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1

Maximum Allowable Load of Two Cooperative Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a computational technique for determining the maximum allowable load of two cooperative manipulators for a desired trajectory of the load is presented. There are number of factors that limit the maximum allowable load of two cooperative robotic arms. With attention to configuration of cooperative manipulators with redundant actuation as a closed form chain, the most important limitation

H. Ghariblu; A. Javanmard

2010-01-01

2

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

James, John T.

2008-01-01

3

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2011-10-01

4

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2012-10-01

5

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2010-10-01

6

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2013-10-01

7

49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section 174.86 Transportation...174.86 Maximum allowable operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten...subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

2011-10-01

8

49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section 174.86 Transportation...174.86 Maximum allowable operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten...subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

2010-10-01

9

14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.  

...2014-01-01 false Maximum allowable weights. 375.23 Section 375.23 Aeronautics...Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are...the limitations on maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the...

2014-01-01

10

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...season, the maximum allowable diversion (MAD) for each year must...water from Lahontan Reservoir and diversions from the Truckee Canal (including any diversions from the Truckee Canal to Rock Dam Ditch) must be charged to the...

2010-10-01

11

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...season, the maximum allowable diversion (MAD) for each year must...water from Lahontan Reservoir and diversions from the Truckee Canal (including any diversions from the Truckee Canal to Rock Dam Ditch) must be charged to the...

2012-10-01

12

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...season, the maximum allowable diversion (MAD) for each year must...water from Lahontan Reservoir and diversions from the Truckee Canal (including any diversions from the Truckee Canal to Rock Dam Ditch) must be charged to the...

2011-10-01

13

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...season, the maximum allowable diversion (MAD) for each year must...water from Lahontan Reservoir and diversions from the Truckee Canal (including any diversions from the Truckee Canal to Rock Dam Ditch) must be charged to the...

2013-10-01

14

Prediction of Maximum Allowed RMS Currents for Electromigration Design Guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Experimentally verified, simulation-based three-dimensional models and methodology to predict temperature rise ({delta}T) above maximum junction temperature due to steady state Joule heating in copper interconnects have been developed. The models have been used to predict maximum allowed root mean squared (RMS) current, irms, in the interconnects to limit {delta}T to a chosen maximum. Effect of current, line location in the stack, dielectric materials and spacing between active lines has been investigated. For the first time, the effect of package type on {delta}T is addressed. A systematic investigation of Joule heating effects in a single line, effect of its unpowered neighbors and of vias has been carried out that logically culminated in a backend structure, which closely represents actual chip design. This structure is used to predict the maximum allowed irms values that limit {delta}T. Limitations of closed form solutions in predicting the maximum allowed irms values are delineated. The models have been implemented for a wide range of parameters of 90 and 130 nm technology nodes and are shown to be accurate within {+-}10% of the experimentally measured temperatures.

Ramakrishna, K.; Gall, M.; Justison, P.; Kawasaki, H. [Technology Solutions Organization, Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Austin, TX 78721 (United States)

2004-12-08

15

Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMAC's for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee.

1994-01-01

16

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to this request, the NRC first developed criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants, published in its 1992 report Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. Since then, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations has been reviewing NASA's documentation of chemical-specific SMAC's as described in the Introduction to this volume. This report is the third volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994 and the second in 1996.

1996-01-01

17

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report, prepared by the Committee on Toxicology of the National Research Council's Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, is in response to a request from NASA for guidelines to develop spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for space-station contaminants. SMACs are used to provide guidance on allowable chemical exposures during normal operations and emergency situations. Short-term SMACs refer to concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not compromise the performance of specific tasks during emergency conditions lasting up to 24 hours. Long-term SMACs are intended to avoid adverse health effects (either immediate or delayed) and to avoid degradation in crew performance with continuous exposure in a closed space-station environment for as long as 180 days.

1996-01-01

18

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2013-10-01

19

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2011-10-01

20

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2012-10-01

21

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2010-10-01

22

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. 192...192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a...segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds a maximum allowable...

2011-10-01

23

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52.01-55... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an...

2010-10-01

24

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52.01-55... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an...

2011-10-01

25

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

...not be offset later by increased efficiencies and may severely affect the District's water users by imposing an added “drought” on top of a real one. Therefore, the maximum efficiency debit cushion is set at 26,000 acre-feet. However,...

2014-10-01

26

A comparison of minimum detectable and proposed maximum allowable soil concentration cleanup levels for selected radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations on the release of a radioactively contaminated site for unrestricted use are currently being established by the Environmental Protection Agency. The effective dose equivalent rate limit for the reasonably maximally exposed individual was proposed at 0.15 mSv y⁻¹. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not maximum allowable soil concentrations of common radionuclides corresponding to 0.15

J. L. Wood; R. R. Benke; S. M. Rohrer; K. J. Kearfott

1999-01-01

27

77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...transmission pipelines that if the pipeline pressure exceeds maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus the build-up allowed...

2012-12-21

28

41 CFR 302-7.302 - What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment?  

...2014-07-01 false What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? 302-7...Allowance § 302-7.302 What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? The maximum weight allowance your agency may grant for a UAB...

2014-07-01

29

41 CFR 302-7.302 - What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? 302-7...Allowance § 302-7.302 What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? The maximum weight allowance your agency may grant for a UAB...

2012-07-01

30

41 CFR 302-7.302 - What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? 302-7...Allowance § 302-7.302 What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? The maximum weight allowance your agency may grant for a UAB...

2013-07-01

31

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2010-10-01

32

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2011-10-01

33

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54.10-5...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and...10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a)...

2010-10-01

34

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54.10-5...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and...10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a)...

2011-10-01

35

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2011-10-01

36

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2010-10-01

37

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to Part 213 Transportation...Part 213—Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds Table 1—Three Inches Unbalance ...6 (12) Maximum allowable operating speed (mph) 0°30? 93 100 107...

2010-10-01

38

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to Part 213 Transportation...Part 213—Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds Table 1—Three Inches Unbalance ...6 (12) Maximum allowable operating speed (mph) 0°30? 93 100 107...

2011-10-01

39

Correcting for electron contamination at dose maximum in photon beams.  

PubMed

Data are presented to allow the photon beam quality specifier being used in the new AAPM TG-51 protocol, %dd(10)x, to be extracted from depth-dose data measured with a 1 mm lead foil either 50 cm or 30 cm from the phantom surface. %dd(10)x is the photon component of the percentage depth dose at 10 cm depth for a 10x10 cm2 field on the surface of a phantom at an SSD of 100 cm. The purpose of the foil is to remove the unknown electron contamination from the accelerator head. Monte Carlo calculations are done: (a) to show these electrons are reduced to a negligible level; (b) to calculate the amount of electron contamination from the lead foil at the depth of dose maximum; and (c) to calculate the effect of beam hardening on %dd(10). The analysis extends the earlier work of Li and Rogers [Med. Phys. 21, 791-798 (1994)] which only provided data for the foil at 50 cm. An error in the earlier Monte Carlo simulations is reported and a more convenient method of analyzing and using the data is presented. It is shown that 20% variations in the foil thickness have a negligible effect on the calculated corrections. PMID:10227355

Rogers, D W

1999-04-01

40

F68-9 MAXIMUM NUMBER OF JUNIOR COLLEGE TRANSFER UNITS ALLOWED  

E-print Network

) No credit may be allowed for professional courses in education taken in a Junior college, other thanF68-9 MAXIMUM NUMBER OF JUNIOR COLLEGE TRANSFER UNITS ALLOWED Legislative History: Document dated policy on Junior College Transfer, presented by Chairman Gustafson of the Curriculum and Instruction

Gleixner, Stacy

41

Guidelines for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for Space Station contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing to launch a manned space station by the year 1996. Because of concerns about the health, safety, and functioning abilities of the crews, NASA has requested that the National Research Council (NRC) through the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST) provide advice on toxicological matters for the space-station program. The Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants was established by the Committee on Toxicology (COT) to address NASA's concerns. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) are defined as the maximum concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not cause adverse health effects, significant discomfort, or degradation in crew performance.

1992-01-01

42

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

Langford, Shannon D.

2007-01-01

43

Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses  

SciTech Connect

Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

Marter, W.L.

1990-11-01

44

Pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled particles and the maximum tolerated dose.  

PubMed Central

Chronic inhalation bioassays in rodents are used to assess pulmonary carcinogenicity for purposes of hazard identification and potentially for risk characterization. The influence of high experimental doses on tumor development has been recognized for some time and has led to the concept of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for dose selection, with the highest dose being at the MTD. Exposure at the MTD should ensure that the animals are sufficiently challenged while at the same time the animal's normal longevity is not altered from effects other than carcinogenicity. A characteristic of exposure-dose-response relationships for chronically inhaled particles is that lung tumors are significantly increased only at high exposure levels, and that lung tumors are seen in rats only but not in mice or hamsters. This lung tumor response in rats is thought to be secondary to persistent alveolar inflammation, indicating that the MTD may have been exceeded. Thus, mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity may be dose dependent and may not operate at lower doses that humans normally experience. Despite awareness of this problem, carcinogenicity bioassays that evaluate particulate compounds in rodents have not always been designed with the MTD concept in mind. This is due to several problems associated with determining an appropriate MTD for particle inhalation studies. One requirement for the MTD is that some toxicity should be observed. However, it is difficult to define what degree of toxic response is indicative of the MTD. For particle inhalation studies, various noncancer end points in addition to mortality and body weight gain have been considered as indicators of the MTD, i.e., pulmonary inflammation, increased epithelial cell proliferation, increased lung weight, impairment of particle clearance function, and significant histopathological findings at the end of a subchronic study. However, there is no general agreement about quantification of these end points to define the MTD. To determine whether pulmonary responses are indicative of the MTD, we suggest defining an MTD based on results of a multidose subchronic and chronic inhalation study with a known human particulate carcinogen, e.g., asbestos or crystalline silica. Quantification of effects in such a study using the noncancer end points listed above would identify a dose level without significant signs of toxicity at the end of the subchronic study. If this dose level still results in significant lung tumor incidence at the end of the chronic study. We will have a sound basis for characterizing the MTD and justifying its use in future particle inhalation studies. Also, a better understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of particle-induced lung tumors is needed to support the MTD concept. PMID:9400749

Oberdörster, G

1997-01-01

45

Predictive models for maximum recommended therapeutic dose of antiretroviral drugs.  

PubMed

A novel method for predicting maximum recommended therapeutic dose (MRTD) is presented using quantitative structure property relationships (QSPRs) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). MRTD data of 31 structurally diverse Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) were collected from FDA MRTD Database or package inserts. Molecular property descriptors of each compound, that is, molecular mass, aqueous solubility, lipophilicity, biotransformation half life, oxidation half life, and biodegradation probability were calculated from their SMILES codes. A training set (n = 23) was used to construct multiple linear regression and back propagation neural network models. The models were validated using an external test set (n = 8) which demonstrated that MRTD values may be predicted with reasonable accuracy. Model predictability was described by root mean squared errors (RMSEs), Kendall's correlation coefficients (tau), P-values, and Bland Altman plots for method comparisons. MRTD was predicted by a 6-3-1 neural network model (RMSE = 13.67, tau = 0.643, P = 0.035) more accurately than by the multiple linear regression (RMSE = 27.27, tau = 0.714, P = 0.019) model. Both models illustrated a moderate correlation between aqueous solubility of antiretroviral drugs and maximum therapeutic dose. MRTD prediction may assist in the design of safer, more effective treatments for HIV infection. PMID:22481974

Branham, Michael Lee; Ross, Edward A; Govender, Thirumala

2012-01-01

46

Predictive Models for Maximum Recommended Therapeutic Dose of Antiretroviral Drugs  

PubMed Central

A novel method for predicting maximum recommended therapeutic dose (MRTD) is presented using quantitative structure property relationships (QSPRs) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). MRTD data of 31 structurally diverse Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) were collected from FDA MRTD Database or package inserts. Molecular property descriptors of each compound, that is, molecular mass, aqueous solubility, lipophilicity, biotransformation half life, oxidation half life, and biodegradation probability were calculated from their SMILES codes. A training set (n = 23) was used to construct multiple linear regression and back propagation neural network models. The models were validated using an external test set (n = 8) which demonstrated that MRTD values may be predicted with reasonable accuracy. Model predictability was described by root mean squared errors (RMSEs), Kendall's correlation coefficients (tau), P-values, and Bland Altman plots for method comparisons. MRTD was predicted by a 6-3-1 neural network model (RMSE = 13.67, tau = 0.643, P = 0.035) more accurately than by the multiple linear regression (RMSE = 27.27, tau = 0.714, P = 0.019) model. Both models illustrated a moderate correlation between aqueous solubility of antiretroviral drugs and maximum therapeutic dose. MRTD prediction may assist in the design of safer, more effective treatments for HIV infection. PMID:22481974

Branham, Michael Lee; Ross, Edward A.; Govender, Thirumala

2012-01-01

47

A nomogram for calculating the maximum dose of local anaesthetic.  

PubMed

Toxic dose limits (mg.kg(-1)) for local anaesthetics based on body weight are well-established, but calculation of the maximum safe volume (ml) of a given agent and formulation is complex, and frequently results in errors. We therefore developed a nomogram to perform this calculation. We compared the performance of the nomogram with a spreadsheet and a general purpose calculator using simulated clinical data. Bland-Altman analysis showed close agreement between the nomogram and spreadsheet, with bias of -0.07 ml and limits of agreement of -0.38 to +0.24 ml (correlation coefficient r(2) = 0.9980; p < 0.001). The nomogram produced fewer and smaller errors compared with the calculator. Our nomogram calculates the maximum safe volume (ml) of local anaesthetic to a clinically acceptable degree of accuracy. It facilitates rapid cross-checking of dosage calculations performed by electronic or other means at negligible cost, and can potentially reduce the incidence of local anaesthetic toxicity. PMID:24820093

Williams, D J; Walker, J D

2014-08-01

48

The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

2009-01-01

49

Toxicological approach to setting spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for carbon monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are exposure limits for airborne chemicals used by NASA in spacecraft. The aim of these SMACs is to protect the spacecrew against adverse health effects and performance decrements that would interfere with mission objectives. Because of the 1 and 24 hr SMACs are set for contingencies, minor reversible toxic effects that do not affect mission objectives are acceptable. The 7, 30, or 180 day SMACs are aimed at nominal operations, so they are established at levels that would not cause noncarcinogenic toxic effects and more than one case of tumor per 1000 exposed individuals over the background. The process used to set the SMACs for carbon monoxide (CO) is described to illustrate the approach used by NASA. After the toxicological literature on CO was reviewed, the data were summarized and separated into acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity data. CO's toxicity depends on the formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood, reducing the blood's oxygen carrying capacity. The initial task was to estimate the COHb levels that would not produce toxic effects in the brain and heart.

Wong, K. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

1992-01-01

50

Preliminary estimates of the virtually safe dose for tumors obtained from the maximum tolerated dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper was to examine the correlation between the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the low-dose estimate of the virtually safe dose (VSD) for animal carcinogens. Chronic bioassay results from the National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program carcinogenesis screening program were used. Estimates of the VSD were obtained by linear low-dose extrapolation for which an adequate dose-response relationship existed at the same tumor site in the same sex for both rats and mice. Estimates of the VSD were compared with the MTD for 69 tumor sites from 38 chemicals for rats and mice. The MTDs ranged from high to low toxicity (1 ppb to 4.4% in the diet). The overall geometric mean of the ratio of the MTD to the VSD corresponding to a maximum estimated risk of 10(-6) was 3.8 x 10(5). Of the 138 cases, only 3 cases were more than a factor of 10 from the mean ratio. This suggested that a quick estimate of the VSD could be obtained by dividing the MTD, obtained from a subchronic study, by 400,000. Further, if the human exposure is less than 10(-7) X MTD, the estimated risk is likely to be negligible even if the chemical is a carcinogen. It may not be worthwhile to conduct a chronic bioassay for the purpose of demonstrating a negligible risk, if the chemical is likely to be carcinogenic, unless the human exposure is extremely low.

Gaylor, D.W.

1989-04-01

51

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...01-30) that are likely to occur, or the designated coincident operating temperature, excluding any metal thickness specified as corrosion allowance. (See UG-25 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.) (c)...

2012-10-01

52

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...01-30) that are likely to occur, or the designated coincident operating temperature, excluding any metal thickness specified as corrosion allowance. (See UG-25 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.) (c)...

2013-10-01

53

5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS...the requirement to wear the uniform, provided the agency publishes a notice of its intention to continue such payments in...

2010-01-01

54

Heterogeneity-corrected vs -uncorrected critical structure maximum point doses in breast balloon brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) ? 0.930 (R{sup 2} = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) ? 0.955 (R{sup 2} = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor.

Kim, Leonard, E-mail: kimlh@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2013-07-01

55

Statistical Methods for Selecting Maximum Effective Dose and Evaluating Treatment Effect When Dose - Response is Monotonic  

PubMed Central

The maximum effective dose (MaxED) is an important quantity for therapeutic drugs. The MaxED for therapeutic drugs is defined as the dose above which no improvement in efficacy is obtained. In this article, we propose two experimental designs and analytic methods (one single-stage design and one two-stage design) to select the MaxED among several fixed doses and to compare the therapeutic effect of the selected MaxED with a control. The selection of MaxED is based on the isotonic regression under the restriction of monotonicity. In the single-stage design, both the selection of the MaxED and assessing its efficacy are carried out at the end of experiment. In the two-stage design, the selection of the MaxED and assessment of its efficacy are carried out at the interim analysis (first stage), the experiment in the second stage is carried out only at the selected MaxED and control if the first-stage test is not significant. Thus, the two-stage design enables selection of the MaxED at an earlier stage and stopping the trial earlier if the treatment effect at MaxED is extreme. Williams’ test (1972) is applied to test whether the selected MaxED is significantly different from control for the single-stage design and the first-stage test of the two-stage design. The sample size calculation for each design is provided. Extensive simulations are carried out to illustrate the performances of the proposed methods. PMID:25067994

Kong, Maiying; Rai, Shesh N.; Bolli, Roberto

2014-01-01

56

Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose  

E-print Network

Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose This paper addresses the problem of power and sample size calculation for a stepwise multiple test procedure functions, respectively. The sample sizes necessary on the zero dose control and each of the positive doses

Tamhane, Ajit C.

57

Calculation of maximum allowable free span length and safety assessment of the DF1-1 submarine pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DF1-1 submarine pipeline was investigated using a dual-frequency side-scan sonar and a swath sounder system. More than a hundred scour pits under the pipeline were found, most of which have caused the span of the pipeline to increase and threatened its safety. The maximum allowable free span length (MAFSL) of the pipeline was determined through the limitations regarding maximum allowable stress under static or quasi-static loads and the onset of Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV) under different hydrodynamic actions. The results show that the MAFSL under static conditions is 56 m. However, the MAFSLs are 30 m and 20 m under ordinary weather conditions and hurricane-induced currents for the 100-year return period, respectively, to avoid VIV as calculated by using the highest safety class factor. It is suggested that spanning pipelines longer than 20 m should be supported. Additionally, eight successive spans which may also threaten the pipeline were proposed. The most hazardous scour pits are along the pipeline section from KP42 to KP51.

Xu, Jishang; Li, Guangxue; Horrillo, Juan J.; Yang, Rongmin; Cao, Lihua

2010-03-01

58

The effect of maximum-allowable payload temperature on the mass of a multimegawatt space-based platform  

SciTech Connect

Calculations were performed to determine the mass of a space-based platform as a function of the maximum-allowed operating temperature of the electrical equipment within the platform payload. Two computer programs were used in conjunction to perform these calculations. The first program was used to determine the mass of the platform reactor, shield, and power conversion system. The second program was used to determine the mass of the main and secondary radiators of the platform. The main radiator removes the waste heat associated with the power conversion system and the secondary radiator removes the waste heat associated with the platform payload. These calculations were performed for both Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with two different types of payload cooling systems: a pumped-loop system (a heat exchanger with a liquid coolant) and a refrigerator system. The results indicate that increases in the maximum-allowed payload temperature offer significant platform mass savings for both the Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with either the pumped-loop or refrigerator payload cooling systems. Therefore, with respect to platform mass, the development of high temperature electrical equipment would be advantageous. 3 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

Dobranich, D.

1987-08-01

59

Locally weighted learning methods for predicting dose-dependent toxicity with application to the human maximum recommended daily dose.  

PubMed

Toxicological experiments in animals are carried out to determine the type and severity of any potential toxic effect associated with a new lead compound. The collected data are then used to extrapolate the effects on humans and determine initial dose regimens for clinical trials. The underlying assumption is that the severity of the toxic effects in animals is correlated with that in humans. However, there is a general lack of toxic correlations across species. Thus, it is more advantageous to predict the toxicological effects of a compound on humans directly from the human toxicological data of related compounds. However, many popular quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods that build a single global model by fitting all training data appear inappropriate for predicting toxicological effects of structurally diverse compounds because the observed toxicological effects may originate from very different and mostly unknown molecular mechanisms. In this article, we demonstrate, via application to the human maximum recommended daily dose data that locally weighted learning methods, such as k-nearest neighbors, are well suited for predicting toxicological effects of structurally diverse compounds. We also show that a significant flaw of the k-nearest neighbor method is that it always uses a constant number of nearest neighbors in making prediction for a target compound, irrespective of whether the nearest neighbors are structurally similar enough to the target compound to ensure that they share the same mechanism of action. To remedy this flaw, we proposed and implemented a variable number nearest neighbor method. The advantages of the variable number nearest neighbor method over other QSAR methods include (1) allowing more reliable predictions to be achieved by applying a tighter molecular distance threshold and (2) automatic detection for when a prediction should not be made because the compound is outside the applicable domain. PMID:22963722

Liu, Ruifeng; Tawa, Gregory; Wallqvist, Anders

2012-10-15

60

MAXINE: An improved methodology for estimating maximum individual dose from chronic atmospheric radioactive releases  

SciTech Connect

An EXCEL{reg_sign} spreadsheet has been developed that, when combined with the PC version of XOQDOQ, will generate estimates of maximum individual dose from routine atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The spreadsheet, MAXINE, utilizes a variety of atmospheric dispersion factors to calculate radiation dose as recommended by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Regulatory Guide 1.109 [USNRC 1977a]. The methodology suggested herein includes use of both the MAXINE spreadsheet and the PC version of XOQDOQ.

Hamby, D.M.

1994-02-01

61

41 CFR 302-7.16 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished or...RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL...

2010-07-01

62

Variation of the peak temperature at the maximum as a function of dose in thermoluminescent phosphors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feature of the second and general-order kinetics equations is the shift of the peak temperature at the maximum towards lower temperatures as the dose increases. In this article, this effect is theoretically discussed. Some hypotheses are also given in order to explain this behaviour.

Favalli, A.; Furetta, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

2006-05-01

63

41 CFR 302-7.17 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...  

...2014-07-01 false Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage...Rules § 302-7.17 Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage...Government OCONUS, your agency may limit the weight of HHG and temporary storage that...

2014-07-01

64

Fludarabine Allows Dose Reduction for Total Body Irradiation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine, in the setting of total body irradiation (TBI) for the preparation of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), whether TBI dose can be reduced without compromising the efficacy of a regimen consisting of fludarabine and radiotherapy; and whether there is any increased risk of pulmonary toxicity due to the radiosensitizing effect of fludarabine. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies received TBI-based conditioning regimens in preparation for allogeneic HSCT. Twenty-three patients received 12 Gy in 4 daily fractions in combination with cyclophosphamide, either alone or with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Twenty-nine patients received 9 Gy in 3 fractions in conjunction with fludarabine and melphalan. Clinical and radiation records were reviewed to determine engraftment, pulmonary toxicity (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria), transplant-related mortality, recurrence of primary disease, and overall survival. Results: The two groups of patients had comparable pretransplant clinical characteristics. For the 12-Gy and 9-Gy regimens, the engraftment (89% and 93%; p = 0.82), freedom from life-threatening pulmonary events (65% and 79%; p = 0.33), freedom from relapse (60% and 73%; p = 0.24), and overall survival (26% and 47%; p = 0.09) were not statistically different. Conclusions: The addition of fludarabine and melphalan seems to allow the dose of TBI to be lowered to 9 Gy without loss of engraftment or antitumor efficacy.

Kornguth, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States)]. E-mail: dkorngut@mdanderson.org; Mahajan, Anita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Woo, Shiao [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Chan, Ka Wah [Division of Pediatrics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Antolak, John [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Ha, Chul S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States)

2007-07-15

65

Rat sodium iodide symporter allows using lower dose of 131I for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Efficient gene delivery is a critical obstacle for gene therapy that must be overcome. Until current limits of gene delivery technology are solved, identification of systems with bystander effects is highly desirable. As an anticancer agent, radioactive iodine (131)I has minimal toxicity. The physical characteristics of (131)I decay allow radiation penetration within a local area causing bystander killing of adjacent cells. Accumulation of (131)I mediated by the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) provides a highly effective treatment for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Other types of cancer could also be treated by NIS-mediated concentration of lethal (131)I radiation in tumor cells. Our group and others previously reported that a significant antitumor effect in mice was achieved after adenoviral delivery of rat or human NIS gene following administration of 3 mCi of (131)I. We have also demonstrated 5-6-fold greater uptake of (125)I by rat NIS over human NIS in human cancer cells. Recently, we reported the capability of the rat NIS and (131)I to effectively induce growth arrest of relatively large tumors (approximately 800 mm(3)) in an animal model. In the present work tumor growth inhibition was achieved using adenoviral delivery of the rat NIS gene and 1 mCi of (131)I (one-third of the dose used in earlier reports). We also demonstrated that a higher concentration of (123)I was accumulated in the NIS-expressing tumors than in the thyroid 20 min after radioiodine administration. The highest intratumoral radioiodine concentration was observed along the needle track; however, the rat NIS-(131)I effectively induced growth arrest of tumor xenografts in mice through its radiological bystander effect. Importantly, the rat NIS allowed reducing the injected radioiodine dose by 70% with the same antitumor efficacy in pre-established tumors. These results suggest that the rat NIS gene may be advantageous compared to the human gene in its ability to enhance intratumoral (131)I uptake. PMID:16525480

Mitrofanova, E; Unfer, R; Vahanian, N; Link, C

2006-07-01

66

Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.  

PubMed Central

Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time. PMID:10964787

Backer, H; Hollowell, J

2000-01-01

67

Maximum tolerated dose versus metronomic scheduling in the treatment of metastatic cancers.  

PubMed

Although optimal control theory has been used for the theoretical study of anti-cancerous drugs scheduling optimization, with the aim of reducing the primary tumor volume, the effect on metastases is often ignored. Here, we use a previously published model for metastatic development to define an optimal control problem at the scale of the entire organism of the patient. In silico study of the impact of different scheduling strategies for anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic agents (either in monotherapy or in combination) is performed to compare a low-dose, continuous, metronomic administration scheme with a more classical maximum tolerated dose schedule. Simulation results reveal differences between primary tumor reduction and control of metastases but overall suggest use of the metronomic protocol. PMID:23850479

Benzekry, Sébastien; Hahnfeldt, Philip

2013-10-21

68

Subacute toxicity and maximum tolerable dose of sertaconazole in repeated administration studies.  

PubMed

28-Day oral and dermal subacute toxicity studies of 7-chloro-3-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl) ethoxy-methyl] benzo [b] thiophene (sertaconazole, FI-7045, CAS 99592-32-2), were carried out. The oral studies included the evaluation of subacute toxicity in rat (dose levels of 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg) and maximum tolerable dose in repeated administration in ferrets (consecutive dose levels in accordance with a geometric progression of 50, 75, 112.5, 168 and 250 mg/kg), which were the animal species intended for chronic toxicity studies. The dermal studies included the evaluation of subacute toxicity in rats and rabbits (1 ml/kg of a 2% cream). The results, in general, have shown low toxic effects, which can be summarized as a slight non-significant hepatomegalia in the rat with increased gamma-GTP and alkaline phosphatase values and a high urinary pH value; no histopathological changes were observed. These effects are characteristic of azole derivatives and are therefore common to other antifungals with this chemical group. PMID:1627193

Romero, A; Villamayor, F; Grau, M T; Sacristán, A; Ortíz, J A

1992-05-01

69

Erythropoietin and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor allow acceleration and dose escalation of cyclophosphamide/epidoxorubicin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy: a dose-finding study in patients with advanced breast cancer.  

PubMed

To verify whether the association of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and erythropoietin (EPO) would allow both the acceleration and the dose escalation of the cyclophosphamide/epidoxorubicin/5-fluorouracil (CEF) regimen as first-line therapy in advanced breast cancer patients, we conducted a dose-finding study. Cohorts of three consecutive patients received cyclophosphamide (Ctx, dose range 800-1400 mg/m2), epidoxorubicin (Epidx, dose range 70-100 mg/m2), and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu, 600 mg/m2, fixed dose) given as an intravenous bolus on day 1 every 14 days; GM-CSF at 5 micrograms/kg given as a subcutaneous injection from day 4 to day 11; and EPO at 150 IU/kg given as a subcutaneous injection three times a week. In no single patient was any dose escalation allowed. A total of 14 patients entered the study. At the 4th dose level (Ctx 1400 mg/m2, Epidx 100 mg/m2, 5-Fu 600 mg/m2), two patients had dose-limiting mucositis and one patient developed dose-limiting neutropenia. Therefore, the 3rd cohort received the maximum tolerated dose, i.e. Ctx at 1200 mg/m2, Epidx at 90 mg/m2, and 5-Fu at 600 mg/m2, given every 18.5 (+/-2.5) days. Toxicity was moderate and manageable in an outpatient setting. Only 1 admission at the 4th dose level was required. Throughout the 4 dose levels there was no toxicity-related death; grade IV leukopenia ranged from 24% to 75% of cycles and grade IV thrombocytopenia ranged from 6% to 8%. No grade IV anemia was recorded. Increasing the doses of Ctx and Epidx while maintaining a fixed dose of 5-Fu with the support of both EPO and GM-CSF allows safe acceleration and dose escalation of CEF chemotherapy. Further controlled studies will evaluate the activity and efficacy of this strategy. PMID:8823488

Venturini, M; Del Mastro, L; Testore, F; Danova, M; Garrone, O; Lanfranco, C; Latini, F; Sertoli, M R; Lionetto, R; Queirolo, P; Ardizzoni, A; Rosso, R

1996-01-01

70

Evaluation of Defined Daily Dose, percentage of British National Formulary maximum and chlorpromazine equivalents in antipsychotic drug utilization  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study was carried out to investigate and compare the three methods for calculating total antipsychotic dose among outpatients with schizophrenia attending primary psychiatric health care centers. The three methods were: Defined Daily Doses (DDDs), chlorpromazine equivalents (CPZeq) and percentages of the British National Formulary (BNF) maximum. Methodology Antipsychotic drug dosing data for 250 patients with schizophrenia were investigated by calculating Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients. Factors associated with antipsychotic dose, expressed as DDDs, CPZeq and percentages of the BNF maximum recommended daily dose, were investigated by means of linear regression analysis. Results Spearman’s correlation showed that there is a significant relationship between all pairs of the three dosing methods. In all three methods, coherence was strongest when dealing with first generation antipsychotics (FGA). Linear regression analyses showed a high degree of coherence between antipsychotic doses expressed as DDDs, CPZeq and percentages of the BNF maximum recommended daily dose. Conclusion All three tested methods are reliable and coherent for calculating antipsychotic dosing. PMID:24648824

Sweileh, Waleed M.; Odeh, Jihad Bani; Shraim, Naser Y.; Zyoud, Sa'ed H.; Sawalha, Ansam F.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.

2013-01-01

71

Development of Numerical Computational Model for Metallic Wire Particles’ Behavior in GIS for the Estimation of the Partial Discharge-free Allowable Maximum Flight Height  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been widely accepted that Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) has proven to be reliable, compact and has high availability. However, metallic particles forced to fly and kept in motion in high electric field, can cause partial discharges which lead to a flashover of GIS. Authors have formulated time vs vertical motion equation for a metallic particle on the basis of the statistical analysis of the time-resolved and digitized motion data obtained by a high speed framing video camera, introducing charging-suppress factor ? for the coated electrode. Numerical solution of the time-motion equation gives the incidence/departure velocity upon the grounded electrode. Fairly well-agreements have been confirmed between the measured and simulated behavior of the particle’s motion, including its maximum flight height. A metallic wire particle was fixed at various height on a Teflon (PTFE) string tighten radially across the coaxial electrodes. The radius of light emission generated by the partial discharge on both ends of the metallic particle have been observed by an Image-Intesifier. The partial discharge-free allowable maximum flight height and the insulation reliability of GIS have been deduced for various size of the particle as a function of electric field and coating condition, on the grounded electrode combining the simulated particle behavior and observed radius for streamer criteria.

Natsuume, Daisuke; Inami, Kiyoshi; Hama, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shinji; Yoshimura, Manabu; Miyamoto, Toshio; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Fukami, Tadashi

72

EPR spectrum deconvolution and dose assessment of fossil tooth enamel using maximum likelihood common factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the components which give rise to the EPR spectrum around g = 2 we have applied Maximum Likelihood Common Factor Analysis (MLCFA) on the EPR spectra of enamel sample 1126 which has previously been analysed by continuous wave and pulsed EPR as well as EPR microscopy. MLCFA yielded agreeing results on three sets of X-band spectra

G. Vanhaelewyn; F. Callens; R. Grün

2000-01-01

73

An overview of the report: Correlation between carcinogenic potency and the maximum tolerated dose: Implications for risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Current practice in carcinogen bioassay calls for exposure of experimental animals at doses up to and including the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Such studies have been used to compute measures of carcinogenic potency such as the TD[sub 50] as well as unit risk factors such as q[sub 1] for predicting low-dose risks. Recent studies have indicated that these measures of carcinogenic potency are highly correlated with the MTD. Carcinogenic potency has also been shown to be correlated with indicators of mutagenicity and toxicity. Correlation of the MTDs for rats and mice implies a corresponding correlation in TD[sub 50] values for these two species. The implications of these results for cancer risk assessment are examined in light of the large variation in potency among chemicals known to induce tumors in rodents. 119 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Krewski, D. (Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada) Carleton Univ. Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Gaylor, D.W. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)); Soms, A.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)); Szyszkowicz, M. (Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1993-08-01

74

A Comparative Analysis of Low-Dose Metronomic Cyclophosphamide Reveals Absent or Low-Grade Toxicity on Tissues Highly Sensitive to the Toxic Effects of Maximum Tolerated Dose Regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival benefits of traditional maximum tolerated dose (MTD) cytotoxic therapy have been modest for the treatment of most types of metastatic malignancy and, moreover, often come with increased acute and chronic toxicity. Recent studies have demonstrated that the frequent administration of comparatively low doses of cytotoxic agents, with no extended breaks (low-dose metronomic (LDM) chemotherapy), may not only be

Urban Emmenegger; Shan Man; Yuval Shaked; Giulio Francia; John W. Wong; Daniel J. Hicklin; Robert S. Kerbel

2004-01-01

75

The maximal cumulative solar UVB dose allowed to maintain healthy and young skin and prevent premature photoaging.  

PubMed

The young facial skin of children with a smooth healthy appearance changes over time to photoaged skin having mottled pigmentation, solar lentigines, wrinkles, dry and rough skin, leathery texture, and benign and malignant tumors after exposure to chronic, repeated solar radiation. The first sign of photoaging in Japanese subjects is usually solar lentigines appearing around 20 years of age on the face. Fine wrinkles can then appear after 30 years of age, and benign skin tumors, seborrhoeic keratoses, can occur after 35 years of age in sun-exposed skin. We theoretically calculated the maximal daily exposure time to solar radiation, which could prevent the development of photoaged skin until 60 and 80 years of age, based on published data of personal solar UVB doses in sun-exposed skin. One MED (minimal erythema dose) was determined to be 20 mJ/cm(2) , and 200 MED was used as the average yearly dose of Japanese children. Further, we hypothesized that the annual dose of Japanese adults is the same as that of the children. The cumulative UVB dose at 20 years of age was thus calculated to be 4000 MED, and 22 MED was used as the maximal daily UVB dose based on data measured in Kobe, located in the central area of Japan. We used the solar UVB dose from 10:00 a.m. to 14:00 p.m. which occupies 60% of the total daily UV dose, to obtain the maximal UVB per hour in a day, and calculated the maximal daily UV exposure time that would delay the onset of solar lentigines until 60 or 80 years of age. The mean daily sun exposure time to maintain healthy skin until 80 years of age in the summer was calculated to be 2.54 min (0.14 MED) for unprotected skin and 127 min with the use of a sunscreen of SPF (sun protection factor) of 50. In this study, we did not evaluate the photoaging effect of UVA radiation, but findings of the adverse effects of UVA radiation on the skin have accumulated in the last decade. Therefore, it will be important to estimate the maximal dose of solar UV radiation to retard the onset of photoaging based on an evaluation of both solar UVB and UVA in the future. Finally, we expect that this study may contribute to keeping Japanese and other types of skin young and healthy by limiting the exposure of the skin to solar radiation outdoors during the day. PMID:25234836

Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Ando, Hideya

2014-10-01

76

Continuous closed-loop decoder adaptation with a recursive maximum likelihood algorithm allows for rapid performance acquisition in brain-machine interfaces.  

PubMed

Closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA) is an emerging paradigm for both improving and maintaining online performance in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). The time required for initial decoder training and any subsequent decoder recalibrations could be potentially reduced by performing continuous adaptation, in which decoder parameters are updated at every time step during these procedures, rather than waiting to update the decoder at periodic intervals in a more batch-based process. Here, we present recursive maximum likelihood (RML), a CLDA algorithm that performs continuous adaptation of a Kalman filter decoder's parameters. We demonstrate that RML possesses a variety of useful properties and practical algorithmic advantages. First, we show how RML leverages the accuracy of updates based on a batch of data while still adapting parameters on every time step. Second, we illustrate how the RML algorithm is parameterized by a single, intuitive half-life parameter that can be used to adjust the rate of adaptation in real time. Third, we show how even when the number of neural features is very large, RML's memory-efficient recursive update rules can be reformulated to also be computationally fast so that continuous adaptation is still feasible. To test the algorithm in closed-loop experiments, we trained three macaque monkeys to perform a center-out reaching task by using either spiking activity or local field potentials to control a 2D computer cursor. RML achieved higher levels of performance more rapidly in comparison to a previous CLDA algorithm that adapts parameters on a more intermediate timescale. Overall, our results indicate that RML is an effective CLDA algorithm for achieving rapid performance acquisition using continuous adaptation. PMID:24922501

Dangi, Siddharth; Gowda, Suraj; Moorman, Helene G; Orsborn, Amy L; So, Kelvin; Shanechi, Maryam; Carmena, Jose M

2014-09-01

77

Dose response study of ipratropium bromide aerosol on maximum exercise performance in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the bronchodilating effect of inhaled anticholinergics has been established in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), their effects on exercise capacity are still controversial. Previous studies have suggested that the standard dosage hardly affects exercise tolerance, whereas higher doses might elicit an improvement. The aim of the present study was to determine the dose of ipratropium bromide

A. Ikeda; K. Nishimura; H. Koyama; M. Tsukino; M. Mishima; T. Izumi

1996-01-01

78

Methodology used to compute maximum potential doses from ingestion of edible plants and wildlife found on the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the assumptions, dose factors, consumption rates, and methodology used to evaluate potential radiation doses to persons who may eat contaminated wildlife or contaminated plants collected from the Hanford Site. This report includes a description of the number and variety of wildlife and edible plants on the Hanford Site, methods for estimation of the quantities of these items consumed and conversion of intake of radionuclides to radiation doses, and example calculations of radiation doses from consumption of plants and wildlife. Edible plants on the publicly accessible margins of the shoreline of the Hanford Site and Wildlife that move offsite are potential sources of contaminated food for the general public. Calculations of potential radiation doses from consumption of agricultural plants and farm animal products are made routinely and reported annually for those produced offsite, using information about concentrations of radionuclides, consumption rates, and factors for converting radionuclide intake into dose. Dose calculations for onsite plants and wildlife are made intermittently when appropriate samples become available for analysis or when special studies are conducted. Consumption rates are inferred from the normal intake rates of similar food types raised offsite and from the edible weight of the onsite product that is actually available for harvest. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

1990-10-01

79

Maximum tolerated doses of methotrexate and 7-hydroxy-methotrexate in a model of acute toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: After more than 50?years of methotrexate (MTX) treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), it is currently believed\\u000a that as long as dose escalations are followed by adequate leucovorin rescue guided by monitoring MTX serum concentrations,\\u000a hydration and urinary alkalinization, high-dose MTX (HD-MTX) can be tolerated without life-threatening toxicity. However,\\u000a our recent experimental animal studies of the major metabolite of

Ole-Martin Fuskevåg; Christel Kristiansen; Sigurd Lindal; Jarle Aarbakke

2000-01-01

80

An open-label study to determine the maximum tolerated dose of the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor CEP-11981 in patients with advanced cancer.  

PubMed

Background This phase I study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CEP-11981, an oral vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced, relapsed, or refractory solid tumors. Methods Oral CEP-11981 dose escalations followed a modified Fibonacci sequence (from 3.0 to 4.2, 5.9, 11.8, 19.7, 29.6, 41.4, 55.0, 73.0, 97.4, and 126.6 mg/m(2)). The maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), tumor response, and safety were evaluated. Results CEP-11981 was tolerated at doses between 3.0 and 97.4 mg/m(2). The MTD of CEP-11981 was determined to be 97.4 mg/m(2), with DLTs observed at the 126.6 mg/m(2) dose. The DLTs were grade 4 neutropenia in 1 patient and grade 3 T-wave inversion with chest heaviness and fatigue in 1 patient. All 3 events resolved on stopping CEP-11981. The most frequently reported adverse events of any grade were fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, abdominal pain, back pain, vomiting, constipation, headache, dizziness, and dyspnea. Treatment-related grade 3/4 neutropenia was observed in the highest-dose cohorts (2 patients at 97.4 mg/m(2) and 1 patient at 126.6 mg/m(2)), indicating some off-target inhibition. VEGF inhibition was greatest in the higher-dose groups. Although no patient experienced complete or partial response, 44 % patients achieved stable disease when measured at ??6 weeks, which occurred more frequently in cohorts receiving ??73.0 mg/m(2). Conclusions In patients with recurrent or refractory solid tumors, disease stabilization was achieved. Despite acceptable tolerability of CEP-11981 at the MTD, further development by the sponsor has ceased. PMID:25152243

Pili, Roberto; Carducci, Michael; Brown, Peter; Hurwitz, Herbert

2014-12-01

81

Biocompatibility of antimicrobials to maggot debridement therapy: medical maggots Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) exhibit tolerance to clinical maximum doses of antimicrobials.  

PubMed

The larvae of calliphorid flies are used to debride wounds of patients with severe tissue destruction, often concurrently with antimicrobials. The current study evaluates the effects of ceftazidime, tobramycin, amikacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, doxycycline, paromomycin, amphotericin B, sodium stibogluconate, and miltefosine at 1, 10, and 100 x the Maximum Clinical Concentration (mg/kg/d) in raw liver assays. Effects on larvae were small and depended on dose and antimicrobial formulation, with hours in assay (24 or 48 h) having a significant effect on larval survival. Sodium stibgluconate had the strongest effect on maggot survival (80.0% at 48 h). These results suggest that the antimicrobials tested here may be used simultaneously with maggot debridement therapy, and may actually increase the effectiveness of maggot debridement therapy in certain applications where >1 x Maximum Clinical Concentration is indicated, such as topical creams for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:23025196

Peck, George W; Kirkup, Benjamin C

2012-09-01

82

Use of lung toxicity and lung particle clearance to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for a fiber glass chronic inhalation study in the rat.  

PubMed

Short-term toxicity and lung clearance were assessed in rats exposed by inhalation to size-selected fibrous glass (FG) for 13 weeks. Results from this study and from a recent FG chronic inhalation study are presented here as guidelines for the selection of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for chronic inhalation studies of fibers. Fischer 344 rats were exposed using nose-only inhalation chambers, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 13 weeks to one of five concentrations of FG (36, 206, 316, 552, or 714 fibers/cc; expressed gravimetrically, 3, 16, 30, 45, or 60 mg/m3) or to filtered air. Rats were then held for an additional 10 weeks of postexposure recovery. Test fiber was size-selected from glass wool having a chemical composition representative of building insulation. Rats were terminated at 7, 13, 19, and 23 weeks after the onset of exposure to evaluate pulmonary pathology, lung epithelium cell proliferation, lung fiber burden, and lung lavage cells and chemistry. The effect of fiber inhalation on lung clearance of innocuous microspheres was also evaluated: following fiber exposure, six rats/group were exposed to 85Sr-labeled 3.0-microns polystyrene microspheres by intratracheal inhalation and then monitored for whole-body radioactivity during the 10-week recovery period. Data from the short-term study support the choice of 30 mg/m3 as the MTD for the previous chronic FG study and also provide indicators of long-term lung toxicity and functional impairment that can be used to estimate the MTD for future chronic fiber inhalation studies. PMID:8812213

Hesterberg, T W; McConnel, E E; Miiller, W C; Chevalier, J; Everitt, J; Thevenaz, P; Fleissner, H; Oberdörster, G

1996-07-01

83

Approach to calculating upper bounds on maximum individual doses from the use of contaminated well water following a WIPP repository breach. Report EEG-9  

SciTech Connect

As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report.

Spiegler, P.

1981-09-01

84

49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.  

...TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers...not exceed 24 km/hour (15 mph) for shipments by rail. (b) For trains transporting any...

2014-10-01

85

Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic modeling of abexinostat-induced thrombocytopenia across different patient populations: application for the determination of the maximum tolerated doses in both lymphoma and solid tumour patients.  

PubMed

Background In the clinical development of oncology drugs, the recommended dose is usually determined using a 3?+?3 dose-escalation study design. However, this phase I design does not always adequately describe dose-toxicity relationships. Methods 125 patients, with either solid tumours or lymphoma, were included in the study and 1217 platelet counts were available over three treatment cycles. The data was used to build a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model using a sequential modeling approach. Model-derived Recommended Doses (MDRD) of abexinostat (a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor) were determined from simulations of different administration schedules, and the higher bound for the probability of reaching these MDRD with a 3?+?3 design were obtained. Results The PKPD model developed adequately described platelet kinetics in both patient populations with the inclusion of two platelet baseline counts and a disease progression component for patients with lymphoma. Simulation results demonstrated that abexinostat administration during the first 4 days of each week in a 3-week cycle led to a higher MDRD compared to the other administration schedules tested, with a maximum probability of 40 % of reaching these MDRDs using a 3?+?3 design. Conclusions The PKPD model was able to predict thrombocytopenia following abexinostat administration in both patient populations. A model-based approach to determine the recommended dose in phase I trials is preferable due to the imprecision of the 3?+?3 design. PMID:24875134

Chalret du Rieu, Quentin; Fouliard, Sylvain; White-Koning, Mélanie; Kloos, Ioana; Chatelut, Etienne; Chenel, Marylore

2014-10-01

86

Maximum Likelihood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This material introduces the basic theory of maximum likelihood estimation by discussing the likelihood function, the log likelihood function, and maximizing these functions using calculus. Several exercises ask students to derive certain estimators, while others have students compare the behavior of those estimators with other possibilities through the use of various JAVA applets. The applets use the same control features: the sliders set the parameter values, the ÃÂStop #ÃÂ drop down menu sets the number of samples taken, the ÃÂUpdate #ÃÂ drop down menu sets how often the graph and tables update during the experiment, the single arrow takes one sample, the double arrow runs the full experiment, the square stops the experiment, and the back arrow resets the applet. This page is one lesson from the Virtual Laboratories in Statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

2009-07-20

87

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED  

E-print Network

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED Batteries, toner, ink cartridges & cell phones and recycling is an important part of that effort. Below is a guide to on-campus recycling at RSMAS: Visit http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/msgso/ for map of recycling bin locations. NOTE: This is not an exhaustive list. If unauthorized items are found

Miami, University of

88

76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...including seam type, coating, welding technique, cathodic protection...surrounding environment, operational history, or other relevant factors...non-covered segments, past incident history, corrosion control records...patrolling records, maintenance history, internal inspection...

2011-01-10

89

Comparative evaluation of US Food and Drug Administration and pharmacologically guided approaches to determine the maximum recommended starting dose for first-in-human clinical trials in adult healthy men.  

PubMed

The authors compared US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and 9 pharmacologically guided approaches (PGAs; simple allometry, maximum life span potential [MLP], brain weight, rule of exponent [ROE], two 2-sp methods and 3 one-sp methods) to determine the maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD) for first-in-human clinical trials in adult healthy men using 10 drugs. The ROE method as suggested by Mahmood and Balian1 gave the best prediction accuracy for a pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter. Values derived from clearance were consistently better than volume of distribution (Vd)-based methods and had lower root mean square error (RMSE) values. A pictorial method evaluation chart was developed based on fold errors for simultaneous evaluation of various methods. The one-sp method (rat) and the US FDA methods gave the highest prediction accuracy and low RMSE values, and the 2-sp methods gave the least prediction accuracy with high RMSE values. The ROE method gave more consistent predictions for PK parameters than other allometric methods. Despite this, the MRSD predictions were not better than US FDA methods, probably indicating that across-species variation in clearance may be higher than variation in no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and that PGA methods may not be consistently better than the NOAEL based methods. PMID:21415286

Imam, Md Tarique; Venkateshan, S P; Tandon, Monika; Saha, Nilanjan; Pillai, K K

2011-12-01

90

Special State Standard of absorbed dose unit of x-ray radiation with maximum photon energy from 3 to 9 fJ (20–60 keV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The special State standard reproduces the absorbed dose unit of x-ray radiation in an absorber within the range from 1 to 5 J\\/kg. The unit is reproduced by calorimetric techniques which is the only method of direct and absolute measurement of absorbed radiation energy. In compliance with the ICRU recommendations, the absorber material is graphite. The block diagram of the

R. F. Kononova; A. P. Sebekin; V. I. Fominykh; M. F. Yudin

1976-01-01

91

Stellar disks Maximum disk  

E-print Network

& Stellar Systems 5, ch.21 (1965) 7 P.C. van der Kruit & K.C. Freeman, K.C., Ap.J. 303, 556 (1986) Piet vanOutline Stellar disks Maximum disk Truncations Conclusions STRUCTURE, MASS AND STABILITY Stellar disks Maximum disk Truncations Conclusions Outline Stellar disks Vertical stellar dynamics Stellar

Kruit, Piet van der

92

Maximum thrust mode evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

1995-01-01

93

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

94

Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests  

E-print Network

Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests Character Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests Character Reconstruction PHYLIP and T-REX Exercises Outline 1 Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood 2 Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests 3 Character

Qiu, Weigang

95

Maximum life spur gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

Savage, M.; Mackulin, B. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

1991-01-01

96

Last Glacial Maximum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short lecture on CLIMAP project (see PowerPoint) 20 minutes Powerpoint (PowerPoint 444kB Nov7 10) Group activity - Reading for CLIMAP study assumptions, 20 minutes to read, 20 minutes for discussion Student Handout (Microsoft Word 50kB Nov7 10) Students break into groups (4 per group is good division of work) with 2 students per paper. Split the assumptions between students. Each group skims the CLIMAP papers for the assumptions (modern and/or LGM) used in the CLIMAP model-based reconstruction of the LGM. In the groups, students compare the assumptions between papers. Resources: CLIMAP (1976), The surface of the ice-age earth, Science, 191(4232), 1131-1137 and CLIMAP (1984), The last interglacial ocean, Quaternary Research, 21(2), 123. Class Discussion - Summarize assumptions used in CLIMAP studies. Group activity Exploring CLIMAP LGM Reconstructions, 40 minutes for model data, 20 minutes for discussion (Could be modified with as a "jigsaw" activity with a larger class). Learn more about the jigsaw teaching method. Students work on this activity in pairs; one person will create LGM maps, the other modern. Students should sit together with their computer monitors close together to compare. The students will use the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library to access the CLIMAP reconstruction and produce maps using the tools available on this web site. In a web browser, go to http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/ This is the main page for the CLIMAP Model output for the LGM 18,000 BP. In the middle of the page is the label "Datasets and variables" with two data sets below http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.LGM/ and http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.MOD/. Each student clicks on the link they are assigned to. There are several data sets listed for each period and the students will examine each data set and compare the LGM and Modern. As a class, go through each data set allowing pairs to compare the maps then summarize the results as a class. The worksheet has a table for the students and the PowerPoint has table for summarizing. Class Discussion - Summarize differences between modern and LGM in the CLIMAP model output. Discuss how the assumptions of the CLIMAP model studies may have influenced the results. Extra activities The students can explore the data further using the data selection and filters in the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library. For the two SST data sets, click on "Data Selection" and narrow the data to the just the tropics (23.5º N-S). Click on "Filters" then select XY next to "Average over." The next window gives you the average over the tropics close to the top of the page. In the next class, the students repeat the Readings exercise by reading the COHMAP and MARGO papers to see how the scientific knowledge has progressed since the original CLIMAP studies. COHMAP Members, (1988), Climatic Changes of the Last 18,000 Years: Observations and Model Simulations, Science, 241(4869), 1043-1052. MARGO (2009), Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum, Nature Geoscience, 2(2), 127-132.

Delong, Kristine

97

Maximum-Likelihood Parameter-Estimation Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient version of maximum-likelihood algorithm devised for calculating normal-mode frequencies and damping parameters of vibrating system from experimental data where both process noise and measurement noise present. Method applicable in vibration analysis of such complicated structures as vehicles, aircraft, and spacecraft. New algorithm simplification of existing maximum-likelihood formulation using Kalman filter that allows for both process and measurement noise.

Eldred, D. B.; Hamidi, M.; Rodriguez, G.

1986-01-01

98

49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating...testing field applied coating to girth welds must be: (i) Equivalent to that required...effective coating application. (b) Girth welds (1) All girth welds on a new...

2010-10-01

99

49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating...testing field applied coating to girth welds must be: (i) Equivalent to that required...effective coating application. (b) Girth welds (1) All girth welds on a new...

2013-10-01

100

49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating...testing field applied coating to girth welds must be: (i) Equivalent to that required...effective coating application. (b) Girth welds (1) All girth welds on a new...

2012-10-01

101

49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating...testing field applied coating to girth welds must be: (i) Equivalent to that required...effective coating application. (b) Girth welds (1) All girth welds on a new...

2011-10-01

102

30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel:air ratio.  

...44 Section 36.44 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test...

2014-07-01

103

Calculations of maximum allowable heat losses for various shallow-trench heat-distribution systems  

SciTech Connect

The calculation of heat losses for shallow-trench underground heat-distribution systems was performed using a finite=element computer program. The finite-element analysis solved a two-dimensional steady-state heat-transfer problem for two insulated pipes in a rectangular trench with surrounding soil. A life-cycle-cost analysis was performed to determine the cost of construction and annual energy cost associated with pipe heat loss for underground concrete trench systems of different trench dimensions and insulated-pipe sizes.

Fang, J.B.

1987-11-01

104

GLOSSARY OF TERMS Balance Billing Out-of-network reimbursements are based on a maximum allowable  

E-print Network

Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) ­ is a federal law that, among other things, requires employers the medical plan, i.e., does not share a common deductible): a) The prescription drug coverage has no annual Medicare eligible individual in 2008. #12;- 55 - For integrated plans (a plan where medical and Rx expenses

105

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (i) Eighty percent of the first test pressure that produces yield under section...plastic pipe in all locations, the test pressure is divided by a factor of 1.5...i. (689 kPa) gage or more, the test pressure is divided by a factor determined...

2010-10-01

106

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the weld seam of one pipe from each heat plus one pipe from each welding line...minimum of 13 readings (three for each heat affected zone, three in the weld metal...qualified welding procedures must include a pre-heat procedure. (3) Valves,...

2012-10-01

107

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the weld seam of one pipe from each heat plus one pipe from each welding line...minimum of 13 readings (three for each heat affected zone, three in the weld metal...qualified welding procedures must include a pre-heat procedure. (3) Valves,...

2011-10-01

108

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the weld seam of one pipe from each heat plus one pipe from each welding line...minimum of 13 readings (three for each heat affected zone, three in the weld metal...qualified welding procedures must include a pre-heat procedure. (3) Valves,...

2010-10-01

109

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the weld seam of one pipe from each heat plus one pipe from each welding line...minimum of 13 readings (three for each heat affected zone, three in the weld metal...qualified welding procedures must include a pre-heat procedure. (3) Valves,...

2013-10-01

110

The Solar Maximum observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots.

Rust, D. M.

1984-01-01

111

Generalized Maximum Entropy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

2005-01-01

112

Experimental design of bioassays for screening and low dose extrapolation  

SciTech Connect

Relatively high doses of chemicals generally are employed in animal bioassays to detect potential carcinogens with relatively small numbers of animals. The problem investigated here is the development of experimental designs which are effective for high to low dose extrapolation for tumor incidence as well as for screening (detecting) carcinogens. Several experimental designs are compared over a wide range of different dose response curves. Linear extrapolation is used below the experimental data range to establish an upper bound on carcinogenic risk at low doses. The goal is to find experimental designs which minimize the upper bound on low dose risk estimates (i.e., maximize the allowable dose for a given level of risk). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is employed for screening purposes. Among the designs investigated, experiments with doses at the MTD, 1/2 MTD, 1/4 MTD, and controls generally provide relatively good data for low dose extrapolation with relatively good power for detecting carcinogens. For this design, equal numbers of animals per dose level perform as well as unequal allocations.

Gaylor, D.W.; Chen, J.J.; Kodell, R.L.

1985-03-01

113

EMPLOYEE'S WITHHOLDING ALLOWANCE CERTIFICATE 1. Number of allowances for Regular Withholding Allowances, Worksheet A  

E-print Network

Personal Income Tax (PIT) withholding purposes only. The DE 4 is used to compute the amount of taxes, compare the state income tax withheld with your estimated total annual tax. For state withholding, use of Allowances (A + B) when using the California Withholding Schedules for 2013 OR 2. Additional amount of state

Simaan, Nabil

114

EMPLOYEE'S WITHHOLDING ALLOWANCE CERTIFICATE 1. Number of allowances for Regular Withholding Allowances, Worksheet A  

E-print Network

personal income tax withholding purposes only. The DE 4 is used to compute the amount of taxes, compare the State income tax withheld with your estimated total annual tax. For State withholding, use of Allowances (A + B) when using the California Withholding Schedules for 2011 OR 2. Additional amount of State

Bordenstein, Seth

115

EMPLOYEE'S WITHHOLDING ALLOWANCE CERTIFICATE 1. Number of allowances for Regular Withholding Allowances, Worksheet A  

E-print Network

personal income tax withholding purposes only. The DE 4 is used to compute the amount of taxes the state income tax withheld with your estimated total annual tax. For state withholding, use of Allowances (A + B) when using the California Withholding Schedules for 2007 OR 2. Additional amount of state

Bordenstein, Seth

116

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06

117

Disposition of firocoxib in equine plasma after an oral loading dose and a multiple dose regimen.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if a single loading dose (LD), 3× the label dose of firocoxib oral paste, followed by nine maintenance doses at the current label dose achieves and maintains near steady state concentrations. Six healthy, adult mares were administered 0.3mg/kg of firocoxib on Day 0, and 0.1 mg/kg 24 h later on Day 1, and at 24 h intervals from Day 2 to Day 9, for a total of 10 doses. Blood samples were collected throughout the study. The mean firocoxib maximum plasma concentration and standard deviation was 199±97 ng/mL, 175±44 ng/mL and 183±50 ng/mL after the LD, and first and last maintenance doses, respectively. The minimum mean concentration (C(min)) increased from 100±23 ng/mL after the LD to 132±38 ng/mL at Day 7. Then, the C(min) remained constant until Day 9. The average concentration at steady state (C(avg)) was 150±45 ng/mL, which compares well to the C(avg) (130±36 ng/mL) reported after multiple daily doses at 0.1 mg/kg. The administration of the single LD allowed achievement of the average steady state drug concentrations faster than a multi-dose regimen without a loading dose. After the LD, firocoxib at 0.1 mg/kg every 24 h was able to maintain a relatively constant average drug concentration which should produce less variability in onset of action and efficacy. PMID:24076125

Cox, S; Villarino, N; Sommardahl, C; Kvaternick, V; Zarabadipour, C; Siger, L; Yarbrough, J; Amicucci, A; Reed, K; Breeding, D; Doherty, T

2013-11-01

118

Maximum entropy discrimination Tommi Jaakkola  

E-print Network

;) that maximizes the entropy H(P ) subject to the classi#12;cation constraints R P(#2;) [ y t L(X t j#2;) ] d#2Maximum entropy discrimination Tommi Jaakkola MIT AI Lab 545 Technology Sq. Cambridge, MA 02139 framework for discriminative estimation based on the maximum entropy principle and its extensions. All

Jaakkola, Tommi S.

119

20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46...1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and...

2014-04-01

120

20 CFR 429.204 - Are there any restrictions on what is allowable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the amount of the deductible. If the vehicle is uninsured, the maximum allowed will be $500.00. (e) Computers and electronics. Claims may be allowed for loss of, or damage to, cellular phones, fax machines, computers and related...

2010-04-01

121

20 CFR 429.204 - Are there any restrictions on what is allowable?  

...the amount of the deductible. If the vehicle is uninsured, the maximum allowed will be $500.00. (e) Computers and electronics. Claims may be allowed for loss of, or damage to, cellular phones, fax machines, computers and related...

2014-04-01

122

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

... 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2014-10-01

123

46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping...Independent Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must:...

2014-10-01

124

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2014-10-01

125

Furman University Cell Phone Allowance Request Form  

E-print Network

Furman University Cell Phone Allowance Request Form Date Payment: $___________ All cell phone allowance payments are departmental responsibility and considered other compensation charged to object code ________. The cell phone allowance will start at the next

126

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2013-10-01

127

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2012-10-01

128

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2011-10-01

129

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2011-10-01

130

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2013-10-01

131

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2010-10-01

132

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2010-10-01

133

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2012-10-01

134

Superstatistical distributions from a maximum entropy principle.  

PubMed

We deal with a generalized statistical description of nonequilibrium complex systems based on least biased distributions given some prior information. A maximum entropy principle is introduced that allows for the determination of the distribution of the fluctuating intensive parameter beta of a superstatistical system, given certain constraints on the complex system under consideration. We apply the theory to three examples: the superstatistical quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator, the superstatistical classical ideal gas, and velocity time series as measured in a turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. PMID:19113089

Van der Straeten, Erik; Beck, Christian

2008-11-01

135

Assessing allowable take of migratory birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M. L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

2009-01-01

136

Experimental Evaluation of the Impact of Different Head-and-Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning Techniques on Doses to the Skin and Shallow Targets  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate experimentally the impact of different head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning techniques on doses to the skin and shallow targets. Methods and Materials: A semicylindrical phantom was constructed with micro-MOSFET dosimeters (Thomson-Nielson, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) at 0-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-mm depths. The planning target volume (PTV) was pulled back 0, 3, or 5 mm from the body contour. The IMRT plans were created to maximize PTV coverage, with one of the following strategies: (a) aim for a maximum 110% hotspot, with 115% allowed; (b) aims for a maximum 105% hotspot; (c) aims for a maximum 105% hotspot and 50% of skin to get a maximum 70% of the prescribed dose; and (d) aim for 99% of the PTV volume to receive 90-93% of prescribed dose, with a maximum 105% hotspot, and with the dose to the skin structure minimized. Doses delivered using a linear accelerator were measured. Setup uncertainty was simulated by intentionally shifting the phantom in a range of {+-}8 mm, and calculating the delivered dose for a range of systematic and random uncertainties. Results: From lowest to highest skin dose, the planning strategies were in the order of c, d, b, and a, but c showed a tendency to underdose tissues at depth. Delivered doses varied by 10-20%, depending on planning strategy. For typical setup uncertainties, cumulative dose reduction to a point 6 mm deep was <4%. Conclusions: It is useful to use skin as a sensitive structure, but a minimum dose constraint must be used for the PTV if unwanted reductions in dose to nodes near the body surface are to be avoided. Setup uncertainties are unlikely to give excessive reductions in cumulative dose.

Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber and Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: lcourt@lroc.harvard.edu; Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber and Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

2007-10-01

137

77 FR 46987 - Utility Allowances Submetering  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the applicable Public Housing Authority (PHA) utility allowance established for the...applicable utility allowance is the applicable PHA utility allowance under Sec. 1.42-10...that the regulations should limit use of a PHA utility allowance for non-Section 8...

2012-08-07

138

Maximum Entropy Inverse Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown the benefit of framing problems of imitation learning as solutions to Markov Decision Prob- lems. This approach reduces learning to the problem of re- covering a utility function that makes the behavior induced by a near-optimal policy closely mimic demonstrated behav- ior. In this work, we develop a probabilistic approach based on the principle of maximum

Brian Ziebart; Andrew L. Maas; J. Andrew Bagnell; Anind K. Dey

2008-01-01

139

Solar maximum thermal surface assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inflight repair of the Solar Maximum Spacecraft provided the first opportunity to make actual measurements of thermal control surfaces after 4 years exposure in low Earth orbit. Defective hardware was replaced by astronauts and returned to Earth while protected from reentry damage in the Shuttle Payload bay. A preliminary thermal surface assessment was made soon after retrieval in support of Space Telescope and other current spacecraft programs. This included visual examination and measurement of Kapton and Teflon film to determine change in thermal radiative properties after 4 years exposure to solar radiation and reaction with atomic oxygen. Comparative measurements were made with a portable solar reflectometer used for inspection of spacecraft hardware. Post flight measurements and observations reveal significant surface changes that further confirm Kapton mass loss predictions made prior to Solar Maximum repair. Details of thermal surface application, measurements and experimental results are presented and discussed.

Rhoads, G. D.

1985-01-01

140

Maximum Sustainable Yield Lives On  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined 142 papers published from 1977 through 1985 that used the concept of maximum sustainable yield (MSY). I classified them as to how MSY was used, year of publication, subject, and publication forum. The primary uses of MSY were in estimating long-term yield (28.9%), evaluating stock condition (28.2%), and analyzing policy (21.8%). The number of such publications declined significantly

Willard E. Barber

1988-01-01

141

BGIM : Maximum Likelihood Estimation Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Shaun Purcell of the Social, Genetic and Development Pyschiatry Research Centre, this set of pages is an introduction to the maximum likelihood estimation. It discusses the likelihood and log-likelihood functions and the process of optimizing. The author breaks the page down in this way: introduction, model-fitting, MLE in practice, likelihood ratio test, MLE analysis of twin data and MLE analysis of linkage data. The author offers further reading for extra study of this statistical method.

Purcell, Shaun

2009-02-26

142

LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power  

SciTech Connect

The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed.

Clendenin, J.

2005-01-12

143

15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.  

...WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL...The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the...Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs...

2014-01-01

144

Child allowances, fertility, and chaotic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the dynamics in an overlapping generations model with the provision of child allowances. Fertility is an increasing function of child allowances and there exists a threshold effect of the marginal effect of child allowances on fertility. We show that if the effectiveness of child allowances is sufficiently high, an intermediate-sized tax rate will be enough to generate chaotic dynamics. Besides, a decrease in the inter-temporal elasticity of substitution will prevent the occurrence of irregular cycles.

Chen, Hung-Ju; Li, Ming-Chia

2013-06-01

145

Allowable systematic difference between two instruments measuring the same analyte.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. If a laboratory has two analytical instruments for measuring the concentration of the same analyte and samples from the patients are randomly allocated to either of the two, then an allowable systematic difference between the two instruments should be defined. We present a solution to this problem, based on the traditional criterion that the total analytical standard deviation (SD) shall be less than half the within-subject biological SD. Methods. We derived a formula for estimating the SD of the distribution of analytical results that may stem from two instruments with different means and SDs and different probabilities of being used. The formula was used to estimate the allowable systematic difference between the two instruments. Results. The allowable systematic difference depends on the within-subject biological SD, the SDs of the two instruments, and the probability that a sample is analyzed with a certain instrument. When this probability is 0.5, the allowable systematic difference approaches the magnitude of the within-subject biological SD as the analytical SDs approach zero, while no systematic difference is allowed when the two analytical SDs are equal to their maximum allowable value of half the within-subject biological SD. Conclusions. In a monitoring situation, the allowable systematic difference between two analytical instruments depends on the probability that a sample is allocated to each of the instruments as well as the analytical SDs and the within-subject biological SD. PMID:24909157

Asberg, Arne; Solem, Kristine B; Mikkelsen, Gustav

2014-10-01

146

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2014-10-01

147

STATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCE  

E-print Network

) WATTS PER (ft2 ) COMPLETE BLDG. AREA ALLOWED WATTSX = TOTALS AREA WATTS AREA CATEGORY METHOD ­ Part A A B C D AREA CATEGORY (From §146 Table 146-F) WATTS PER (ft2 ) X AREA (ft 2 ) ALLOWED WATTS= Sum of Additional Allowed Watts from Area Category Method ­ Part B (from table below) TOTALS AREA WATTS AREA

148

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2012-10-01

149

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2013-10-01

150

Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed.

Choi, A.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

151

Maximum likelihood techniques in QELS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A framework for the analysis of Quasi Elastic Light Scattering (QELS) experiments designed to be used in microgravity environment is derived. Example calculations of the type to be used to design the QELS system are given. The framework for the analysis is based on the concepts of parameter estimation typified by Maximum Likelihood Estimation methods. These methods not only serve as the template for parameter estimation algorithms, but can also be used for optimal design of the experiments. Optimal design of experiments is facilitated by the fact that these methods not only give procedures for parameter estimation, but also estimates of the errors associated with the parameter estimation.

Edwards, Robert V.

1989-01-01

152

Clinical Trials of a Urethral Dose Measurement System in Brachytherapy Using Scintillation Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on the clinical feasibility of a novel scintillation detector system with fiberoptic readout that measures the urethral dose during high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of the prostate. Methods and Materials: The clinical trial enrolled 24 patients receiving high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment to the prostate. After the first 14 patients, three improvements were made to the dosimeter system design to improve clinical reliability: a dosimeter self-checking facility; a radiopaque marker to determine the position of the dosimeter, and a more robust optical extension fiber. Results: Improvements to the system design allowed for accurate dose measurements to be made in vivo. A maximum measured dose departure of 9% from the calculated dose was observed after dosimeter design improvements. Conclusions: Departures of the measured from the calculated dose, after improvements to the dosimetry system, arise primarily from small changes in patient anatomy. Therefore, we recommend that patient response be correlated with the measured in vivo dose rather than with the calculated dose.

Suchowerska, Natalka, E-mail: natalka@email.cs.nsw.gov.a [Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Jackson, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Lambert, Jamil; Yin, Yong Bai [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hruby, George [Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); McKenzie, David R. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

2011-02-01

153

Dose Calculations for [131I] Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine-Induced Bystander Effects  

PubMed Central

Targeted radiotherapy is a potentially useful treatment for some cancers and may be potentiated by bystander effects. However, without estimation of absorbed dose, it is difficult to compare the effects with conventional external radiation treatment. Methods: Using the Vynckier – Wambersie dose point kernel, a model for dose rate evaluation was created allowing for calculation of absorbed dose values to two cell lines transfected with the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene and treated with [131I]MIBG. Results: The mean doses required to decrease surviving fractions of UVW/NAT and EJ138/NAT cells, which received medium from [131I]MIBG-treated cells, to 25 – 30% were 1.6 and 1.7 Gy respectively. The maximum mean dose rates achieved during [131I]MIBG treatment were 0.09 – 0.75 Gy/h for UVW/NAT and 0.07 – 0.78 Gy/h for EJ138/NAT. These were significantly lower than the external beam gamma radiation dose rate of 15 Gy/h. In the case of control lines which were incapable of [131I]MIBG uptake the mean absorbed doses following radiopharmaceutical were 0.03 – 0.23 Gy for UVW and 0.03 – 0.32 Gy for EJ138. Conclusion: [131I]MIBG treatment for ICCM production elicited a bystander dose-response profile similar to that generated by external beam gamma irradiation but with significantly greater cell death. PMID:24659931

Gow, M. D.; Seymour, C. B.; Boyd, M.; Mairs, R. J.; Prestiwch, W. V.; Mothersill, C. E.

2014-01-01

154

Maximum Diameter of Impacting Liquid Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum diameter a droplet that impacts on a surface will attain is the subject of controversy, notably for high-velocity impacts of low-viscosity liquids such as water or blood. We study the impact of droplets of simple liquids of different viscosities, and a shear-thinning complex fluid (blood), for a wide range of surfaces, impact speeds, and impact angles. We show that the spreading behavior cannot simply be predicted by equating the inertial to either capillary or viscous forces, since, for most situations of practical interest, all three forces are important. We determine the correct scaling behaviors for the viscous and capillary regimes and, by interpolating between the two, allow for a universal rescaling. The results for different impact angles can be rescaled on this universal curve also, by doing a simple geometrical correction for the impact angle. For blood, we show that the shear-thinning properties do not affect the maximum diameter and only the high-shear rate viscosity is relevant. With our study, we solve a long-standing problem within the fluid-dynamics community: We attest that the spreading behavior of droplets is governed by the conversion of kinetic energy into surface energy or dissipated heat. Energy transfer into internal flows marginally hinders droplet spreading upon impact.

Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Bartolo, Denis; Josserand, Christophe; Bonn, Daniel

2014-10-01

155

System for memorizing maximum values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

1992-08-01

156

41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or conference lodging) prescribed in applicable travel regulations for travel expenses paid by a non-Federal source? 304-3...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2012-07-01

157

41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or conference lodging) prescribed in applicable travel regulations for travel expenses paid by a non-Federal source? 304-3...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2011-07-01

158

41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or conference lodging) prescribed in applicable travel regulations for travel expenses paid by a non-Federal source? 304-3...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2013-07-01

159

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established...Class 4 locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS...192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the...

2011-10-01

160

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established...Class 4 locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS...192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the...

2010-10-01

161

Glossary of Terms Balance Billing Out-of-network reimbursements are based on a maximum allowable fee  

E-print Network

applies after first meeting a deductible requirement. Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act: For plans that are not integrated (a plan that provides Rx benefits that are separate from the medical plan eligible individual in 2008. - 1 - #12;For integrated plans (a plan where medical and Rx expenses

162

41 CFR 301-11.7 - What determines my maximum per diem reimbursement rate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determines my maximum per diem reimbursement rate? 301-11.7 Section 301-11.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

163

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2007 Site environmental report8-  

E-print Network

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2007 Site environmental report8- DRAFT Brookhaven National that the overall radiological dose impact to members of the public, workers, visitors, and the environment is "As radiological dose to the public is calculated at the site boundary as the "maximum" dose that could be received

164

28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS...FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable...to any of a carrier's systems or services, as...

2012-07-01

165

28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS...FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable...to any of a carrier's systems or services, as...

2013-07-01

166

28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS...FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable...to any of a carrier's systems or services, as...

2010-07-01

167

28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS...FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable...to any of a carrier's systems or services, as...

2011-07-01

168

Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect

At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

Han, Eun Young, E-mail: eyhan@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Moros, Eduardo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Corry, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

2012-01-01

169

Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences  

PubMed Central

This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

SCHELLEKENS, JONA

2009-01-01

170

PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

2012-06-05

171

Maximum entropy production in daisyworld  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

2012-05-01

172

A maximum power transfer battery charger for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery charger is described that uses an on-line microcontroller to maximize its output power. This is done by always operating at either the maximum allowable input current or the thermal limit imposed by the charger itself. In this case the thermal limit is determined by the junction temperatures of the two main insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). Since direct

B. J. Masserant; T. A. Stuart

1997-01-01

173

THREE MILE CREEK TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The pupose of this project is to establish the allowable loading of pollutants, or other quantifiable parameters for Threemile Creek. These funds will assist ADEM in the preparation of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) for the reduction and elimination of pollution in Threemile C...

174

Discriminative Training and Maximum Entropy Models for Statistical Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for statistical machine translation of natural languages based on direct maximum entropy mod- els, which contains the widely used sour- ce-channel approach as a special case. All knowledge sources are treated as feature functions, which depend on the source language sentence, the target language sentence and possible hidden variables. This approach allows a baseline machine translation

Franz Josef Och; Hermann Ney

2002-01-01

175

45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...except that independent research and development costs...costs or independent research and development costs...including the development of scientific, cost, and other...costs of the current accounting period are allowable...include independent research and development...

2010-10-01

176

45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...except that independent research and development costs...costs or independent research and development costs...including the development of scientific, cost, and other...costs of the current accounting period are allowable...include independent research and development...

2011-10-01

177

20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL...efficient administration of the program, be allocable...costs such as instructors' salaries, training tools, books...transportation in the performance of their jobs are allowable and...

2012-04-01

178

42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are...

2010-10-01

179

42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are...

2011-10-01

180

40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-07-01

181

22 CFR 145.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-04-01

182

29 CFR 95.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-07-01

183

10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-01-01

184

49 CFR 19.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-10-01

185

38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-07-01

186

2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-01-01

187

32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education that may be recipients, subrecipients...Educational Institutions.” (e) Hospitals. The allowability of...

2010-07-01

188

20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...Allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-04-01

189

45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-10-01

190

24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-04-01

191

7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-01-01

192

14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-01-01

193

15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-01-01

194

22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-04-01

195

36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-07-01

196

34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.  

...REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL EDUCATION-PERSONNEL DEVELOPMENT TO IMPROVE SERVICES AND RESULTS FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Conditions That Must be Met by Grantee § 304.21 Allowable...

2014-07-01

197

Radiation doses to patients during ERCP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is a scarcity of data regarding the radiation dose and associated risks to patients during ERCP. Dose area product (DAP) measurements can be used to estimate an effective dose (ED) to patients undergoing ERCP. This measure allows radiation risk associated with such procedures to be quantified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ED to patients

Catherine J. Larkin; Adam Workman; Richard E. R. Wright; Tony C. K. Tham

2001-01-01

198

Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

Rose, K. [National Regulatory Research Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

1993-07-01

199

Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment  

SciTech Connect

On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other radionuclides. However, we continually see {sup 137}Cs in the groundwater at all contaminated atolls; the turnover time of the groundwater is about 5 y. The {sup 137}Cs can only get to the groundwater by leaching through the soil column when a portion of the soluble fraction of {sup 137}Cs inventory in the soil is transported to the groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the aquifer. This process is causing a loss of {sup 137}Cs out of the root zone of the plants that provides an environmental loss constant ({lambda}{sub env}) in addition to radiological decay {lambda}{sub rad}. Consequently, there is an effective rate of loss, {lambda}{sub eff} = {lambda}{sub rad} + {lambda}{sub env} that is the sum of the radiological and environmental-loss decay constants. We have had, and continue to have, a vigorous program to determine the rate of the environmental loss process. What we do know at this time is that the loss of {sup 137}Cs over time is greater than the estimate based on radiological decay only, and that the actual dose received by the Utirik people over 30-, 50-, or 70-y will be less than those presented in this report.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

1999-10-06

200

Adaptive Randomization to Improve Utility-Based Dose-Finding with Bivariate Ordinal Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Summary A sequentially outcome-adaptive Bayesian design is proposed for choosing the dose of an experimental therapy based on elicited utilities of a bivariate ordinal (toxicity, efficacy) outcome. Subject to posterior acceptability criteria to control the risk of severe toxicity and exclude unpromising doses, patients are randomized adaptively among the doses having posterior mean utilities near the maximum. The utility increment used to define near-optimality is non-increasing with sample size. The adaptive randomization uses each dose’s posterior probability of a set of good outcomes, defined by a lower utility cut-off. Saturated parametric models are assumed for the marginal dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy distributions, allowing the possible requirement of monotonicity in dose, and a copula is used to obtain a joint distribution. Prior means are computed by simulation using elicited outcome probabilities, and prior variances are calibrated to control prior effective sample size and obtain a design with good operating characteristics. The method is illustrated by a phase I/II trial of radiation therapy for children with brain stem gliomas. PMID:22651115

Nguyen, Hoang Q.

2012-01-01

201

Evaluation of Rectal Dose During High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high doses being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the dose delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the dose delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured dose to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference point dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the dose, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated maximum dose and the measured dose was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated maximum dose was typically higher than the measured dose. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal dose for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the dose delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated dose.

Sha, Rajib Lochan [Department of Radiation Physics, Indo-American Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Hyderabad (India); Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India); Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India); Rao, Ramakrishna [Department of Radiation Physics, MNJ Institute of Oncology and Regional Cancer Center, Hyderabad (India); Muralidhar, Kanaparthy R. [Department of Radiation Physics, Indo-American Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Hyderabad (India); Kudchadker, Rajat J., E-mail: rkudchad@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2011-01-01

202

Preliminary liver dose estimation in the new facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor.  

PubMed

As a part of the project concerning the irradiation of a section of the human liver left lobe, a preliminary estimation of the expected dose was performed. To obtain proper input values for the calculation, neutron flux and gamma dose rate characterization were carried out using adequate portions of cow or pig liver covered with demineralized water simulating the preservation solution. Irradiations were done inside a container specially designed to fulfill temperature preservation of the organ and a reproducible irradiation position (which will be of importance for future planification purposes). Implantable rhodium based self-powered neutron detectors were developed to obtain neutron flux profiles both external and internal. Implantation of SPND was done along the central longitudinal axis of the samples, where lowest flux is expected. Gamma dose rate was obtained using a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber moved along external surfaces of the samples. The internal neutron profile resulted uniform enough to allow for a single and static irradiation of the liver. For dose estimation, irradiation condition was set in order to obtain a maximum of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. Additionally, literature reported boron concentrations of 47 ppm in tumor and 8 ppm in healthy tissue and a more conservative relationship (30/10 ppm) were used. To make a conservative estimation of the dose the following considerations were done: i). Minimum measured neutron flux inside the sample (approximately 5 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1) was considered to calculate dose in tumor. (ii). Maximum measured neutron flux (considering both internal as external profiles) was used to calculate dose in healthy tissue (approximately 8.7 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1). (iii). Maximum measured gamma dose rate (approximately 13.5 Gy h-1) was considered for both tumor and healthy tissue. Tumor tissue dose was approximately 69 Gy-eq for 47 ppm of (10)B and approximately 42 Gy-eq for 30 ppm, for a maximum dose of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. As can be seen from these results, even for the most conservative case, minimum tumor dose will be acceptable from the treatment point of view, which shows that the irradiation conditions at this facility have quite good characteristics for the proposed irradiation. PMID:19394239

Gadan, M; Crawley, V; Thorp, S; Miller, M

2009-07-01

203

Radiation measurements and doses at SST altitudes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation components and dose equivalents due to galactic and solar cosmic rays in the high atmosphere, especially at SST altitudes, are presented. The dose equivalent rate for the flight personnel flying 500 hours per year in cruise altitudes of 60,000-65,000 feet (18-19.5 km) in high magnetic latitudes is about 0.75-1.0 rem per year averaged over the solar cycle, or about 15-20 percent of the maximum permissible dose rate.

Foelsche, T.

1972-01-01

204

Using EPA`s allowance tracking system to assess the allowance market  

SciTech Connect

The development of a credible framework for analyzing private allowance transfers recorded in EPA`s Allowance Tracking System (ATS) is essential for effective assessment of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market. The ATS began recording transfers of allowances in March, 1994, and since then has served as an automated record of allowance holdings and transfers of ownership. Though primarily concerned with determining compliance, the ATS contains details of private allowance transfers representing what is believed to be a significant portion of overall SO{sub 2} allowance market activity. This paper will analyze these private transfers recorded in ATS and will develop relevant categories for classification purposes. The resulting categorization will enable consistent analysis of the SO{sub 2} allowance market and provide substantial insight into the level and type of allowance trading activity under the Acid Rain Program.

Dean, M.; Kruger, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31

205

Allowable levels of take for the trade in Nearctic songbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The take of Nearctic songbirds for the caged-bird trade is an important cultural and economic activity in Mexico, but its sustainability has been questioned. We relied on the theta-logistic population model to explore options for setting allowable levels of take for 11 species of passerines that were subject to legal take in Mexico in 2010. Because estimates of population size necessary for making periodic adjustments to levels of take are not routinely available, we examined the conditions under which a constant level of take might contribute to population depletion (i.e., a population below its level of maximum net productivity). The chance of depleting a population is highest when levels of take are based on population sizes that happen to be much lower or higher than the level of maximum net productivity, when environmental variation is relatively high and serially correlated, and when the interval between estimation of population size is relatively long (?5 years). To estimate demographic rates of songbirds involved in the Mexican trade we relied on published information and allometric relationships to develop probability distributions for key rates, and then sampled from those distributions to characterize the uncertainty in potential levels of take. Estimates of the intrinsic rate of growth (r) were highly variable, but median estimates were consistent with those expected for relatively short-lived, highly fecund species. Allowing for the possibility of nonlinear density dependence generally resulted in allowable levels of take that were lower than would have been the case under an assumption of linearity. Levels of take authorized by the Mexican government in 2010 for the 11 species we examined were small in comparison to relatively conservative allowable levels of take (i.e., those intended to achieve 50% of maximum sustainable yield). However, the actual levels of take in Mexico are unknown and almost certainly exceed the authorized take. Also, the take of Nearctic songbirds in other Latin American and Caribbean countries ultimately must be considered in assessing population-level impacts.

Johnson, Fred A.; Walters, Matthew A.H.; Boomer, G. Scott

2012-01-01

206

14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982,...

2010-01-01

207

28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...costs or independent research and development costs...including the development of scientific, costs, and other...costs of the current accounting period are all allowable...proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable...include independent research and development...

2010-07-01

208

28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...costs or independent research and development costs...including the development of scientific, costs, and other...costs of the current accounting period are all allowable...proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable...include independent research and development...

2011-07-01

209

Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response  

SciTech Connect

The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

1992-12-31

210

Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response  

SciTech Connect

The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

1992-01-01

211

Mobile Communications Device Allowances Frequently Asked Questions  

E-print Network

Mobile Communications Device Allowances Frequently Asked Questions Q: Why is NC State University-saving measure and to provide more flexibility for employees who must carry a mobile communications device education, state agencies, federal agencies, etc., as well as private corporations. Q: Why is my MCD

212

45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2010-10-01

213

45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...including allowable costs in the form of payments to...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2010-10-01

214

45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2011-10-01

215

45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2013-10-01

216

45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2013-10-01

217

45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...including allowable costs in the form of payments to...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2013-10-01

218

45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2011-10-01

219

45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2010-10-01

220

45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...including allowable costs in the form of payments to...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2012-10-01

221

45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2012-10-01

222

45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...including allowable costs in the form of payments to...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2011-10-01

223

45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2012-10-01

224

Cell Phone Allowance Responsible Administrative Units  

E-print Network

Cell Phone Allowance Policy Responsible Administrative Units: Office of Finance & Administration 1 of 3 1.0 BACKGROUND It is essential for certain employees in some circumstances to use cell phones of Colorado policy that dictates use of a state-provided cell phone or smartphone. Additionally, the Internal

225

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may be allowed...Claims for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft...civilian employee outside the U.S. is a local inhabitant. (3) Claims for damage to, or loss of,...

2011-10-01

226

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may be allowed...Claims for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft...civilian employee outside the U.S. is a local inhabitant. (3) Claims for damage to, or loss of,...

2010-10-01

227

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may be allowed...Claims for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft...civilian employee outside the U.S. is a local inhabitant. (3) Claims for damage to, or loss of,...

2013-10-01

228

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may be allowed...Claims for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft...civilian employee outside the U.S. is a local inhabitant. (3) Claims for damage to, or loss of,...

2012-10-01

229

50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...incurred prior to the date of the grant? Costs incurred...to the effective date of the grant are allowable...the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration or Pittman-Robertson...provide for the allocation of costs among the various...on the relative uses or benefits provided. (e)...

2010-10-01

230

Dose to medium versus dose to water as an estimator of dose to sensitive skeletal tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to determine whether dose to medium, Dm, or dose to water, Dw, provides a better estimate of the dose to the radiosensitive red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSC) in spongiosa, or cancellous bone. This is addressed in the larger context of the ongoing debate over whether Dm or Dw should be specified in Monte Carlo calculated radiotherapy treatment plans. The study uses voxelized, virtual human phantoms, FAX06/MAX06 (female/male), incorporated into an EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations during simulated irradiation by a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta SL25 accelerator. Head and neck, chest and pelvis irradiations are studied. FAX06/MAX06 include precise modelling of spongiosa based on µCT images, allowing dose to RBM and BSC to be resolved from the dose to bone. Modifications to the FAX06/MAX06 user codes are required to score Dw and Dm in spongiosa. Dose uncertainties of ~1% (BSC, RBM) or ~0.5% (Dm, Dw) are obtained after up to 5 days of simulations on 88 CPUs. Clinically significant differences (>5%) between Dm and Dw are found only in cranial spongiosa, where the volume fraction of trabecular bone (TBVF) is high (55%). However, for spongiosa locations where there is any significant difference between Dm and Dw, comparisons of differential dose volume histograms (DVHs) and average doses show that Dw provides a better overall estimate of dose to RBM and BSC. For example, in cranial spongiosa the average Dm underestimates the average dose to sensitive tissue by at least 5%, while average Dw is within ~1% of the average dose to sensitive tissue. Thus, it is better to specify Dw than Dm in Monte Carlo treatment plans, since Dw provides a better estimate of dose to sensitive tissue in bone, the only location where the difference is likely to be clinically significant.

Walters, B. R. B.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I.

2010-08-01

231

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 1973-96. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and is strong in autumn and winter. Similar to previous studies for other cities, the maximum UHI intensity is more frequently

Yeon-Hee Kim; Jong-Jin Baik

2002-01-01

232

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL REPORT NO. 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION"  

E-print Network

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL REPORT NO. 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION" IN THE HAWAllAN ISLANDS LOAN COPY (Nos. 6-22 Numbered Retroactively) *No: 1. Maximum possible precipitation over the Ompompanoos~c Basin above Union Villag~, Vt. 1943. *No. 2. Maximum possible precipitation over'the Ohio River-Basin above

233

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or CFC-12 or CFC-114....

2011-07-01

234

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

...Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or CFC-12 or CFC-114....

2014-07-01

235

Maximum likelihood inference of reticulate evolutionary histories.  

PubMed

Hybridization plays an important role in the evolution of certain groups of organisms, adaptation to their environments, and diversification of their genomes. The evolutionary histories of such groups are reticulate, and methods for reconstructing them are still in their infancy and have limited applicability. We present a maximum likelihood method for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories while accounting simultaneously for incomplete lineage sorting. Additionally, we propose methods for assessing confidence in the amount of reticulation and the topology of the inferred evolutionary history. Our method obtains accurate estimates of reticulate evolutionary histories on simulated datasets. Furthermore, our method provides support for a hypothesis of a reticulate evolutionary history inferred from a set of house mouse (Mus musculus) genomes. As evidence of hybridization in eukaryotic groups accumulates, it is essential to have methods that infer reticulate evolutionary histories. The work we present here allows for such inference and provides a significant step toward putting phylogenetic networks on par with phylogenetic trees as a model of capturing evolutionary relationships. PMID:25368173

Yu, Yun; Dong, Jianrong; Liu, Kevin J; Nakhleh, Luay

2014-11-18

236

TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS  

SciTech Connect

Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

2007-11-12

237

SPACE ALLOWANCES FOR LAMBS ON SLOTTED FLOORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

N reviewing the use of slotted floors in lamb production little information is available on the influence of animal density on lamb performance. Several floor space allowances for growing-finishing swine confined to slotted and concrete floors have been studied. Gehl- bach (1966) indicates swine up to 45.4 kg. perform acceptably on 0.37 m. 2 per animal. Watson (1962) suggested that

L. A. AREHART; J. M. LEWIS; F. C. HINDS; M. E. MANSFIELD

2010-01-01

238

[Influence of thermoplastic masks on the absorbed skin dose for head and neck tumor radiotherapy].  

PubMed

The influence of thermoplastic masks used in clinical routine for patient immobilization in head and neck radiotherapy treatment on the absorbed skin dose has been investigated at Gustave-Roussy Institute. The measurements were performed in 60Co gamma-rays, 4 and 6MV X-rays and in 8 and 10MeV electron beams. Initially, the measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF) and a NACP chamber on a polystyrene phantom in order to study the influence of physical parameters (distance, field size, energy...) on first millimeters depth variation dose. The study was completed with in vivo measurements on 14 patients using various dosimeters (thermoluminescent detectors, diodes) in order to assess the increase of dose on first millimeters depth and to verify the delivered dose during treatment sessions (quality control). In treatment conditions, masks lead to an important increase of dose on the first millimeter in 60Co gamma-rays beams (dose value normalized to maximum of dose increase from 57.1% to 77.7% for 0.5 mm-water depth and from 78.5% to 88% for 1 mm-water depth); its contribution is less important in 4 and 6 MV X-rays beams (dose value normalized to maximum of dose increase from 49.5% to 63.2% for 0.5 mm-water depth and from 59% to 70.1% for 1 mm-water depth). Concerning 8 and 10 MeV electron beams, the normalized dose value increase respectively from 78.4% to 81.7% and from 82.2% to 86.1% for 0.5 mm-water depth. In vivo dosimetry enabled the quality control of delivered dose during treatment. Measured dose is in agreement within +/- 5% with the prescribed dose for 92.3% of cases. In routine, in vivo dosimetry allowed to quantify the increase of skin dose induced by thermoplastic masks for various energies of photon and electron beams as well as quality control. PMID:12412370

Halm, E Amiel; Tamri, A; Bridier, A; Wibault, P; Eschwège, F

2002-09-01

239

Experimental estimates of peak skin dose and its relationship to the CT dose index using the CTDI head phantom.  

PubMed

A straightforward method is presented to estimate peak skin doses (PSDs) delivered by computed tomography (CT) scanners. The measured PSD values are related to the well-known volume CT dose index (CTDI(vol)), displayed on the console of CT scanners. PSD measurement estimates were obtained, in four CT units, by placing radiochromic film on the surface of a CTDI head phantom. Six different X-ray tube currents including the maximum allowed value were used to irradiate the phantom. PSD and CTDI(vol) were independently measured and later related to the CTDI(vol) value displayed on the console. A scanner-specific relationship was found between the measured PSD and the associated CTDI(vol) displayed on the console. The measured PSD values varied between 27 and 136 mGy among all scanners when the routine head scan parameters were used. The results of this work allow relating the widely used CTDI(vol) to an actual radiation dose delivered to the skin of a patient. PMID:23864642

de las Heras, Hugo; Minniti, Ronaldo; Wilson, Sean; Mitchell, Chad; Skopec, Marlene; Brunner, Claudia C; Chakrabarti, Kish

2013-12-01

240

The potential for dose escalation in lung cancer as a result of systematically reducing margins used to generate planning target volume  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine how much the radiation dose to lung tumors could be increased as the margins used to generate planning target volume (PTV) are reduced. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans for 18 patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma were retrospectively generated. Dose escalation was performed in two phases: The dose was increased as long as healthy tissue dose-volume constraints did not exceed (1) the values from the treatment plan originally used for the patients and (2) clinically acceptable values. Results: No correlation of dose escalation was observed with tumor location, tumor stage, tumor motion, and tumor volume. An increase in dose was observed for many of the patients with as little as 2-mm uniform reduction in PTV margin, with increases in mean PTV dose exceeding 15 Gy for 5 patients. Sixteen of 18 patients experienced a decrease in mean heart, esophagus, and lung dose when margins were reduced and prescription doses were increased. Conclusions: Reduced margins allowed an increased dose to the tumors. However, a much larger dose escalation was possible for some patients but not for others, demonstrating that each patient is different, so individual treatment plans must be tailored for maximum tumor coverage and minimum exposure of healthy tissue.

Nelson, Christopher [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: chnelson@mdanderson.org; Starkschall, George [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2006-06-01

241

Maximum entropy deconvolution of low-count nuclear medicine images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum entropy is applied to the problem of deconvolving nuclear medicine images, with special consideration for very low count data. The physics of the formation of scintigraphic images is described, illustrating the phenomena which degrade planar estimates of the tracer distribution. Various techniques which are used to restore these images are reviewed, outlining the relative merits of each. The development and theoretical justification of maximum entropy as an image processing technique is discussed. Maximum entropy is then applied to the problem of planar deconvolution, highlighting the question of the choice of error parameters for low count data. A novel iterative version of the algorithm is suggested which allows the errors to be estimated from the predicted Poisson mean values. This method is shown to produce the exact results predicted by combining Poisson statistics and a Bayesian interpretation of the maximum entropy approach. A facility for total count preservation has also been incorporated, leading to improved quantification. In order to evaluate this iterative maximum entropy technique, two comparable methods, Wiener filtering and a novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique, were implemented. The comparison of results obtained indicated that this maximum entropy approach may produce equivalent or better measures of image quality than the compared methods, depending upon the accuracy of the system model used. The novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique was shown to be preferable over many existing maximum a posteriori methods due to its simplicity of implementation. A single parameter is required to define the Bayesian prior, which suppresses noise in the solution and may reduce the processing time substantially. Finally, maximum entropy deconvolution was applied as a pre-processing-step in single photon emission computed tomography reconstruction of low count data. Higher contrast results were obtained than those achieved by a Wiener pre-filtering approach and a scatter-subtracted attenuation corrected filtered back projection method. Maximum entropy optimised for low counts holds promise for nuclear medicine applications where counts are necessarily low, and may facilitate reduction of the administered activity for other applications. The algorithm was in fact deemed advantageous for the processing of low count Poisson data in general.

McGrath, Deirdre Maria

242

Independent calculation-based verification of IMRT plans using a 3D dose-calculation engine  

SciTech Connect

Independent monitor unit verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans requires detailed 3-dimensional (3D) dose verification. The aim of this study was to investigate using a 3D dose engine in a second commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for this task, facilitated by in-house software. Our department has XiO and Pinnacle TPSs, both with IMRT planning capability and modeled for an Elekta-Synergy 6 MV photon beam. These systems allow the transfer of computed tomography (CT) data and RT structures between them but do not allow IMRT plans to be transferred. To provide this connectivity, an in-house computer programme was developed to convert radiation therapy prescription (RTP) files as generated by many planning systems into either XiO or Pinnacle IMRT file formats. Utilization of the technique and software was assessed by transferring 14 IMRT plans from XiO and Pinnacle onto the other system and performing 3D dose verification. The accuracy of the conversion process was checked by comparing the 3D dose matrices and dose volume histograms (DVHs) of structures for the recalculated plan on the same system. The developed software successfully transferred IMRT plans generated by 1 planning system into the other. Comparison of planning target volume (TV) DVHs for the original and recalculated plans showed good agreement; a maximum difference of 2% in mean dose, ? 2.5% in D95, and 2.9% in V95 was observed. Similarly, a DVH comparison of organs at risk showed a maximum difference of +7.7% between the original and recalculated plans for structures in both high- and medium-dose regions. However, for structures in low-dose regions (less than 15% of prescription dose) a difference in mean dose up to +21.1% was observed between XiO and Pinnacle calculations. A dose matrix comparison of original and recalculated plans in XiO and Pinnacle TPSs was performed using gamma analysis with 3%/3 mm criteria. The mean and standard deviation of pixels passing gamma tolerance for XiO-generated IMRT plans was 96.1 ± 1.3, 96.6 ± 1.2, and 96.0 ± 1.5 in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes respectively. Corresponding results for Pinnacle-generated IMRT plans were 97.1 ± 1.5, 96.4 ± 1.2, and 96.5 ± 1.3 in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes respectively.

Arumugam, Sankar, E-mail: Sankar.Arumugam@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, New South Wales (Australia); The Ingham Institute, New South Wales (Australia); Xing, Aitang [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, New South Wales (Australia); The Ingham Institute, New South Wales (Australia); Goozee, Gary [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, New South Wales (Australia); The Ingham Institute, New South Wales (Australia); South West Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Holloway, Lois [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, New South Wales (Australia); The Ingham Institute, New South Wales (Australia); South West Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia)

2013-01-01

243

When is high-dose intravenous iron repletion needed? Assessing new treatment options.  

PubMed

High doses of intravenous iron have a role in the treatment of a number of clinical situations associated with iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and blood loss. In the presence of functioning erythropoiesis, iron supplementation alone may be adequate to replenish iron stores and restore blood loss. Where hormone replacement with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent is required, iron adequacy will optimize treatment. Intravenous iron offers a rapid means of iron repletion and is superior to oral iron in many circumstances, especially in the presence of anemia of chronic disease, where it appears to overcome the block to absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and immobilization of stored iron. The clinical situations where high doses of iron are commonly required are reviewed. These include nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, obstetrics, menorrhagia, and anemia associated with cancer and its treatment. The literature indicates that high doses of iron are required, with levels of 1500 mg in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease and up to 3600 mg in inflammatory bowel disease. New formulations of intravenous iron have recently been introduced that allow clinicians to administer high doses of iron in a single administration. Ferumoxytol is available in the US, has a maximum dose of 510 mg iron in a single administration, but is limited to use in chronic kidney disease. Ferric carboxymaltose can be rapidly administered in doses of 15 mg/kg body weight, up to a ceiling dose of 1000 mg. A test dose is not required, and it can be used more widely across a spectrum of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia indications. The latest introduction is iron isomaltoside 1000. Again, a test dose is not required, and it can be delivered rapidly as an infusion (in an hour), allowing even higher doses of iron to be administered in a single infusion, ie, 20 mg/kg body weight with no ceiling. This will allow clinicians to achieve high-dose repletion more frequently as a single administration. Treatment options for iron repletion have taken a major leap forward in the past two years, especially to meet the demand for high doses given as a single administration. PMID:21340038

Gozzard, David

2011-01-01

244

Dose-response relationship from longitudinal data with response-dependent dose modification using likelihood methods.  

PubMed

In some clinical trials or clinical practice, the therapeutic agent is administered repeatedly, and doses are adjusted in each patient based on repeatedly measured continuous responses, to maintain the response levels in a target range. Because a lower dose tends to be selected for patients with a better outcome, simple summarizations may wrongly show a better outcome for the lower dose, producing an incorrect dose-response relationship. In this study, we consider the dose-response relationship under these situations. We show that maximum-likelihood estimates are consistent without modeling the dose-modification mechanisms when the selection of the dose as a time-dependent covariate is based only on observed, but not on unobserved, responses, and measurements are generated based on administered doses. We confirmed this property by performing simulation studies under several dose-modification mechanisms. We examined an autoregressive linear mixed effects model. The model represents profiles approaching each patient's asymptote when identical doses are repeatedly administered. The model takes into account the previous dose history and provides a dose-response relationship of the asymptote as a summary measure. We also examined a linear mixed effects model assuming all responses are measured at steady state. In the simulation studies, the estimates of both the models were unbiased under the dose modification based on observed responses, but biased under the dose modification based on unobserved responses. In conclusion, the maximum-likelihood estimates of the dose-response relationship are consistent under the dose modification based only on observed responses. PMID:22641310

Funatogawa, Ikuko; Funatogawa, Takashi

2012-07-01

245

Dose responses for adaption to low doses of (60)Co gamma rays and (3)H beta particles in normal human fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The dose response for adaption to radiation at low doses was compared in normal human fibroblasts (AG1522) exposed to either (60)Co gamma rays or (3)H beta particles. Cells were grown in culture to confluence and exposed at either 37 degrees C or 0 degrees C to (3)H beta-particle or (60)Co gamma-ray adapting doses ranging from 0.1 mGy to 500 mGy. These cells, and unexposed control cells, were allowed to adapt during a fixed 3-h, 37 degrees C incubation prior to a 4-Gy challenge dose of (60)Co gamma rays. Adaption was assessed by measuring micronucleus frequency in cytokinesis-blocked, binucleate cells. No adaption was detected in cells exposed to (60)Co gamma radiation at 37 degrees C after a dose of 0.1 mGy given at a low dose rate or to 500 mGy given at a high dose rate. However, low-dose-rate exposure (1-3 mGy/min) to any dose between 1 and 500 mGy from either radiation, delivered at either temperature, caused cells to adapt and reduced the micronucleus frequency that resulted from the subsequent 4-Gy exposure. Within this dose range, the magnitude of the reduction was the same, regardless of the dose or radiation type. These results demonstrate that doses as low as (on average) about one track per cell (1 mGy) produce the same maximum adaptive response as do doses that deposit many tracks per cell, and that the two radiations were not different in this regard. Exposure at a temperature where metabolic processes, including DNA repair, were inactive (0 degrees C) did not alter the result, indicating that the adaptive response is not sensitive to changes in the accumulation of DNA damage within this range. The results also show that the RBE for low doses of tritium beta-particle radiation is 1, using adaption as the end point. PMID:12105988

Broome, E J; Brown, D L; Mitchel, R E J

2002-08-01

246

HADOC: a computer code for calculation of external and inhalation doses from acute radionuclide releases  

SciTech Connect

The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.

Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.

1981-04-01

247

Inverse maximum flow and minimum cut problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider two inverse problems in combinatorial optimization: inverse maximum flow (IMF) problem and inverse minimum cut (IMC) problem. IMF (or IMC) problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector C of a network as little as possible so that a given flow (or cut) becomes a maximum flow (or minimum cut) in the

C. Yang; J. Zhang; Z. Ma

1997-01-01

248

Learning Markov Structure by Maximum Entropy Relaxation  

E-print Network

the maximum entropy re- laxation (MER) within an exponential fam- ily, which maximizes entropy subject to con on a set of statis- tics, the entropy-maximizing distribution among all distributions liesLearning Markov Structure by Maximum Entropy Relaxation Jason K. Johnson, Venkat Chandrasekaran

Willsky, Alan S.

249

Maximum likelihood training of probabilistic neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum likelihood method is presented for training probabilistic neural networks (PNN's) using a Gaussian kernel, or Parzen window. The proposed training algorithm enables general nonlinear discrimination and is a generalization of Fisher's method for linear discrimination. Important features of maximum likelihood training for PNN's are: 1) it economizes the well known Parzen window estimator while preserving feedforward NN architecture,

Roy L. Streit; Tod E. Luginbuhl

1994-01-01

250

The maximum modulus of a trigonometric trinomial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let ? be a set of three integers and let \\u000a be the space of 2?-periodic functions with spectrum in ? endowed with the maximum modulus norm. We isolate the maximum modulus points x of trigonometric trinomials T ? \\u000a and prove that x is unique unless |T| has an axis of symmetry. This enables us to compute the exposed and the

Stefan Neuwirth

2008-01-01

251

76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-05; 2011-0002; Sequence 2] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances...Governmentwide Policy (M), Office of Travel, Transportation, and Asset Management...2011. Janet Dobbs, Director, Office of Travel, Transportation & Asset Mgmt. [FR...

2011-03-24

252

42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...

2011-10-01

253

42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...

2013-10-01

254

Dose verification of single shot gamma knife applications using VIPAR polymer gel and MRI.  

PubMed

This work describes an experimental procedure with potential to assess the overall accuracy associated with gamma knife clinical applications, from patient imaging and dosimetry planning to patient positioning and dose delivery using the automated positioning system of a Leksell Gamma Knife model C. The VIPAR polymer gel-MRI dosimetry method is employed due to its inherent three-dimensional feature and linear dose response over the range of gamma knife applications. Different polymer gel vials were irradiated with single shot gamma knife treatment plans using each of the four available collimator helmets to deliver a maximum dose of 30 Gy. Percentage relative dose results are presented not only in the form of one-dimensional profiles but also planar isocontours and isosurfaces in three dimensions. Experimental results are compared with corresponding Gammaplan treatment planning system calculations as well as acceptance test radiochromic film measurements. A good agreement, within the experimental uncertainty, is observed between measured and expected dose distributions. This experimental uncertainty is of the order of one imaging pixel in the MRI gel readout session (<1 mm) and allows for the verification of single shot gamma knife applications in terms of acceptance specifications for precision in beam alignment and accuracy. Averaging net R(2) results in the dose plateau of the 4 mm and 18 mm collimator irradiated gel vials, which were MR scanned in the same session, provides a crude estimate of the 4 mm output factor which agrees within errors with the default value of 0.870. PMID:15798319

Karaiskos, P; Petrokokkinos, L; Tatsis, E; Angelopoulos, A; Baras, P; Kozicki, M; Papagiannis, P; Rosiak, J M; Sakelliou, L; Sandilos, P; Vlachos, L

2005-03-21

255

Dose verification of single shot gamma knife applications using VIPAR polymer gel and MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes an experimental procedure with potential to assess the overall accuracy associated with gamma knife clinical applications, from patient imaging and dosimetry planning to patient positioning and dose delivery using the automated positioning system of a Leksell Gamma Knife model C. The VIPAR polymer gel-MRI dosimetry method is employed due to its inherent three-dimensional feature and linear dose response over the range of gamma knife applications. Different polymer gel vials were irradiated with single shot gamma knife treatment plans using each of the four available collimator helmets to deliver a maximum dose of 30 Gy. Percentage relative dose results are presented not only in the form of one-dimensional profiles but also planar isocontours and isosurfaces in three dimensions. Experimental results are compared with corresponding Gammaplan treatment planning system calculations as well as acceptance test radiochromic film measurements. A good agreement, within the experimental uncertainty, is observed between measured and expected dose distributions. This experimental uncertainty is of the order of one imaging pixel in the MRI gel readout session (<1 mm) and allows for the verification of single shot gamma knife applications in terms of acceptance specifications for precision in beam alignment and accuracy. Averaging net R2 results in the dose plateau of the 4 mm and 18 mm collimator irradiated gel vials, which were MR scanned in the same session, provides a crude estimate of the 4 mm output factor which agrees within errors with the default value of 0.870.

Karaiskos, P.; Petrokokkinos, L.; Tatsis, E.; Angelopoulos, A.; Baras, P.; Kozicki, M.; Papagiannis, P.; Rosiak, J. M.; Sakelliou, L.; Sandilos, P.; Vlachos, L.

2005-03-01

256

Research and development of maximum power transfer tracking system for solar cell unit by matching impedance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing the theorem that matching impedance produces maximum power transfer, the current study develops a low-cost and highly efficient “maximum power point tracker for a solar cell unit,” for the purpose of allowing a solar cell to achieve optimal power transfer under different solar intensities and temperatures. Circuit control takes a single-chip microprocessor as the core and the booster circuit

Tun-Ping Teng; Hwa-Ming Nieh; Jiann-Jyh Chen; Yu-Cheng Lu

2010-01-01

257

Digital combining-weight estimation for broadband sources using maximum-likelihood estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm described for estimating the optimum combining weights for the Ka-band (33.7-GHz) array feed compensation system is compared with the maximum-likelihood estimate. This provides some improvement in performance, with an increase in computational complexity. However, the maximum-likelihood algorithm is simple enough to allow implementation on a PC-based combining system.

Rodemich, E. R.; Vilnrotter, V. A.

1994-01-01

258

NIEL Dose Dependence for Solar Cells Irradiated with Electrons and Protons  

E-print Network

The investigation of solar cells degradation and the prediction of its end-of-life performance is of primary importance in the preparation of a space mission. In the present work, we investigate the reduction of solar-cells' maximum power resulting from irradiations with electrons and protons. Both GaAs single junction and GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells were studied. The results obtained indicate how i) the dominant radiation damaging mechanism is due to atomic displacements, ii) the relative maximum power degradation is almost independent of the type of incoming particle, i.e., iii) to a first approximation, the fitted semi-empirical function expressing the decrease of maximum power depends only on the absorbed NIEL dose, and iv) the actual displacement threshold energy value (Ed=21 eV) accounts for annealing treatments, mostly due to self-annealing induced effects. Thus, for a given type of solar cell, a unique maximum power degradation curve can be determined as a function of the absorbed NIEL dose. The latter expression allows one to predict the performance of those solar cells in space radiation environment.

C. Baur; M. Gervasi; P. Nieminen; S. Pensotti; P. G. Rancoita; M. Tacconi

2013-12-02

259

Maximum-confidence discrimination among symmetric qudit states  

SciTech Connect

We study the maximum-confidence (MC) measurement strategy for discriminating among nonorthogonal symmetric qudit states. Restricting to linearly dependent and equally likely pure states, we find the optimal positive operator valued measure (POVM) that maximizes our confidence in identifying each state in the set and minimizes the probability of obtaining inconclusive results. The physical realization of this POVM is completely determined and it is shown that after an inconclusive outcome, the input states may be mapped into a new set of equiprobable symmetric states, restricted, however, to a subspace of the original qudit Hilbert space. By applying the MC measurement again onto this new set, we can still gain some information about the input states, although with less confidence than before. This leads us to introduce the concept of sequential maximum-confidence (SMC) measurements, where the optimized MC strategy is iterated in as many stages as allowed by the input set, until no further information can be extracted from an inconclusive result. Within each stage of this measurement our confidence in identifying the input states is the highest possible, although it decreases from one stage to the next. In addition, the more stages we accomplish within the maximum allowed, the higher will be the probability of correct identification. We will discuss an explicit example of the optimal SMC measurement applied in the discrimination among four symmetric qutrit states and propose an optical network to implement it.

Jimenez, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Casilla 170, Antofagasta (Chile); Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Delgado, A.; Neves, L. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

2011-12-15

260

The Minimum Cannot Become the Maximum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author shares his concerns about minimal competency testing, fearing that the minimum may become the maximum. He discusses this fear based on examples from the English curriculum--Language, Writing, and Literature. (KC)

Bushman, John H.

1980-01-01

261

On the efficiency at maximum cooling power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of heat engines operating as generators is one corner stone of finite-time thermodynamics, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency \\eta_CA being considered as a universal upper bound. Yet, no valid counterpart to \\eta_CA has been derived for the efficiency at maximum cooling power (EMCP) for heat engines operating as refrigerators. In this letter we analyse the reasons of the failure to obtain such a bound and we demonstrate that, despite the introduction of several optimisation criteria, the maximum cooling power condition should be considered as the genuine equivalent of maximum power condition in the finite-time thermodynamics frame. We then propose and discuss an analytic expression for the EMCP in the specific case of exoreversible refrigerators.

Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Michot, A.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

2013-08-01

262

A dual method for maximum entropy restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.

Smith, C. B.

1979-01-01

263

Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems  

E-print Network

The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...

Zamani, Mahdi

2012-01-01

264

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Maximum stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...

2011-01-01

265

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maximum stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...

2013-01-01

266

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Maximum stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...

2012-01-01

267

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2014-01-01

268

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2013-01-01

269

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2011-01-01

270

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2012-01-01

271

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2010-01-01

272

Incremental Network Design with Maximum Flows  

E-print Network

Dec 21, 2013 ... We study an incremental network design problem, where in each time period of ... In a series of computational experiments, we compare ...... maximum flow (F - f), the number of instances not solved to optimality within the time.

2013-12-21

273

Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning.

Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.; Cole, R. K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R. W. C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G.; Underwood, J. H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R. C. C.

1990-06-01

274

RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

SciTech Connect

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

275

Theoretical maximum concentration factors for solar concentrators  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical maximum concentration factors are determined for different definitions of the factor for two-dimensional and three-dimensional solar concentrators that are valid for any source with nonuniform intensity distribution. Results are obtained starting from those derived by Winston (1970) for Lambertian sources. In particular, maximum concentration factors for three models of the solar-disk intensity distribution are calculated. 12 references.

Nicolas, R.O.; Duran, J.C.

1984-11-01

276

Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

1993-01-01

277

Shape-enhanced maximum intensity projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum intensity projection (MIP) displays the voxel with the maximum intensity along the viewing ray, and this offers simplicity\\u000a in usage, as it does not require a complex transfer function, the specification of which is a highly challenging and time-consuming\\u000a process in direct volume rendering (DVR). However, MIP also has its inherent limitation, the loss of spatial context and shape

Zhiguang Zhou; Yubo Tao; Hai Lin; Feng Dong; Gordon Clapworthy

2011-01-01

278

75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

FRA is adjusting the ordinary maximum penalty and the aggravated maximum penalty that it will apply when assessing a civil monetary penalty for a violation of the Federal hazardous material transportation laws or a regulation, special permit, or approval issued under those laws. The aggravated maximum penalty is available only for a violation that results in death, serious illness, or severe......

2010-07-27

279

The measurement of maximum cylinder pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work presented in this report was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine a suitable method for measuring the maximum pressures occurring in aircraft engine cylinders. The study and development of instruments for the measurement of maximum cylinder pressures has been conducted in connection with carburetor and oil engine investigations on a single cylinder aircraft-type engine. Five maximum cylinder-pressure devices have been designed, and tested, in addition to the testing of three commercial indicators. Values of maximum cylinder pressures are given as obtained with various indicators for the same pressures and for various kinds and values of maximum cylinder pressures, produced chiefly by variation of the injection advance angle in high-speed oil engine. The investigations indicate that the greatest accuracy in determining maximum cylinder pressures can be obtained with an electric, balanced-pressure, diaphragm or disk-type indicator so constructed as to have a diaphragm or disk of relatively large area and minimum seat width and mass.

Hicks, Chester W

1929-01-01

280

Maximum power point regulator for 4 kW solar cell array connected through invertor to the AC grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system which allows the solar cell array (SCA) to operate at the maximum power point and to produce the maximum energy for any solar radiation is described. A control system is based on the maximum power point regulator (MPPR). The MPPR is designed to match a 4 kW SCA to a single phase bridge invertor. Operational principles of

Michael A. Slonim; Leo M. Rahovich

1996-01-01

281

Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference between the dynamic dose and 4D dose as a function of number of deliveries and/or total deliver time was also established.

Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2012-12-15

282

Radiation Doses in Perspective  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation Doses in Perspective Health Effects Main Page Exposure ... Sources Doses from Common Radiation Sources Average U.S. Radiation Doses and Sources All of us are exposed ...

283

Radiation Dose Chart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an illustration of the ionizing radiation dose a person can absorb from various sources. It provides a visual comparison of doses ranging from 0.1 microsieverts (from eating a banana) to a fatal dose of 8 sieverts.

Munroe, Randall

284

Allowing for Correlations between Correlations in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis of Correlation Matrices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical meta-analysis of correlation matrices generally ignores covariances (and hence correlations) between correlation estimates. The authors consider various methods for allowing for covariances, including generalized least squares, maximum marginal likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, illustrated using a 6-dimensional response in a series of…

Prevost, A. Toby; Mason, Dan; Griffin, Simon; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Sutton, Stephen; Spiegelhalter, David

2007-01-01

285

A. Advertising and Signs Exterior signage is allowed for students sponsored activities, clubs and events to  

E-print Network

A. Advertising and Signs Exterior signage is allowed for students sponsored activities, clubs and events to promote student participation. 1. Student organizations may use exterior signs to advertise. A maximum of three wood signs may be posted for advertising an activity, club or event. 4. All signs must

Wu, Shin-Tson

286

Maximum-Likelihood Fits to Histograms for Improved Parameter Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Straightforward methods for adapting the familiar statistic to histograms of discrete events and other Poisson distributed data generally yield biased estimates of the parameters of a model. The bias can be important even when the total number of events is large. For the case of estimating a microcalorimeter's energy resolution at 6 keV from the observed shape of the Mn K fluorescence spectrum, a poor choice of can lead to biases of at least 10 % in the estimated resolution when up to thousands of photons are observed. The best remedy is a Poisson maximum-likelihood fit, through a simple modification of the standard Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for minimization. Where the modification is not possible, another approach allows iterative approximation of the maximum-likelihood fit.

Fowler, J. W.

2014-08-01

287

MaxOcc: a web portal for maximum occurrence analysis.  

PubMed

The MaxOcc web portal is presented for the characterization of the conformational heterogeneity of two-domain proteins, through the calculation of the Maximum Occurrence that each protein conformation can have in agreement with experimental data. Whatever the real ensemble of conformations sampled by a protein, the weight of any conformation cannot exceed the calculated corresponding Maximum Occurrence value. The present portal allows users to compute these values using any combination of restraints like pseudocontact shifts, paramagnetism-based residual dipolar couplings, paramagnetic relaxation enhancements and small angle X-ray scattering profiles, given the 3D structure of the two domains as input. MaxOcc is embedded within the NMR grid services of the WeNMR project and is available via the WeNMR gateway at http://py-enmr.cerm.unifi.it/access/index/maxocc . It can be used freely upon registration to the grid with a digital certificate. PMID:22639196

Bertini, Ivano; Ferella, Lucio; Luchinat, Claudio; Parigi, Giacomo; Petoukhov, Maxim V; Ravera, Enrico; Rosato, Antonio; Svergun, Dmitri I

2012-08-01

288

Maximum work extraction and implementation costs for nonequilibrium Maxwell's demons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the maximum amount of work extractable in finite time by a demon performing continuous measurements on a quadratic Hamiltonian system subjected to thermal fluctuations, in terms of the information extracted from the system. The maximum work demon is found to apply a high-gain continuous feedback involving a Kalman-Bucy estimate of the system state and operates in nonequilibrium. A simple and concrete electrical implementation of the feedback protocol is proposed, which allows for analytic expressions of the flows of energy, entropy, and information inside the demon. This let us show that any implementation of the demon must necessarily include an external power source, which we prove both from classical thermodynamics arguments and from a version of Landauer's memory erasure argument extended to nonequilibrium linear systems.

Sandberg, Henrik; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Newton, Nigel J.; Mitter, Sanjoy K.

2014-10-01

289

Periodic reversal of direction allows Myxobacteria to swarm  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria can rapidly traverse surfaces from which they are extracting nutrient for growth. They generate flat, spreading colonies, called swarms because they resemble swarms of insects. We seek to understand how members of any dense swarm spread efficiently while being able to perceive and interfere minimally with the motion of others. To this end, we investigate swarms of the myxobacterium, Myxococcus xanthus. Individual M. xanthus cells are elongated; they always move in the direction of their long axis; and they are in constant motion, repeatedly touching each other. Remarkably, they regularly reverse their gliding directions. We have constructed a detailed cell- and behavior-based computational model of M. xanthus swarming that allows the organization of cells to be computed. By using the model, we are able to show that reversals of gliding direction are essential for swarming and that reversals increase the outflow of cells across the edge of the swarm. Cells at the swarm edge gain maximum exposure to nutrient and oxygen. We also find that the reversal period predicted to maximize the outflow of cells is the same (within the errors of measurement) as the period observed in experiments with normal M. xanthus cells. This coincidence suggests that the circuit regulating reversals evolved to its current sensitivity under selection for growth achieved by swarming. Finally, we observe that, with time, reversals increase the cell alignment, and generate clusters of parallel cells. PMID:19164578

Wu, Yilin; Kaiser, A. Dale; Jiang, Yi; Alber, Mark S.

2009-01-01

290

Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information  

E-print Network

Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

2014-04-29

291

Reducing Degeneracy in Maximum Entropy Models of Networks  

E-print Network

Based on Jaynes's maximum entropy principle, exponential random graphs provide a family of principled models that allow the prediction of network properties as constrained by empirical data. However, their use is often hindered by the degeneracy problem characterized by spontaneous symmetry-breaking, where predictions simply fail. Here we show that degeneracy appears when the corresponding density of states function is not log-concave. We propose a solution to the degeneracy problem for a large class of models by exploiting the nonlinear relationships between the constrained measures to convexify the domain of the density of states. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method on examples, including on Zachary's karate club network data.

Horvát, Szabolcs; Toroczkai, Zoltán

2014-01-01

292

Maximum likelihood deconvolution: a new perspective  

SciTech Connect

Maximum-likelihood deconvolution can be presented from at least two very different points of view. Unfortunately, in most journal articles, it is couched in the mystique of state-variable models and estimation theory, both of which, are generally quite foreign to geophysical signal processors. This paper explains maximum-likelihood deconvolution using the well-known convolutional model and some relatively simple ideas from optimization theory. Both of these areas should be well known to geophysical signal processors. Although it is straightforward to develop the theory of maximum-likelihood deconvolution using the convolutional model and optimization theory, this approach does not lead to practical computational algorithms. Recursive algorithms must be used; they are orders of magnitude faster than the batch algorithms that are associated with the convolutional model.

Mendel, J.M.

1988-03-01

293

Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states  

SciTech Connect

Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: We show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.

Walck, Scott N.; Lyons, David W. [Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pennsylvania 17003 (United States)

2007-08-15

294

Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states  

E-print Network

Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: we show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.

Scott N. Walck; David W. Lyons

2007-06-12

295

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1  

E-print Network

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1 Brookhaven National Laboratory routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any potential radiological dose to the public, BNL workers radiological dose to the public is calculated as the maximum dose to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed

Homes, Christopher C.

296

Toward Truly Optimal IMRT Dose Distribution: Inverse Planning with Voxel-Specific Penalty  

PubMed Central

Purpose To establish an inverse planning framework with adjustable voxel penalty for more conformal IMRT dose distribution as well as improved interactive controllability over the regional dose distribution of the resultant plan. Materials and Method In the proposed coarse-to-fine planning scheme, a conventional inverse planning with organ specific parameters is first performed. The voxel penalty scheme is then “switched on” by allowing the prescription dose to change on an individual voxel scale according to the deviation of the actual voxel dose from the ideally desired dose. The rationale here is intuitive: when the dose at a voxel does not meet its ideal dose, it simply implies that this voxel is not competitive enough when compared with the ones that have met their planning goal. In this case, increasing the penalty of the voxel by varying the prescription can boost its competitiveness and thus improve its dose. After the prescription adjustment, the plan is re-optimized. The dose adjustment/re-optimization procedure is repeated until the resultant dose distribution cannot be improved anymore. The prescription adjustment on a finer scale can be accomplished either automatically or manually. In the latter case, the regions/voxels where a dose improvement is needed are selected visually, unlike in the automatic case where the selection is done purely based on the difference of the actual dose at a given voxel and its ideal prescription. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using a head and neck and a prostate case. Results An inverse planning framework with the voxel-specific penalty is established. By adjusting voxel prescriptions iteratively to boost the region where large mismatch between the actual calculated and desired doses occurs, substantial improvements can be achieved in the final dose distribution. The proposed method is applied to a head and neck case and a prostate case. For the former case, a significant reduction in the maximum dose to the brainstem is achieved while the PTV dose coverage is greatly improved. The doses to other organs at risk are also reduced, ranging from 10% to 30%. For the prostate case, the use of the voxel penalty scheme also results in vast improvements to the final dose distribution. The PTV experiences improved dose uniformity and the mean dose to the rectum and bladder is reduced by as much as 15%. Conclusion Introduction of the spatially non-uniform and adjustable prescription provides room for further improvements of currently achievable dose distributions and equips the planner with an effective tool to modify IMRT dose distributions interactively. The technique is easily implementable in any existing inverse planning platform, which should facilitate clinical IMRT planning process and, in future, off-line/on-line adaptive IMRT. PMID:21070085

Lougovski, Pavel; LeNoach, Jordan; Zhu, Lei; Ma, Yunzhi; Censor, Yair; Xing, Lei

2010-01-01

297

Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy  

SciTech Connect

A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets.

Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

1993-11-01

298

Entropy generation: Minimum inside and maximum outside  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extremum of entropy generation is evaluated for both maximum and minimum cases using a thermodynamic approach which is usually applied in engineering to design energy transduction systems. A new result in the thermodynamic analysis of the entropy generation extremum theorem is proved by the engineering approach. It follows from the proof that the entropy generation results as a maximum when it is evaluated by the exterior surroundings of the system and a minimum when it is evaluated within the system. The Bernoulli equation is analyzed as an example in order to evaluate the internal and external dissipations, in accordance with the theoretical results obtained.

Lucia, Umberto

2014-02-01

299

An algorithm for kilovoltage x-ray dose calculations with applications in kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs.  

PubMed

A new model-based dose calculation algorithm is presented for kilovoltage x-rays and is tested for the cases of calculating the radiation dose from kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT) and 2D planar projected radiographs. This algorithm calculates the radiation dose to water-like media as the sum of primary and scattered dose components. The scatter dose is calculated by convolution of a newly introduced, empirically parameterized scatter dose kernel with the primary photon fluence. Several approximations are introduced to increase the scatter dose calculation efficiency: (1) the photon energy spectrum is approximated as monoenergetic; (2) density inhomogeneities are accounted for by implementing a global distance scaling factor in the scatter kernel; (3) kernel tilting is ignored. These approximations allow for efficient calculation of the scatter dose convolution with the fast Fourier transform. Monte Carlo simulations were used to obtain the model parameters. The accuracy of using this model-based algorithm was validated by comparing with the Monte Carlo method for calculating dose distributions for real patients resulting from radiotherapy image guidance procedures including volumetric kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs. For all patients studied, mean dose-to-water errors for kV-CBCT are within 0.3% with a maximum standard deviation error of 4.1%. Using a medium-dependent correction method to account for the effects of photoabsorption in bone on the dose distribution, mean dose-to-medium errors for kV-CBCT are within 3.6% for bone and 2.4% for soft tissues. This algorithm offers acceptable accuracy and has the potential to extend the applicability of model-based dose calculation algorithms from megavoltage to kilovoltage photon beams. PMID:24694756

Pawlowski, Jason M; Ding, George X

2014-04-21

300

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2010-07-01

301

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2011-07-01

302

Nonnegative Factorization and The Maximum Edge Biclique Problem  

E-print Network

Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) is a data analysis technique which allows compression and interpretation of nonnegative data. NMF became widely studied after the publication of the seminal paper by Lee and Seung (Learning the Parts of Objects by Nonnegative Matrix Factorization, Nature, 1999, vol. 401, pp. 788--791), which introduced an algorithm based on Multiplicative Updates (MU). More recently, another class of methods called Hierarchical Alternating Least Squares (HALS) was introduced that seems to be much more efficient in practice. In this paper, we consider the problem of approximating a not necessarily nonnegative matrix with the product of two nonnegative matrices, which we refer to as Nonnegative Factorization (NF); this is the subproblem that HALS methods implicitly try to solve at each iteration. We prove that NF is NP-hard for any fixed factorization rank, using a reduction to the maximum edge biclique problem. We also generalize the multiplicative updates to NF, which allows us to shed s...

Gillis, Nicolas

2008-01-01

303

Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56-87.5 Gy; 1.5-2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade {>=}2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4-37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512-67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm{sup 3} of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966-24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267-17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future prospective trials with high-dose radiation therapy for unresectable lung cancer.

Amini, Arya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Yang Jinzhong; Williamson, Ryan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McBurney, Michelle L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Erasmus, Jeremy [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Karhade, Mandar; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-03-01

304

MILDOS - A Computer Program for Calculating Environmental Radiation Doses from Uranium Recovery Operations  

SciTech Connect

The MILDOS Computer Code estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This code is multi-purposed and can be used to evaluate population doses for NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. Emissions of radioactive materials from fixed point source locations and from area sources are modeled using a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model, which utilizes user-provided wind frequency data. Mechanisms such as deposition of particulates, resuspension. radioactive decay and ingrowth of daughter radionuclides are included in the transport model. Annual average air concentrations are computed, from which subsequent impacts to humans through various pathways are computed. Ground surface concentrations are estimated from deposition buildup and ingrowth of radioactive daughters. The surface concentrations are modified by radioactive decay, weathering and other environmental processes. The MILDOS Computer Code allows the user to vary the emission sources as a step function of time by adjustinq the emission rates. which includes shutting them off completely. Thus the results of a computer run can be made to reflect changing processes throughout the facility's operational lifetime. The pathways considered for individual dose commitments and for population impacts are: • Inhalation • External exposure from ground concentrations • External exposure from cloud immersion • Ingestioo of vegetables • Ingestion of meat • Ingestion of milk • Dose commitments are calculated using dose conversion factors, which are ultimately based on recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These factors are fixed internally in the code, and are not part of the input option. Dose commitments which are available from the code are as follows: • Individual dose commitments for use in predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations (Radon and short-lived daughters are excluded) • Total individual dose commitments (impacts from all available radionuclides are considered) • Annual population dose commitments (regional, extraregional, total and cummulative). This model is primarily designed for uranium mill facilities, and should not be used for operations with different radionuclides or processes.

Strange, D. L.; Bander, T. J.

1981-04-01

305

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM...defined. Under the Social Security Act, the...maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum...Secretary of Health and Human Services on the...with the entitlement to more than one child's...

2010-04-01

306

Integrated photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-power low-cost highly efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to be integrated into a photovoltaic (PV) panel is proposed. This can result in a 25% energy enhancement compared to a standard photovoltaic panel, while performing functions like battery voltage regulation and matching of the PV array with the load. Instead of using an externally connected MPPT, it is proposed

Johan H. R. Enslin; Mario S. Wolf; D. B. Snyman; Wernher Swiegers

1997-01-01

307

Maximum entropy models for speech confidence estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we implement a confidence estimation system based on a Naive Bayes classifier, by using the maximum entropy paradigm. The model takes information from various sources including a set of scores which have proved to be useful in confidence estimation tasks. Two different approaches are modeled. First a basic model which takes advantages of smoothing techniques used in

Claudio Estienne; Alberto Sanchís; Alfons Juan; Enrique Vidal

2008-01-01

308

Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle  

E-print Network

The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kiyoharu Kawana

2014-09-23

309

Muscle coordination of maximum-speed pedaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation based on a forward dynamical musculoskeletal model was computed from an optimal control algorithm to understand uni- and bi-articular muscle coordination of maximum-speed startup pedaling. The muscle excitations, pedal reaction forces, and crank and pedal kinematics of the simulation agreed with measurements from subjects. Over the crank cycle, uniarticular hip and knee extensor muscles provide 55% of the

Christine C. Raasch; Felix E. Zajac; Baoming Ma; William S. Levine

1997-01-01

310

: runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress  

E-print Network

: runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress fe,i : elastic limit strength of each specimen 750 uniaxial tensile fatigue stress. Interests in tensile fatigue strength and behaviour come from the fact.g. cantilever of bridge deck slab). Tensile Fatigue behaviour of UHPFRC Doctoral student: Tohru Makita

311

Maximum Entropy Models for Named Entity Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a system that applies maximum entropy (ME) models to the task of named entity recognition (NER). Starting with an annotated corpus and a set of features which are easily obtainable for almost any language, we first build a baseline NE recognizer which is then used to extract the named entities and their context information from

Oliver Bender; Franz Josef Och; Hermann Ney

312

Maximum Entropy Models for Named Entity Recoginition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a system that applies maximum entropy (ME) models to the task of named entity recognition (NER). Starting with an annotated corpus and a set of features which are easily obtainable for almost any language, we first build a baseline NE recognizer which is then used to extract the named entities and their context information from

O. Bender; F. J. Och; H. Ney

2003-01-01

313

Learning Graphical Models by Maximum Entropy Relaxation  

E-print Network

.t. dE(, ) E, E H Maximize entropy subject to constraint that, for each subset E H, the marginal. Dual Problem: Maximize entropy h(r) -Er{log r} over all r M that satisfy linear moment con- straintsLearning Graphical Models by Maximum Entropy Relaxation Jason K. Johnson (Joint work with V

Willsky, Alan S.

314

Maximum Entropy MIMO Wireless Channel Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, models of wireless channels are derived from the maximum entropy principle, for several cases where only limited information about the propagation environment is available. First, ana- lytical models are derived for the cases where certain parameters (channel energy, average energy, spatial correlation matrix) are known deterministically. Frequently, these parameters are unknown (typically because the received energy or

Maxime Guillaud; Mérouane Debbah; Aris L. Moustakas

2006-01-01

315

Learning Markov Structure by Maximum Entropy Relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new approach for learning a sparse graphical model approximation to a specified multivariate probability distri- bution (such as the empirical distribution of sample data). The selection of sparse graph structure arises naturally in our ap- proach through solution of a convex opti- mization problem, which differentiates our method from standard combinatorial ap- proaches. We seek the maximum

Jason K. Johnson; Venkat Chandrasekaran; Alan S. Willsky

2006-01-01

316

Maximum entropy methods for generating simulated rainfall  

E-print Network

Maximum entropy methods for generating simulated rainfall Julia Piantadosi Co-authors Phil Howlett entropy that matches an observed set of grade correlation coefficients. This problem is formulated as the maximization of a concave function on a convex polytope. · Under mild constraint qualifications we show

Borwein, Jonathan

317

Maximum terminal velocity of relativistic rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum terminal velocity problem of the classical propulsion is extended to a relativistic rocket assumed broken down into active mass, inert mass and gross payload. A fraction of the active mass is converted into energy shared between inert mass and active mass residual. Significant effects are considered. State and co-state equations are carried out to find the exhaust speed

G. Vulpetti

1985-01-01

318

Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

Texas Child Care, 1995

1995-01-01

319

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2011-10-01

320

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2010-10-01

321

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2012-10-01

322

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2013-10-01

323

48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

2010-10-01

324

48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

2013-10-01

325

48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

2012-10-01

326

Theoretical Analysis of Maximum Flow Declination Rate versus Maximum Area Declination Rate in Phonation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the maximum area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…

Titze, Ingo R.

2006-01-01

327

Maximum entropy and maximum likelihood criteria for feature selection from multivariate data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss several numerical methods for optimum feature selection for multivariate data based on maximum entropy and maximum likelihood criteria. Our point of view is to consider observed data x1, x2,..., xN in Rd to be samples from some unknown pdf P. We project this data onto d directions, subsequently estimate the pdf of the univariate data, then find the

Sankar Basu; Charles A. Micchelli; Peder Olsen

2000-01-01

328

Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed  

SciTech Connect

DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T{ampersand}E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit.

Choi, A.S.

1995-03-13

329

Maximum-Flow Neural Network: A Novel Neural Network for the Maximum Flow Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In advance of network communication society by the internet, the way how to send data fast with a little loss becomes an important transportation problem. A generalized maximum flow algorithm gives the best solution for the transportation problem that which route is appropriated to exchange data. Therefore, the importance of the maximum flow algorithm is growing more and more. In this paper, we propose a Maximum-Flow Neural Network (MF-NN) in which branch nonlinearity has a saturation characteristic and by which the maximum flow problem can be solved with analog high-speed parallel processing. That is, the proposed neural network for the maximum flow problem can be realized by a nonlinear resistive circuit where each connection weight between nodal neurons has a sigmodal or piece-wise linear function. The parallel hardware of the MF-NN will be easily implemented.

Sato, Masatoshi; Aomori, Hisashi; Tanaka, Mamoru

330

Minimum Convex Partitions and Maximum Empty Polytopes  

E-print Network

Let S be a set of n points in d-space. A convex Steiner partition is a tiling of CH(S) with empty convex bodies. For every integer d, we show that S admits a convex Steiner partition with at most (n-1)/d tiles. This bound is the best possible for affine independent points in the plane, and it is best possible apart from constant factors in every dimension d>= 3. We also give the first constant-factor approximation algorithm for computing a minimum Steiner convex partition of an affine independent point set in the plane. Determining the maximum possible volume of a single tile in a Steiner partition is equivalent to a famous problem of Danzer and Rogers. We give a (1-epsilon)-approximation for the maximum volume of an empty convex body when S lies in the d-dimensional unit box [0,1]^d.

Dumitrescu, Adrian; Tóth, Csaba D

2011-01-01

331

The maximum possible magnetocaloric ?T effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current boom of research activity in magnetocaloric materials science is fuelled by the expectation that new advanced refrigerants may be found whose ?T will significantly surpass that of gadolinium (Gd) metal (2.6-2.9 K/T). Because of this expectation, the main effort in the field has been diverted from the important issues of refrigerator design to the routine characterization of magnetic materials. Estimating the maximum adiabatic temperature change that can be achieved in principle by applying a certain magnetic field, say 1 T, is a matter of priority. In this work the problem of maximum ?T is approached from general principles. According to the most optimistic estimates, ?T can never exceed ˜18 K/T, the more realistic upper limit lying somewhere in high single figures. We therefore deem it most unlikely that a refrigerant much better than Gd, in respect of the ?T value, will ever be found.

Zverev, V. I.; Tishin, A. M.; Kuz'min, M. D.

2010-02-01

332

Maximum likelihood estimation of turbulence spectrum parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimation of the integral scale and intensity of a generic turbulence record is treated as a statistical problem of parameter estimation. Properties of parameter estimators and the method of maximum likelihood are reviewed. Likelihood equations are derived for estimation of the integral scale and intensity applicable to a general class of turbulence spectra that includes the von Karman and Dryden transverse and longitudinal spectra as special cases. The method is extended to include the Bullen transverse and longitudinal spectra. Coefficients of variation are given for maximum likelihood estimates of the integral scale and intensity of the von Karman spectra. Application of the method is illustrated by estimating the integral scale and intensity of an atmospheric turbulence vertical velocity record assumed to be governed by the von Karman transverse spectrum.

Mark, W. D.

1984-01-01

333

MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS  

PubMed Central

A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator.

Snijders, Tom A.B.; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael

2014-01-01

334

Maximum Likelihood Based Quantum Set Separation  

E-print Network

In this paper we introduce a method, which is used for set separation based on quantum computation. In case of no a-priori knowledge about the source signal distribution, it is a challenging task to find an optimal decision rule which could be implemented in the separating algorithm. We lean on the Maximum Likelihood approach and build a bridge between this method and quantum counting. The proposed method is also able to distinguish between disjunct sets and intersection sets.

Sándor Imre; Ferenc Balázs

2004-02-12

335

Maximum entropy production - Full steam ahead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of a principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP, or less ambiguously MaxEP) to planetary climate is discussed. This idea suggests that if sufficiently free of dynamical constraints, the atmospheric and oceanic heat flows across a planet may conspire to maximize the generation of mechanical work, or entropy. Thermodynamic and information-theoretic aspects of this idea are discussed. These issues are also discussed in the context of dust devils, convective vortices found in strongly-heated desert areas.

Lorenz, Ralph D.

2012-05-01

336

Maximum likelihood estimation in pooled sample tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pooled sample tests, firstly used on the classification problem (identifying all individuals with some characteristic), may also be applied to estimate the prevalence rate. Moreover, the pooled sample methods may attain greater efficiency when applied to estimate some prevalence rate, since it is no longer necessary to perform any individual test. We develop a maximum likelihood computational algorithm for the prevalence rate estimation, and we analyze its performance.

Martins, João Paulo; Felgueiras, Miguel; Santos, Rui

2014-10-01

337

Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy  

SciTech Connect

The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar [UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain) and University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba); University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba)

2010-10-08

338

Maximum likelihood identification using an array processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a method used to calculate the parameters of a dynamic system. It can be applied to a large class of problems and has good statistical properties. The main disadvantage of the MLE method is the amount of computation required. This paper describes how the computation time can be reduced significantly by using an array processor. The estimation of the parameters of a dynamic model of the Space Station is used as an example to evaluate the method.

Sridhar, Banavar; Aubrun, Jean-Noel

1987-01-01

339

Polyenes with maximum HOMO–LUMO gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a variable neighbourhood search with the AutoGraphiX software, it is conjectured that for even numbers of atoms the fully conjugated acyclic ? system of maximum HOMO–LUMO gap is a `comb' in which each vertex of a backbone carries a single pendant edge. Chemically, this represents CnH3n\\/2+2, an ?,?-diene with methylene groups attached at all intermediate positions.

P. W. Fowler; P. Hansen; G. Caporossi; A. Soncini

2001-01-01

340

Maximum Bounded Rooted-Tree Packing Problem  

E-print Network

Given a graph and a root, the Maximum Bounded Rooted-Tree Packing (MBRTP) problem aims at finding K rooted-trees that span the largest subset of vertices, when each vertex has a limited outdegree. This problem is motivated by peer-to-peer streaming overlays in under-provisioned systems. We prove that the MBRTP problem is NP-complete. We present two polynomial-time algorithms that computes an optimal solution on complete graphs and trees respectively.

Kerivin, Herve; Simon, Gwendal; Zhou, Fen

2011-01-01

341

Low-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Oral Bioavailability of Dichloroacetate in Naive and GST-zeta Depleted Rats  

SciTech Connect

Pharmacokinetics of dichloroacetate (DCA) in naive and glutathione-S-transferase-zeta (GSTzeta) depleted rats was studied at doses approaching human daily exposure levels. In vitro metabolism of DCA by rat and human liver cytosol was also compared. Jugular vein cannulated male Fischer-344 rats were administered (i.v or gavage) with graded doses of DCA ranging from 0.05-20 mg/kg and time-course blood samples collected from the cannula. GSTzeta was depleted by exposing rats to DCA (0.2 g/L DCA) in drinking water for 7 days. Elimination of DCA by naive rats was so rapid that only the 1-20 mg/kg i.v. and 5 and 20 mg/kg gavage doses provided plasma concentrations above the method detection limit. GSTzeta depletion slowed DCA elimination from plasma allowing kinetic analysis of doses as low as 0.05 mg/kg. DCA elimination was strongly dose-dependent in the naive rats with total body clearance declining with increasing dose. In the GSTzeta depleted rats, the pharmacokinetics became line ar at doses No.1 mg/kg. All oral doses were rapidly absorbed without any lag time. At higher oral doses (?5 mg/kg in GSTzeta depleted and?20 mg/kg in naive), secondary peaks in the plasma concentration appeared long after the completion of the initial absorption phase. Virtually all the dose was eliminated through metabolic clearance; the rate of urinary elimination of DCA was < 1 ml h-1kg-1. A maximum of 1.0?0.3% dose was recovered in urine within 24 h in the GSTzeta depleted rats dosed i.v. with 20 mg/kg. The rate of in vitro metabolism of DCA by human cytosol was statistically similar to the GSTzeta depleted rats (p > 0.3), which supported the use of GSTzeta depleted rats as a model for assessing kinetics of DCA in humans. Oral bioavailability of DCA was 0-13% in naive and 14-75% in GSTzeta depleted rats. Oral bioavailability of DCA to humans through consumption of drinking water was predicted to be a maximum of 0.05%.

Saghir, Shakil A. (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Schultz, Irv R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-01-01

342

41 CFR 301-11.3 - Must my agency pay an allowance (either a per diem allowance or actual expense)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...either a per diem allowance or actual expense)? 301-11.3 Section 301-11.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

343

40 CFR 82.9 - Availability of production allowances in addition to baseline production allowances for class I...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...considered a request for consumption allowances under § 82...company must expend its consumption allowances allocated under...i) Possible creation of economic hardship; (ii) Possible...no trade in production or consumption allowances with other...

2010-07-01

344

Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution.

Schlaefer, Alexander [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany); Viulet, Tiberiu [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)] [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)

2013-12-15

345

Oral anticancer drugs: how limited dosing options and dose reductions may affect outcomes in comparative trials and efficacy in patients.  

PubMed

Historically, cancer medicine has avoided the problem of unequal dosing by comparing maximum-tolerated doses of intravenous regimens with proportionate dose reductions for toxicity. However, in recent years, with the development of numerous oral anticancer agents, dosing options are arbitrarily and increasingly limited by the size of pills. We contend that an underappreciated consequence of pill size is unequal dosing in comparative clinical trials and that this can have an impact on outcomes. We discuss how comparative effectiveness trials can be unbalanced and how the use of doses that are not sustainable might affect outcomes, especially marginal ones. We further argue that because of their poor tolerability and their limited dosing options, which often result in large dose adjustments in response to toxicity, the real-world clinical effectiveness of oral anticancer agents may be diminished and may not emulate results achieved in registration trials. PMID:24711558

Prasad, Vinay; Massey, Paul R; Fojo, Tito

2014-05-20

346

Calculate Your Radiation Dose  

MedlinePLUS

... Do you live within 50 miles of a nuclear power plant? Do you live within 50 miles of a coal fired power plant? TOTAL YEARLY DOSE (in mrem) ... the American Nuclear Society's brochure, "Personal Radiation Dose Chart". The primary ...

347

Novel maximum-power-point-tracking controller for photovoltaic energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) controller for a photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion system is presented. Using the slope of power versus voltage of a PV array, the proposed MPPT controller allows the conversion system to track the maximum power point very rapidly. As opposed to conventional two-stage designs, a single-stage configuration is implemented, resulting in size and weight reduction and increased

Yeong-Chau Kuo; Tsorng-Juu Liang; Jiann-Fuh Chen

2001-01-01

348

The Maximum Size of Dynamic Data Structures  

E-print Network

SIAM J. COMPUT.Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 807-823, October 1991 1991 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics001 THE MAXIMUM SIZE OF DYNAMIC DATA STRUCTURES* CLAIRE M. KENYON-MATHIEU’ AND JEFFREY SCOTT VITTER$ Abstract. This paper develops two... Science Foundation grant andby a National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award with matching funds from IBM. 807 808 C. M. KENYON-MATHIEU AND J. S. VITTER Data structures process a sequence ofitems over time; at time the data structure...

Kenyon-Mathieu, Claire M.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

1991-10-01

349

Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

350

Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking.  

PubMed

We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter. PMID:24827278

Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M

2014-04-01

351

Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

2014-04-01

352

Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

1991-01-01

353

Maximum likelihood identification for large space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the use of on-orbit identification based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) to provide these high-order, high-accuracy control design models for large space structures (LSS's). First, it outlines a general MLE identification algorithm, together with a covariance-analysis procedure to assess algorithm performance in terms of systematic and stochastic errors. Next, it examines various simplifications appropriate for the LSS identification application. Simplified analytical performance results are presented, as are numerical results to support these analyses. Finally, a graphical interpretation of these results is given.

Barrett, Michael F.; Enns, Dale F.

1988-01-01

354

The 2009 Perseid Maximum - Photographic Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An astronomical camp was organized by Comet and Meteors Workshop during the 2009 Perseids maximum. 69 meteors were photographed during four consecutive nights. We found that photographic Perseid radiant was very compact and located at alpha=48.7 deg, delta=58.6 deg. Our main goal was the determination of the radiant from single station photographic observations, however we also calculated two double station trajectories using additional data which were send to us by casual photographic observer from other parts of Poland. Dozens of radio reflections were observed with simple radio receiver, some of them were identified with photographic images.

Zolcadek, P.; Wisniewski, M.; Polakowski, K.; Wala, E.; Walczak, K.; Poleski, R.

2010-01-01

355

Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

Bastea, S

2009-01-27

356

Improved maximum likelihood reconstruction of complex multi-generational pedigrees.  

PubMed

The reconstruction of pedigrees from genetic marker data is relevant to a wide range of applications. Likelihood-based approaches aim to find the pedigree structure that gives the highest probability to the observed data. Existing methods either entail an exhaustive search and are hence restricted to small numbers of individuals, or they take a more heuristic approach and deliver a solution that will probably have high likelihood but is not guaranteed to be optimal. By encoding the pedigree learning problem as an integer linear program we can exploit efficient optimisation algorithms to construct pedigrees guaranteed to have maximal likelihood for the standard situation where we have complete marker data at unlinked loci and segregation of genes from parents to offspring is Mendelian. Previous work demonstrated efficient reconstruction of pedigrees of up to about 100 individuals. The modified method that we present here is not so restricted: we demonstrate its applicability with simulated data on a real human pedigree structure of over 1600 individuals. It also compares well with a very competitive approximate approach in terms of solving time and accuracy. In addition to identifying a maximum likelihood pedigree, we can obtain any number of pedigrees in decreasing order of likelihood. This is useful for assessing the uncertainty of a maximum likelihood solution and permits model averaging over high likelihood pedigrees when this would be appropriate. More importantly, when the solution is not unique, as will often be the case for large pedigrees, it enables investigation into the properties of maximum likelihood pedigree estimates which has not been possible up to now. Crucially, we also have a means of assessing the behaviour of other approximate approaches which all aim to find a maximum likelihood solution. Our approach hence allows us to properly address the question of whether a reasonably high likelihood solution that is easy to obtain is practically as useful as a guaranteed maximum likelihood solution. The efficiency of our method on such large problems bodes well for extensions beyond the standard setting where some pedigree members may be latent, genotypes may be measured with error and markers may be linked. PMID:25107832

Sheehan, Nuala A; Bartlett, Mark; Cussens, James

2014-11-01

357

Maximum acceptable weights and maximum voluntary isometric strengths for asymmetric lifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of asymmetric lifting on psychophysically determined maximum acceptable weights and maximum voluntary isometric strengths. Thirteen male college students lifted three different boxes in the sagittal plane and at three different angles of asymmetry (30,60 and 90°) from floor to an 81-cm high table using a free-style lifting technique. For each lifting

A. GARG; DON BADGER

1986-01-01

358

Developing population estimates for dose reconstruction projects  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established in 1987 to estimate radiation doses that people received from nuclear operations at the Hanford site since 1944. To achieve this objective, demographic information was developed that describes the study population in enough detail to allow researchers to identify potentially exposed groups and the number of people in each of those groups. This type of information is central to most dose reconstruction projects. The purpose of this paper is to detail how historical population estimates can be reconstructed in a reliable manner by comparing results using three different estimation methods.

Beck, D.M. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-01-01

359

An overview of the solar maximum mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), devoted to the study of active solar phenomena is expected to be launched in February 1980 and operate throughout the peak of the current maximum of solar activity. The SMM observatory consists of two main sections: the instrument module which houses the solar payload instruments and the Fine Pointing Sun Sensor System, and the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) which carries the spacecraft subsystem modules. The entire observatory is 4m long and 2.3m in diameter. The SMM will carry a payload of six instruments specifically selected to study the short wavelength and coronal manifestations of flares. These include: gamma ray spectrometer, hard X-ray burst spectrometer, hard-X-ray imaging spectrometer, soft X-ray polychromator, UV spectrometer and polarimeter, coronagraph/polarimeter and solar constant monitoring package which will measure the total solar irradiance to an accuracy of 0.1 percent. Specific scientific objectives will include: chromospheric evaporation, thermalization, electron acceleration and flare build-up. Complementary studies will be made as part of an SMM Guest Investigator Program. The SMM observation program will be operated on a 24 hour cycle.

Chipman, E. C.; Frost, K. J.

1980-01-01

360

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2013-07-01

361

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2012-07-01

362

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2014-07-01

363

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2010-07-01

364

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2011-07-01

365

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2010-07-01

366

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2013-07-01

367

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2011-07-01

368

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2014-07-01

369

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2012-07-01

370

49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

2011-10-01

371

49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

2012-10-01

372

49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

2013-10-01

373

14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505 Section 25.1505 Aeronautics...Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO /M MO airspeed or Mach...

2010-01-01

374

14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505 Section 25.1505 Aeronautics...Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO /M MO airspeed or Mach...

2011-01-01

375

Fitting Emax models to clinical trial dose-response data when the high dose asymptote is ill defined.  

PubMed

We consider fitting the so-called Emax model to continuous response data from clinical trials designed to investigate the dose-response relationship for an experimental compound. When there is insufficient information in the data to estimate all of the parameters because of the high dose asymptote being ill defined, maximum likelihood estimation fails to converge. We explore the use of either bootstrap resampling or the profile likelihood to make inferences about effects and doses required to give a particular effect, using limits on the parameter values to obtain the value of the maximum likelihood when the high dose asymptote is ill defined. The results obtained show these approaches to be comparable with or better than some others that have been used when maximum likelihood estimation fails to converge and that the profile likelihood method outperforms the method of bootstrap resampling used. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25228394

Brain, P; Kirby, S; Larionov, R

2014-11-01

376

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

2014-01-01

377

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

2013-01-01

378

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

2012-01-01

379

38 CFR 21.268 - Employment adjustment allowance.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employment adjustment allowance. 21...Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter...Assistance Services § 21.268 Employment adjustment allowance....

2014-07-01

380

38 CFR 21.268 - Employment adjustment allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment adjustment allowance. 21...Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter...Assistance Services § 21.268 Employment adjustment allowance....

2011-07-01

381

38 CFR 21.268 - Employment adjustment allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment adjustment allowance. 21...Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter...Assistance Services § 21.268 Employment adjustment allowance....

2013-07-01

382

38 CFR 21.268 - Employment adjustment allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment adjustment allowance. 21...Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter...Assistance Services § 21.268 Employment adjustment allowance....

2010-07-01

383

38 CFR 21.268 - Employment adjustment allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment adjustment allowance. 21...Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter...Assistance Services § 21.268 Employment adjustment allowance....

2012-07-01

384

30 CFR 206.262 - Determination of transportation allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...estimates of the allowable coal transportation costs for...recently available operations data for the transportation...lessee shall submit all data used to prepare the allowance deduction. The data shall be provided within... (1) If the actual coal transportation...

2010-07-01

385

46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR...

2011-10-01

386

46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR...

2010-10-01

387

46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR...

2013-10-01

388

46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR...

2012-10-01

389

46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

2011-10-01

390

46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

2010-10-01

391

46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

2013-10-01

392

46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

2012-10-01

393

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Allowable advance planning costs. 151.125 Section 151...AIRPORTS Rules and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable advance planning costs. (a) The United...

2010-01-01

394

40 CFR 60.4160 - Submission of Hg allowance transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An Hg authorized account representative seeking recordation of a Hg allowance transfer shall submit the transfer to the Administrator. To be considered correctly submitted, the Hg allowance transfer shall include the following elements, in a format specified by the...

2010-07-01

395

48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable Cost...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost...have reviewed this accounting statement and to the...Office of Personnel Management and fairly...

2011-10-01

396

48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Accounting and allowable cost...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... 2152.231-70 Accounting and allowable cost...proper justification and accounting support; (iii...Office of Personnel Management and fairly...

2011-10-01

397

24 CFR 242.28 - Allowable costs for consultants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs for consultants. 242.28 Section 242.28 Housing and Urban Development... Mortgage Requirements § 242.28 Allowable costs for consultants. Consulting fees for work essential to the...

2010-04-01

398

34 CFR 379.41 - What are allowable costs?  

...addition to those costs that are allowable...items are allowable costs under this program: (a) The costs of job readiness...access to and use of buildings by individuals with...disabilities served by the project. (g) To...

2014-07-01

399

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the co-evolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand `dune-building' species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the time scale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches: higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species which shifts foredune formation landwards and thus leads to larger foredunes.

Duran Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2014-05-01

400

A maximum entropy model for opinions in social groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the opinions of a group of individuals determine their spatial distribution and connectivity, through an agent-based model. The interaction between agents is described by a Hamiltonian in which agents are allowed to move freely without an underlying lattice (the average network topology connecting them is determined from the parameters). This kind of model was derived using maximum entropy statistical inference under fixed expectation values of certain probabilities that (we propose) are relevant to social organization. Control parameters emerge as Lagrange multipliers of the maximum entropy problem, and they can be associated with the level of consequence between the personal beliefs and external opinions, and the tendency to socialize with peers of similar or opposing views. These parameters define a phase diagram for the social system, which we studied using Monte Carlo Metropolis simulations. Our model presents both first and second-order phase transitions, depending on the ratio between the internal consequence and the interaction with others. We have found a critical value for the level of internal consequence, below which the personal beliefs of the agents seem to be irrelevant.

Davis, Sergio; Navarrete, Yasmín; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

2014-04-01

401

26 CFR 1.42-10 - Utility allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...utility rates, property type, climate and degree-day variables...units is located. (c) Changes in applicable utility allowance...utility allowance for units changes, the new utility allowance...units due 90 days after the change (the 90-day...

2010-04-01

402

How Institutions Affect Outcomes in Laboratory Tradable Fishing Allowance Systems  

E-print Network

How Institutions Affect Outcomes in Laboratory Tradable Fishing Allowance Systems Christopher M. In a laboratory tradable fishing allowance system, when trade takes place through a double auction, which, which yield materially different outcomes. In a laboratory tradable fishing allowance system, when trade

403

30 CFR 206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...estimates of the allowable coal washing costs for the...recently available operations data for the washing system...lessee shall submit all data used to prepare the allowance deduction. The data shall be provided within... (1) If the actual coal washing allowance...

2010-07-01

404

5 CFR 591.307 - Payment of allowance rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...expense part of the allowance rate when the employee is otherwise...a)(2), the allowance rate is paid for each full day...officially required to remain overnight at the remote duty post, for...for payment of the allowance rate taking into consideration...

2010-01-01

405

45 CFR 2522.245 - How are living allowances disbursed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are living allowances disbursed? 2522.245 Section...Requirements, and Benefits § 2522.245 How are living allowances disbursed? A living allowance is not a wage and programs may not...

2010-10-01

406

26 CFR 1.42-10 - Utility allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...utility rates, property type, climate and degree-day variables...units is located. (c) Changes in applicable utility allowance...utility allowance for units changes, the new utility allowance...units due 90 days after the change (the 90-day...

2013-04-01

407

26 CFR 1.42-10 - Utility allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...utility rates, property type, climate and degree-day variables...units is located. (c) Changes in applicable utility allowance...utility allowance for units changes, the new utility allowance...units due 90 days after the change (the 90-day...

2012-04-01

408

26 CFR 1.42-10 - Utility allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...utility rates, property type, climate and degree-day variables...units is located. (c) Changes in applicable utility allowance...utility allowance for units changes, the new utility allowance...units due 90 days after the change (the 90-day...

2011-04-01

409

26 CFR 1.42-10 - Utility allowances.  

...utility rates, property type, climate and degree-day variables...units is located. (c) Changes in applicable utility allowance...utility allowance for units changes, the new utility allowance...units due 90 days after the change (the 90-day...

2014-04-01

410

Diffusivity Maximum in a Reentrant Nematic Phase  

PubMed Central

We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730

Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin

2012-01-01

411

Distributed Maximum Likelihood Sensor Network Localization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a class of convex relaxations to solve the sensor network localization problem, based on a maximum likelihood (ML) formulation. This class, as well as the tightness of the relaxations, depends on the noise probability density function (PDF) of the collected measurements. We derive a computational efficient edge-based version of this ML convex relaxation class and we design a distributed algorithm that enables the sensor nodes to solve these edge-based convex programs locally by communicating only with their close neighbors. This algorithm relies on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), it converges to the centralized solution, it can run asynchronously, and it is computation error-resilient. Finally, we compare our proposed distributed scheme with other available methods, both analytically and numerically, and we argue the added value of ADMM, especially for large-scale networks.

Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

2014-03-01

412

On Using Unsatisfiability for Solving Maximum Satisfiability  

E-print Network

Maximum Satisfiability (MaxSAT) is a well-known optimization pro- blem, with several practical applications. The most widely known MAXS AT algorithms are ineffective at solving hard problems instances from practical application domains. Recent work proposed using efficient Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) solvers for solving the MaxSAT problem, based on identifying and eliminating unsatisfiable subformulas. However, these algorithms do not scale in practice. This paper analyzes existing MaxSAT algorithms based on unsatisfiable subformula identification. Moreover, the paper proposes a number of key optimizations to these MaxSAT algorithms and a new alternative algorithm. The proposed optimizations and the new algorithm provide significant performance improvements on MaxSAT instances from practical applications. Moreover, the efficiency of the new generation of unsatisfiability-based MaxSAT solvers becomes effectively indexed to the ability of modern SAT solvers to proving unsatisfiability and identifying unsatisfi...

Marques-Silva, Joao

2007-01-01

413

On the Maximum Separation of Visual Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an efficient algorithm is established for computing the maximum (minimum) angular separation ? max( ? min), the corresponding apparent position angles (?|_{?_max}, ?|_{?_min}) and the individual masses of visual binary systems. The algorithm uses Reed's formulae (1984) for the masses, and a technique of one-dimensional unconstrained minimization, together with the solution of Kepler's equation for (?_max, ?|_{?_max}) and (?_min, ?|_{?_min}). Iterative schemes of quadratic coverage up to any positive integer order are developed for the solution of Kepler's equation. A sample of 110 systems is selected from the Sixth Catalog of Orbits (Hartkopf et al. 2001). Numerical studies are included and some important results are as follows: (1) there is no dependence between ? max and the spectral type and (2) a minor modification of Giannuzzi's (1989) formula for the upper limits of ? max functions of spectral type of the primary.

Nouh, M. I.; Sharaf, M. A.

2012-12-01

414

Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.

Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui

2014-11-01

415

The 1988 Solar Maximum Mission event list  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1988 pointed observations is presented. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) gamma ray spectrometer; (2) hard x ray burst spectrometer; (3) flat crystal spectrometers; (4) bent crystal spectrometer; (5) ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter; and (6) coronagraph/polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts, or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observation. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

1992-01-01

416

Maximum Information and Quantum Prediction Algorithms  

E-print Network

This paper describes an algorithm for selecting a consistent set within the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics and investigates its properties. The algorithm uses a maximum information principle to select from among the consistent sets formed by projections defined by the Schmidt decomposition. The algorithm unconditionally predicts the possible events in closed quantum systems and ascribes probabilities to these events. A simple spin model is described and a complete classification of all exactly consistent sets of histories formed from Schmidt projections in the model is proved. This result is used to show that for this example the algorithm selects a physically realistic set. Other tentative suggestions in the literature for set selection algorithms using ideas from information theory are discussed.

Jim McElwaine

1996-11-28

417

Approximate maximum likelihood decoding of block codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximate maximum likelihood decoding algorithms, based upon selecting a small set of candidate code words with the aid of the estimated probability of error of each received symbol, can give performance close to optimum with a reasonable amount of computation. By combining the best features of various algorithms and taking care to perform each step as efficiently as possible, a decoding scheme was developed which can decode codes which have better performance than those presently in use and yet not require an unreasonable amount of computation. The discussion of the details and tradeoffs of presently known efficient optimum and near optimum decoding algorithms leads, naturally, to the one which embodies the best features of all of them.

Greenberger, H. J.

1979-01-01

418

CLASSY: An adaptive maximum likelihood clustering algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CLASSY clustering method alternates maximum likelihood iterative techniques for estimating the parameters of a mixture distribution with an adaptive procedure for splitting, combining, and eliminating the resultant components of the mixture. The adaptive procedure is based on maximizing the fit of a mixture of multivariate normal distributions to the observed data using its first through fourth central moments. It generates estimates of the number of multivariate normal components in the mixture as well as the proportion, mean vector, and covariance matrix for each component. The basic mathematical model for CLASSY and the actual operation of the algorithm as currently implemented are described. Results of applying CLASSY to real and simulated LANDSAT data are presented and compared with those generated by the iterative self-organizing clustering system algorithm on the same data sets.

Lennington, R. K.; Rassbach, M. E. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

419

The worst case complexity of maximum parsimony.  

PubMed

Abstract One of the core classical problems in computational biology is that of constructing the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree interpreting an input set of sequences from the genomes of evolutionarily related organisms. We reexamine the classical maximum parsimony (MP) optimization problem for the general (asymmetric) scoring matrix case, where rooted phylogenies are implied, and analyze the worst case bounds of three approaches to MP: The approach of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, the approach of Hendy and Penny, and a new agglomerative, "bottom-up" approach we present in this article. We show that the second and third approaches are faster than the first one by a factor of [Formula: see text] and ?(n), respectively, where n is the number of species. PMID:25302568

Carmel, Amir; Musa-Lempel, Noa; Tsur, Dekel; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

2014-11-01

420

ILP-based maximum likelihood genome scaffolding  

PubMed Central

Background Interest in de novo genome assembly has been renewed in the past decade due to rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies which generate relatively short reads resulting in highly fragmented assemblies consisting of contigs. Additional long-range linkage information is typically used to orient, order, and link contigs into larger structures referred to as scaffolds. Due to library preparation artifacts and erroneous mapping of reads originating from repeats, scaffolding remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we provide a scalable scaffolding algorithm (SILP2) employing a maximum likelihood model capturing read mapping uncertainty and/or non-uniformity of contig coverage which is solved using integer linear programming. A Non-Serial Dynamic Programming (NSDP) paradigm is applied to render our algorithm useful in the processing of larger mammalian genomes. To compare scaffolding tools, we employ novel quantitative metrics in addition to the extant metrics in the field. We have also expanded the set of experiments to include scaffolding of low-complexity metagenomic samples. Results SILP2 achieves better scalability throughg a more efficient NSDP algorithm than previous release of SILP. The results show that SILP2 compares favorably to previous methods OPERA and MIP in both scalability and accuracy for scaffolding single genomes of up to human size, and significantly outperforms them on scaffolding low-complexity metagenomic samples. Conclusions Equipped with NSDP, SILP2 is able to scaffold large mammalian genomes, resulting in the longest and most accurate scaffolds. The ILP formulation for the maximum likelihood model is shown to be flexible enough to handle metagenomic samples. PMID:25253180

2014-01-01

421

Application of a Novel Dose-Uncertainty Model for Dose-Uncertainty Analysis in Prostate Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze dose uncertainty using a previously published dose-uncertainty model, and to assess potential dosimetric risks existing in prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The dose-uncertainty model provides a three-dimensional (3D) dose-uncertainty distribution in a given confidence level. For 8 retrospectively selected patients, dose-uncertainty maps were constructed using the dose-uncertainty model at the 95% CL. In addition to uncertainties inherent to the radiation treatment planning system, four scenarios of spatial errors were considered: machine only (S1), S1 + intrafraction, S1 + interfraction, and S1 + both intrafraction and interfraction errors. To evaluate the potential risks of the IMRT plans, three dose-uncertainty-based plan evaluation tools were introduced: confidence-weighted dose-volume histogram, confidence-weighted dose distribution, and dose-uncertainty-volume histogram. Results: Dose uncertainty caused by interfraction setup error was more significant than that of intrafraction motion error. The maximum dose uncertainty (95% confidence) of the clinical target volume (CTV) was smaller than 5% of the prescribed dose in all but two cases (13.9% and 10.2%). The dose uncertainty for 95% of the CTV volume ranged from 1.3% to 2.9% of the prescribed dose. Conclusions: The dose uncertainty in prostate IMRT could be evaluated using the dose-uncertainty model. Prostate IMRT plans satisfying the same plan objectives could generate a significantly different dose uncertainty because a complex interplay of many uncertainty sources. The uncertainty-based plan evaluation contributes to generating reliable and error-resistant treatment plans.

Jin Hosang [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Kim, You-Hyun [Department of Radiologic Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Siyong, E-mail: kim.siyong@mayo.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2010-11-01

422

Low-Dose Pretreatment for Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

In radiotherapy, a large radiation dose must be applied to both cancer and neighboring healthy cells. Recent experiments have shown that a low dose of ionizing radiation turns on certain protective mechanisms that allow a cell to better survive a subsequent high dose of radiation. This adaptive response can have important and positive consequences for radiotherapy. This paper describes a simple change in treatment procedures to make use of these beneficial effects. A low dose applied only to the healthy cells will probably produce some damage. However, it will also start the adaptive response which will yield increased protection when the large therapeutic dose is applied. The resultant immediate damage will be thereby reduced as well as the probability that the high dose therapy itself will induce a subsequent secondary cancer. After a brief historical review, the effects of a low radiation dose on a canine cancer cell line will be discussed as well as trials of the suggested pre-dose therapy on canine cancer patients undergoing standard radiation therapy. PMID:21191490

Blankenbecler, Richard

2010-01-01

423

40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...  

...consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.10 Section 82.10 Protection...consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. (a) Until January 1, 1996 for all class I controlled substances, except Group VI, and until...

2014-07-01

424

Occupational radiation doses to the extremities and the eyes in interventional radiology and cardiology procedures  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine occupational dose levels in interventional radiology and cardiology procedures. Methods The study covered a sample of 25 procedures and monitored occupational dose for all laboratory personnel. Each individual wore eight thermoluminescent dosemeters next to the eyes, wrists, fingers and legs during each procedure. Radiation protection shields used in each procedure were recorded. Results The highest doses per procedure were recorded for interventionists at the left wrist (average 485 ?Sv, maximum 5239 ?Sv) and left finger (average 324 ?Sv, maximum 2877 ?Sv), whereas lower doses were recorded for the legs (average 124 ?Sv, maximum 1959 ?Sv) and the eyes (average 64 ?Sv, maximum 1129 ?Sv). Doses to the assisting nurses during the intervention were considerably lower; the highest doses were recorded at the wrists (average 26 ?Sv, maximum 41 ?Sv) and legs (average 18 ?Sv, maximum 22 ?Sv), whereas doses to the eyes were minimal (average 4 ?Sv, maximum 16 ?Sv). Occupational doses normalised to kerma area product (KAP) ranged from 11.9 to 117.3 ?Sv/1000 cGy cm2 and KAP was poorly correlated to the interventionists' extremity doses. Conclusion Calculation of the dose burden for interventionists considering the actual number of procedures performed annually revealed that dose limits for the extremities and the lenses of the eyes were not exceeded. However, there are cases in which high doses have been recorded and this can lead to exceeding the dose limits when bad practices are followed and the radiation protection tools are not properly used. PMID:21172967

Efstathopoulos, E P; Pantos, I; Andreou, M; Gkatzis, A; Carinou, E; Koukorava, C; Kelekis, N L; Brountzos, E

2011-01-01

425

CELL PHONE ALLOWANCE POLICY All Cell Phone Allowance Policies and Procedures must be conducted in accordance with all  

E-print Network

CELL PHONE ALLOWANCE POLICY All Cell Phone Allowance Policies and Procedures must be conducted%2029%2013.pdf Option 2 of University Policy 4-009.2 http://www.fa.ucf.edu/Forms/PCard/41-980.pdf Cell Phone Payroll FAQs (for Policy 4-900.2) http://hr.ucf.edu/files/CellPhonePayrollFAQ.pdf Cell Phone Allowance

Wu, Shin-Tson

426

40 CFR 82.9 - Availability of production allowances in addition to baseline production allowances for class I...  

...production allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.9 Section 82.9 Protection...production allowances for class I controlled substances. (a) Every person apportioned...production allowances for class I controlled substances under § 82.5 (a) through...

2014-07-01

427

Allowable Trajectory Variations for Space Shuttle Orbiter Entry-Aeroheating CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-number criteria are developed for acceptable variations in Space Shuttle Orbiter entry trajectories for use in computational aeroheating analyses. The criteria determine if an existing computational fluid dynamics solution for a particular trajectory can be extrapolated to a different trajectory. The criteria development considers twelve types of computational aeroheating data, such as boundary layer thickness. For each type of datum, the allowable uncertainty contribution due to trajectory variation has been set by the Entry Aeroheating Subsystem team. Then Reynolds-number relations between trajectory variation and output uncertainty are determined. From these relations the criteria are established for the maximum allowable trajectory variations. The most restrictive criterion allows a 25% variation in Reynolds number at constant Mach number between trajectories.

Wood, William A.; Alter, Stephen J.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.

2008-01-01

428

Allowable Trajectory Variations for Space Shuttle Orbiter Entry-Aeroheating CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-number criteria are developed for acceptable variations in Space Shuttle Orbiter entry trajectories for use in computational aeroheating analyses. The criteria determine if an existing computational fluid dynamics solution for a particular trajectory can be extrapolated to a different trajectory. The criteria development begins by estimating uncertainties for seventeen types of computational aeroheating data, such as boundary layer thickness, at exact trajectory conditions. For each type of datum, the allowable uncertainty contribution due to trajectory variation is set to be half of the value of the estimated exact-trajectory uncertainty. Then, for the twelve highest-priority datum types, Reynolds-number relations between trajectory variation and output uncertainty are determined. From these relations the criteria are established for the maximum allowable trajectory variations. The most restrictive criterion allows a 25% variation in Reynolds number at constant Mach number between trajectories.

Wood, William A.; Alter, Stephen J.

2008-01-01

429

Dose-response stability and integrity of the dose distribution of various polymer gel dosimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the stability of different polymer gel dosimeters is investigated. Further to a previous chemical stability study on a (6%T, 50%C) PAG gel, the change in slope and intercept of the linear part of the R2-dose plot is recorded with time for different gel formulations. In addition to this R2-dose-response stability study, the dose edge of a half-blocked field was recorded with time. Three different PAG type polymer gels, a hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) gel and two different normoxic polymer gels were investigated. In the PAG type polymer gels, the relative concentration of gelatin and comonomers was varied in order to study the influence of the different components, that constitute the dosimeter, on the stability. It is shown that the R2-dose-response stability is largely determined by the chemical composition of the gel dosimeters. All the PAG gel dosimeters and the normoxic gel dosimeters are found to preserve the integrity of the dose distribution up to 22 days after irradiation. The half-life of the change in dose sensitivity of a MAGIC gel is found to be 18 h compared to 5.7 h for a (6%T, 50%C) PAG gel. A maximum relative decrease in dose sensitivity of 21% was noted for the MAGIC gel compared to an increase of 50% for a (6%T, 50%C) PAG gel. A loss of integrity of the dose distribution was found in the HEA gel.

DeDeene, Y.; Venning, A.; Hurley, C.; Healy, B. J.; Baldock, C.

2002-07-01

430

Digital tomosynthesis mammography using a parallel maximum-likelihood reconstruction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parallel reconstruction method, based on an iterative maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm, is developed to provide fast reconstruction for digital tomosynthesis mammography. Tomosynthesis mammography acquires 11 low-dose projections of a breast by moving an x-ray tube over a 50° angular range. In parallel reconstruction, each projection is divided into multiple segments along the chest-to-nipple direction. Using the 11 projections, segments

Tao Wu; Juemin Zhang; Richard Moore; Elizabeth Rafferty; Daniel Kopans; Waleed Meleis; David Kaeli

2004-01-01

431

Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping  

SciTech Connect

Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

Hogden, J.E.

2000-04-18

432

40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of Environment...Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density...

2012-07-01

433

40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of Environment...Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density...

2013-07-01

434

42 CFR 457.555 - Maximum allowable cost-sharing charges on targeted low-income children in families with income...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...targeted low-income children in families with...to 150 percent of the FPL. 457.555...targeted low-income children in families with...to 150 percent of the FPL. (a) Non-institutional...targeted low-income children whose family income...to 150 percent of the FPL, the...

2012-10-01

435

42 CFR 457.555 - Maximum allowable cost-sharing charges on targeted low-income children in families with income...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...targeted low-income children in families with...to 150 percent of the FPL. 457.555...targeted low-income children in families with...to 150 percent of the FPL. (a) Non-institutional...targeted low-income children whose family income...to 150 percent of the FPL, the...

2010-10-01

436

42 CFR 457.555 - Maximum allowable cost-sharing charges on targeted low-income children in families with income...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...targeted low-income children in families with...to 150 percent of the FPL. 457.555...targeted low-income children in families with...to 150 percent of the FPL. (a) Non-institutional...targeted low-income children whose family income...to 150 percent of the FPL, the...

2011-10-01

437

42 CFR 457.555 - Maximum allowable cost-sharing charges on targeted low-income children in families with income...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...targeted low-income children in families with...to 150 percent of the FPL. 457.555...targeted low-income children in families with...to 150 percent of the FPL. (a) Non-institutional...targeted low-income children whose household income...to 150 percent of the FPL, the...

2013-10-01

438

40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of Environment...Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density...

2010-07-01

439

40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of Environment...Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density...

2011-07-01

440

Direct thermal dose control of constrained focused ultrasound treatments: phantom and in vivo evaluation  

PubMed Central

The first treatment control system that explicitly and automatically balances the efficacy and safety goals of noninvasive thermal therapies is described, and its performance is evaluated in phantoms and in vivo using ultrasound heating with a fixed, focused transducer. The treatment efficacy is quantified in terms of thermal dose delivered to the target. The developed feedback thermal dose controller has a cascade structure with the main nonlinear dose controller continuously generating the reference temperature trajectory for the secondary, constrained, model predictive temperature controller. The control system ensures thermal safety of the normal tissue by automatically complying with user-specified constraints on the maximum allowable normal tissue temperatures. To reflect hardware limitations and to prevent cavitation, constraints on the maximum transducer power can also be imposed. It is shown that the developed controller can be used to achieve the minimum-time delivery of the desired thermal dose to the target without violating safety constraints, which is a novel and clinically desirable feature. The developed controller is model based, and requires patient- and site-specific models for its operation. These models were obtained during pre-treatment identification experiments. In our implementation, predictive models, internally used by the automatic treatment controller, are dynamically updated each time new temperature measurements become available. The adaptability of internal models safeguards against adverse effects of modelling errors, and ensures robust performance of the control system in the presence of a priori unknown treatment disturbances. The successful validation with two experimental models of considerably different thermal and ultrasound properties suggests the applicability of the developed treatment control system to different anatomical sites. PMID:15815104

Arora, Dhiraj; Cooley, Daniel; Perry, Trent; Skliar, Mikhail; Roemer, Robert B

2013-01-01

441

Observations of coronal structure during sunspot maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of coronal holes and coronal transients made between 1979 and 1981, near the most recent sunspot maximum, are reported. Comparison of He I 10830-A images and photospheric magnetograms obtained almost daily since 1974 at Kitt Peak indicates that, after July 31, 1978, the average magnetic field strength and magnetic flux at the base of the coronal holes increased by a factor of 3.1, from 4.1 to 11.9 G and 1.6 to 5.0 x 10 to the 20th sq cm, respectively, while the areas of the measured holes changed by a factor of only 1.1. Observations made by the NRL earth-orbiting coronagraph since March 28, 1979, have revealed 495 mass ejections on a time scale of a few hours or less and 332 additional events of longer time scale during the parts of 1979, 1980 and 1981 for which data is available, corresponding to a rate of at least two a day. Of the 495 primary transients, at least 151 had a characteristic spike structure, while 55 have been classified as big loops and 9 as quadrant fillers. Intensity changes in the coronagraph field of view were also present following the apparent collision of comet Howard-Koomen-Michels 1979 XI with the sun.

Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Howard, R. A.; Koomen, M. J.; Michels, D. J.; Harvey, J. W.; Harvey, K. L.

1982-03-01

442

Precise Asymptotics for a Random Walker's Maximum  

E-print Network

We consider a discrete time random walk in one dimension. At each time step the walker jumps by a random distance, independent from step to step, drawn from an arbitrary symmetric density function. We show that the expected positive maximum E[M_n] of the walk up to n steps behaves asymptotically for large n as, E[M_n]/\\sigma=\\sqrt{2n/\\pi}+ \\gamma +O(n^{-1/2}), where \\sigma^2 is the variance of the step lengths. While the leading \\sqrt{n} behavior is universal and easy to derive, the leading correction term turns out to be a nontrivial constant \\gamma. For the special case of uniform distribution over [-1,1], Coffmann et. al. recently computed \\gamma=-0.516068...by exactly enumerating a lengthy double series. Here we present a closed exact formula for \\gamma valid for arbitrary symmetric distributions. We also demonstrate how \\gamma appears in the thermodynamic limit as the leading behavior of the difference variable E[M_n]-E[|x_n|] where x_n is the position of the walker after n steps. An application of these results to the equilibrium thermodynamics of a Rouse polymer chain is pointed out. We also generalize our results to L\\'evy walks.

Alain Comtet; Satya N. Majumdar

2005-06-08

443

A maximum entropy thermodynamics of small systems.  

PubMed

We present a maximum entropy approach to analyze the state space of a small system in contact with a large bath, e.g., a solvated macromolecular system. For the solute, the fluctuations around the mean values of observables are not negligible and the probability distribution P(r) of the state space depends on the intricate details of the interaction of the solute with the solvent. Here, we employ a superstatistical approach: P(r) is expressed as a marginal distribution summed over the variation in ?, the inverse temperature of the solute. The joint distribution P(?, r) is estimated by maximizing its entropy. We also calculate the first order system-size corrections to the canonical ensemble description of the state space. We test the development on a simple harmonic oscillator interacting with two baths with very different chemical identities, viz., (a) Lennard-Jones particles and (b) water molecules. In both cases, our method captures the state space of the oscillator sufficiently well. Future directions and connections with traditional statistical mechanics are discussed. PMID:23676033

Dixit, Purushottam D

2013-05-14

444

Maximum likelihood estimates of polar motion parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two estimators developed by Jeffreys (1940, 1968) are described and used in conjunction with polar-motion data to determine the frequency (Fc) and quality factor (Qc) of the Chandler wobble. Data are taken from a monthly polar-motion series, satellite laser-ranging results, and optical astrometry and intercompared for use via interpolation techniques. Maximum likelihood arguments were employed to develop the estimators, and the assumption that polar motion relates to a Gaussian random process is assessed in terms of the accuracies of the estimators. The present results agree with those from Jeffreys' earlier study but are inconsistent with the later estimator; a Monte Carlo evaluation of the estimators confirms that the 1968 method is more accurate. The later estimator method shows good performance because the Fourier coefficients derived from the data have signal/noise levels that are superior to those for an individual datum. The method is shown to be valuable for general spectral-analysis problems in which isolated peaks must be analyzed from noisy data.

Wilson, Clark R.; Vicente, R. O.

1990-01-01

445

A maximum entropy thermodynamics of small systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a maximum entropy approach to analyze the state space of a small system in contact with a large bath, e.g., a solvated macromolecular system. For the solute, the fluctuations around the mean values of observables are not negligible and the probability distribution P(r) of the state space depends on the intricate details of the interaction of the solute with the solvent. Here, we employ a superstatistical approach: P(r) is expressed as a marginal distribution summed over the variation in ?, the inverse temperature of the solute. The joint distribution P(?, r) is estimated by maximizing its entropy. We also calculate the first order system-size corrections to the canonical ensemble description of the state space. We test the development on a simple harmonic oscillator interacting with two baths with very different chemical identities, viz., (a) Lennard-Jones particles and (b) water molecules. In both cases, our method captures the state space of the oscillator sufficiently well. Future directions and connections with traditional statistical mechanics are discussed.

Dixit, Purushottam D.

2013-05-01

446

Maximum entropy from the laws of probability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new derivation is presented of maximum entropy, which is an extremizing principle for assigning probability distributions from expectation values. The additive form ?i?(pi) for the maximand is first proved by requiring that, when some probabilities are given, the procedure for finding the remaining probabilities should not depend on the values of the given probabilities. This condition induces functional equations whose solution generates the additive form. To find the function ? we assign two distributions in separate spaces from separate expectation values; then assign a joint distribution by taking these same values to be expectations of its marginals; then require these marginals to be the same as the separately assigned distributions. The resulting functional equations have only one viable solution-the entropic form ?(z)=-z ln z. The exploitation of marginal distributions is due to Shore and Johnson [1], but the present derivation uses weaker axioms that require only consistency with the sum and product rules. In contrast to the information-theoretic derivation of Shannon [2], no interpretation of the maximand functional is involved. .

Garrett, Anthony J. M.

2001-05-01

447

Non-uniformly sampled Maximum Quantum spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum-Quantum (MaxQ) NMR is an approach that exploits the simple lineshape (a singlet) of the highest possible coherence quantum order for a given spin system to help resolving the interpretation of the spectrum of complex mixtures. In this setup, resolution in the indirect, multiple-quantum, dimension is crucial, and it may be linked to a long duration of the signal acquired along this axis. We explored if this boundary on the length of the indirect dimension could not necessarily translate into extended experimental times by applying Non-Uniform Sampling (NUS) schemes in conjunction with Recursive Multi-Dimensional Decomposition (R-MDD) data processing. The actual value of the MaxQ order depends on the size of the spin system, so that for a mixture several MQ correlation spectra must be recorded to detect all possible molecular fragments. As the sparseness of the MQ datasets vary dramatically in going from higher (sparser) to lower (denser) coherence orders, the optimal compressing conditions and the fidelity of NUS/R-MDD scheme may vary along the series of MQ spectra. The NUS-MaxQ approach is demonstrated on the aromatic region of the 1H spectrum of a mixture of 10 simple aromatic molecules.

Piotto, Martial; Manjunatha Reddy, G. N.; Caldarelli, Stefano

2011-12-01

448

Are algal communities driven toward maximum biomass?  

PubMed Central

In this continental-scale study, we show that in major benthic and planktonic stream habitats, algal biovolume—a proxy measure of biomass—is a unimodal function of species richness (SR). The biovolume peak is observed at intermediate to high SR in the benthos but at low richness in the phytoplankton. The unimodal nature of the biomass–diversity relationship implies that a decline in algal biomass with potential harmful effects on all higher trophic levels, from invertebrates to fish, can result from either excessive species gain or species loss, both being common consequences of human-induced habitat alterations. SR frequency distributions indicate that the most frequent richness is habitat-specific and significantly higher in the benthos than in the plankton. In all studied stream environments, the most frequent SR is lower than the SR that yields the highest biovolume, probably as a result of anthropogenic influences, but always within one standard deviation from it, i.e. they are statistically indistinguishable. This suggests that algal communities may be driven toward maximum biomass. PMID:17002953

Passy, Sophia I; Legendre, Pierre

2006-01-01

449

Minimum maximum temperature gradient coil design.  

PubMed

Ohmic heating is a serious problem in gradient coil operation. A method is presented for redesigning cylindrical gradient coils to operate at minimum peak temperature, while maintaining field homogeneity and coil performance. To generate these minimaxT coil windings, an existing analytic method for simulating the spatial temperature distribution of single layer gradient coils is combined with a minimax optimization routine based on sequential quadratic programming. Simulations are provided for symmetric and asymmetric gradient coils that show considerable improvements in reducing maximum temperature over existing methods. The winding patterns of the minimaxT coils were found to be heavily dependent on the assumed thermal material properties and generally display an interesting "fish-eye" spreading of windings in the dense regions of the coil. Small prototype coils were constructed and tested for experimental validation and these demonstrate that with a reasonable estimate of material properties, thermal performance can be improved considerably with negligible change to the field error or standard figures of merit. PMID:23042696

While, Peter T; Poole, Michael S; Forbes, Larry K; Crozier, Stuart

2013-08-01

450

Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection  

SciTech Connect

The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.

Hogden, J.

1997-05-01

451

Liquid medication dispensing and dose monitoring: the CycloTech Cyclosporine Oral Solution Dispenser.  

PubMed

This liquid medication dispenser offers an easy, convenient means for accurate dispensing of medication. The ability of the device to store dose size, time to next dose, remaining available doses, and doses dispensed may allow for future analysis of patient behavior and improve compliance. PMID:10372052

Rossi, S J; McEnroe, D L; Tanner, T; Levy, R E; Pouletty, P

1999-06-01

452

Effect of Breathing Motion on Radiotherapy Dose Accumulation in the Abdomen Using Deformable Registration  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effect of breathing motion and dose accumulation on the planned radiotherapy dose to liver tumors and normal tissues using deformable image registration. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one free-breathing stereotactic liver cancer radiotherapy patients, planned on static exhale computed tomography (CT) for 27-60 Gy in six fractions, were included. A biomechanical model-based deformable image registration algorithm retrospectively deformed each exhale CT to inhale CT. This deformation map was combined with exhale and inhale dose grids from the treatment planning system to accumulate dose over the breathing cycle. Accumulation was also investigated using a simple rigid liver-to-liver registration. Changes to tumor and normal tissue dose were quantified. Results: Relative to static plans, mean dose change (range) after deformable dose accumulation (as % of prescription dose) was -1 (-14 to 8) to minimum tumor, -4 (-15 to 0) to maximum bowel, -4 (-25 to 1) to maximum duodenum, 2 (-1 to 9) to maximum esophagus, -2 (-13 to 4) to maximum stomach, 0 (-3 to 4) to mean liver, and -1 (-5 to 1) and -2 (-7 to 1) to mean left and right kidneys. Compared to deformable registration, rigid modeling had changes up to 8% to minimum tumor and 7% to maximum normal tissues. Conclusion: Deformable registration and dose accumulation revealed potentially significant dose changes to either a tumor or normal tissue in the majority of cases as a result of breathing motion. These changes may not be accurately accounted for with rigid motion.

Velec, Michael, E-mail: michael.velec@rmp.uhn.on.c [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Moseley, Joanne L. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Eccles, Cynthia L.; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.; Dawson, Laura A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

2011-05-01

453

41 CFR 302-7.2 - What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored... § 302-7.2 What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense? (a) The maximum weight allowance of HHG that may be...

2013-07-01

454

41 CFR 302-7.2 - What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored... § 302-7.2 What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense? The maximum weight allowance of HHG that may be...

2011-07-01

455

41 CFR 302-7.2 - What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored... § 302-7.2 What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense? (a) The maximum weight allowance of HHG that may be...

2012-07-01

456

41 CFR 302-7.2 - What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense?  

...2014-07-01 false What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored... § 302-7.2 What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense? (a) The maximum weight allowance of HHG that may be...

2014-07-01

457

Estimation of Pathogen Prevalence in Pooled Samples Using Maximum Likelihood Methods and Open-Source Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide the computer program code to estimate pathogen prevalence and calculate confidence intervals for estimates based on maximum likelihood methods for the open-source statistical and graphics package R and a commercially licensed statistical package, the Statistical Analysis System (SAS). We correct a previously published SAS program to allow use of newer versions of the SAS software and provide a

Christopher J. Williams; Christine M. Moffitt

2005-01-01

458

Broadband single cell impedance spectroscopy using maximum length sequences: theoretical analysis and practical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the dielectric (or impedance) properties of cells can be used as a general characterization and diagnostic tool. In this paper, we describe a novel impedance spectroscopy technique for the analysis of single biological cells in suspension. The technique uses maximum length sequences (MLS) for periodic excitation signal in a microfluidic impedance cytometer. The method allows multi-frequency single cell

Tao Sun; Shady Gawad; Catia Bernabini; Nicolas G. Green; Hywel Morgan

2007-01-01

459

Single-machine scheduling with periodic and flexible periodic maintenance to minimize maximum tardiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a single-machine scheduling problem with several maintenances periods. Specifically, two situations are investigated. In the first one, maintenance periods are periodically fixed: maintenance is required after a periodic time interval. In the second one, the maintenance is not fixed but the maximum continuous working time of the machine which is allowed is determined. The objective is to

Mohammed Sbihi; Christophe Varnier

2008-01-01

460

Maximum intensity projection by 3-dimensional seed filling in view lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we evaluate the performance of a seed filling algorithm operating in viewlattice when rendering maximum intensity projections (MIP). We evaluate the combinationof the seed filling algorithm and the template algorithm. We show that the templatealgorithm is a particularly attractive companion to the seed filling algorithm, becausethe template algorithm allows stepping in all six directions within the resampled

Jarkko T Oikarinen; Lasse J. Jyrkinen

1998-01-01

461

Direct determination of internal radiation dose in human blood  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to measure the internal radiation dose using a human blood sample. In the literature, there is no process that allows the direct measurement of the internal radiation dose received by a person. The luminescence counts from a blood sample having a laboratory-injected radiation dose and the waste blood of the patient injected with a radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes were both measured. The decay and dose-response curves were plotted for the different doses. The doses received by the different blood aliquots can be determined by interpolating the luminescence counts to the dose-response curve. This study shows that the dose received by a person can be measured directly, simply and retrospectively by using only a very small amount of blood sample. The results will have important ramifications for the medicine and healthcare fields in particular. This will also be very important in cases of suspicion of radiation poisoning, malpractice and so on.

Tan?r, Ayse Güne?

2014-01-01

462

Essays on the United States sulfur dioxide allowance market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, I study the U.S. SO2 allowance market. The first chapter conducts an empirical study of electric utility behavior under the SO2 allowance market. The probit models find that the uncertainty of PUC regulations may have caused them to shun the SO2 allowance market in favor of a strategy of fuel blending/switching while utilities responded to the allowance market efficiently. This implies that the allowance price would have been higher without PUC regulations. Local environmental regulations are also found to be responsible for the unexpectedly low allowance price. However, there is no evidence that the rate of return regulation has affected the fuel switching decision. In chapter 2, a competitive dynamic equilibrium of the SO2 allowance market is characterized and is numerically solved for several policy experiments. First, the competitive dynamic equilibrium with banking is solved. The allowance price is expected to go up to 302.60 dollars at the end of Phase II when the emission decreases to the Phase II target level. Cost savings from direct control is estimated to be 78% (18.1 billion dollars). Next, a competitive dynamic equilibrium of the allowance market without banking is examined. The cost saving from the banking is found to be 780.0 million dollars (13.34% cost saving). Another finding is that the investment behavior in the markets with and without banking are quite different despite the same SO2 emission reduction in the long run.

Arimura, Toshihide

463

Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Reduces the Dose to Normal Tissue Compared With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy or Passive Scattering Proton Therapy and Enables Individualized Radical Radiotherapy for Extensive Stage IIIB Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Virtual Clinical Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare dose volume histograms of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) with those of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) for the treatment of stage IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to explore the possibility of individualized radical radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose volume histograms designed to deliver IMRT at 60 to 63 Gy, PSPT at 74 Gy, and IMPT at the same doses were compared and the use of individualized radical radiotherapy was assessed in patients with extensive stage IIIB NSCLC (n = 10 patients for each approach). These patients were selected based on their extensive disease and were considered to have no or borderline tolerance to IMRT at 60 to 63 Gy, based on the dose to normal tissue volume constraints (lung volume receiving 20 Gy [V20] of <35%, total mean lung dose <20 Gy; spinal cord dose, <45 Gy). The possibility of increasing the total tumor dose with IMPT for each patient without exceeding the dose volume constraints (maximum tolerated dose [MTD]) was also investigated. Results: Compared with IMRT, IMPT spared more lung, heart, spinal cord, and esophagus, even with dose escalation from 63 Gy to 83.5 Gy, with a mean MTD of 74 Gy. Compared with PSPT, IMPT allowed further dose escalation from 74 Gy to a mean MTD of 84.4 Gy (range, 79.4-88.4 Gy) while all parameters of normal tissue sparing were kept at lower or similar levels. In addition, IMPT prevented lower-dose target coverage in patients with complicated tumor anatomies. Conclusions: IMPT reduces the dose to normal tissue and allows individualized radical radiotherapy for extensive stage IIIB NSCLC.

Zhang Xiaodong; Li Yupeng; Pan Xiaoning; Xiaoqiang, Li; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.or [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2010-06-01

464

40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed...Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed...engine power, displacement, and power density of an engine for the purposes of...

2010-07-01

465

40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed...Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed...engine power, displacement, and power density of an engine for the purposes of...

2011-07-01

466

Dose tracking and dose auditing in a comprehensive computed tomography dose-reduction program.  

PubMed

Implementation of a comprehensive computed tomography (CT) radiation dose-reduction program is a complex undertaking, requiring an assessment of baseline doses, an understanding of dose-saving techniques, and an ongoing appraisal of results. We describe the role of dose tracking in planning and executing a dose-reduction program and discuss the use of the American College of Radiology CT Dose Index Registry at our institution. We review the basics of dose-related CT scan parameters, the components of the dose report, and the dose-reduction techniques, showing how an understanding of each technique is important in effective auditing of "outlier" doses identified by dose tracking. PMID:25129210

Duong, Phuong-Anh; Little, Brent P

2014-08-01

467

Higher than Physician's Desk Reference (US) doses on atypical antipsychotics.  

PubMed

The Physician's Desk Reference (PDR) was established to provide for the practicing of a complete listing of all medications with the FDA-approved labelling, including dosage recommendations. Perhaps in order to maximise individual usage of medications, pharmaceutical companies have frequently targeted lowest possible doses for FDA approval. However, many patients with a variety of illnesses due to resistance and/or multiple illnesses, may need higher than these dose ranges to maximise therapeutic response. In terms of regularly prescribed atypical antipsychotics released over the past 10 years, only risperidone initially obtained approval for a dose for psychosis (16 mg) higher than that suggested currently (maximum of 8 mg). The dose that was approved for mania was lower: a maximum of 6 mg. The others: respectfully, olanzapine (schizophrenia: 15 mg, mania: 20 mg), quetiapine (schizophrenia: 750 mg; mania: 800 mg), ziprasidone (schizophrenia and mania: 160 mg) and aripiprazole (schizophrenia and mania: 30 mg) obtained approvals for psychosis that may limit adverse events but, at the same time, limit benefits. Other data from various sources (double-blind trials, open-label trials, reviews and case reports) have found safety and/or efficacy for the following maximum doses: olanzapine (40 mg), quetiapine (1600 mg), ziprasidone (320 mg) and aripiprazole (75 mg). Reports above those doses are included, but either are insufficient in numbers or bring up questions on safety. In many situations, feared increase in adverse events were not magnified by use of higher doses. PMID:16011445

Goodnick, Paul J

2005-07-01

468

Mars surface radiation exposure for solar maximum conditions and 1989 solar proton events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Langley heavy-ion/nucleon transport code, HZETRN, and the high-energy nucleon transport code, BRYNTRN, are used to predict the propagation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) and solar flare protons through the carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars. Particle fluences and the resulting doses are estimated on the surface of Mars for GCR's during solar maximum conditions and the Aug., Sep., and Oct. 1989 solar proton events. These results extend previously calculated surface estimates for GCR's at solar minimum conditions and the Feb. 1956, Nov. 1960, and Aug. 1972 solar proton events. Surface doses are estimated with both a low-density and a high-density carbon dioxide model of the atmosphere for altitudes of 0, 4, 8, and 12 km above the surface. A solar modulation function is incorporated to estimate the GCR dose variation between solar minimum and maximum conditions over the 11-year solar cycle. By using current Mars mission scenarios, doses to the skin, eye, and blood-forming organs are predicted for short- and long-duration stay times on the Martian surface throughout the solar cycle.

Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

1992-01-01

469

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-print Network

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air and the Columbia River April 21,1994 TheTechnid Steering Panel of the Hanford - Environmental Dose Reconstruction than 40years, the U.S. Government made plutonium for nuclear weapons at the Hanford

470

Paper-Thin Coating Offers Maximum Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wessex Incorporated has recently taken a technology that was originally developed for NASA as a protective coating for ceramic materials used in heatshields for space vehicles, and modified it for use in applications such as building materials, machinery, and transportation. The technology, developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a protective coating for flexible ceramic composites (PCC), is environmentally safe, water-based, and contains no solvents. Many other flame-retardant materials contain petroleum-based components, which can produce toxic smoke under flame. Wessex versions of PCC can be used to shield ceramics, wood, plasterboard, steel, plastics, fiberglass, and other materials from catastrophic fires. They are extraordinarily tough and exhibit excellent resistance to thermal shock, vibration, abrasion, and mechanical damage. One thin layer of coating provides necessary protection and allows for flexibility while avoiding excessive weight disadvantages. The coating essentially reduces the likelihood of the underlying material becoming so hot that it combusts and thus inhibits the "flashover" phenomenon from occurring.

2001-01-01

471

Maximum Flux Transition Paths of Conformational Change  

PubMed Central

Given two metastable states A and B of a biomolecular system, the problem is to calculate the likely paths of the transition from A to B. Such a calculation is more informative and more manageable if done for a reduced set of collective variables chosen so that paths cluster in collective variable space. The computational task becomes that of computing the “center” of such a cluster. A good way to define the center employs the concept of a committor, whose value at a point in collective variable space is the probability that a trajectory at that point will reach B before A. The committor “foliates” the transition region into a set of isocommittors. The maximum flux transition path is defined as a path that crosses each isocommittor at a point which (locally) has the highest crossing rate of distinct reactive trajectories. This path is based on the same principle as the minimum resistance path of Berkowitz et al (1983), but it has two advantages: (i) the path is invariant with respect to a change of coordinates in collective variable space and (ii) the differential equations that define the path are simpler. It is argued that such a path is nearer to an ideal path than others that have been proposed with the possible exception of the finite-temperature string method path. To make the calculation tractable, three approximations are introduced, yielding a path that is the solution of a nonsingular two-point boundary-value problem. For such a problem, one can construct a simple and robust algorithm. One such algorithm and its performance is discussed. PMID:20890401

Zhao, Ruijun; Shen, Juanfang; Skeel, Robert D.

2010-01-01

472

ISSO Information Alert Mozilla Vulnerabilities Could Allow Remote Code Execution  

E-print Network

MULTI-STATE INFORMATION SHARING AND ANALYSIS CENTER CYBER SECURITY ADVISORY MS-ISAC ADVISORY NUMBERISSO Information Alert 2/1/2012 Mozilla Vulnerabilities Could Allow Remote Code ExecutionRequest object to read these error messages, allowing user privacy to be eroded. Cross Domain Security Bypass

Dyer, Bill

473

38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An eligible...eligible to receive a work-study allowance when- (i) The...c) Utilization. Work-study services may be utilized in...Hospital and domiciliary care and medical treatment at VA...

2012-07-01

474

38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An eligible...eligible to receive a work-study allowance when- (i) The...c) Utilization. Work-study services may be utilized in...Hospital and domiciliary care and medical treatment at VA...

2011-07-01

475

38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An eligible...eligible to receive a work-study allowance when- (i) The...c) Utilization. Work-study services may be utilized in...Hospital and domiciliary care and medical treatment at VA...

2013-07-01

476

42 CFR 489.31 - Allowable charges: Blood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Allowable charges: Blood. 489.31 Section 489.31 Public...Charges § 489.31 Allowable charges: Blood. (a) Limitations on charges. ...behalf) only for the first three pints of blood or units of packed red cells...

2010-10-01

477

Allowance trading: Correcting the past and looking to the future  

SciTech Connect

Allowance trading is basic to the Title IV acid rain provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) in the United States; the provisions seek to achieve a 10-million-ton reduction in annual sulfur dioxide emissions from the electric power utility industry. Allowance trading, a market-based approach, is conceptually similar to the emissions trading policy of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). An allowance is defined as the authorization to emit, during or after a specified calendar year, one ton of sulfur dioxide. This paper provides an overview of the allowance trading program by summarizing some important features, particularly as they are responsive to limitations and concern as related to the precursor emissions trading program in the early to mid-1980s. Such features include a simple definition of baseline emission levels, encouragements for nationwide trading, disincentives for accumulation of excess allowance,s opportunities for leasing other short-term allowance transfer arrangements, enforcement provisions, and benefits of bonus allowances and early emission reductions. Adherence to implementation protocols for the acid rain provisions of Title IV of the CAAA will provide a good opportunity to evaluate this market-based approach for environmental quality management.

Shah, A.Y.; Canter, L.W. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Environmental and Ground Water Institute

1995-09-01

478

The economics of allowing more U.S. oil drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the likely impact of developing U.S. energy resources on oil prices. In addition, we examine the benefits and costs of allowing drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the areas of the Outer Continental Shelf that were until recently closed to drilling. We find that allowing oil drilling in ANWR and the off-limits OCS would be

Robert Hahn; Peter Passell

2010-01-01

479

Recommended DietaryAllowances and Third World Populations1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent publication in the United States of amended Recommended Dietary Allow- ances (RDA) (1), and in United Kingdom of corresponding data (2), make absorbing read- ing to those of us living in juxtaposition with different ethnic groups accustomed to very contrasting intakes of nutrients. It is appre- ciated that these allowances relate primarily to populations in Western contexts, and

A. R. P. Walker; B. F. Walker

480

46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or...

2013-10-01

481

46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or...

2012-10-01

482

46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or...

2011-10-01

483

46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or...

2010-10-01

484

15 CFR 241.7 - Tolerances to be allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...allowed in excess or in deficiency on the dimensions of all barrels of Class 1 shall be as...Length of stave 1/2 (1) If no dimension of a barrel of Class 1 is in error...allowed. (2) If one or more of the dimensions of a barrel of Class 1 is in...

2011-01-01

485

15 CFR 241.7 - Tolerances to be allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...allowed in excess or in deficiency on the dimensions of all barrels of Class 1 shall be as...Length of stave 1/2 (1) If no dimension of a barrel of Class 1 is in error...allowed. (2) If one or more of the dimensions of a barrel of Class 1 is in...

2010-01-01

486

Should the US allow prescription drug reimports from Canada?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of public outrage over lower prescription drug prices in Canada, Congress passed legislation that would allow these drugs to be imported into the US. The lower Canadian prices reflect price regulation. Opponents of allowing these imports have argued that the US will import Canadian price controls and that profits of pharmaceutical companies will be hurt. In this

Paul Pecorino

2002-01-01

487

45 CFR 1217.5 - Allowances and benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Allowances and benefits. The VISTA volunteer leader shall be entitled...allowances and benefits of a VISTA volunteer at the level which...all volunteers on his/her project, except that: (a) The...the date of selection of the VISTA volunteer leader....

2010-10-01

488

Ragnar Norberg Credibility PremiumPlanswhich Make Allowance  

E-print Network

Ragnar Norberg Credibility PremiumPlanswhich Make Allowance for Bonus Hunger Reprintedfrom-Allowance for BonusHunger Abstxact By "bonus-hunger" is meant the tendency of an experience rated policy holder the policy-holders hunger for bonus. In the first three sections some basic concepts of credibility theory

Maume-Deschamps, Véronique

489

Auctioning of EU ETS Phase II allowances: how and why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Directive on the EU ETS allows governments to auction up to 10% of the allowances issued in Phase II 2008-2012, without constraints specified thereafter. This paper reviews and extends the long-standing debate about auctioning, in which economists have generally supported and industries opposed greater use of auctioning. The paper clarifies the key issues by reviewing six ‘traditional’ considerations,

Cameron Hepburn; Michael Grubb; Karsten Neuhoff; Felix Matthes; Maximilien Tse

2006-01-01

490

Hospitality, Alcohol, and Other Special Expenses Allowability Grid  

E-print Network

Hospitality, Alcohol, and Other Special Expenses Allowability Grid 1/20/2012 Expense Type Purpose") Event must have a clear mission, outreach, or business-related purpose. No Yes No No Alcoholic beverages or Payroll Services. #12;Hospitality, Alcohol, and Other Special Expenses Allowability Grid Expense Type

Minnesota, University of

491

Creating a Bigger Bath Using the Deferred Tax Valuation Allowance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:?The provisions of SFAS No. 109 allow US companies to make an earnings big bath even bigger through the establishment of a deferred tax valuation allowance. At the time a firm recognizes a non-cash charge, it also recognizes a deferred tax asset to represent the future tax benefits of the charge. Recognition of the deferred tax asset partially mitigates the

Theodore E. Christensen; Gyung H. Paik; Earl K. Stice

2008-01-01

492

Cancer chemoprevention by dietary chlorophylls: a 12,000-animal dose-dose matrix biomarker and tumor study.  

PubMed

Recent pilot studies found natural chlorophyll (Chl) to inhibit carcinogen uptake and tumorigenesis in rodent and fish models, and to alter uptake and biodistribution of trace (14)C-aflatoxin B1 in human volunteers. The present study extends these promising findings, using a dose-dose matrix design to examine Chl-mediated effects on dibenzo(def,p)chrysene (DBC)-induced DNA adduct formation, tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and changes in gene regulation in the trout. The dose-dose matrix design employed an initial 12,360 rainbow trout, which were treated with 0-4000ppm dietary Chl along with 0-225ppm DBC for up to 4weeks. Dietary DBC was found to induce dose-responsive changes in gene expression that were abolished by Chl co-treatment, whereas Chl alone had no effect on the same genes. Chl co-treatment provided a dose-responsive reduction in total DBC-DNA adducts without altering relative adduct intensities along the chromatographic profile. In animals receiving DBC alone, liver tumor incidence (as logit) and tumor multiplicity were linear in DBC dose (as log) up to their maximum-effect dose, and declined thereafter. Chl co-treatment substantially inhibited incidence and multiplicity at DBC doses up to their maximum-effect dose. These results show that Chl concentrations encountered in Chl-rich green vegetables can provide substantial cancer chemoprotection, and suggest that they do so by reducing carcinogen bioavailability. However, at DBC doses above the optima, Chl co-treatments failed to inhibit tumor incidence and significantly enhanced multiplicity. This finding questions the human relevance of chemoprevention studies carried out at high carcinogen doses that are not proven to lie within a linear, or at least monotonic, endpoint dose-response range. PMID:22079312

McQuistan, Tammie J; Simonich, Michael T; Pratt, M Margaret; Pereira, Cliff B; Hendricks, Jerry D; Dashwood, Roderick H; Williams, David E; Bailey, George S

2012-02-01

493

Maximum tunneling velocities in symmetric double well potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to several prototypical molecular models of non-cyclic and cyclic tunneling, including ammonia inversion, Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, torsions of molecular fragments, and rotational tunneling in strong laser fields. Typical maximum velocities and angular velocities are in the order of a few km/s and from 10 to 100 THz for our non-cyclic and cyclic systems, respectively, much faster than time-averaged velocities. Even for the more extreme case of an electron tunneling through a barrier of height of one Hartree, the velocity is only about one percent of the speed of light. Estimates of the corresponding time scales for passing through the narrow domain just below the potential barrier are in the domain from 2 to 40 fs, much shorter than the tunneling times.

Manz, Jörn; Schild, Axel; Schmidt, Burkhard; Yang, Yonggang

2014-10-01

494

Assessment of public doses due to a neutron calibration bunker.  

PubMed

In this work, the expected neutron and gamma doses in the populated areas outside the newly constructed neutron calibration bunker at the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria will be assessed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4C2. The results showed that the maximum ambient dose equivalent rate (neutrons and gammas) outside the bunker would not exceed 0.5 microSv h(-1), assuming an Am-Be neutron source of emission rate of 10(8) n s(-1). The neutron dose is approximately 10 times higher than the photon dose. Sky shine contributes by about 25-50% of the neutron dose and 7-27% of the gamma dose, depending on the location. The simulation uncertainty due to the possible variations in the simulation parameters has been given particular importance. PMID:19946121

Suman, H; Kharita, M H; Yousef, S

2010-03-01

495

Allowable shipment frequencies for the transport of toxic gases near nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

One part of the safety analysis of offsite hazards for a nuclear power plant is consideration of accidents which could release toxic gases or vapors and thus jeopardize plant safety through incapacitation of the control room operators. The purpose of this work is to provide generic, bounding estimates of the maximum allowable shipping frequencies for the transport of a chemical near the plant, such that the regulatory criteria for the protection of the operators are met. A probabilistic methodology was developed and then applied to the truck and rail transport of an example chemical, chlorine. The current regulatory criteria are discussed in detail. For this study, a maximum allowable probability of occurrence of operator incapacitation of 10/sup -5/ per year was used in the example calculation for each mode of transport. Comprehe