associated with task-irrelevant information. Although this is often attributed to deficits in top-down control from a prefrontal cortical source, this has not yet been directly demonstrated. Here we evaluate the neural basis of distraction's negative impact on WM and the impairment in neural suppression in older adults by performing structural and functional MRIs while older participants engage in tasks that require remembering relevant visual stimuli in the context of overlapping irrelevant stimuli. Analysis supports both an age-related distraction effect and neural suppression deficit, and extends our understanding by revealing an alteration in functional connectivity between visual cortices and a region in the default network, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Moreover, within the older population, the magnitude of WM distractibility and neural suppression are both associated with individual differences in cortical volume and activity of the mPFC, as well as its associated white-matter tracts. PMID:24979364

Chadick, James Z; Zanto, Theodore P; Gazzaley, Adam

2014-01-01

399

Attentional bias for body and food in eating disorders: Increased distraction, speeded detection, or both?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that eating disorder patients show an attentional bias for body- and food-related information. However, so far little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the attentional favoring of this particular information in eating disorder patients. In the present study, we used both a body and a food visual search task to study speeded detection and increased distraction

Elke Smeets; Anne Roefs; Eric van Furth; Anita Jansen

2008-01-01

400

Ear-catching? Real-world distractibility scores predict susceptibility to auditory attentional capture.  

PubMed

Although many of the everyday distractions that we encounter are auditory, most research on distractor processing to date has focused on the visual domain. A common measure of everyday distractibility is the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ; Broadbent, Cooper, FitzGerald, & Parkes British Journal of Clinical Psychology 21: 1-16, 1982), which has previously been successfully linked with performance on controlled visual-attention tasks (e.g., Forster & Lavie Psychological Science 18: 377-381, 2007; Kanai, Dong, Bahrami, & Rees Journal of Neuroscience 31: 6620-6626, 2011; Tipper & Baylis Personality and Individual Differences 8: 667-675, 1987), such that high scorers tend to display greater distractor interference than do low scorers. We examined whether the same relationship would hold in hearing. Participants performed an auditory attentional-capture task, by responding to a target sound while ignoring an irrelevant singleton distractor (presented on half of the trials). We found that CFQ score successfully predicted distractor interference, since participants who reported being more distractible in everyday life produced more errors in the presence of the irrelevant singleton than did low scorers on the CFQ. This finding is the first to demonstrate a relationship between auditory distractor interference and everyday distractibility, and it confirms that performance on this type of laboratory-based attentional-capture task can successfully be related to behavior outside the laboratory. PMID:24563416

Murphy, Sandra; Dalton, Polly

2014-10-01

401

Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N = 27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders and their parents were trained to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Measures of pain and anxiety were obtained from the children and their parents. Independent raters also judged participants' video-taped distress responses. Data were collected during

Julien T. Smith; Arreed Barabasz; Marianne Barabasz

1996-01-01

402

Viscoelastic Characterization of Mesenchymal Gap Tissue and Consequences for Tension Accumulation During Distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear viscoelastic analysis was used to characterize the time-dependent behavior of mesenchymal gap tissue generated during distraction osteogenesis. Six (n = 6) lengthened tibiae were harvested from New Zealand white rabbits at 18 days. This gap tissue was subjected to a series of step displacement tests of increasing magnitude, and force relaxation behavior was monitored. Isochrones in stress-strain space were

A. S. Wineman; E. Alsberg; J. A. Goulet; S. A. Goldstein

1999-01-01

403

Viscoelastic characterization of mesenchymal gap tissue and consequences for tension accumulation during distraction.  

PubMed

Nonlinear viscoelastic analysis was used to characterize the time-dependent behavior of mesenchymal gap tissue generated during distraction osteogenesis. Six (n = 6) lengthened tibiae were harvested from New Zealand white rabbits at 18 days. This gap tissue was subjected to a series of step displacement tests of increasing magnitude, and force relaxation behavior was monitored. Isochrones in stress-strain space were fit to odd cubic functions of strain. An analytic expression, linear in both e and e3, was developed to predict stress accumulation within the gap tissue as a function of time during distraction. Stress relaxation functions were described well by two-term Prony series. The two time constants determined from mechanical testing results were consistent, suggesting the presence of two fundamental physiologic relaxation processes. Gap tissue stresses were predicted to rise considerably during early stages of lengthening when distraction magnitudes exceeded the clinical norm of 0.25 mm. These differences in tension accumulation were less pronounced by the time lengthening was completed. Specifically, these results may in part explain clinical observations of decreased bone regeneration and altered tissue proliferation and differentiation at higher distraction rates. More generally, this work provides a framework for the rigorous characterization of the viscoelastic properties of biologic tissues ordinarily exposed to step strains. PMID:10080097

Richards, M; Wineman, A S; Alsberg, E; Goulet, J A; Goldstein, S A

1999-02-01

404

Internal mandibular distraction to relieve airway obstruction in children with severe micrognathia.  

PubMed

Congenital craniofacial malformations such as Pierre Robin sequence or Treacher Collins syndrome are associated with mandibular micrognathia, resulting in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) due to a decreased pharyngeal airway; in severe cases this leads to tracheostomy dependence. We present a series of 18 patients in whom we performed mandibular lengthening using internal distraction devices to relieve airway obstruction. Seven were tracheostomy-dependent and 11 were respiratory distressed without tracheostomy. The mandible was distracted at a rate of 1mm per day. Following 3 months of consolidation for bony maturation, the distraction devices were removed. Results demonstrated forward mandibular elongation of a mean 22mm (range 20-25mm) and an increase in SNB angle and in pharyngeal airway. All patients with tracheostomies were decannulated, and there was an improved airway with resolution of signs and symptoms of OSA and elimination of oxygen requirement in all patients. We conclude that mandibular distraction using internal devices is a useful and comfortable method for younger children to expand the mandible forward and increase the pharyngeal airway. PMID:25052572

Rachmiel, A; Emodi, O; Rachmiel, D; Aizenbud, D

2014-10-01

405

Designing Smart Living Objects Enhancing vs. Distracting Traditional Human-object Interaction  

E-print Network

Designing Smart Living Objects ­ Enhancing vs. Distracting Traditional Human-object Interaction Pei enhancement should consider the object's traditional function and interaction method, and avoid conflict between the digital enhancement and the traditional use. Keywords: smart object, smart living object

Ouhyoung, Ming

406

Driver Distraction Caused by Mobile Devices: Studying and Reducing Safety Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we survey the different topics and issues related to the study and prevention of risks associated to the in-car usage of mobile devices (such as cellular phones) and complex interfaces (such as Advanced Traveller Information Systems or ATIS). More specifically, we will first give a classification of the types of driver distraction, addressing some of its specific

Luca Chittaro; Luca De Marco

407

Distraction and Pedestrian Safety: How Talking on the Phone, Texting, and Listening to Music Impact Crossing the Street  

PubMed Central

As use of handheld multimedia devices has exploded globally, safety experts have begun to consider the impact of distraction while talking, text-messaging, or listening to music on traffic safety. This study was designed to test how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music may influence pedestrian safety. 138 college students crossed an interactive, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian street. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups: crossing while talking on the phone, crossing while texting, crossing while listening to a personal music device, or crossing while undistracted. Participants distracted by music or texting were more likely to be hit by a vehicle in the virtual pedestrian environment than were undistracted participants. Participants in all three distracted groups were more likely to look away from the street environment (and look toward other places, such as their telephone or music device) than were undistracted participants. Findings were maintained after controlling for demographics, walking frequency, and media use frequency. Distraction from multimedia devices has a small but meaningful impact on college students’ pedestrian safety. Future research should consider the cognitive demands of pedestrian safety, and how those processes may be impacted by distraction. Policymakers might consider ways to protect distracted pedestrians from harm and to reduce the number of individuals crossing streets while distracted. PMID:22269509

Schwebel, David C.; Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W.; Davis, Tiffany; O'Neal, Elizabeth E.; de Jong, Desiree

2011-01-01

408

Driver inattention and driver distraction in serious casualty crashes: data from the Australian National Crash In-depth Study.  

PubMed

Driver inattention and driver distraction represent a major problem in road safety. Although both are believed to contribute to increased crash risk, there is currently limited reliable information on their role in crashes. The current study used in-depth data from the Australian National Crash In-depth Study to investigate the role of driver distraction and inattention in serious casualty crashes. The sample included 856 crashes from 2000 to 2011, in which at least one party was admitted to hospital due to crash-related injuries. Crashes were coded using a taxonomy of driver inattention that delineates five inattention subtypes: restricted attention, misprioritised attention, neglected attention, cursory attention, and diverted attention (distraction). Approximately 45% of crashes could not be coded due to insufficient information while in an additional 15% the participant indicated the "other driver was at fault" without specifying whether inattention was involved. Of the 340 remaining cases, most showed evidence of driver inattention (57.6%) or possible inattention (5.9%). The most common subtypes of inattention were restricted attention, primarily due to intoxication and/or fatigue, and diverted attention or distraction. The most common types of distraction involved voluntary, non-driving related distractions originating within the vehicle, such as passenger interactions. The current study indicates that a majority of serious injury crashes involve driver inattention. Most forms of inattention and distraction observed are preventable. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using in-depth crash data to investigate driver inattention in casualty crashes. PMID:23499981

Beanland, Vanessa; Fitzharris, Michael; Young, Kristie L; Lenné, Michael G

2013-05-01

409

Adipose-derived stem cells transfected with pEGFP-OSX enhance bone formation during distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the effects of local delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transfected with transcription factor osterix (OSX) on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis. New Zealand white rabbits (n=54) were randomly divided into three groups (18 rabbits per group). A directed cloning technique was used for the construction of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-OSX, where EGFP is the enhanced green fluorescence protein. After osteodistraction of the right mandible of all experimental rabbits, rabbits in group A were treated with ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-OSX, group B with ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-N1, and group C with physiological saline. Radiographic and histological examinations were processed after half of the animals within each group were humanely killed by injection of sodium pentothal at Week 2 or 6 after surgery. The distraction bone density was measured as its projectional bone mineral density (BMD). Three parameters were measured, namely, the thickness of new trabeculae (TNT), and the volumes of the newly generated cortical bone (NBV1) and the cancellous bone (NBV2) of the distracted regions. Good bone generation in the distraction areas was found in group A, which had the highest BMD, TNT, and NBV in the distraction zones among the groups. There was no significant difference in bone generation in the distraction areas between groups B and C. The results indicate that the transplantation of ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-OSX can effectively promote bone generation during distraction in vivo. PMID:24793766

Lai, Qing-guo; Sun, Shao-long; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Chen-ping; Yuan, Kui-feng; Yang, Zhong-jun; Luo, Sheng-lei; Tang, Xiao-peng; Ci, Jiang-bo

2014-05-01

410

Adipose-derived stem cells transfected with pEGFP-OSX enhance bone formation during distraction osteogenesis*  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate the effects of local delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transfected with transcription factor osterix (OSX) on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis. New Zealand white rabbits (n=54) were randomly divided into three groups (18 rabbits per group). A directed cloning technique was used for the construction of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-OSX, where EGFP is the enhanced green fluorescence protein. After osteodistraction of the right mandible of all experimental rabbits, rabbits in group A were treated with ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-OSX, group B with ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-N1, and group C with physiological saline. Radiographic and histological examinations were processed after half of the animals within each group were humanely killed by injection of sodium pentothal at Week 2 or 6 after surgery. The distraction bone density was measured as its projectional bone mineral density (BMD). Three parameters were measured, namely, the thickness of new trabeculae (TNT), and the volumes of the newly generated cortical bone (NBV1) and the cancellous bone (NBV2) of the distracted regions. Good bone generation in the distraction areas was found in group A, which had the highest BMD, TNT, and NBV in the distraction zones among the groups. There was no significant difference in bone generation in the distraction areas between groups B and C. The results indicate that the transplantation of ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-OSX can effectively promote bone generation during distraction in vivo. PMID:24793766

Lai, Qing-guo; Sun, Shao-long; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Chen-ping; Yuan, Kui-feng; Yang, Zhong-jun; Luo, Sheng-lei; Tang, Xiao-peng; Ci, Jiang-bo

2014-01-01

411

Impact assisted segmented cutterhead  

DOEpatents

An impact assisted segmented cutterhead device is provided for cutting various surfaces from coal to granite. The device comprises a plurality of cutting bit segments deployed in side by side relationship to form a continuous cutting face and a plurality of impactors individually associated with respective cutting bit segments. An impactor rod of each impactor connects that impactor to the corresponding cutting bit segment. A plurality of shock mounts dampening the vibration from the associated impactor. Mounting brackets are used in mounting the cutterhead to a base machine.

Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Larson, David A. (Minneapolis, MN); Ruzzi, Peter L. (Eagan, MN)

1992-01-01

412

Clinical Application of Curvilinear Distraction Osteogenesis for Correction of Mandibular Deformities  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the use of a semiburied curvilinear distraction device, with a 3-D CT treatment planning system, for correction of mandibular deformities. Methods This is a retrospective evaluation of 13 consecutive patients, with syndromic and non-syndromic micrognathia, who underwent correction by curvilinear distraction osteogenesis. A 3-D CT scan was obtained for each patient and imported into a 3-D treatment planning system (Slicer/Osteoplan™). Surgical guides were constructed to localize the osteotomy and to drill holes for securing the distractor’s proximal and distal footplates to the mandible. Postoperatively, patients were followed by clinical examination and plain radiographs to ensure the desired vector of movement. At end distraction, when possible, a 3-D CT scan was obtained to document the final mandibular position. Results Eight females and 5 males with a mean age of 11.9 years (range=15months–39 years) underwent bilateral mandibular curvilinear distraction. Eight of the 13 patients were 16 years or younger and 5 were less than 6 years of age. The diagnoses included Treacher Collins (n=3) and Nager (n=3) syndromes, craniofacial microsomia (n=2), post-traumatic ankylosis (n=1), and micrognathia (syndromic, n=3; non-syndromic, n=1). Correct distractor placement, vector of movement and final mandibular position were achieved in 10/13 patients. In the other 3 patients, desired jaw position was achieved by “molding” the regenerate. Conclusion The use of a semiburied curvilinear distraction device, with 3-dimensional treatment planning, is a potentially powerful tool to correct complex mandibular deformities. PMID:19375009

Kaban, Leonard B.; Seldin, Edward B.; Kikinis, Ron; Yeshwant, Krishna; Padwa, Bonnie L.; Troulis, Maria J.

2009-01-01

413

Assessment of distraction callus in rabbits by monitoring of the electrical impedance of bone  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Evaluation of distraction callus is important for determination of the optimal time for removal of external fixation. We attempted to determine whether there might be a relationship between the electrical impedance of bone and callus maturation, with a view to using impedance as a way of knowing when to remove a fixator. Methods We applied an external lengthener to the right tibia of 24 rabbits and performed distraction at 1 mm/day for 10 days. Radiographs were taken and measurement of overall impedance between fixation pins was performed weekly after distraction. At weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 after distraction (n = 6 each), resistivity of the bone to electrical conductivity was measured before killing. Cross-sectional area of the conduction pathway in callus and maximum bending stress were measured after excision of the tibia. Results The overall impedance increased statistically significantly from 1 to 6 weeks after completion of distraction. The resistivity of bone decreased over 4 weeks and the cross-sectional area of callus decreased significantly over 6 weeks, while the maximum bending stress increased significantly over the same time. We observed a negative correlation between the cross-sectional area of callus and maximum bending stress. Interpretation The impedance values, which are related to changes in electrical conductivity and the conduction pathway, increased due to the changes in the cross-sectional area of callus, despite the reduction in bone resistivity. Since the cross-sectional area of callus was correlated with maximum bending stress and the impedance values increased with the callus-remodeling process, we suggest that temporal increases in overall impedance reflect callus maturation. PMID:20860454

2010-01-01

414

Behavioural therapy based on distraction alleviates impaired fear extinction in male serotonin transporter knockout rats  

PubMed Central

Background The “biological susceptibility” model posits that some individuals, by genetic predisposition, are highly sensitive to environmental stimuli. Exposure to adverse stimuli leads to negative outcomes, and better outcomes follow favourable stimuli. Recent studies indicate that individuals carrying the low-activity (short; s) variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT)-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) show an enhanced vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Simultaneously, they respond poorly to exposure therapy, the first-line treatment to enhance fear extinction in individuals with PTSD. Given that s-allele carriers also show improved adaptive responding when exposed to positive stimuli, we hypothesized that this trait could be used to offset impaired fear extinction. Methods We explored this hypothesis preclinically using wild-type and 5-HTT knockout (5-HTT?/?) male rats (n = 36) that share behavioural similarities with 5-HTTLPR s-allele carriers. Subsequent to cued fear conditioning, animals were tested for short- (1 and 2 days postconditioning) and long-term (6 days postconditioning) fear extinction in the absence or presence of a secondary “distracting” stimulus predicting the delivery of sucrose pellets. Results Introducing a secondary stimulus predicting sucrose pellets that distracts attention away from the fear-predicting stimulus led to a long-lasting improvement of impaired fear extinction in 5-HTT?/? male rats. Limitations The context-dependency of the efficacy of the “distraction therapy” was not tested. In addition, it remains to be clarified whether the positive valence of the distracting stimulus is critical for the distraction of attention or whether a neutral and/or novel stimulus can induce similar effects. Finally, although of lesser importance from a therapeutic perspective, underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Conclusion These data indicate that positive environmental stimuli can be used to offset heightened responses to negative stimuli, particularly in individuals characterized by inherited 5-HTT downregulation and high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. PMID:22353635

Nonkes, Lourens J.P.; de Pooter, Maaike; Homberg, Judith R.

2012-01-01

415

Orthodontic maxillary expansion and its effect on nocturnal enuresis.  

PubMed

A previous retrospective study of 10 children with varying degrees of nocturnal enuresis has shown that one side effect of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is spontaneous reduction in bed-wetting at night. The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the effect of RME treatment (mean 2 weeks) in cases of chronic, long-standing nocturnal enuresis. Ten children, 8 to 13 years old, who had not responded to conventional medical treatment for bed-wetting, were referred from the pediatric department. Within 1 month of RME of 3 to 5 mm, 4 children were completely dry and 3 showed notable improvement. The results are encouraging, especially given the spontaneous recovery rate of about 15% per year. A reduction in nocturnal enuresis in children has also been reported after tonsillectomy. However, in this pilot study, no significant associations could be found between improvement in nocturnal enuresis and improvement in the nasal airway, age, amount of expansion, or nasopharyngeal dimension (measured on cephalograms). PMID:9622759

Kurol, J; Modin, H; Bjerkhoel, A

1998-06-01

416

Effect of Schneiderian Membrane Perforation on Posterior Maxillary Implant Survival  

PubMed Central

Background: To assess the survival rate of implants placed in the posterior maxilla by intentionally perforating the Schneiderian membrane and protruding the implant up to 3mm beyond the sinus floor in cases of reduced crestal bone height (CBH). Materials & Methods: 56 patients with reduced CBH received 63 implants in the posterior maxilla. All implants intentionally penetrated the Schneiderian membrane and engaged the sinus floor cortical bone. All patients were followed up and implant survival was assessed at the end of one year post implant restoration. Results: Out of 63 implants, there was only one failure (98.4% Survival rate) after a follow up period of one year. 7 patients experienced mild epistaxis during the immediate post-operative period with no associated implant loss. One patient developed sinusitis secondary to the surgical procedure, which was treated by antibiotic therapy and the patient improved clinically with no associated implant loss. Conclusion: An intentional perforation of the Schneiderian membrane using a 2mm twist drill at the time of implant placement and protrusion of the implant up to 3mm beyond the sinus floor does not alter the stability and outcome of dental implants, one year post-restoration. This could be associated with minor complications ranging from epistaxis to sinusitis, which are manageable. How to cite this article: Nooh N. Effect of Schneiderian Membrane Perforation on Posterior Maxillary Implant Survival. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):28-34. PMID:24155599

Nooh, Nasser

2013-01-01

417

Hospital benefit segmentation.  

PubMed

Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis. PMID:10280370

Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

1986-12-01

418

Digital video segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data driven, bottom up approach to video segmentation has ignored the inherent structure that exists in video. This work uses the model driven approach to digital video segmentation. Mathematical models of video based on video production techniques are formulated. These models are used to classify the edit effects used in video and film production. The classes and models are

Arun Hampapur; Terry E. Weymouth; Ramesh Jain

1994-01-01

419

Diffraction in OWL: Effects of segmentation and segments edge misfigure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the diffraction by segmented apertures with a very large number of segments, concentrating mostly on the effects which lead to the appearance of regular patterns of diffraction peaks, specific to extremely large telescopes (ELT). These effects are associated to gaps between segments, turned down\\/up segment edges and random tip-tilt errors. We discuss briefly the effect of segment piston

Natalia Yaitskova; Kjetil Dohlen; Philippe Dierickx

2003-01-01

420

Frequency of the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis extended to the anterior ethmoid sinus and response to surgical treatment  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Odontogenic sinusitis usually affects the maxillary sinus but may extend to the anterior ethmoid sinuses. The purpose of this study is to determine the percentage of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis extended to the anterior ethmoid sinuses and determine also the surgical resolution differences between odontogenic maxillary sinusitis and odontogenic maxillary associated to anterior ethmoidal sinusitis. Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study performed on 55 patients diagnosed of odontogenic sinusitis and treated surgically by functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Results: This study showed that 52.7% of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis spreads to anterior ethmoid, causing added anterior ethmoid sinusitis. We found that 92.3% of the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis (who underwent middle meatal antrostomy) and 96.5% of the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis extended to the anterior ethmoid (treated with middle meatal antrostomy and anterior ethmoidectomy) were cured. Conclusions: Ethmoid involvement is frequent in maxillary odontogenic sinusitis. The ethmoid involvement does not worsen the results of “functional endoscopic sinus surgery” applied to the odontogenic sinusitis. Key words:Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis, ethmoiditis, functional endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:24608208

Crovetto-Martinez, Rafael; Martin-Arregui, Francisco J.; Zabala-Lopez-de-Maturana, Aitor; Tudela-Cabello, Kiara

2014-01-01

421

Extent of maxillary deficiency in patients with complete UCLP and BCLP  

PubMed Central

Objectives Primary surgery in patients with complete unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate restricts transverse and sagittal maxillary growth. Additional surgical maxillary advancement might become necessary after completion of growth. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of maxillary deficiency at an early stage during the transitory dentition, and to identify factors that might indicate the need for a later maxillary advancement. Materials and methods Lateral head films and casts of 40 non-syndromatic patients with complete UCLP (n?=?29) and BCLP (n?=?11) were evaluated. This retrospective evaluation included measurements of casts and lateral head films from all patients at the beginning of orthodontic treatment during the transitory dentition (T1), after completion of orthodontic treatment (T2) and after completion of growth (T3). The statistic analysis comprised t-tests (Anova) and correlation analyses (Pearson). Results SNA decreased significantly between T1 and T2. At T3, 27.5% of the patients showed a sagittal maxillary deficiency with need for osteotomy. There were no statistical differences between patients with UCLP and BCLP. Significant positive correlations occurred between SNA and WITS-appraisal (+0.62), and significant negative correlations between SNA and NL/NS (?0.66). Conclusions During craniofacial growth patients with complete UCLP and BCLP experience sagittal growth inhibition of the maxilla after primary surgery. A later need for maxillary advancement after completion of growth occurs equally in both cleft types. There are no correlations regarding the need for osteotomy with gender or number of primary surgical measures. It is impossible to predict a need for later maxillary osteotomy during the transitory dentition. Clinical relevance Patients with clefts typically receive long-term treatment. The present results provide useful information for treatment planning and implementation. PMID:24951050

2014-01-01

422

Use of instant messaging predicts self-report but not performance measures of inattention, impulsiveness, and distractibility.  

PubMed

We examined how young adults' use of instant messaging, text messaging, and traditional reading related to their self-reported experience of distractibility and impulsiveness and to their performance on computerized tasks designed to assess inattention and impulsive responses to visual stimuli. Participants reported their media use and completed self-report measures of impulsiveness (i.e., the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) and distractibility for academic reading. They also completed performance based measures of inattention and impulsiveness using the Tests of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.(®)). Results demonstrated that instant message use was significantly related to higher levels of attentional impulsiveness and distractibility on the self-report measures, while traditional reading consistently predicted lower levels of impulsiveness and distractibility. However, media use was not significantly related to the performance measures of inattention and behavioral impulsiveness. PMID:23952624

Levine, Laura E; Waite, Bradley M; Bowman, Laura L

2013-12-01

423

Effects of Videogame Distraction using a Virtual Reality Type Head-Mounted Display Helmet on Cold Pressor Pain in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective?To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain.?Method?Forty-one children, aged 6–14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submerged in the cold water) were measured for each cold pressor trial.?Results?Both distraction conditions resulted in improved pain tolerance relative to baseline. Older children appeared to experience additional benefits from using the helmet, whereas younger children benefited equally from both conditions. The findings suggest that virtual reality technology can enhance the effects of distraction for some children. Research is needed to identify the characteristics of children for whom this technology is best suited. PMID:18367495

Weiss, Karen E.; Dillinger Clendaniel, Lindsay; Law, Emily F.; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D.

2009-01-01

424

Biomechanical influence of pin placement and elbow angle on joint distraction and hinge alignment for an arthrodiatasis elbow-pin-fixator construct.  

PubMed

Stiffness and contracture of the periarticular tissues are common complications of a post-traumatic elbow. Arthrodiatasis is a surgical technique that uses an external fixator for initial immobilization and subsequent distraction. The two prerequisites for an ideal arthrodiatasis are concentric distraction (avoiding bony contact) and hinge alignment (reducing internal stress). This study used the finite element (FE) method to clarify the relationship between these two prerequisites and the initial conditions (pin placement, elbow angle, and distraction mode). A total of 12 variations of the initial conditions were symmetrically arranged to evaluate their biomechanical influence on concentric distraction and hinge alignment. The humeroulnar surface was hypothesized to be ideally distracted orthogonal to the line joining the tips of the olecranon and the coronoid. The eccentric separation of the humeroulnar surfaces is a response to the non-orthogonality of the distracting force and joining line. Pin placement significantly affects the effective moment arm of the fixing pins to distract the bridged elbow. Both elbow angle and distraction mode directly alter the direction of the distracting force at the elbow center. In general, the hinges misalignment occurs in a direction opposite to the distraction-activated site. After joint distraction, the elastic deflection of the fixing pins inevitably makes both elbow and fixator hinges to misalign. This indicates that both joint distraction and hinge alignment are the interactive mechanisms. The humeroulnar separation is more concentric in the situation of the 120 degrees humeral distraction by using stiffer pins with convergent placement. Even so, the eccentric displacement of the elbow hinge is a crucial consideration in the initial placement of the guiding pin to compensate for hinge misalignment. PMID:23157079

Lee, Wei-Shiun; Linz, Shang-Chih; Shih, Kao-Shang; Chao, Ching-Kong; Chen, Yeung-Jen; Fan, Chang-Yuan

2012-10-01

425

Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Maxillary incisors are the most frequently injured teeth in the primary and permanent dentition. Stage of adolescence show a significant number of dental injuries as they engage in contact sports. Children with accident prone profile, i.e. class II division I or class I type II malocclusion are more prone for injuries because of the proclined maxillary incisors. Supernumerary teeth are those that are additional to the normal complement. They occur in single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral in either of the jaws. This paper reports the presence of an inverted supernumerary tooth in the right maxillary central incisor region with trauma involving both maxillary central incisors and also the management of the supernumerary tooth and traumatized teeth in a 14-year-old boy. How to cite this article: Pavuluri C, Nuvvula S. Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):30-32. PMID:25206184

Nuvvula, Sivakumar

2013-01-01

426

Localization of impacted maxillary canines using cone beam computed tomography. Review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Summary This review analyzed the literature focused on Cone- Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) diagnostic accuracy and efficacy in detecting impacted maxillary canines, and evaluated the possible advantages in using CBCT technique compared with traditional radiographs. PubMed and Embase searches were performed selecting papers since 1998 up to September 2011, moreover reference lists were hand searched. Two reviewers selected relevant publications on the basis of predetermined inclusion criteria. The literature search yielded 94 titles, of which 5 were included in the review. Three studies used CBCT technique to 3D localize maxillary impacted canines and assess root resorption of adjacent teeth. Other two publications compared traditional radiographs with CBCT images in the diagnosis of maxillary impacted canines. Only three studies presented the results using statistical analysis. The present review highlighted that the use of CBCT has a potential diagnostic effect and may influence the outcome of treatment when compared with traditional panoramic radiography for the assessment of impacted maxillary canines. Furthermore it underlines the need of future studies performed according with high level methodological standards, investigating diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of CBCT in the diagnosis of maxillary impacted teeth. PMID:22783450

Rossini, Giulia; Cavallini, Costanza; Cassetta, Michele; Galluccio, Gabriella; Barbato, Ersilia

2012-01-01

427

Experimental study on penetration of dental implants into the maxillary sinus in different depths  

PubMed Central

The exposing of dental implant into the maxillary sinus combined with membrane perforation might increase risks of implant failure and sinus complications. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the dental implant penetration into the maxillary sinus cavity in different depths on osseointegration and sinus health in a dog model. Material and Methods Sixteen titanium implants were placed in the bilateral maxillary molar areas of eight adult mongrel dogs, which were randomly divided into four groups according to the different penetrating extents of implants into the sinus cavities (group A: 0 mm; group B: 1 mm; group C: 2 mm; group D: 3 mm). The block biopsies were harvested five months after surgery and evaluated by radiographic observation and histological analysis. Results No signs of inflammatory reactions were observed in any maxillary sinus of the eight dogs. The tips of the implants with penetrating depth of 1 mm and 2 mm were found to be fully covered with newly formed membrane and partially with new bone. The tips of the implants with penetrating depth over 3 mm were exposed in the sinus cavity and showed no membrane or bone coverage. No significant differences were found among groups regarding implant stability, bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area in the implant threads (BA). Conclusions Despite the protrusion extents, penetration of dental implant into the maxillary sinus with membrane perforation does not compromise the sinus health and the implant osseointegration in canine. PMID:24473723

ZHONG, Weijian; CHEN, Binke; LIANG, Xin; MA, Guowu

2013-01-01

428

Protocols for Late Maxillary Protraction in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the protocols used at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) to protract the maxilla during early adolescence. It is a modification of techniques introduced by Eric Liou with his Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (ALT-RAMEC) technique. The main differences between the CHLA protocol and previous maxillary protraction protocols are the age the protraction is attempted, the sutural loosening by alternating weekly expansion with constriction and the use of Class III elastics to support and redirect the protraction by nightly facemask wear. The CHLA protocol entirely depends on patient compliance and must be carefully taught and monitored. In a cooperative patient, the technique can correct a Class III malocclusion that previously would have been treated with LeFort 1 maxillary advancement surgery. Thus, it is not appropriate for patients requiring 2 jaw surgeries to correct mandibular prognathism, occlusal cants or facial asymmetry. The maxillary protraction appears to work by a combination of skeletal advancement, dental compensation and rotation of the occlusal planes. Microscrew/microimplant/temporary anchorage devices have been used with these maxillary protraction protocols to assist in expanding the maxilla, increasing skeletal anchorage during protraction, limiting dental compensations and reducing skeletal relapse. PMID:21765629

Yen, Stephen L-K

2011-01-01

429

Identification of Real-Time Diagnostic Measures of Visual Distraction With an Automatic Eye-Tracking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was conducted to identify eye glance measures that are diagnostic of visual distraction. Background: Visual distraction degrades performance, but real-time diagnostic measures have not been identified. Method: In a driving simulator, 14 participants responded to a lead vehicle braking at -2 or -2.7 m\\/s2 periodically while reading a varying number of words (6-15 words every 13 s)

Harry Zhang; Matthew R. H. Smith; Gerald J. Witt

2006-01-01

430

DOES EXPOSURE TO DISTRACTION IN AN EXPERIMENTAL SETTING IMPACT DRIVER PERCEPTION OF CELL PHONE EASE OF USE AND SAFETY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We examined drivers' perception of the ease and safety of cell phone use while driving before and after exposure to distraction in an experimental setting. During the study, each driver reflected on driving and task performance while engaged in conversation-like and arithmetic distraction tasks on a hands- free and hand-held cell phone. Hands-free phones were consistently rated easier to

Angela Garabet; William J. Horrey; Mary F. Lesch

431

The influence of driver distraction on the severity of injuries sustained by teenage drivers and their passengers.  

PubMed

Studies show that teenage drivers are at a higher risk for crashes. Opportunities to engage in technology and non-technology based distractions appear to be a particular concern among this age group. An ordered logit model was developed to predict the likelihood of a severe injury for these drivers and their passenger using a national crash database (the 2003, U.S. DOT-General Estimate System [GES]). As one would expect, speeding substantially increases the likelihood of severe injuries for teenage drivers and their passengers. The results of the analysis also reveal that teenage drivers have an increased likelihood of more severe injuries if distracted by a cell phone or by passengers than if the source of distraction was related to in-vehicle devices or if the driver was inattentive. Additionally, passengers of teenage drivers are more likely to sustain severe injuries when their driver is distracted by devices or passengers than with a non-distracted or inattentive driver. This supports the previous literature on teenage drivers and extends our understanding of injuries for this age group related to distraction-related crashes. PMID:18215556

Neyens, David M; Boyle, Linda Ng

2008-01-01

432

Successful management of a childhood osteosarcoma with epiphysiolysis and distraction osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

In an 11-year-old boy with osteosarcoma in the proximal tibia (type iii), 2 cycles of dia chemotherapy (cisplatin, ifosfamide, doxorubicin) were administered preoperatively while epiphysiolysis was performed. Clinical response was determined to be complete by radiography and histopathology. Marginal excision was then performed with preservation of the proximal tibial epiphysis. Metaphyseal reconstruction was performed using distraction osteogenesis. Six cycles of dia chemotherapy were administered postoperatively. Twenty months later, the patient had developed no complications and experienced full bone healing, with no limb discrepancy. In selected adolescent patients with osteosarcoma, in whom the tumour is in full contact with the epiphysis, epiphyseal preservation by epiphysiolysis and reconstruction by distraction osteogenesis can provide an excellent outcome, resulting in a stable reconstruction that functionally restores the native limb. PMID:25089114

Xu, S.F.; Yu, X.C.; Xu, M.; Chen, X.

2014-01-01

433

Turning gap acceptance decision-making: the impact of driver distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: A number of studies have found that use of in-car phones by drivers can interfere with the cognitive processing necessary for making appropriate and timely vehicle control decisions. However, the specific linkage between communication-based distraction and unsafe decision-making has not been sufficiently explored. Method: In a closed-course driving experiment, 39 subjects were exposed to approximately 100 gaps each in

Peter J. Cooper; Yvonne Zheng

2002-01-01

434

Neural evidence for distracter suppression during visual search in real-world scenes  

PubMed Central

Selecting visual information from cluttered real-world scenes involves the matching of visual input to the observer’s attentional set -- an internal representation of objects that are relevant for current behavioral goals. When goals change, a new attentional set needs to be instantiated, requiring the suppression of the previous set to prevent distraction by objects that are no longer relevant. In the present fMRI study, we investigated how such suppression is implemented at the neural level. We measured human brain activity in response to natural scene photographs that could contain objects from (i) a currently relevant (target) category, and/or (ii) a previously but not presently relevant (distracter) category, and/or (iii) a never relevant (neutral) category. Across conditions, multi-voxel response patterns in object-selective cortex (OSC) carried information about objects present in the scenes. However, this information strongly depended on the task relevance of the objects. As expected, information about the target category was significantly increased relative to the neutral category, indicating top-down enhancement of task-relevant information. Importantly, information about the distracter category was significantly reduced relative to the neutral category, indicating that the processing of previously relevant objects was suppressed. Such active suppression at the level of high-order visual cortex may serve to prevent the erroneous selection of, or interference from, objects that are no longer relevant to ongoing behavior. We conclude that the enhancement of relevant information and the suppression of distracting information both contribute to the efficient selection of visual information from cluttered real-world scenes. PMID:22915122

Seidl, Katharina N.; Peelen, Marius V.; Kastner, Sabine

2012-01-01

435

Distraction osteogenesis for the treatment of post traumatic complications using a conventional external fixator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical results of post traumatic complications treated by the author’s own technique using an AO\\/ASIF conventional external fixator (without special distraction device). Materials and methods: There were 70 patients (77 limbs) with an average of 26.8 years (range, 4–54). There were 33 femurs, 43 tibias and one ulna. The following post traumatic complications were treated: 14

Chanchit Sangkaew

2005-01-01

436

The Effect of Heparan Sulfate Application on Bone Formation during Distraction Osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are recognized for their ability to induce bone formation in vivo and in vitro. Their osteogenic and osteoinductive properties are tightly regulated by the secretion of specific BMP antagonists, which have been shown to physically bind and sometimes be blocked by the extracellular proteoglycan heparan sulphate side chains (from hereon referred to as HS). The purpose of this study was to investigate if local application of 5 µg of HS proteoglycan to a bone regenerate site in a mouse model of distraction osteogenesis (DO) can accelerate bone healing and affect the expression of key members of the BMP signaling pathway. DO was performed on the right tibia of 115 adult male wild-type mice. At mid-distraction (day 11), half the group was injected locally with 5 µg of HS, while the other half was injected with saline. The mice were sacrificed at 2 time-points: mid-consolidation (34 days) and full consolidation (51 days). The distracted tibial zone was then collected for analysis by ?CT, radiology, biomechanical testing, immunohistochemistry, and histology. While ?CT data showed no statistically significant difference in bone formation, the results of biomechanical testing in stiffness and ultimate force were significantly lower in the HS-injected bones at 51 days, compared to controls. Immunohistochemistry results also suggested a decrease in expression of several key members of the BMP signaling pathway at 34 days. Furthermore, wound dehiscence and infection rates were significantly elevated in the HS group compared to the controls, which resulted in a higher rate of euthanasia in the treatment group. Our findings demonstrate that exogenous application of 5 µg of HS in the distracted gap of a murine model had a negative impact on bone and wound healing. PMID:23457615

Gdalevitch, Marie; Kasaai, Bahar; Alam, Norine; Dohin, Bruno; Lauzier, Dominique; Hamdy, Reggie C.

2013-01-01

437

Association between energy intake and viewing television, distractibility, and memory for advertisements12345  

PubMed Central

Background: The effect of television viewing (TVV) with and without advertisements (ads) on energy intake is unclear. Objective: The objectives were to test 1) the effect of TVV, with and without ads, on energy intake compared with a control and reading condition and 2) the association of distractibility and memory for ads with energy intake and body weight. Design: Forty-eight (26 female) adults (age: 19–54 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 20–35 completed this laboratory-based study. All participants completed 4 buffet-style meals in random order in the following conditions: 1) control, 2) while reading, 3) while watching TV with food and nonfood ads (TV-ads), and 4) while watching TV with no ads (TV-no ads). Energy intake was quantified by weighing foods. Distractibility and memory for ads in the TV-ads condition were quantified with a norm-referenced test and recognition task, respectively. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that energy and macronutrient intake did not differ significantly among the 4 conditions (P > 0.65). Controlling for sex, memory for ads was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) and energy intake but only when viewing TV (r = 0.39, P < 0.05 during the TV-no ads condition, and r = 0.29, P = 0.06 during the TV-ads condition). Controlling for sex, distractibility was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) but not energy intake. Distractibility, however, accounted for 13% of the variance in men's energy intake (P = 0.11). Conclusions: TVV did not affect energy intake, but individual characteristics (memory for ads) were associated with body weight and energy intake in certain conditions. These characteristics should be considered in food intake and intervention studies. PMID:19056603

Martin, Corby K; Coulon, Sandra M; Markward, Nathan; Greenway, Frank L; Anton, Stephen D

2009-01-01

438

Driver distraction in an unusual environment: Effects of text-messaging in tunnels.  

PubMed

Text messaging while driving can be distracting and significantly increases the risk of being involved in a collision. Compared to freeway driving, driving in a tunnel environment introduces factors that may interact with driver attentional resources to exacerbate the effects of distraction on driving safety. With planning and design of the 18km Stockholm Bypass tunnel ongoing, and because of the potentially devastating consequences of crashes in long tunnels, it is critical to assess the effects of driver distraction in a tunnel environment. Twenty-four participants (25-50 years) drove in simulated highway and tunnel road environments while reading and writing text messages using their own mobile phones. As expected, compared to driving alone, text messaging was associated with decrements in driving performance and visual scanning behavior, and increases in subjective workload. Speeds were slower compared to baseline (no text-messaging) driving when participants performed the text-messaging tasks in the tunnel environment compared to the freeway, suggesting that drivers may have attempted to compensate more for the increased text-messaging-related workload when they were in the tunnel. On the other hand, increases in lane deviation associated with the most complex text-messaging task were more pronounced in the tunnel compared to on the freeway. Collectively, results imply that driver distraction in tunnels is associated with generally similar driving decrements as freeway driving; however, the potential consequences of these decrements in tunnels remain significantly more serious. Future research should attempt to elucidate the nature of any differential compensatory behavior in tunnel, compared to freeway, driving. In the meantime, drivers should be advised to refrain from text messaging, especially when driving in tunnels. PMID:23200448

Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Young, Kristie L; Patten, Christopher; Lenné, Michael G; Ceci, Ruggero

2013-01-01

439

Squaring a Circular Segment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consider a circular segment (the smaller portion of a circle cut off by one of its chords) with chord length c and height h (the greatest distance from a point on the arc of the circle to the chord). Is there a simple formula involving c and h that can be used to closely approximate the area of this circular segment? Ancient Chinese and Egyptian…

Gordon, Russell

2008-01-01

440

Bayesian Wavelet Domain Segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently demonstrated that fully unsupervised segmentations of still images and 2D+T sequences is possible by Bayesian methods, on the basis of a Hidden Markovian Model (HMM) and a Potts-Markov Random Field (PMRF), in the pixel domain. The use of a high number of iterations to reach convergence in a segmentation where the number of segments, or "classes" labels, is important makes the algorithm rather slow for the processing of a large quantity of data like in image sequences. We more recently have worked out a new version of this algorithm by first operating our segmentation in the wavelet transform domain rather than in the direct domain. Doing so, we take advantage of the local decay property, or "peaky" distribution of the wavelet coefficients, in an orthogonal decomposition. This decomposition is a fast pyramidal. O(N2), decomposition, so the Bayesian segmentation is performed only once on the first coarse image then on all sub-bands up to the highest resolution level. Moreover, we have improved our Potts-Markov model in order to take into account the three main orientations of the wavelets band-pass, or so-called, detail, subbands. The main advantage of such an algorithm, in comparison with the direct domain Bayesian segmentation, is that the high frequency coefficients, i.e. the coefficients of all sub-bands except the coarsest, are segmented in only 2 classes : 1 for the weak energy coefficients and 2 for the few, and most representative, high energy coefficients, thus enabling to speed up the convergence process of the segmentation.

Brault, Patrice; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

2004-11-01