Science.gov

Sample records for maximum allowable dose

  1. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  2. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  3. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  4. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  5. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  6. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  7. 5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Uniform Allowances § 591.103 Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...

  8. 5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Uniform Allowances § 591.103 Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...

  9. 5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Uniform Allowances § 591.103 Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...

  10. 5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Uniform Allowances § 591.103 Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...

  11. 5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Uniform Allowances § 591.103 Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...

  12. 32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide”...

  13. Studies on the toxicity and maximum allowable concentration of chloroform.

    PubMed

    Li, L H; Jiang, X Z; Liang, Y X; Chen, Z Q; Zhou, Y F; Wang, Y L

    1993-06-01

    Chloroform has obvious hepato-, nephro-toxicity and carcinogenicity. In order to get necessary data for recommendation of maximum allowable concentration of chloroform in workplace, a series of studies were carried out. The results showed that exposed workers mainly distributed in the industries of perspex processing, production of refrigerants, drugs and pesticides. The exposure level ranged 4.27-147.91 mg/m3 in 119 air samples collected from 3 representative worksites, with 45.4% air samples below 20 mg/m3. The workers exposed to chloroform at 29.51 mg/m3 had slight liver damage indicated by the higher rates of abnormal serum prealbumin and transferrin levels than those of control workers. The neurobehavioral functions of these workers were also obviously affected, manifested as increases in scores of passive mood states and dose-related negative changes in neurobehavioral testing. The observed effect threshold concentration of subacute inhalation in rats was 592 mg/m3 according to the observation on the biochemical changes in liver tissue and abnormal activities of serum enzymes. Mainly based on the above results, we recommended 20 mg/m3 as the Maximum Allowable Concentration in workplace in China at present. PMID:8397901

  14. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum loan; allowable costs. 800.200 Section 800.200 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.200 Maximum loan; allowable costs. (a) A loan under this regulation shall not exceed 75 percent...

  15. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  16. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  17. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  18. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  19. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  20. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal..., any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service delivery system do not exceed the amounts shown in... services, the plan must provide that the maximum deductible, coinsurance or co-payment charge for...

  1. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal..., any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service delivery system do not exceed the amounts shown in... services, the plan must provide that the maximum deductible, coinsurance or co-payment charge for...

  2. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal..., any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service delivery system do not exceed the amounts shown in... services, the plan must provide that the maximum deductible, coinsurance or co-payment charge for...

  3. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal..., any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service delivery system do not exceed the amounts shown in... services, the plan must provide that the maximum deductible, coinsurance or co-payment charge for...

  4. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  5. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  6. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  7. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  8. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  9. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable limits. 418.13 Section 418.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.13 Maximum...

  10. Prediction of Maximum Allowed RMS Currents for Electromigration Design Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishna, K.; Gall, M.; Justison, P.; Kawasaki, H.

    2004-12-08

    Experimentally verified, simulation-based three-dimensional models and methodology to predict temperature rise ({delta}T) above maximum junction temperature due to steady state Joule heating in copper interconnects have been developed. The models have been used to predict maximum allowed root mean squared (RMS) current, irms, in the interconnects to limit {delta}T to a chosen maximum. Effect of current, line location in the stack, dielectric materials and spacing between active lines has been investigated. For the first time, the effect of package type on {delta}T is addressed. A systematic investigation of Joule heating effects in a single line, effect of its unpowered neighbors and of vias has been carried out that logically culminated in a backend structure, which closely represents actual chip design. This structure is used to predict the maximum allowed irms values that limit {delta}T. Limitations of closed form solutions in predicting the maximum allowed irms values are delineated. The models have been implemented for a wide range of parameters of 90 and 130 nm technology nodes and are shown to be accurate within {+-}10% of the experimentally measured temperatures.

  11. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35,...

  12. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.86 Maximum allowable...) for shipments by rail. (b) For trains transporting any loaded, placarded tank cars containing...

  13. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.86 Maximum allowable...) for shipments by rail. (b) For trains transporting any loaded, placarded tank cars containing...

  14. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.86 Maximum allowable...) for shipments by rail. (b) For trains transporting any loaded, placarded tank cars containing...

  15. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.86 Maximum allowable...) for shipments by rail. (b) For trains transporting any loaded, placarded tank cars containing...

  16. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.86 Maximum allowable...) for shipments by rail. (b) For trains transporting any loaded, placarded tank cars containing...

  17. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to this request, the NRC first developed criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants, published in its 1992 report Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. Since then, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations has been reviewing NASA's documentation of chemical-specific SMAC's as described in the Introduction to this volume. This report is the third volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994 and the second in 1996.

  18. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMAC's for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee.

  19. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants, and to review SMACs for various space-craft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee On Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMACs for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMACs for approximately 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the SMAC reports for 12 chemical contaminants that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee. This report is the second volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994.

  20. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    To protect space crews from air contaminants, NASA requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) and review NASA's development of exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. The NRC convened the Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines to address this task. The committee published Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (NRC 1992). The reason for the review of chemicals in Volume 5 is that many of them have not been examined for more than 10 years, and new research necessitates examining the documents to ensure that they reflect current knowledge. New knowledge can be in the form of toxicologic data or in the application of new approaches for analysis of available data. In addition, because NASA anticipates longer space missions beyond low Earth orbit, SMACs for 1,000-d exposures have also been developed.

  1. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, D.M. |

    1996-12-31

    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the so called maximum allowable (or critical) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. This is the condition at which vapor blanketing is expected to be initiated. Phenomenological considerations demonstrate why the maximum allowable heat flux would be expected to be less than for single tubes. Hydrodynamic theory is applied to extend the results of Lienhard and Dhir to large submerged bundles and the consequent correlation is compared to the correlation of Palen and Small and the limited data available for saturated conditions. To date the main conclusion is that estimates of q{double_prime}{sub chf} are highly uncertain for this configuration.

  2. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC) reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists nd contractors recommending SMACs for approximately 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the SMAC reports for 12 chemical contaminants that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee. This report is the second volume in the series.

  3. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, D.M.

    1995-08-14

    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes}) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration.

  4. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report, prepared by the Committee on Toxicology of the National Research Council's Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, is in response to a request from NASA for guidelines to develop spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for space-station contaminants. SMACs are used to provide guidance on allowable chemical exposures during normal operations and emergency situations. Short-term SMACs refer to concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not compromise the performance of specific tasks during emergency conditions lasting up to 24 hours. Long-term SMACs are intended to avoid adverse health effects (either immediate or delayed) and to avoid degradation in crew performance with continuous exposure in a closed space-station environment for as long as 180 days.

  5. A comparison of minimum detectable and proposed maximum allowable soil concentration cleanup levels for selected radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Wood, J L; Benke, R R; Rohrer, S M; Kearfott, K J

    1999-04-01

    Regulations on the release of a radioactively contaminated site for unrestricted use are currently being established by the Environmental Protection Agency. The effective dose equivalent rate limit for the reasonably maximally exposed individual was proposed at 0.15 mSv y(-1). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not maximum allowable soil concentrations of common radionuclides corresponding to 0.15 mSv y(-1) are readily detectable. These maximum allowable soil concentrations were estimated using RESRAD. The RESRAD estimates account for an effective dose equivalent rate from external radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent rate from internal radiation delivering 0.15 mSv y(-1) to the reasonably maximally exposed individual. For Michigan and Arizona soil, the minimum detectable activities were calculated for a few radionuclides and compared to the RESRAD estimated maximum allowable concentrations. Considering only gamma-ray spectroscopy, this study found no evidence that concentrations of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in soil contributing to 0.15 mSv y(-1) were undetectable. PMID:10086603

  6. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Higher initial maximum uniform allowance... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Uniform Allowances § 591.104 Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance...

  7. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Higher initial maximum uniform allowance... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Uniform Allowances § 591.104 Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance...

  8. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Higher initial maximum uniform allowance... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Uniform Allowances § 591.104 Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance...

  9. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Higher initial maximum uniform allowance... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Uniform Allowances § 591.104 Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance...

  10. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Higher initial maximum uniform allowance... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Uniform Allowances § 591.104 Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance...

  11. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  12. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  13. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  14. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  15. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  16. 47 CFR 65.700 - Determining the maximum allowable rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Maximum Allowable Rates of Return § 65.700 Determining the maximum allowable rate of return. (a) The maximum allowable rate of return for any exchange carrier's earnings on any access service category shall...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to...Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds Table 1Three Inches Unbalance Degree of curvature 0 1/2 1 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 41/2 5 51/2 6 (12) Maximum allowable operating speed (mph) 030? 93 100 107 113 120 125...

  18. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192.621 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... STANDARDS Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

  19. 49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192.623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure;...

  20. Maximum recommended doses of local anesthetics: a multifactorial concept.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Per H; Veering, Bernadette Th; Urmey, William F

    2004-01-01

    The current recommendations regarding maximum doses of local anesthetics presented in textbooks, or by the responsible pharmaceutical companies, are not evidence based (ie, determined by randomized and controlled studies). Rather, decisions on recommending certain maximum local anesthetic doses have been made in part by extrapolations from animal experiments, clinical experiences from the use of various doses and measurement of blood concentrations, case reports of local anesthetic toxicity, and pharmacokinetic results. The common occurrence of central nervous system toxicity symptoms when large lidocaine doses were used in infiltration anesthesia led to the recommendation of just 200 mg as the maximum dose, which has remained unchanged for more than 50 years. In most cases, there is no scientific justification for presenting exact milligram doses or mg/kg doses as maximum dose recommendations. Instead, only clinically adequate and safe doses (ranges) that are block specific are justified, taking into consideration the site of local anesthetic injection and patient-related factors such as age, organ dysfunctions, and pregnancy, which may influence the effect and the pharmacokinetics of the local anesthetic. Epinephrine in concentrations of 2.5 to 5 microg/mL should be added to the local anesthetic solution when large doses are administered, providing there are no contraindications for the use of epinephrine. As a rule, conditions (eg, end-stage pregnancy, high age in epidural, or spinal block) or diseases (uremia) that may increase the rate of the initial uptake of the local anesthetic are indications to reduce the dose in comparison to one normally used for young, healthy, and nonpregnant adults. On the other hand, the reduced clearance of local anesthetics associated with renal, hepatic, and cardiac diseases is the most important reason to reduce the dose for repeated or continuous administration. The magnitude of the reduction should be related to the expected influence of the pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic change. PMID:15635516

  1. 77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Allowable Operating Pressure AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT... owners and operators of gas transmission pipelines that if the pipeline pressure exceeds maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus the build-up allowed for operation of pressure-limiting or...

  2. Increasing maximum tumor dose to manage range uncertainties in IMPT treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Steven; Seco, Joao; Kooy, Hanne

    2013-10-01

    The accuracy of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is sensitive to range uncertainties. Geometric margins, as dosimetric surrogates, are ineffective and robust optimization strategies are needed. These, however, lead to increased normal tissue dose. We explore here how this dose increase can be reduced by increasing the maximum tumor dose instead. We focus on range uncertainties, modeled by scaling the stopping powers 5% up (undershoot) or down (overshoot) compared to the nominal scenario. Robust optimization optimizes for target dose conformity in the most likely scenario, not the worst, while constraining target coverage for the worst-case scenario. Non-robust plans are also generated. Different maximum target doses are applied (105% versus 120% versus 140%) to investigate the effect on normal tissue dose reduction. The method is tested on a homogeneous and a lung phantom and on a liver patient. Target D99 of the robust plans equals the prescription dose of 60 GyEWe use the symbol GyE for the correct notation of Gy(RBE). for all scenarios, but decreases to 36 GyE for the non-robust plans. The mean normal tissue dose in a 2 cm ring around the target is 11% to 31% higher for the robust plans. This increase can be reduced to -8% and 3% (compared to the non-robust plan) by allowing a maximum tumor dose of 120% instead of 105%. Thus robustness leads to more normal tissue dose, but it can be compensated by allowing a higher maximum tumor dose.

  3. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of a maximum allowable operating pressure based on higher stress levels in the following areas: Take... pipeline at the increased stress level under this section with conventional operation; and (ii) Describe... allowed under this section. (iii) If headers, mainline valve by-passes, compressor station piping,...

  4. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of a maximum allowable operating pressure based on higher stress levels in the following areas: Take... pipeline at the increased stress level under this section with conventional operation; and (ii) Describe... allowed under this section. (iii) If headers, mainline valve by-passes, compressor station piping,...

  5. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of a maximum allowable operating pressure based on higher stress levels in the following areas: Take... pipeline at the increased stress level under this section with conventional operation; and (ii) Describe... allowed under this section. (iii) If headers, mainline valve by-passes, compressor station piping,...

  6. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of a maximum allowable operating pressure based on higher stress levels in the following areas: Take... pipeline at the increased stress level under this section with conventional operation; and (ii) Describe... allowed under this section. (iii) If headers, mainline valve by-passes, compressor station piping,...

  7. [Estimation of Maximum Entrance Skin Dose during Cerebral Angiography].

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Satoru; Moritake, Takashi; Hayakawa, Mikito; Hamada, Yusuke; Sakuma, Hideyuki; Yoda, Shogo; Satoh, Masayuki; Sun, Lue; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Akahane, Keiichi; Chida, Koichi; Matsumaru, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    Using radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter, we measured the entrance skin dose (ESD) in 46 cases and analyzed the correlations between maximum ESD and angiographic parameters [total fluoroscopic time (TFT); number of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) frames, air kerma at the interventional reference point (AK), and dose-area product (DAP)] to estimate the maximum ESD in real time. Mean (± standard deviation) maximum ESD, dose of the right lens, and dose of the left lens were 431.2 ± 135.8 mGy, 33.6 ± 15.5 mGy, and 58.5 ± 35.0 mGy, respectively. Correlation coefficients (r) between maximum ESD and TFT, number of DSA frames, AK, and DAP were r=0.379 (P<0.01), r=0.702 (P<0.001), r=0.825 (P<0.001), and r=0.709 (P<0.001), respectively. AK was identified as the most useful parameter for real-time prediction of maximum ESD. This study should contribute to the development of new diagnostic reference levels in our country. PMID:26400558

  8. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...—Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds Table 1—Three Inches Unbalance Degree of curvature 0 1/2 1 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 41/2 5 51/2 6 (12) Maximum allowable operating speed (mph) 0°30′ 93 100 107 113 120 125 131 136 141 146 151 156 160 0°40′ 80 87 93 98 103 109 113 118 122 127 131 135 139 0°50′ 72 78 83 88 93...

  9. Developability assessment of clinical drug products with maximum absorbable doses.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuan; Rose, John P; Van Gelder, Jan

    2012-05-10

    Maximum absorbable dose refers to the maximum amount of an orally administered drug that can be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum absorbable dose, or D(abs), has proved to be an important parameter for quantifying the absorption potential of drug candidates. The purpose of this work is to validate the use of D(abs) in a developability assessment context, and to establish appropriate protocol and interpretation criteria for this application. Three methods for calculating D(abs) were compared by assessing how well the methods predicted the absorption limit for a set of real clinical candidates. D(abs) was calculated for these clinical candidates by means of a simple equation and two computer simulation programs, GastroPlus and an program developed at Eli Lilly and Company. Results from single dose escalation studies in Phase I clinical trials were analyzed to identify the maximum absorbable doses for these compounds. Compared to the clinical results, the equation and both simulation programs provide conservative estimates of D(abs), but in general D(abs) from the computer simulations are more accurate, which may find obvious advantage for the simulations in developability assessment. Computer simulations also revealed the complex behavior associated with absorption saturation and suggested in most cases that the D(abs) limit is not likely to be achieved in a typical clinical dose range. On the basis of the validation findings, an approach is proposed for assessing absorption potential, and best practices are discussed for the use of D(abs) estimates to inform clinical formulation development strategies. PMID:22349050

  10. Guidelines for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for Space Station contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing to launch a manned space station by the year 1996. Because of concerns about the health, safety, and functioning abilities of the crews, NASA has requested that the National Research Council (NRC) through the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST) provide advice on toxicological matters for the space-station program. The Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants was established by the Committee on Toxicology (COT) to address NASA's concerns. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) are defined as the maximum concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not cause adverse health effects, significant discomfort, or degradation in crew performance.

  11. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 192.619, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Operations § 192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person...

  12. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 192.619, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Operations § 192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person...

  13. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 192.619, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Operations § 192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person...

  14. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 192.619, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Operations § 192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person...

  15. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 192.619, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Operations § 192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person...

  16. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  17. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  18. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... loadings listed in UG-22 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (see 46 CFR 54.01-30... vessel. (See Appendix 3 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1.) (b) The maximum allowable working pressure for a vessel part is the...

  19. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... loadings listed in UG-22 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (see 46 CFR 54.01-30... vessel. (See Appendix 3 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1.) (b) The maximum allowable working pressure for a vessel part is the...

  20. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... loadings listed in UG-22 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (see 46 CFR 54.01-30... vessel. (See Appendix 3 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1.) (b) The maximum allowable working pressure for a vessel part is the...

  1. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... loadings listed in UG-22 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (see 46 CFR 54.01-30... vessel. (See appendix 3 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1.) (b) The maximum allowable working pressure for a vessel part is the...

  2. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... loadings listed in UG-22 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (see 46 CFR 54.01-30... vessel. (See appendix 3 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1.) (b) The maximum allowable working pressure for a vessel part is the...

  3. 49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192.623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a low-pressure distribution system at a pressure high enough...

  4. 49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192.623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a low-pressure distribution system at a pressure high enough...

  5. 41 CFR 302-7.302 - What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? 302-7.302 Section 302-7.302 Public Contracts and Property Management...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT...

  6. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of a maximum allowable operating pressure based on higher stress levels in the following areas: Take... pipeline at the increased stress level under this section with conventional operation; and (ii) Describe...) Perform the following when evaluating an anomaly: (A) Use the most conservative calculation...

  7. 46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an increase in the pressure settings of its safety valves shall not be granted unless the boiler design meets the requirements of this subchapter in effect at the time the boiler was contracted for or built; but in no case will a...

  8. Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves

    SciTech Connect

    Frome, E.L; DuFrain, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between the yield of dicentric chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The dicentric yields follow the Poisson distribution, and the expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose for low LET radiation. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been obtained by Kellerer and Rossi using the theory of dual radiation action. The yield of elementary lesions is kappa(..gamma..d + g(t, tau)d/sup 2/), where t is the time and d is dose. The coefficient of the d/sup 2/ term is determined by the recovery function and the temporal mode of irradiation. Two special cases of practical interest are split-dose and continuous exposure experiments, and the resulting models are intrinsically nonlinear in the parameters. A general purpose maximum likelihood estimation procedure is described and illustrated with numerical examples from both experimental designs. Poisson regression analysis is used for estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression diagnostics. Results are discussed in the context of exposure assessment procedures for both acute and chronic human radiation exposure.

  9. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, Shannon D.

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

  10. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    SciTech Connect

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  11. Pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled particles and the maximum tolerated dose.

    PubMed Central

    Oberdörster, G

    1997-01-01

    Chronic inhalation bioassays in rodents are used to assess pulmonary carcinogenicity for purposes of hazard identification and potentially for risk characterization. The influence of high experimental doses on tumor development has been recognized for some time and has led to the concept of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for dose selection, with the highest dose being at the MTD. Exposure at the MTD should ensure that the animals are sufficiently challenged while at the same time the animal's normal longevity is not altered from effects other than carcinogenicity. A characteristic of exposure-dose-response relationships for chronically inhaled particles is that lung tumors are significantly increased only at high exposure levels, and that lung tumors are seen in rats only but not in mice or hamsters. This lung tumor response in rats is thought to be secondary to persistent alveolar inflammation, indicating that the MTD may have been exceeded. Thus, mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity may be dose dependent and may not operate at lower doses that humans normally experience. Despite awareness of this problem, carcinogenicity bioassays that evaluate particulate compounds in rodents have not always been designed with the MTD concept in mind. This is due to several problems associated with determining an appropriate MTD for particle inhalation studies. One requirement for the MTD is that some toxicity should be observed. However, it is difficult to define what degree of toxic response is indicative of the MTD. For particle inhalation studies, various noncancer end points in addition to mortality and body weight gain have been considered as indicators of the MTD, i.e., pulmonary inflammation, increased epithelial cell proliferation, increased lung weight, impairment of particle clearance function, and significant histopathological findings at the end of a subchronic study. However, there is no general agreement about quantification of these end points to define the MTD. To determine whether pulmonary responses are indicative of the MTD, we suggest defining an MTD based on results of a multidose subchronic and chronic inhalation study with a known human particulate carcinogen, e.g., asbestos or crystalline silica. Quantification of effects in such a study using the noncancer end points listed above would identify a dose level without significant signs of toxicity at the end of the subchronic study. If this dose level still results in significant lung tumor incidence at the end of the chronic study. We will have a sound basis for characterizing the MTD and justifying its use in future particle inhalation studies. Also, a better understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of particle-induced lung tumors is needed to support the MTD concept. PMID:9400749

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Unbalance Elevation of outer rail (inches) 0 1/2 1 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 41/2 5 51/2 6 Degree of curvature Maximum allowable operating speed (m.p.h.) 0°30′ 93 100 107 113 120 125 131 136 141 146 151 156 160 0°40′ 80 87 93 98 104 109 113 118 122 127 131 135 139 0°50′ 72 77 83 88 93 97 101 106 110 113 117 121 124...

  13. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  14. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  15. Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J

    2015-11-17

    Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions. PMID:26480926

  16. Toxicological approach to setting spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, K. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are exposure limits for airborne chemicals used by NASA in spacecraft. The aim of these SMACs is to protect the spacecrew against adverse health effects and performance decrements that would interfere with mission objectives. Because of the 1 and 24 hr SMACs are set for contingencies, minor reversible toxic effects that do not affect mission objectives are acceptable. The 7, 30, or 180 day SMACs are aimed at nominal operations, so they are established at levels that would not cause noncarcinogenic toxic effects and more than one case of tumor per 1000 exposed individuals over the background. The process used to set the SMACs for carbon monoxide (CO) is described to illustrate the approach used by NASA. After the toxicological literature on CO was reviewed, the data were summarized and separated into acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity data. CO's toxicity depends on the formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood, reducing the blood's oxygen carrying capacity. The initial task was to estimate the COHb levels that would not produce toxic effects in the brain and heart.

  17. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. 84.97 Section 84.97 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.97 Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a)...

  18. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. 84.97 Section 84.97 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.97 Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a)...

  19. 77 FR 56591 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Maximum Allowable Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Allowable Emission of Particulate Matter From Fuel Burning Equipment Used for Indirect Heating AGENCY... Allowable Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions from Fuel Burning Equipment Used for...

  20. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., pressures, gas compositions, pipe grade and operating stress levels, including maximum pressures and minimum... must be hydrostatically tested at the mill at a test pressure corresponding to a hoop stress of 95... hoop stress of 90 percent SMYS for 10 seconds. (f) Coating (1) The pipe must be protected...

  1. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., pressures, gas compositions, pipe grade and operating stress levels, including maximum pressures and minimum... must be hydrostatically tested at the mill at a test pressure corresponding to a hoop stress of 95... hoop stress of 90 percent SMYS for 10 seconds. (f) Coating (1) The pipe must be protected...

  2. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., pressures, gas compositions, pipe grade and operating stress levels, including maximum pressures and minimum... must be hydrostatically tested at the mill at a test pressure corresponding to a hoop stress of 95... hoop stress of 90 percent SMYS for 10 seconds. (f) Coating (1) The pipe must be protected...

  3. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., pressures, gas compositions, pipe grade and operating stress levels, including maximum pressures and minimum... must be hydrostatically tested at the mill at a test pressure corresponding to a hoop stress of 95... hoop stress of 90 percent SMYS for 10 seconds. (f) Coating (1) The pipe must be protected...

  4. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., pressures, gas compositions, pipe grade and operating stress levels, including maximum pressures and minimum... must be hydrostatically tested at the mill at a test pressure corresponding to a hoop stress of 95... hoop stress of 90 percent SMYS for 10 seconds. (f) Coating (1) The pipe must be protected...

  5. Heterogeneity-corrected vs -uncorrected critical structure maximum point doses in breast balloon brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Leonard; Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) ⁎ 0.930 (R{sup 2} = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) ⁎ 0.955 (R{sup 2} = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor.

  6. [Tolerance in the substantiation of the maximum allowable content of antibiotics in food products].

    PubMed

    Rakitskiĭ, V N; Sinitskaia, T A; CHkhvirkiia, E G; Nikolaeva, N I

    2013-01-01

    Provides the ability to use the principle of tolerance in substantiation of the maximum permissible levels (MDU) residual amounts of antibiotics of tetracycline group (ATG) in meat and dairy products. Using the data of monitoring research of food products, carried out in 2005-2011, in the system of Rospotrebnadzor was conducted analysis of the levels of tolerance of residual quantities of ATG in the meat, meat by-products, chicken eggs, milk, dairy and other products. The conclusion weas made that the Russian Federation hygienic norm MDU of ATG of meat and dairy products - 0.,01 mg/kg (SanPiN2.3.2.2804-10) - justified, consistent with the principle of tolerance and reduces the risk of negative consequences for the population. PMID:24000700

  7. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Change in class location: Confirmation or revision...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.611 Change in class location: Confirmation or revision... location, and the segment is in satisfactory physical condition, the maximum allowable operating...

  8. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Change in class location: Confirmation or revision...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.611 Change in class location: Confirmation or revision... location, and the segment is in satisfactory physical condition, the maximum allowable operating...

  9. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Change in class location: Confirmation or revision...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.611 Change in class location: Confirmation or revision... location, and the segment is in satisfactory physical condition, the maximum allowable operating...

  10. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.611 Section 192.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE...

  11. 41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Am I limited to the... RESPONSIBILITY General § 304-3.11 Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense... foreign areas may not be exceeded....

  12. 41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Am I limited to the... RESPONSIBILITY General § 304-3.11 Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense... foreign areas may not be exceeded....

  13. 41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Am I limited to the... RESPONSIBILITY General § 304-3.11 Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense... foreign areas may not be exceeded....

  14. 41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Am I limited to the... RESPONSIBILITY General § 304-3.11 Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense... foreign areas may not be exceeded....

  15. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  16. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  17. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  18. The effect of maximum-allowable payload temperature on the mass of a multimegawatt space-based platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-08-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the mass of a space-based platform as a function of the maximum-allowed operating temperature of the electrical equipment within the platform payload. Two computer programs were used in conjunction to perform these calculations. The first program was used to determine the mass of the platform reactor, shield, and power conversion system. The second program was used to determine the mass of the main and secondary radiators of the platform. The main radiator removes the waste heat associated with the power conversion system and the secondary radiator removes the waste heat associated with the platform payload. These calculations were performed for both Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with two different types of payload cooling systems: a pumped-loop system (a heat exchanger with a liquid coolant) and a refrigerator system. The results indicate that increases in the maximum-allowed payload temperature offer significant platform mass savings for both the Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with either the pumped-loop or refrigerator payload cooling systems. Therefore, with respect to platform mass, the development of high temperature electrical equipment would be advantageous. 3 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Calculation of maximum allowable free span length and safety assessment of the DF1-1 submarine pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jishang; Li, Guangxue; Horrillo, Juan J.; Yang, Rongmin; Cao, Lihua

    2010-03-01

    The DF1-1 submarine pipeline was investigated using a dual-frequency side-scan sonar and a swath sounder system. More than a hundred scour pits under the pipeline were found, most of which have caused the span of the pipeline to increase and threatened its safety. The maximum allowable free span length (MAFSL) of the pipeline was determined through the limitations regarding maximum allowable stress under static or quasi-static loads and the onset of Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV) under different hydrodynamic actions. The results show that the MAFSL under static conditions is 56 m. However, the MAFSLs are 30 m and 20 m under ordinary weather conditions and hurricane-induced currents for the 100-year return period, respectively, to avoid VIV as calculated by using the highest safety class factor. It is suggested that spanning pipelines longer than 20 m should be supported. Additionally, eight successive spans which may also threaten the pipeline were proposed. The most hazardous scour pits are along the pipeline section from KP42 to KP51.

  20. A fourier analysis on the maximum acceptable grid size for discrete proton beam dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Li, Haisen S; Romeijn, H Edwin; Dempsey, James F

    2006-09-01

    We developed an analytical method for determining the maximum acceptable grid size for discrete dose calculation in proton therapy treatment plan optimization, so that the accuracy of the optimized dose distribution is guaranteed in the phase of dose sampling and the superfluous computational work is avoided. The accuracy of dose sampling was judged by the criterion that the continuous dose distribution could be reconstructed from the discrete dose within a 2% error limit. To keep the error caused by the discrete dose sampling under a 2% limit, the dose grid size cannot exceed a maximum acceptable value. The method was based on Fourier analysis and the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem as an extension of our previous analysis for photon beam intensity modulated radiation therapy [J. F. Dempsey, H. E. Romeijn, J. G. Li, D. A. Low, and J. R. Palta, Med. Phys. 32, 380-388 (2005)]. The proton beam model used for the analysis was a near monoenergetic (of width about 1% the incident energy) and monodirectional infinitesimal (nonintegrated) pencil beam in water medium. By monodirection, we mean that the proton particles are in the same direction before entering the water medium and the various scattering prior to entrance to water is not taken into account. In intensity modulated proton therapy, the elementary intensity modulation entity for proton therapy is either an infinitesimal or finite sized beamlet. Since a finite sized beamlet is the superposition of infinitesimal pencil beams, the result of the maximum acceptable grid size obtained with infinitesimal pencil beam also applies to finite sized beamlet. The analytic Bragg curve function proposed by Bortfeld [T. Bortfeld, Med. Phys. 24, 2024-2033 (1997)] was employed. The lateral profile was approximated by a depth dependent Gaussian distribution. The model included the spreads of the Bragg peak and the lateral profiles due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The dependence of the maximum acceptable dose grid size on the orientation of the beam with respect to the dose grid was also investigated. The maximum acceptable dose grid size depends on the gradient of dose profile and in turn the range of proton beam. In the case that only the phantom scattering was considered and that the beam was aligned with the dose grid, grid sizes from 0.4 to 6.8 mm were required for proton beams with ranges from 2 to 30 cm for 2% error limit at the Bragg peak point. A near linear relation between the maximum acceptable grid size and beam range was observed. For this analysis model, the resolution requirement was not significantly related to the orientation of the beam with respect to the grid. PMID:17022247

  1. A Fourier analysis on the maximum acceptable grid size for discrete proton beam dose calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haisen S.; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Dempsey, James F.

    2006-09-15

    We developed an analytical method for determining the maximum acceptable grid size for discrete dose calculation in proton therapy treatment plan optimization, so that the accuracy of the optimized dose distribution is guaranteed in the phase of dose sampling and the superfluous computational work is avoided. The accuracy of dose sampling was judged by the criterion that the continuous dose distribution could be reconstructed from the discrete dose within a 2% error limit. To keep the error caused by the discrete dose sampling under a 2% limit, the dose grid size cannot exceed a maximum acceptable value. The method was based on Fourier analysis and the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem as an extension of our previous analysis for photon beam intensity modulated radiation therapy [J. F. Dempsey, H. E. Romeijn, J. G. Li, D. A. Low, and J. R. Palta, Med. Phys. 32, 380-388 (2005)]. The proton beam model used for the analysis was a near mono-energetic (of width about 1% the incident energy) and monodirectional infinitesimal (nonintegrated) pencil beam in water medium. By monodirection, we mean that the proton particles are in the same direction before entering the water medium and the various scattering prior to entrance to water is not taken into account. In intensity modulated proton therapy, the elementary intensity modulation entity for proton therapy is either an infinitesimal or finite sized beamlet. Since a finite sized beamlet is the superposition of infinitesimal pencil beams, the result of the maximum acceptable grid size obtained with infinitesimal pencil beam also applies to finite sized beamlet. The analytic Bragg curve function proposed by Bortfeld [T. Bortfeld, Med. Phys. 24, 2024-2033 (1997)] was employed. The lateral profile was approximated by a depth dependent Gaussian distribution. The model included the spreads of the Bragg peak and the lateral profiles due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The dependence of the maximum acceptable dose grid size on the orientation of the beam with respect to the dose grid was also investigated. The maximum acceptable dose grid size depends on the gradient of dose profile and in turn the range of proton beam. In the case that only the phantom scattering was considered and that the beam was aligned with the dose grid, grid sizes from 0.4 to 6.8 mm were required for proton beams with ranges from 2 to 30 cm for 2% error limit at the Bragg peak point. A near linear relation between the maximum acceptable grid size and beam range was observed. For this analysis model, the resolution requirement was not significantly related to the orientation of the beam with respect to the grid.

  2. FDA-sunlamp recommended Maximum Timer Interval And Exposure Schedule: consensus ISO/CIE dose equivalence.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, John C; Czako, Eugene A; Stepp, Michael E; Schlitt, Steven C; Bender, Gregory R; Khan, Lateef U; Shinneman, Kenneth D; Karos, Manuel G; Shepherd, James G; Sayre, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    The authors compared calculations of sunlamp maximum exposure times following current USFDA Guidance Policy on the Maximum Timer Interval and Exposure Schedule, with USFDA/CDRH proposals revising these to equivalent erythemal exposures of ISO/CIE Standard Erythema Dose (SED). In 2003, [USFDA/CDRH proposed replacing their unique CDRH/Lytle] erythema action spectrum with the ISO/CIE erythema action spectrum and revising the sunlamp maximum exposure timer to 600 J m(-2) ISO/CIE effective dose, presented as being biologically equivalent. Preliminary analysis failed to confirm said equivalence, indicating instead ∼38% increased exposure when applying these proposed revisions. To confirm and refine this finding, a collaboration of tanning bed and UV lamp manufacturers compiled 89 UV spectra representing a broad sampling of U.S. indoor tanning equipment. USFDA maximum recommended exposure time (Te) per current sunlamp guidance and CIE erythemal effectiveness per ISO/CIE standard were calculated. The CIE effective dose delivered per Te averaged 456 J(CIE) m(-2) (SD = 0.17) or ∼4.5 SED. The authors found that CDRH's proposed 600 J(CIE) m(-2) recommended maximum sunlamp exposure exceeds current Te erythemal dose by ∼33%. The current USFDA 0.75 MED initial exposure was ∼0.9 SED, consistent with 1.0 SED initial dose in existing international sunlamp standards. As no sunlamps analyzed exceeded 5 SED, a revised maximum exposure of 500 J(CIE) m(-2) (∼80% of CDRH's proposal) should be compatible with existing tanning equipment. A tanning acclimatization schedule is proposed beginning at 1 SED thrice-weekly, increasing uniformly stepwise over 4 wk to a 5 SED maximum exposure in conjunction with a tan maintenance schedule of twice-weekly 5 SED sessions, as biologically equivalent to current USFDA sunlamp policy. PMID:21799338

  3. MAXINE: An improved methodology for estimating maximum individual dose from chronic atmospheric radioactive releases

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1994-02-01

    An EXCEL{reg_sign} spreadsheet has been developed that, when combined with the PC version of XOQDOQ, will generate estimates of maximum individual dose from routine atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The spreadsheet, MAXINE, utilizes a variety of atmospheric dispersion factors to calculate radiation dose as recommended by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Regulatory Guide 1.109 [USNRC 1977a]. The methodology suggested herein includes use of both the MAXINE spreadsheet and the PC version of XOQDOQ.

  4. Dose consequence of repository failure and leach events for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. [Dose-to-age-specific maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, S.

    1980-11-01

    The consequence of repository breaching followed by hydrogeologic transport of radioactivity to the biosphere has been assessed in terms of dose to age specific maximum individuals. The dose assessment calculations include environmental transport via drinking water, irrigation pathways, stock watering, and water related recreation pathways where applicable. A principal assumption in this analysis is that the radioactice material and its containers undergo dissolution at the same rate as the repository media. The analysis concludes that postulated releases to the Pecos River at Malaga Bend and subsequent use of the contaminated water for 1 yr would not result in exceeding the recommended dose limit of 500 mrem/yr for the total body of the maximum individual of a population group. Additionally, 4.5 x 10/sup 4/ years of release at the worst release rate assuming no decay or other environmental removal would be required before the total body dose limit would be exceeded. For the bone, 7.1 x 10/sup 4/ yrs of continuous release at the worst level would be required before the 1500 mrem/yr limit would be exceeded. Thus, it is apparent that when environmental removal by decay and other mechanisms is considered , long-term impact of accumulation of nuclides in the environment as a result of these scenarios is insignificant with respect to maximum individual exposure. In conclusion, neither the hypothetical and conservative repsitory failure events leading to discharges of contaminated water at Malaga bend nor discharges to a postulated well in the Rustler aquifer with subsequent use by humans results in any dose limit being exceeded.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  8. Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.

    PubMed Central

    Backer, H; Hollowell, J

    2000-01-01

    Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time. PMID:10964787

  9. Main clinical, therapeutic and technical factors related to patient's maximum skin dose in interventional cardiology procedures

    PubMed Central

    Journy, N; Sinno-Tellier, S; Maccia, C; Le Tertre, A; Pirard, P; Pagès, P; Eilstein, D; Donadieu, J; Bar, O

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to characterise the factors related to the X-ray dose delivered to the patient's skin during interventional cardiology procedures. Methods We studied 177 coronary angiographies (CAs) and/or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties (PTCAs) carried out in a French clinic on the same radiography table. The clinical and therapeutic characteristics, and the technical parameters of the procedures, were collected. The dose area product (DAP) and the maximum skin dose (MSD) were measured by an ionisation chamber (Diamentor; Philips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) and radiosensitive film (Gafchromic; International Specialty Products Advanced Materials Group, Wayne, NJ). Multivariate analyses were used to assess the effects of the factors of interest on dose. Results The mean MSD and DAP were respectively 389 mGy and 65 Gy cm−2 for CAs, and 916 mGy and 69 Gy cm−2 for PTCAs. For 8% of the procedures, the MSD exceeded 2 Gy. Although a linear relationship between the MSD and the DAP was observed for CAs (r=0.93), a simple extrapolation of such a model to PTCAs would lead to an inadequate assessment of the risk, especially for the highest dose values. For PTCAs, the body mass index, the therapeutic complexity, the fluoroscopy time and the number of cine frames were independent explanatory factors of the MSD, whoever the practitioner was. Moreover, the effect of technical factors such as collimation, cinematography settings and X-ray tube orientations on the DAP was shown. Conclusion Optimising the technical options for interventional procedures and training staff on radiation protection might notably reduce the dose and ultimately avoid patient skin lesions. PMID:22457404

  10. Determination of Maximum Tolerated Dose and Toxicity of Inauhzin in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Zeng, Shelya X.; Lu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Reactivating the tumor suppressor p53 offers an attractive strategy for developing cancer therapy. We recently identified Inauhzin (INZ) as a novel non-genotoxic p53-activating compound. To develop INZ into a clinically applicable anticancer drug, we have initiated preclinical toxicity studies. Here, we report our study on determining the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of INZ analog, Inauhzin-C (INZ (C)), following intraperitoneal (i.p) administration (Phase A) and its toxicity following i.p administration over a period of 5-day dosing plus 2-day recovery (Phase B) in CD-1 mice. The phase A study showed that the MTD of INZ (C) is 200 mg/kg for female and 250 mg/kg for male, respectively. The phase B study showed that the administration of INZ (C) via 5-day consecutive i.p injection is tolerated by female CD-1 mice at all dose levels tested from 50mg/kg to 120 mg/kg without significant changes in biochemical and pathological parameters in the animals. Together, these results indicate that our previously determined effective dose of INZ at 30–60 mg/kg via i.p is quite safe to mice, and imply that this compound have the features worthy for further development into a clinically applicable drug. PMID:26167454

  11. Maximum likelihood estimates of mean and variance of occupation radiation doses subjected to minimum detection levels.

    PubMed

    Datta, D; Singh, Sanjay; Johnson, B E; Kushwaha, H S

    2008-01-01

    Data collection and its analysis in the field of nuclear safety is an important task in the sense that it powers the improvement of safety as well as reliability of the plant. Thus, occupational exposure data analysis is presented to measure the safety or reliability of radiation protection of a given facility. It also is required as a basic input in making decisions on radiation protection regulations and recommendations. A common practice in radiation protection is to record a zero for observation below minimum detection limit (MDL) doses, which leads to an underestimation of true doses and overestimation of the dose-response relationship. Exposure data (both external and internal) are collected by monitoring each individual and this kind of monitoring generally is graded as low-level monitoring. So, in such low-level monitoring, the occurrence of exposure below MDL invites statistical complications for estimating mean and variance because the data are generally censored, i.e observations below MDL are marked. In Type I censoring, the point of censoring (e.g. the detection limit) is 'fixed' a priori for all observations and the number of the censored observations varies. In Type II censoring, the number of censored observations is fixed a priori, and the point of censoring vary. The methodology generally followed in estimating mean and variance with these censored data was the replacement of missing dose by half the MDL. In this paper, authors have used the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach for the estimation of mean and standard deviation. A computer code BDLCENSOR has been developed in which all these MLE-based advanced algorithms are implemented. In addition to the MLE-based method, an expectation maximisation algorithm has also been implemented. The code is written using Visual BASIC 6.0. The paper describes the details of the algorithms adopted for handling such censored data to estimate bias free mean and standard deviation. PMID:18083720

  12. Comparison of measured and estimated maximum skin doses during CT fluoroscopy lung biopsies

    SciTech Connect

    Zanca, F.; Jacobs, A.; Crijns, W.; De Wever, W.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To measure patient-specific maximum skin dose (MSD) associated with CT fluoroscopy (CTF) lung biopsies and to compare measured MSD with the MSD estimated from phantom measurements, as well as with the CTDIvol of patient examinations. Methods: Data from 50 patients with lung lesions who underwent a CT fluoroscopy-guided biopsy were collected. The CT protocol consisted of a low-kilovoltage (80 kV) protocol used in combination with an algorithm for dose reduction to the radiology staff during the interventional procedure, HandCare (HC). MSD was assessed during each intervention using EBT2 gafchromic films positioned on patient skin. Lesion size, position, total fluoroscopy time, and patient-effective diameter were registered for each patient. Dose rates were also estimated at the surface of a normal-size anthropomorphic thorax phantom using a 10 cm pencil ionization chamber placed at every 30°, for a full rotation, with and without HC. Measured MSD was compared with MSD values estimated from the phantom measurements and with the cumulative CTDIvol of the procedure. Results: The median measured MSD was 141 mGy (range 38–410 mGy) while the median cumulative CTDIvol was 72 mGy (range 24–262 mGy). The ratio between the MSD estimated from phantom measurements and the measured MSD was 0.87 (range 0.12–4.1) on average. In 72% of cases the estimated MSD underestimated the measured MSD, while in 28% of the cases it overestimated it. The same trend was observed for the ratio of cumulative CTDIvol and measured MSD. No trend was observed as a function of patient size. Conclusions: On average, estimated MSD from dose rate measurements on phantom as well as from CTDIvol of patient examinations underestimates the measured value of MSD. This can be attributed to deviations of the patient's body habitus from the standard phantom size and to patient positioning in the gantry during the procedure.

  13. Optimal Allocations of Maximum Allowable Load among Influent Rivers: An Application for Strategic Management of Lake Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Shigeya; Kawachi, Toshihiko; Unami, Koichi; Takeuchi, Junichiro

    Lake water quality management is an extremely complicated problem due to a variety of land use and existence of multiple stakeholders in the watershed. A decision support tool is thus necessary for examining physical, economical and social constraints associated with the management and for coordinating conflicting goals of the stakeholders. In this study, a multiobjective linear programming model is developed for supporting strategic management of lake water quality. Optimal allocation of river-genetic pollutant load is determined to maximize total allowable load into the lake with in-lake water quality standard. The shallow water equations and two-dimensional COD (chemical oxygen demand) transport equation are employed as basic equations to represent physical constraints on COD concentration. In order to consider an economical requirement on equity, the model proactively controls the difference in share of the total allowable load among influent rivers. An optimization example demonstrates that the methodology developed can produce several noninferior solutions (i.e., load allocations) useful for decision-making in lake water quality management.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of... Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) Pt. 63, Subpt. II, App. B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part...

  15. 41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem or actual expense) prescribed in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Am I limited to the... General § 304-3.11 Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem or actual expense... established by the Secretary of State for travel to foreign areas may not be exceeded....

  16. An appreciation of the maximum tolerated dose: an inadequately precise decision point in designing a carcinogenesis bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Clayson, D.B.; Iverson, F.; Mueller, R. )

    1991-01-01

    Cancers arise in specific tissues. One difficulty with the present definitions of the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), as they pertain to the rodent cancer bioassay, is that they base MTD on relatively crude parameters associated with the well-being of the entire animal rather than with the lack of specific tissue toxicity. Additional factors that could be included in the MTD definition, or could be separately determined, are addressed. Many of these factors refer to toxic behavior in one or a few tissues and, if used in setting the MTD, may mask more relevant events occurring at higher dose levels in other tissues. Reducing the MTD to a level that fails to take into account pesticide or drug-related toxicity may lead to the loss of relevant information in the bioassay. It is concluded, therefore, that there are two possible approaches to a more appropriate use of the MTD. The highest dose of the test agent (MTD) may be chosen (i) to lie below the thresholds of carcinogenicity-related non-genotoxic toxicity or (ii) the present high level MTD may continue to be used and tumors that arise may be classified as being irrelvant to humans at some or all exposure levels. The latter approach is to be preferred. It has the potential to avoid missing high level effects of the test agent that may be relevant to the human population.91 references.

  17. A multi-head intradermal electroporation device allows for tailored and increased dose DNA vaccine delivery to the skin

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Jay R; Mendoza, Janess M; Spik, Kristin W; Badger, Catherine; Gomez, Alan F; Schmaljohn, Connie S; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Broderick, Kate E

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an effective and tolerable delivery method is a necessity for the success of DNA vaccines in the clinic. This article describes the development and validation of a multi-headed intradermal electroporation device which would be applicable for delivering multiple DNA vaccine plasmids simultaneously but spatially separated. Reporter gene plasmids expressing green and red fluorescent proteins were used to demonstrate the impact of spatial separation on DNA delivery to increase the number of transfected cells and avoid interference through visible expression patterns. To investigate the impact of plasmid interference on immunogenicity, a disease target was investigated where issues with multi-valent vaccines had been previously described. DNA-based Hantaan and Puumala virus vaccines were delivered separately or as a combination and the effect of multi-valence was determined by appropriate assays. While a negative impact was observed for both antigenic vaccines when delivered together, these effects were mitigated when the vaccine was delivered using the multi-head device. We also demonstrate how the multi-head device facilitates higher dose delivery to the skin resulting in improved immune responses. This new multi-head platform device is an efficient, tolerable and non-invasive method to deliver multiple plasmid DNA constructs simultaneously allowing the tailoring of delivery sites for combination vaccines. Additionally, this device would allow the delivery of multi-plasmid vaccine formulations without risk of impacted immune responses through interference. Such a low-cost, easy to use device platform for the delivery of multi-agent DNA vaccines would have direct applications by the military and healthcare sectors for mass vaccination purposes. PMID:25839221

  18. 41 CFR 302-7.16 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is the maximum weight... Government OCONUS or upon return to CONUS? 302-7.16 Section 302-7.16 Public Contracts and Property Management...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT...

  19. 41 CFR 302-7.16 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Is the maximum weight... Government OCONUS or upon return to CONUS? 302-7.16 Section 302-7.16 Public Contracts and Property Management...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT...

  20. 41 CFR 302-7.17 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Is the maximum weight... Government OCONUS or upon return to CONUS? 302-7.17 Section 302-7.17 Public Contracts and Property Management...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT...

  1. 41 CFR 302-7.17 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Is the maximum weight... Government OCONUS or upon return to CONUS? 302-7.17 Section 302-7.17 Public Contracts and Property Management...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT...

  2. Application of in vitro transmucosal permeability, dose number, and maximum absorbable dose for biopharmaceutics assessment during early drug development for intraoral delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Sotthivirat, Sutthilug; Wu, Yunhui; Lalloo, Anita; Nissley, Becky; Manser, Kimberly; Li, Hankun

    2016-04-30

    Intraoral (IO) administration is a unique route that takes advantage of transmucosal absorption in the oral cavity to deliver a drug substance locally or systemically. IO delivery can also enhance or enable oral administration, providing a better therapeutic benefit/safety risk profile for patient compliance. However, there are relatively few systematic biopharmaceutics assessments for IO delivery to date. Therefore, the goals of this study were to i) identify the most relevant in vitro permeability models as alternatives to porcine oral tissues (gold standard) for predicting human IO absorption and ii) establish guidelines for biopharmaceutics assessment during early drug development for IO delivery. Porcine kidney LLC-PK1 cells provided the strongest correlation of transmucosal permeability with porcine oral tissues followed by human Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, cultured human buccal tissues predicted high/low permeability classification and correlated well with porcine oral tissues, which are used for predicting clinical IO absorption. In the meantime, we introduced maximum absorbable dose and dose number in the oral cavity for IO delivery assessment as well as a decision tree to provide guidance for biopharmaceutics assessment during early drug development for IO delivery. PMID:26906458

  3. Feasibility study of stereotactic body radiotherapy for peripheral lung tumors with a maximum dose of 100 Gy in five fractions and a heterogeneous dose distribution in the planning target volume

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Atsuya; Oku, Yohei; Sanuki, Naoko; Eriguchi, Takahisa; Aoki, Yousuke; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Kaneko, Takeshi; Nishimura, Shuichi; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated toxicity and outcomes for patients with peripheral lung tumors treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in a dose-escalation and dose-convergence study. A total of 15 patients were enrolled. SBRT was performed with 60 Gy in 5 fractions (fr.) prescribed to the 60% isodose line of maximum dose, which was 100 Gy in 5 fr., covering the planning target volume (PTV) surface (60 Gy/5 fr. − (60%-isodose)) using dynamic conformal multiple arc therapy (DCMAT). The primary endpoint was radiation pneumonitis (RP) ≥ Grade 2 within 6 months. Toxicities were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Using dose–volumetric analysis, the trial regimen of 60 Gy/5 fr. − (60%-isodose) was compared with our institutional conventional regimen of 50 Gy/5 fr. − (80%-isodose). The enrolled consecutive patients had either a solitary peripheral tumor or two ipsilateral tumors. The median follow-up duration was 22.0 (12.0–27.0) months. After 6 months post-SBRT, the respective number of RP Grade 0, 1 and 2 cases was 5, 9 and 1. In the Grade 2 RP patient, the image showed an organizing pneumonia pattern at 6.0 months post-SBRT. No other toxicity was found. At last follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence of the treated tumors. The target volumes of 60 Gy/ 5 fr. − (60%-isodose) were irradiated with a significantly higher dose than those of 50 Gy/5 fr. − (80%-isodose), while the former dosimetric parameters of normal lung were almost equivalent to the latter. SBRT with 60 Gy/5 fr. − (60%-isodose) using DCMAT allowed the delivery of very high and convergent doses to peripheral lung tumors with feasibility in the acute and subacute phases. Further follow-up is required to assess for late toxicity. PMID:24833770

  4. The maximal cumulative solar UVB dose allowed to maintain healthy and young skin and prevent premature photoaging.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Ando, Hideya

    2014-10-01

    The young facial skin of children with a smooth healthy appearance changes over time to photoaged skin having mottled pigmentation, solar lentigines, wrinkles, dry and rough skin, leathery texture, and benign and malignant tumors after exposure to chronic, repeated solar radiation. The first sign of photoaging in Japanese subjects is usually solar lentigines appearing around 20 years of age on the face. Fine wrinkles can then appear after 30 years of age, and benign skin tumors, seborrhoeic keratoses, can occur after 35 years of age in sun-exposed skin. We theoretically calculated the maximal daily exposure time to solar radiation, which could prevent the development of photoaged skin until 60 and 80 years of age, based on published data of personal solar UVB doses in sun-exposed skin. One MED (minimal erythema dose) was determined to be 20 mJ/cm(2) , and 200 MED was used as the average yearly dose of Japanese children. Further, we hypothesized that the annual dose of Japanese adults is the same as that of the children. The cumulative UVB dose at 20 years of age was thus calculated to be 4000 MED, and 22 MED was used as the maximal daily UVB dose based on data measured in Kobe, located in the central area of Japan. We used the solar UVB dose from 10:00 a.m. to 14:00 p.m. which occupies 60% of the total daily UV dose, to obtain the maximal UVB per hour in a day, and calculated the maximal daily UV exposure time that would delay the onset of solar lentigines until 60 or 80 years of age. The mean daily sun exposure time to maintain healthy skin until 80 years of age in the summer was calculated to be 2.54 min (0.14 MED) for unprotected skin and 127 min with the use of a sunscreen of SPF (sun protection factor) of 50. In this study, we did not evaluate the photoaging effect of UVA radiation, but findings of the adverse effects of UVA radiation on the skin have accumulated in the last decade. Therefore, it will be important to estimate the maximal dose of solar UV radiation to retard the onset of photoaging based on an evaluation of both solar UVB and UVA in the future. Finally, we expect that this study may contribute to keeping Japanese and other types of skin young and healthy by limiting the exposure of the skin to solar radiation outdoors during the day. PMID:25234836

  5. Methodology used to compute maximum potential doses from ingestion of edible plants and wildlife found on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the assumptions, dose factors, consumption rates, and methodology used to evaluate potential radiation doses to persons who may eat contaminated wildlife or contaminated plants collected from the Hanford Site. This report includes a description of the number and variety of wildlife and edible plants on the Hanford Site, methods for estimation of the quantities of these items consumed and conversion of intake of radionuclides to radiation doses, and example calculations of radiation doses from consumption of plants and wildlife. Edible plants on the publicly accessible margins of the shoreline of the Hanford Site and Wildlife that move offsite are potential sources of contaminated food for the general public. Calculations of potential radiation doses from consumption of agricultural plants and farm animal products are made routinely and reported annually for those produced offsite, using information about concentrations of radionuclides, consumption rates, and factors for converting radionuclide intake into dose. Dose calculations for onsite plants and wildlife are made intermittently when appropriate samples become available for analysis or when special studies are conducted. Consumption rates are inferred from the normal intake rates of similar food types raised offsite and from the edible weight of the onsite product that is actually available for harvest. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of the adverse event profile and pharmacodynamics of toceranib phosphate administered to dogs with solid tumors at doses below the maximum tolerated dose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The receptor kinase inhibitor toceranib phosphate (Palladia) was approved for use in dogs in 2009 using a dose of 3.25 mg/kg administered every other day. Preliminary data suggests that lower doses of toeceranib may be associated with a reduced adverse event profile while maintaining sufficient drug exposure to provide biologic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the Cmax of toceranib in dogs with solid tumors receiving 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and to document the adverse events associated with this dose rate. Secondary objectives included determination of plasma VEGF concentrations in treated dogs and response to therapy. Results Dogs with solid tumors were administered toceranib at an intended target dose ranging from 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and plasma samples were obtained for analysis of toceranib and VEGF plasma concentrations on days 0, 7, 14 and 30 of the study at 6 and 8 hours post drug administration. Additionally, plasma samples were obtained at 0, 1, 2, 6, 8, and 12 hours from dogs on day 30 for confirmation of Cmax. Response to therapy was assessed using standard RECIST criteria and adverse events were characterized using the VCOG-CTCAE. Toceranib administered at doses between 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day resulted in an average 6–8 hr plasma concentration ranging from 100–120 ng/ml, well above the 40 ng/ml concentration associated with target inhibition. Plasma VEGF concentrations increased significantly over the 30 day treatment period indicating that VEGFR2 inhibition was likely achieved in the majority of dogs. The lower doses of toceranib used in this study were associated with a substantially reduced adverse event profile compared to the established label dose of 3.25 mg/kg EOD. Conclusions Doses of toceranib ranging from 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day provide drug exposure considered sufficient for target inhibition while resulting in an adverse event profile substantially reduced from that associated with the label dose of toceranib. This lower dose range of toceranib should be considered for future use in dogs with cancer. PMID:24079884

  7. Measurement of maximum skin dose in interventional radiology and cardiology and challenges in the set-up of European alert thresholds.

    PubMed

    Farah, J; Trianni, A; Carinou, E; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Clairand, I; Dabin, J; De Angelis, C; Domienik, J; Jarvinen, H; Kopec, R; Majer, M; Malchair, F; Negri, A; Novák, L; Siiskonen, T; Vanhavere, F; Knežević, Ž

    2015-04-01

    To help operators acknowledge patient dose during interventional procedures, EURADOS WG-12 focused on measuring patient skin dose using XR-RV3 gafchromic films, thermoluminescent detector (TLD) pellets or 2D TL foils and on investigating possible correlation to the on-line dose indicators such as fluoroscopy time, Kerma-area product (KAP) and cumulative air Kerma at reference point (CK). The study aims at defining non-centre-specific European alert thresholds for skin dose in three interventional procedures: chemoembolization of the liver (CE), neuroembolization (NE) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Skin dose values of >3 Gy (ICRP threshold for skin injuries) were indeed measured in these procedures confirming the need for dose indicators that correlate with maximum skin dose (MSD). However, although MSD showed fairly good correlation with KAP and CK, several limitations were identified challenging the set-up of non-centre-specific European alert thresholds. This paper presents preliminary results of this wide European measurement campaign and focuses on the main challenges in the definition of European alert thresholds. PMID:25316909

  8. Impact of a proposed change in the maximum permissible dose limit for neutrons to radiation-protection programs at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.

    1981-09-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has issued a statement advising that it is considering lowering the maximum permissible dose for neutrons. This action would present substantive problems to radiation protection programs at DOE facilities where a potential for neutron exposure exists. In addition to altering administrative controls, a lowering of the maximum permissible dose for neutrons will require advances in personnel neutron dosimetry systems, and neutron detection and measurement instrumentation. Improvement in the characterization of neutron fields and spectra at work locations will also be needed. DOE has initiated research and development programs in these areas. However, problems related to the control of personnel neutron exposure have yet to be resolved and investigators are encouraged to continue collaboration with both United States and international authorities.

  9. Intra-tumor AvidinOX allows efficacy of low dose systemic biotinylated Cetuximab in a model of head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anastasi, Anna Maria; Petronzelli, Fiorella; Chiapparino, Caterina; Carollo, Valeria; Roscilli, Giuseppe; Marra, Emanuele; Luberto, Laura; Aurisicchio, Luigi; Pacello, Maria Lucrezia; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; De Santis, Rita

    2016-01-01

    For locally advanced and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the current clinical use of Cetuximab in chemo/radiotherapy protocols is often associated to severe systemic toxicity. Here we report in vitro data in human FaDu pharynx SCC cells, showing that inactive concentrations of biotinylated Cetuximab (bCet) become active upon anchorage to AvidinOX on the surface of tumor cells. AvidinOX-anchored bCet induces apoptosis and DNA damage as well as specific inhibition of signaling, degradation and abrogation of nuclear translocation of EGFR. In the mouse model of FaDu cancer, we show that intra-tumor injection of AvidinOX allows anti-tumor activity of an otherwise inactive, intraperitoneally delivered, low dose bCet. Consistently with in vitro data, in vivo tumor inhibition is associated to induction of apoptosis, DNA damage and reduced angiogenesis. AvidinOX is under clinical investigation for delivering radioactive biotin to inoperable tumors (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02053324) and present data support its use for the local treatment of HNSCC in combination with systemic administration of low dose bCet. PMID:26575422

  10. Single-event and total-dose effects in geo-stationary transfer orbit during solar-activity maximum period measured by the Tsubasa satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshiishi, H.; Kimoto, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Goka, T.

    The Tsubasa satellite developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency was launched in Feb 2002 into Geo-stationary Transfer Orbit GTO Perigee 500km Apogee 36000km and had been operated well until Sep 2003 The objective of this satellite was to verify the function of commercial parts and new technologies of bus-system components in space Thus the on-board experiments were conducted in the more severe radiation environment of GTO rather than in Geo-stationary Earth Orbit GEO or Low Earth Orbit LEO The Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment SEDA on board the Tsubasa satellite had the Single-event Upset Monitor SUM and the DOSimeter DOS to evaluate influences on electronic devices caused by radiation environment that was also measured by the particle detectors of the SEDA the Standard DOse Monitor SDOM for measurements of light particles and the Heavy Ion Telescope HIT for measurements of heavy ions The SUM monitored single-event upsets and single-event latch-ups occurred in the test sample of two 64-Mbit DRAMs The DOS measured accumulated radiation dose at fifty-six locations in the body of the Tsubasa satellite Using the data obtained by these instruments single-event and total-dose effects in GTO during solar-activity maximum period especially their rapid changes due to solar flares and CMEs in the region from L 1 1 through L 11 is discussed in this paper

  11. Protected Graft Copolymer Excipient Leads to a Higher Acute Maximum Tolerated Dose and Extends Residence Time of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Significantly Better than Sterically Stabilized Micelles

    PubMed Central

    Reichstetter, Sandra; Castillo, Gerardo M.; Rubinstein, Israel; Nishimoto-Ashfield, Akiko; Lai, ManShun; Jones, Cynthia C.; Banjeree, Aryamitra; Lyubimov, Alex; Bloedow, Duane C.; Bogdanov, Alexei; Bolotin, Elijah M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine and compare pharmacokinetics and toxicity of two nanoformulations of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP). Methods VIP was formulated using a micellar (Sterically Stabilized Micelles, SSM) and a polymer-based (Protected Graft Copolymer, PGC) nanocarrier at various loading percentages. VIP binding to the nanocarriers, pharmacokinetics, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and acute maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the formulations after injection into BALB/c mice were determined. Results Both formulations significantly extend in vivo residence time compared to unformulated VIP. Formulation toxicity is dependent on loading percentage, showing major differences between the two carrier types. Both formulations increase in vivo potency of unformulated VIP and show acute MTDs at least 140 times lower than unformulated VIP, but still at least 100 times higher than the anticipated highest human dose, 1–5 μg/kg. These nanocarriers prevented a significant drop in arterial blood pressure compared to unformulated VIP. Conclusions While both carriers enhance in vivo residence time compared to unformulated VIP and reduce the drop in blood pressure immediately after injection, PGC is the excipient of choice to extend residence time and improve the safety of potent therapeutic peptides such as VIP. PMID:23224976

  12. Compassionate Allowances

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institutions Government Services Online Self-employed Small Business Software Developers Our Agency General Information About Us Ask for a Speaker Awards Careers with Social Security Compassionate Allowances Death Master File (Death Index) ...

  13. Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, W.U.; Kaufman, S.D.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references.

  14. Approach to calculating upper bounds on maximum individual doses from the use of contaminated well water following a WIPP repository breach. Report EEG-9

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegler, P.

    1981-09-01

    As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report.

  15. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cost principles of the Federal Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 1, 1-15.205-3) and DOE Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 9, 9-15.205-3); and; (2) Be necessary, reasonable and customary for the bid or... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS...

  16. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... season to reflect anticipated water-righted acres to be irrigated. At the start of the irrigation season... irrigated in that year (§ 418.9(a)) and the water duties for those lands (§ 418.10). At the end of the... established by the Bureau at least 2 weeks before the start of each irrigation season. All releases of...

  17. 78 FR 67465 - Loan Guaranty: Maximum Allowable Attorney Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...-established enough to provide acceptable title to the real estate community. Thus, the judicial foreclosure... foreclosure, and bankruptcy- related services, issued by the Department of Housing and Urban Development...

  18. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 36.44 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... above sea level. (b) When the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust exceeds 0.30 percent, by volume... not exceeding 1,000 feet above sea level. Note: The applicant may be requested to adjust the...

  19. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 36.44 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... above sea level. (b) When the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust exceeds 0.30 percent, by volume... not exceeding 1,000 feet above sea level. Note: The applicant may be requested to adjust the...

  20. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 36.44 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... above sea level. (b) When the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust exceeds 0.30 percent, by volume... not exceeding 1,000 feet above sea level. Note: The applicant may be requested to adjust the...

  1. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 36.44 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... above sea level. (b) When the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust exceeds 0.30 percent, by volume... not exceeding 1,000 feet above sea level. Note: The applicant may be requested to adjust the...

  2. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... season to reflect anticipated water-righted acres to be irrigated. At the start of the irrigation season... irrigation season, the required target efficiency must be recalculated for the irrigation season based on the... established by the Bureau at least 2 weeks before the start of each irrigation season. All releases of...

  3. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... season to reflect anticipated water-righted acres to be irrigated. At the start of the irrigation season... irrigation season, the required target efficiency must be recalculated for the irrigation season based on the... established by the Bureau at least 2 weeks before the start of each irrigation season. All releases of...

  4. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  5. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... segments. In particular, operators' programs fail to adequately address stress corrosion cracking, seam... for the MAOP calculation. There are several methods available for establishing MAOP or MOP. A hydrostatic pressure test that stresses the pipe to a designated percent of the desired MAOP or MOP,...

  6. SU-E-T-280: Reconstructed Rectal Wall Dose Map-Based Verification of Rectal Dose Sparing Effect According to Rectum Definition Methods and Dose Perturbation by Air Cavity in Endo-Rectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Park, H; Lee, J; Kang, S; Lee, M; Suh, T; Lee, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric effect and discrepancy according to the rectum definition methods and dose perturbation by air cavity in an endo-rectal balloon (ERB) were verified using rectal-wall (Rwall) dose maps considering systematic errors in dose optimization and calculation accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) for prostate cancer patients. Methods: When the inflated ERB having average diameter of 4.5 cm and air volume of 100 cc is used for patient, Rwall doses were predicted by pencil-beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA), and AcurosXB (AXB) with material assignment function. The errors of dose optimization and calculation by separating air cavity from the whole rectum (Rwhole) were verified with measured rectal doses. The Rwall doses affected by the dose perturbation of air cavity were evaluated using a featured rectal phantom allowing insert of rolled-up gafchromic films and glass rod detectors placed along the rectum perimeter. Inner and outer Rwall doses were verified with reconstructed predicted rectal wall dose maps. Dose errors and extent at dose levels were evaluated with estimated rectal toxicity. Results: While AXB showed insignificant difference of target dose coverage, Rwall doses underestimated by up to 20% in dose optimization for the Rwhole than Rwall at all dose range except for the maximum dose. As dose optimization for Rwall was applied, the Rwall doses presented dose error less than 3% between dose calculation algorithm except for overestimation of maximum rectal dose up to 5% in PBC. Dose optimization for Rwhole caused dose difference of Rwall especially at intermediate doses. Conclusion: Dose optimization for Rwall could be suggested for more accurate prediction of rectal wall dose prediction and dose perturbation effect by air cavity in IMRT for prostate cancer. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) (Grant No. 200900420)

  7. Maximum power tracking

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, G.

    1983-03-01

    By definition, a maximum power tracking device causes the photovoltaic array to operate on the locus of maximum power points within a specified accuracy. There are limitations to the application of maximum power tracking. A prerequisite is that the load be capable of absorbing all of the power availble at all times. Battery chargers, electrical heaters, water pumps, and most significantly, returning power to the utility grid, are prime examples of applications that are adaptable to maximum power tracking. Maximum power tracking is available to either dc or ac loads. An inverter equipped with a means of changing input voltage by controlling its input impedance can deliver maximum power to ac loads. The inverter can be fixed or variable frequency and fixed or variable voltage, but must be compatible with the ac load. The discussion includes applications, techniques, and cost factors.

  8. 44 CFR 11.73 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... supervisor, but these claims shall be limited to a maximum of $1,000.00. (4) Mobile homes. Claims may be allowed for damage to or loss of mobile homes and their content under the provisions of paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Claims for structural damage to mobile homes resulting from such structural...

  9. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  10. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowance and advance of allowance. 35.2025 Section 35.2025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2025 Allowance and advance of allowance. (a) Allowance....

  11. Maximum life spur gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Mackulin, B. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

  12. Benchmarking for maximum value.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ed

    2009-03-01

    Speaking at the most recent Healthcare Estates conference, Ed Baldwin, of international built asset consultancy EC Harris LLP, examined the role of benchmarking and market-testing--two of the key methods used to evaluate the quality and cost-effectiveness of hard and soft FM services provided under PFI healthcare schemes to ensure they are offering maximum value for money. PMID:19344004

  13. Maximum Likelihood Additivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio

    1982-01-01

    A maximum likelihood estimation procedure was developed to fit weighted and unweighted additive models of conjoint data obtained by categorical rating, paired comparisons or directional ranking methods. Practical uses of the procedure are presented to demonstrate various advantages of the procedure as a statistical method. (Author/JKS)

  14. Maximum Likelihood Additivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio

    A maximum likelihood estimation procedure is developed for the simple and the weighted additive models. The data are assumed to be taken by either one of the following methods: (1) categorical ratings--the subject is asked to rate a set of stimuli with respect to an attribute of the stimuli on rating scales with a relatively few observation…

  15. The Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Peter U.; Dyke, Arthur S.; Shakun, Jeremy D.; Carlson, Anders E.; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Hostetler, Steven W.; McCabe, A. Marshall

    2009-08-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ~14.5 ka.

  16. The Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter U; Dyke, Arthur S; Shakun, Jeremy D; Carlson, Anders E; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; McCabe, A Marshall

    2009-08-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level approximately 14.5 ka. PMID:19661421

  17. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2025 Allowance and... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility planning in accordance with appendix B of this subpart. (b) Advance of allowance to potential...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2025 Allowance and... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility planning in accordance with appendix B of this subpart. (b) Advance of allowance to potential...

  19. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2025 Allowance and... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility planning in accordance with appendix B of this subpart. (b) Advance of allowance to potential...

  20. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2025 Allowance and... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility planning in accordance with appendix B of this subpart. (b) Advance of allowance to potential...

  1. Introduction to maximum entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. New method for determining allowable daily intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, K.S.

    1984-10-01

    The usual method for establishing allowable daily intake (ADI) for a chemical involves determining a no-observed-effect level (NOEL) and applying a safety factor. Even though this method has been used for many years, there appear to be no general guidelines or rules for defining a NOEL. The determination of a NOEL is particularly uncertain for lesions which occur naturally in untreated animals. NOELs also have shortcomings in that smaller experiments tend to give larger values (this should be reversed because larger experiments can provide greater evidence of safety) and that the steepness of the dose response in the dose range where effects occur plays little or no role in the determination of a NOEL. This paper proposes and illustrates the use of a benchmark dose (BD) as an alternative to a NOEL. A BD is a statistical lower confidence limit to a dose producing some predetermined increase in response rate such as 0.01 or 0.1. The BD is calculated using a mathematical dose-response model. This approach makes appropriate use of sample size and the shape of the dose-response curve. The BD normally will not depend strongly upon the mathematical model used because the method does not involve extrapolation far below the experimental range. Thus the method sidesteps much of the model dependency often associated with extrapolation of carcinogenicity data to low doses. The method can be applied to either quantal data in which only the presence or absence of an effect is recorded, or continuous data in which the severity of the effect is also noted.

  3. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field.... (2) The quality assurance plan for applying and testing field applied coating to girth welds must be... with the knowledge, skills, and ability to assure effective coating application. (b) Girth welds...

  4. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field.... (2) The quality assurance plan for applying and testing field applied coating to girth welds must be... with the knowledge, skills, and ability to assure effective coating application. (b) Girth welds...

  5. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cast iron pipe in which there are unreinforced bell and spigot joints. (4) The pressure limits to which..., particularly known corrosion and the actual operating pressures. (b) No person may operate a segment...

  6. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cast iron pipe in which there are unreinforced bell and spigot joints. (4) The pressure limits to which..., particularly known corrosion and the actual operating pressures. (b) No person may operate a segment...

  7. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cast iron pipe in which there are unreinforced bell and spigot joints. (4) The pressure limits to which..., particularly known corrosion and the actual operating pressures. (b) No person may operate a segment...

  8. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the service lines in the segment are equipped with service regulators or other pressure limiting... pipeline to which paragraph (a)(5) of this section applies, unless overpressure protective devices are... (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL...

  9. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel:air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36.44 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... above sea level. (b) When the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust exceeds 0.30 percent, by volume... not exceeding 1,000 feet above sea level. Note: The applicant may be requested to adjust the...

  10. 49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a low-pressure distribution system at a pressure high enough to...) No person may operate a low pressure distribution system at a pressure lower than the...

  11. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... meet this additional construction requirement: (a) Quality assurance (1) The construction of the pipeline segment must be done under a quality assurance plan addressing pipe inspection, hauling and.... (2) The quality assurance plan for applying and testing field applied coating to girth welds must...

  12. 77 FR 56555 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Maximum Allowable Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... on October 17, 2006. (71 FR 61144). The PM standard regulates two types of particulates: fine... conjunction with the boiler MACT rulemaking (76 FR 80532). MDNR compared projected emissions from such units... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  13. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

    2005-01-01

    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  14. [Status of hemapoiesis in residents of the Techa riverside villages in the period of maximum radiation exposure. Report 2. Influence of exposure dose and dose rate of red bone marrow as well as modifying factors on the frequency of cytopenia and cytosis].

    PubMed

    Akleev, A V; Dimov, G P; Varfolomeeva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is a retrospective estimation of the influence of dose and dose rate of the red bone marrow chronic radiation exposure in combination with various modifying factors (gender, age, comorbidity) on the frequency of deviations from normal values of the results of peripheral blood investigation in humans exposed on the Techa River. The results of investigation show that humans chronically exposed to radiation can develop marked changes in the cellular composition of peripheral blood characterized by a tendency to cytopenia (signs of the decompensation of hemopoiesis). The tendency to cytopenia can be identified earlier in the lymphoid germ, and later in platelet and erythroid lines. A high lability of granulocytes under the influence of various, often infectious, factors is the cause of the lack of statistically significant differences in terms of frequency of neutropenia. Several non-radiation factors (gender, age, health status) in combination with radiation exposure could have a modifying influence on hematopoiesis, which contributed to the disruption of adaptation processes and the development of conditions characterized by a tendency to cytopenias in exposed individuals. The red bone marrow dose rate reduction resulted in a gradual decrease in the frequency of erythrocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and lymphocytopenia in the group of exposed population. Increased frequencies of erythrocytosis, thrombocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and neutrophilia were observed when the median dose rate was reduced to the level of 0.024 Gy/year (in the year 1956), which could be regarded as activation of regenerative processes in hematopoiesis. PMID:22690575

  15. The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.

    2012-12-01

    Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.

  16. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations regarding clothing allowances. The amendment provides for an annual clothing allowance for each qualifying prosthetic or orthopedic appliance worn or used by a veteran for a service-connected disability or disabilities that wears out or tears a single article of the veteran's clothing and for each physician-prescribed medication......

  17. Taxing sulfur dioxide emission allowances

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.L. )

    1993-09-15

    The acid rain control program authorized by Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) was designed to reduce the adverse effects of acid rain by limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) into the atmosphere. The program is a complex scheme involving the issuance, consumption, holding, and trading of emission allowances for SO[sub 2]. Not surprisingly, electric utilities will face federal income tax issues in connection with the program. Under the emission allowance program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will issue emission allowance to owners or operators of certain utility power plants at no cost to the recipients. An emission allowance is an authorization to emit one ton of SO[sub 2] during or after the calendar year for which it is issued. If a utility power plant subject to the program emits SO[sub 2] in excess of its allowances, the owner or operator will be subject to a penalty of $2,000 a ton, and must offset the excess emissions with allowances in the subsequent year. Allowances may be bought and sold. Phase I of the program begins January 1, 1995, and will apply to 110 utility generating units. Phase II takes effect January 1, 2000, and will include most electric utility generating units. EPA will withhold a specified number of allowances for direct sale and auction. The resulting proceeds will be paid to the utilities from which the allowances were withheld. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has provided somewhat limited guidance on several tax issues raised by the program. Significant tax issues and the positions articulated by the IRS (if any) are discussed in this article.

  18. Dose heterogeneity in the target volume and intensity-modulated radiotherapy to escalate the dose in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Marco; Alber, Markus; Lebesque, Joos V.; Mijnheer, Ben J.; Damen, Eugene M.F. . E-mail: e.damen@nki.nl

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the dose escalation achievable in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by allowing dose heterogeneity in the target volume or using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), or both. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography data and contours of 10 NSCLC patients with limited movements of the tumor and representing a broad spectrum of clinical cases were selected for this study. Four irradiation techniques were compared: two conformal (CRT) and two IMRT techniques, either prescribing a homogeneous dose in the planning target volume (PTV) (CRT{sub hom} and IMRT{sub hom}) or allowing dose heterogeneity (CRT{sub inhom} and IMRT{sub inhom}). The dose heterogeneity was allowed only toward high doses, i.e., the minimum dose in the target for CRT{sub inhom} and IMRT{sub inhom} could not be lower than for the corresponding homogeneous plan. The dose in the PTV was escalated (fraction size of 2.25 Gy) until either an organ at risk reached the maximum allowed dose or the mean PTV dose reached a maximum level set at 101.25 Gy. Results: When small and convex tumors were irradiated, CRT{sub hom} could achieve the maximum dose of 101.25 Gy, whereas for bigger and/or concave PTVs the dose level achievable with CRT{sub hom} was significantly lower, in 1 case even below 60 Gy. The CRT{sub inhom} allowed on average a 6% dose escalation with respect to CRT{sub hom}. The IMRT{sub hom} achieved in all except 1 case a mean PTV dose of at least 75 Gy. The gain in mean PTV dose of IMRT{sub hom} with respect to CRT{sub hom} ranged from 7.7 to 14.8 Gy and the IMRT{sub hom} plans were always more conformal than the corresponding CRT{sub hom} plans. The IMRT{sub inhom} provided an additional advantage over IMRT{sub hom} of at least 5 Gy. For all CRT plans the achievable dose was determined by the lung dose threshold, whereas for more than half of the IMRT plans the esophagus was the dose-limiting organ. The IMRT plans were deliverable with 10-12 segments per beam and did not produce an increase of lung volume irradiated at low doses (<20 Gy). Conclusions: The dose in NSCLC treatments can be escalated by loosening the constraints on maximum dose in the target volume or using IMRT, or both. For large and concave tumors, an average dose escalation of 6% and 17% was possible when dose heterogeneity and IMRT were applied alone. When they were combined, the average dose increase was as high as 35%. Intensity-modulated RT delivered in a static mode can produce homogeneous dose distributions in the target and does not lead to an increase of lung volume receiving (very) low doses, even down to 5 Gy.

  19. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any, established in accordance with 45 CFR part 19, plus a... in 45 CFR part 74, no separate dispensing fee will be recognized. (b) In determining whether a... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section...

  20. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any, established in accordance with 45 CFR part 19, plus a... in 45 CFR part 74, no separate dispensing fee will be recognized. (b) In determining whether a... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section...

  1. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any, established in accordance with 45 CFR part 19, plus a... in 45 CFR part 74, no separate dispensing fee will be recognized. (b) In determining whether a... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section...

  2. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any, established in accordance with 45 CFR part 19, plus a... in 45 CFR part 74, no separate dispensing fee will be recognized. (b) In determining whether a... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section...

  3. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  4. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and /sup 137/Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  5. Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

  6. A silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass for IMRT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J. H. D.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Khanna, S.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of escalated radiation dose to tumor while sparing adjacent critical organs. In doing so, IMRT plans tend to incorporate steep dose gradients at interfaces between the target and the organs at risk. Current quality assurance (QA) verification tools such as 2D diode arrays, are limited by their spatial resolution and conventional films are nonreal time. In this article, the authors describe a novel silicon strip detector (CMRP DMG) of high spatial resolution (200 {mu}m) suitable for measuring the high dose gradients in an IMRT delivery. Methods: A full characterization of the detector was performed, including dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with Farmer ion chamber measurements, stem effect, dose linearity, uniformity, energy response, angular response, and penumbra measurements. They also present the application of the CMRP DMG in the dosimetric verification of a clinical IMRT plan. Results: The detector response changed by 23% for a 390-fold change in the dose per pulse. A correction function is derived to correct for this effect. The strip detector depth dose curve agrees with the Farmer ion chamber within 0.8%. The stem effect was negligible (0.2%). The dose linearity was excellent for the dose range of 3-300 cGy. A uniformity correction method is described to correct for variations in the individual detector pixel responses. The detector showed an over-response relative to tissue dose at lower photon energies with the maximum dose response at 75 kVp nominal photon energy. Penumbra studies using a Varian Clinac 21EX at 1.5 and 10.0 cm depths were measured to be 2.77 and 3.94 mm for the secondary collimators, 3.52 and 5.60 mm for the multileaf collimator rounded leaf ends, respectively. Point doses measured with the strip detector were compared to doses measured with EBT film and doses predicted by the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The differences were 1.1%{+-}1.8% and 1.0%{+-}1.6%, respectively. They demonstrated the high temporal resolution capability of the detector readout system, which will allow one to investigate the temporal dose pattern of IMRT and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) deliveries. Conclusions: The CMRP silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass interfaced to a TERA ASIC DAQ system has high spatial and temporal resolution. It is a novel and valuable tool for QA in IMRT dose delivery and for VMAT dose delivery.

  7. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition. PMID:18460440

  8. Principles of maximum entropy and maximum caliber in statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressé, Steve; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Lee, Julian; Dill, Ken A.

    2013-07-01

    The variational principles called maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum caliber (MaxCal) are reviewed. MaxEnt originated in the statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs, as a theoretical tool for predicting the equilibrium states of thermal systems. Later, entropy maximization was also applied to matters of information, signal transmission, and image reconstruction. Recently, since the work of Shore and Johnson, MaxEnt has been regarded as a principle that is broader than either physics or information alone. MaxEnt is a procedure that ensures that inferences drawn from stochastic data satisfy basic self-consistency requirements. The different historical justifications for the entropy S=-∑ipilog⁡pi and its corresponding variational principles are reviewed. As an illustration of the broadening purview of maximum entropy principles, maximum caliber, which is path entropy maximization applied to the trajectories of dynamical systems, is also reviewed. Examples are given in which maximum caliber is used to interpret dynamical fluctuations in biology and on the nanoscale, in single-molecule and few-particle systems such as molecular motors, chemical reactions, biological feedback circuits, and diffusion in microfluidics devices.

  9. Experimental estimates of peak skin dose and its relationship to the CT dose index using the CTDI head phantom

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras, Hugo; Minniti, Ronaldo; Wilson, Sean; Mitchell, Chad; Skopec, Marlene; Brunner, Claudia C.; Chakrabarti, Kish

    2013-01-01

    A straightforward method is presented to estimate peak skin doses (PSDs) delivered by computed tomography (CT) scanners. The measured PSD values are related to the well-known volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), displayed on the console of CT scanners. PSD measurement estimates were obtained, in four CT units, by placing radiochromic film on the surface of a CTDI head phantom. Six different X-ray tube currents including the maximum allowed value were used to irradiate the phantom. PSD and CTDIvol were independently measured and later related to the CTDIvol value displayed on the console. A scanner-specific relationship was found between the measured PSD and the associated CTDIvol displayed on the console. The measured PSD values varied between 27 and 136 mGy among all scanners when the routine head scan parameters were used. The results of this work allow relating the widely used CTDIvol to an actual radiation dose delivered to the skin of a patient. PMID:23864642

  10. Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  11. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    PubMed

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units. PMID:21929061

  12. Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra. PMID:26894476

  13. Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra.

  14. Maximum entropy signal restoration with linear programming

    SciTech Connect

    Mastin, G.A.; Hanson, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    Dantzig's bounded-variable method is used to express the maximum entropy restoration problem as a linear programming problem. This is done by approximating the nonlinear objective function with piecewise linear segments, then bounding the variables as a function of the number of segments used. The use of a linear programming approach allows equality constraints found in the traditional Lagrange multiplier method to be relaxed. A robust revised simplex algorithm is used to implement the restoration. Experimental results from 128- and 512-point signal restorations are presented.

  15. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Gohar, H.

    2015-09-01

    We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax =c4 / 4 G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  16. Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartibu, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.

  17. Pulsed dose rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Polo, A

    2008-06-01

    Pulsed dose rate (PDR) is a new modality for dose delivery in brachytherapy. It uses modern afterloading technology (miniaturized source, cable driven, software controlled), with source activities in the range of 1 Ci, which is actually one tenth of the normal activity used for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Modern technology allows dose optimization, and source strength in the above-mentioned range creates a new dose rate condition. For small fractions (pulses) with short interpulse intervals, PDR mimics the radiobiology of high dose rate brachytherapy, whereas for bigger doses per fraction, dose adjustments are needed to compensate for the loss of therapeutic ratio. Clinical series showed good figures for local control and toxicity. Almost every clinical site has been reported to have been treated with PDR, with some thousand of patients having been reported. Technical difficulties in some body sites can be overcome by slightly modifying the implant technique. PDR brachytherapy is an ideal environment for the development of new dose fractionation schedules. It creates unique conditions in which to operate. Knowledge of tissue repair kinetics is extremely important for adequate selection of dose per pulse and interpulse interval. Therapeutic ratio can be improved by adjusting interpulse intervals to the repair half-times for normal tissues. On the other hand, superfractionated schedules with low dose per pulse can be explored in conditions of tumor hypoxia, thanks to the predicted hypersensitivity at low dose per fraction. The use of chemical agents (nicotinamide and others) in concomitance with this superfractionated schedules is foreseen in controlled clinical trials. In conclusion, PDR brachytherapy can be considered a new paradigm for dose delivery. It is safe and reliable, can be used in the setting of image-guided radiation therapy, and exploit the differential effect of ionizing radiations by a thorough knowledge of tissue kinetics for an improved therapeutic ratio. PMID:18558579

  18. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  19. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  20. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  1. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  2. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  3. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  4. Skin dose and dose-area product values in patients undergoing intracoronary brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Vano, E; Prieto, C; Fernandez, J M; Gonzalez, L; Sabate, M; Galvan, C

    2003-01-01

    Entrance skin doses, dose-area product (DAP) values, fluoroscopy times and digital cine acquisition data were measured for 86 patients undergoing intracoronary brachytherapy procedures with beta sources, to estimate risk of skin injuries. Interventions were carried out in three dedicated X-ray interventional cardiology rooms equipped with X-ray systems operating in pulsed modes, with high filtration and edge filter options. Skin dose distribution was analysed in detail in 56 patients using slow films and thermoluminescent dosimetry. Digital recording of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine cine images also allowed analysis of the technical parameters used throughout the procedures. A protocol for clinical follow-up of these patients at the cardiology service is also presented, which prescribes special attention when a threshold dose is reached. Median values for DAP, fluoroscopy time and number of frames were 81.2 Gy cm(2), 17.5 min and 1569 frames, respectively, and maximum values were 323.3 Gy cm(2), 46.2 min and 3213 frames, respectively. In two cases, maximum skin doses in a procedure reached 3.5 Gy and 4.6 Gy. Comparing median values in this study, intracoronary brachytherapy involved approximately two-fold the DAP used in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty procedures performed during the same period in the same catheterization laboratories, as a consequence of the need to monitor the radioactive source location used for the treatment of stenoses and the intravascular ultrasound. Special care must be paid in those cases of high dose in relation to potential patient skin injuries and late effects. PMID:12595323

  5. Solar maximum: Solar array degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  6. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowance rates. 591.305 Section 591.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may not exceed $10 a day....

  7. Maximum-entropy data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Linden, W.

    1995-01-01

    The reconstruction of physical quantities from (computer-) experimental data is very often hampered by the presence of noise, insufficient information and above all by the ill-posed nature of the underlying inversion problem. It will be demonstrated that the maximum entropy concept is particularly suited for this type of data-analysis problems. It is based on Bayesian statistics and provides a consistent probabilistic theory to obtain unbiased results, independent of any model assumptions. This is particularly desirable if there is no additional information to justify these hypotheses. If, on the other hand, additional prior knowledge is available, it can be effectively incorporated into the computation, leading to more stringent confidence intervals.

  8. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  9. Economics and Maximum Entropy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.

  10. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  11. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Allowable costs. (a) General. General policies for determining allowable costs are addressed in §§ 13.4, 13.6, and 13.22 of this chapter. Allowable costs are explained in this paragraph. (1)...

  12. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Allowable costs. (a) General. General policies for determining allowable costs are addressed in §§ 13.4, 13.6, and 13.22 of this chapter. Allowable costs are explained in this paragraph. (1)...

  13. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  14. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  15. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  16. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  17. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  18. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  19. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  20. System for Memorizing Maximum Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either liner or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  1. System for memorizing maximum values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  2. Maximum entropy principle and relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Weert, Ch. G.

    1982-04-01

    A relativistic theory of hydrodynamics applicable beyond the hydrodynamic regime is developed on the basis of the maximum entropy principle. This allows the construction of a unique statistical operator representing the state of the system as specified by the values of the hydrodynamical densities. Special attention is paid to the thermodynamic limit and the virial theorem which leads to an expression for the pressure in terms of the field-theoretic energymomentum tensor of Coleman and Jackiw. It is argued that outside the hydrodynamic regime the notion of a local Gibbs relation, as usually postulated, must be abandoned in general. In the nontext of the linear approximation, the memory-retaining and non-local generalizations of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations are derived from the underlying Heisenberg equations of motion. The formal similarity to the Zwanzig-Mori description of non-relativistic fluids is expounded.

  3. The maximum drag reduction asymptote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re < 100. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].

  4. Maximum entropy production in daisyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2012-05-01

    Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

  5. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  6. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  7. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  8. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  9. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  10. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33 Allowable... provided in § 675.32, to pay up to 80 percent of allowable costs. (c) Institutional share of...

  11. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33 Allowable... provided in § 675.32, to pay up to 80 percent of allowable costs. (c) Institutional share of...

  12. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33 Allowable... provided in § 675.32, to pay up to 80 percent of allowable costs. (c) Institutional share of...

  13. Child allowances, fertility, and chaotic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hung-Ju; Li, Ming-Chia

    2013-06-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics in an overlapping generations model with the provision of child allowances. Fertility is an increasing function of child allowances and there exists a threshold effect of the marginal effect of child allowances on fertility. We show that if the effectiveness of child allowances is sufficiently high, an intermediate-sized tax rate will be enough to generate chaotic dynamics. Besides, a decrease in the inter-temporal elasticity of substitution will prevent the occurrence of irregular cycles.

  14. Maximum allowable low-frequency platform vibrations in high resolution satellite missions: challenges and look-up figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghshenas, Javad

    2015-09-01

    Performance of high resolution remote sensing payloads is often limited due to satellite platform vibrations. Effects of Linear and high frequency vibrations on the overall MTF are known exactly in closed form but the low frequency vibration effect is a random process and must be considered statistically. It should be considered in system level payload designing to know whether or not the overall MTF is limited by the vibration blur radius. Usually the vibration MTF budget is defined based on the mission requirements and the overall MTF limitations. With a good understanding of harmful vibration frequencies and amplitudes in the system preliminary design phase, their effects could be removed totally or partially. This procedure is cost effective and let designer to just eliminate the harmful vibrations and avoids over-designing. In this paper we have analyzed the effects of low-frequency platform vibrations on the payload's modulation transfer function. We have used a statistical analysis to find the probability of imaging with a MTF greater or equal to a pre-defined budget for different missions. After some discussions on the worst and average cases, we have proposed some "look-up figures" which would help the remote sensing payload designers to avoid the vibration effects. Using these figures, designer can choose the electro-optical parameters in such a way, that vibration effects be less than its pre-defined budget. Furthermore, using the results, we can propose a damping profile based on which vibration frequencies and amplitudes must be eliminated to stabilize the payload system.

  15. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. (b) Governmental organizations. Allowability of...(a). (c) Non-profit organizations. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit...

  16. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. (b) Governmental organizations. Allowability of...(a). (c) Non-profit organizations. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit...

  17. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. (b) Governmental organizations. Allowability of...(a). (c) Non-profit organizations. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit...

  18. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. (b) Governmental organizations. Allowability of...(a). (c) Non-profit organizations. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit...

  19. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are...

  20. 20 CFR 211.9 - Dismissal allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dismissal allowance. 211.9 Section 211.9 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.9 Dismissal allowance. Dismissal allowances paid to an employee under...

  1. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that...

  2. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  3. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  4. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  5. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  6. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  7. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  8. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  9. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that...

  10. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  11. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  12. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those...

  13. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  14. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  15. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 405.2468 Section 405.2468 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Applicability of general Medicare principles. In determining whether and to what extent a specific type or item of cost is allowable, such as interest, depreciation, bad debts and...

  16. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  17. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  18. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that...

  19. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  20. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  1. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  2. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  3. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  4. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  5. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  6. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs....

  7. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  8. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable costs. 405.2468 Section 405.2468 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Applicability of general Medicare principles. In determining whether and to what extent a specific type or item of cost is allowable, such as interest, depreciation, bad debts and...

  9. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  10. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  11. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  12. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  13. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... Financial Management § 550.25 Allowable costs. For each kind of Cooperator, there is a set of Federal... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  14. 19 CFR 191.101 - Drawback allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drawback allowance. 191.101 Section 191.101... Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.101 Drawback allowance. (a....C. 7653(c)). However, there is no authority of law for the allowance of drawback of...

  15. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  16. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  17. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  18. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  19. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  20. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  1. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  2. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  3. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  4. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  5. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is... Institutions codified at 2 CFR 220. The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined...

  6. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  7. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  8. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  9. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  10. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  11. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  12. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  13. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  14. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  15. 44 CFR 11.73 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable claims. 11.73 Section 11.73 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.73 Allowable claims. (a) A claim may be allowed only if: (1) The damage or loss was...

  16. Interactive Learning During Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Curtis, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and distribute e-educational material for space science during times of solar activity that emphasizes underlying basic science principles of solar disturbances and their effects on Earth. This includes materials such as simulations, animations, group projects and other on-line materials to be used by students either in high school or at the introductory college level. The on-line delivery tool originally intended to be used is known as Interactive Multimedia Education at a Distance (IMED), which is a web-based software system used at UCLA for interactive distance learning. IMED is a password controlled system that allows students to access text, images, bulletin boards, chat rooms, animation, simulations and individual student web sites to study science and to collaborate on group projects.

  17. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water potential compare well with measured peak transpiration and minimum water potentials across plant types and biomes, suggesting that plant water transport system and stomatal regulation co-evolved to meet peak atmospheric demands, thus sustaining carbon uptake while avoiding tissue damage even in such harsh conditions.

  18. Dose Calculations for [131I] Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine-Induced Bystander Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gow, M. D.; Seymour, C. B.; Boyd, M.; Mairs, R. J.; Prestiwch, W. V.; Mothersill, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is a potentially useful treatment for some cancers and may be potentiated by bystander effects. However, without estimation of absorbed dose, it is difficult to compare the effects with conventional external radiation treatment. Methods: Using the Vynckier – Wambersie dose point kernel, a model for dose rate evaluation was created allowing for calculation of absorbed dose values to two cell lines transfected with the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene and treated with [131I]MIBG. Results: The mean doses required to decrease surviving fractions of UVW/NAT and EJ138/NAT cells, which received medium from [131I]MIBG-treated cells, to 25 – 30% were 1.6 and 1.7 Gy respectively. The maximum mean dose rates achieved during [131I]MIBG treatment were 0.09 – 0.75 Gy/h for UVW/NAT and 0.07 – 0.78 Gy/h for EJ138/NAT. These were significantly lower than the external beam gamma radiation dose rate of 15 Gy/h. In the case of control lines which were incapable of [131I]MIBG uptake the mean absorbed doses following radiopharmaceutical were 0.03 – 0.23 Gy for UVW and 0.03 – 0.32 Gy for EJ138. Conclusion: [131I]MIBG treatment for ICCM production elicited a bystander dose-response profile similar to that generated by external beam gamma irradiation but with significantly greater cell death. PMID:24659931

  19. Clinical Trials of a Urethral Dose Measurement System in Brachytherapy Using Scintillation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Suchowerska, Natalka; Jackson, Michael; Lambert, Jamil; Yin, Yong Bai; Hruby, George; McKenzie, David R.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To report on the clinical feasibility of a novel scintillation detector system with fiberoptic readout that measures the urethral dose during high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of the prostate. Methods and Materials: The clinical trial enrolled 24 patients receiving high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment to the prostate. After the first 14 patients, three improvements were made to the dosimeter system design to improve clinical reliability: a dosimeter self-checking facility; a radiopaque marker to determine the position of the dosimeter, and a more robust optical extension fiber. Results: Improvements to the system design allowed for accurate dose measurements to be made in vivo. A maximum measured dose departure of 9% from the calculated dose was observed after dosimeter design improvements. Conclusions: Departures of the measured from the calculated dose, after improvements to the dosimetry system, arise primarily from small changes in patient anatomy. Therefore, we recommend that patient response be correlated with the measured in vivo dose rather than with the calculated dose.

  20. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable claims. 15.22 Section 15.22 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claims Act of 1964 § 15.22 Allowable claims. (a) A claim may be allowed only if the...

  1. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL AND CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES ACT § 34.4 Allowable claims. (a) What you can claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may be allowed where possession of...

  2. 40 CFR 35.6245 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 300), are eligible for funding under a support agency Cooperative Agreement. Participation in... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable activities. 35.6245 Section... Actions Support Agency Cooperative Agreements § 35.6245 Allowable activities. Support agency...

  3. 15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowed activities. 922.183 Section... Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those prohibited by § 922.184 may be... activities are also subject to all prohibitions, restrictions, and conditions validly imposed by any...

  4. 40 CFR 35.6245 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 300), are eligible for funding under a support agency Cooperative Agreement. Participation in... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable activities. 35.6245 Section... Actions Support Agency Cooperative Agreements § 35.6245 Allowable activities. Support agency...

  5. 40 CFR 35.6245 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 300), are eligible for funding under a support agency Cooperative Agreement. Participation in... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable activities. 35.6245 Section... Actions Support Agency Cooperative Agreements § 35.6245 Allowable activities. Support agency...

  6. 40 CFR 35.6245 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 300), are eligible for funding under a support agency Cooperative Agreement. Participation in... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable activities. 35.6245 Section... Actions Support Agency Cooperative Agreements § 35.6245 Allowable activities. Support agency...

  7. 15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowed activities. 922.183 Section... Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those prohibited by § 922.184 may be... activities are also subject to all prohibitions, restrictions, and conditions validly imposed by any...

  8. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... mobile homes may be allowed only in cases of collision, theft, or vandalism. (5) Money. Claims for money... claimant's supervisor. (4) Mobile homes. Claims may be allowed for damage to or loss of mobile homes and their contents under the provisions of § 180.104(c)(2). Claims for structural damage to mobile...

  9. 19 CFR 191.131 - Drawback allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drawback allowance. 191.131 Section 191.131 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... Foreign Ownership and Account § 191.131 Drawback allowance. Section 313(g) of the Act, as amended (19...

  10. 75 FR 4098 - Utility Allowance Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... are required to advise the Secretary of the need for and request of a new utility allowance for... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate...

  11. 40 CFR 74.41 - Identifying allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identifying allowances. 74.41 Section 74.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Tracking and Transfer and End of Year Compliance § 74.41...

  12. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance...

  13. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance with the cost...

  14. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repairs allowed. 280.33 Section 280.33...) General Operating Requirements § 280.33 Repairs allowed. Owners and operators of UST systems must ensure that repairs will prevent releases due to structural failure or corrosion as long as the UST system...

  15. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable...

  16. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable...

  17. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  18. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  19. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  20. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  1. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Public... Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a particular set of Federal principles...

  2. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  3. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1207.22... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  4. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  5. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22... Administration § 66.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  6. 30 CFR 725.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 725.21 Section 725.21 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.21 Allowable costs. (a) The Director or his authorized designee shall determine costs which may be reimbursed according to Office of Management and Budget Circular...

  7. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  8. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  9. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  10. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  11. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may...

  12. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  13. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1470.22 Section 1470.22 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  14. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  15. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 208.33... Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should...

  16. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  17. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  18. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 33.22 Section 33.22 National... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use...

  19. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 230, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations (OMB Circular A-122).” The allowability of... CFR part 220, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions (OMB Circular A-21).” The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of appendix E of 45 CFR...

  20. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33... Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should...

  1. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 34.17 Section 34.17...

  2. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  3. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 31.22 Section 31.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  4. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1207.22... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  5. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  6. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  7. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Allowable costs. 1207.22... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  8. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall determine costs which may be reimbursed according to Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-87....

  9. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Public... Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a particular set of Federal principles...

  10. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR part 29-70... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 633.303 Section 633.303... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs. (a) General....

  11. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.22 Allowable costs....

  12. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  13. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  14. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  15. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 13.22 Section... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.22 Allowable costs....

  16. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and proposal... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 70.27 Section 70.27...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs....

  17. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  18. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  19. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each kind..., Local, and Indian Tribal Governments.” (b) Allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations...

  20. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of... allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance with the provisions...

  1. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program... Circular A-87, “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non... Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of...

  2. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.27 Allowable... for State, Local, and Indian Tribal Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  3. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and..., “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  4. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for...

  5. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and..., Local and Indian Tribal Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations...

  6. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section...

  7. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section...

  8. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  9. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and proposal...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a.... Allowability of costs must be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

  10. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL AND... amount allowed is the value of the vehicle at the time of loss as determined by the National...

  11. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL AND... amount allowed is the value of the vehicle at the time of loss as determined by the National...

  12. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL AND... amount allowed is the value of the vehicle at the time of loss as determined by the National...

  13. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  14. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  15. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (f) Graduate medical education. (1) Effective for that portion of cost reporting periods occurring on... receive direct graduate medical education payment for those residents. (2) Direct graduate medical... to the limit on the all-inclusive rate for allowable costs. (3) Allowable graduate medical...

  16. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (f) Graduate medical education. (1) Effective for that portion of cost reporting periods occurring on... receive direct graduate medical education payment for those residents. (2) Direct graduate medical... to the limit on the all-inclusive rate for allowable costs. (3) Allowable graduate medical...

  17. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  18. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  19. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  20. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  1. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  2. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  3. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  4. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  5. 40 CFR 74.41 - Identifying allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identifying allowances. 74.41 Section 74.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Tracking and Transfer and End of Year Compliance § 74.41...

  6. 40 CFR 74.41 - Identifying allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identifying allowances. 74.41 Section 74.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Tracking and Transfer and End of Year Compliance § 74.41...

  7. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed

  8. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  9. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  10. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  11. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  12. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  13. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  14. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  15. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  16. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  17. 24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable claims. 17.43 Section 17.43 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees Claims Act of 1964 § 17.43 Allowable claims. (a) A claim may...

  18. 30 CFR 206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating allowances. 206.160 Section 206.160 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions...

  19. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  20. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.317 Section 600.317 Energy...

  1. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  2. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  3. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1273.22 Section 1273.22... Administration § 1273.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  4. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1470.22 Section 1470.22 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  5. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR part 29-70... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 633.303 Section 633.303... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs. (a) General....

  6. 30 CFR 725.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 725.21 Section 725.21 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.21 Allowable costs. (a) The Director or his authorized designee shall determine costs which may be reimbursed according to Office of Management and Budget Circular...

  7. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall determine costs which may be reimbursed according to Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-87....

  8. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22... Administration § 66.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  9. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1273.22 Section 1273.22... Administration § 1273.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  10. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  11. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  12. 30 CFR 220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 220.012 Section 220.012 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS LEASES § 220.012 Overhead allowance. (a)...

  13. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... allowances; travel allowances. Payments for stipends, dependency allowances, and the travel...

  14. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. Individuals awarded regular fellowships shall be entitled...) Stipend. (b) Dependency allowances. (c) When authorized in advance, separate allowances for travel....

  15. Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Generalized Rasch Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Jan; Verhelst, Norman

    1986-01-01

    Maximum likelihood procedures are presented for a general model to unify the various models and techniques that have been proposed for item analysis. Unconditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Wright and Haberman, and conditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Rasch and Andersen, are shown as important special cases. (JAZ)

  16. Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    SCHELLEKENS, JONA

    2009-01-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

  17. A maximum likelihood framework for protein design

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Claudia L; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Bonnard, Cécile; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of protein design is to predict amino-acid sequences compatible with a given target structure. Traditionally envisioned as a purely thermodynamic question, this problem can also be understood in a wider context, where additional constraints are captured by learning the sequence patterns displayed by natural proteins of known conformation. In this latter perspective, however, we still need a theoretical formalization of the question, leading to general and efficient learning methods, and allowing for the selection of fast and accurate objective functions quantifying sequence/structure compatibility. Results We propose a formulation of the protein design problem in terms of model-based statistical inference. Our framework uses the maximum likelihood principle to optimize the unknown parameters of a statistical potential, which we call an inverse potential to contrast with classical potentials used for structure prediction. We propose an implementation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo, in which the likelihood is maximized by gradient descent and is numerically estimated by thermodynamic integration. The fit of the models is evaluated by cross-validation. We apply this to a simple pairwise contact potential, supplemented with a solvent-accessibility term, and show that the resulting models have a better predictive power than currently available pairwise potentials. Furthermore, the model comparison method presented here allows one to measure the relative contribution of each component of the potential, and to choose the optimal number of accessibility classes, which turns out to be much higher than classically considered. Conclusion Altogether, this reformulation makes it possible to test a wide diversity of models, using different forms of potentials, or accounting for other factors than just the constraint of thermodynamic stability. Ultimately, such model-based statistical analyses may help to understand the forces shaping protein sequences, and driving their evolution. PMID:16808841

  18. Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Young; Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose; Moros, Eduardo; Corry, Peter

    2012-01-01

    At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

  19. Experimental verification of a portal dose prediction model

    SciTech Connect

    Elmpt, W.J.C. van; Nijsten, S.M.J.J.G.; Mijnheer, B.J.; Minken, A.W.H.

    2005-09-15

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) can be used to measure a two-dimensional (2D) dose distribution behind a patient, thus allowing dosimetric treatment verification. For this purpose we experimentally assessed the accuracy of a 2D portal dose prediction model based on pencil beam scatter kernels. A straightforward derivation of these pencil beam scatter kernels for portal dose prediction models is presented based on phantom measurements. The model is able to predict the 2D portal dose image (PDI) behind a patient, based on a PDI without the patient in the beam in combination with the radiological thickness of the patient, which requires in addition a PDI with the patient in the beam. To assess the accuracy of portal dose and radiological thickness values obtained with our model, various types of homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous phantoms were irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam. With our model we are able to predict a PDI with an accuracy better than 2% (mean difference) if the radiological thickness of the object in the beam is symmetrically situated around the isocenter. For other situations deviations up to 3% are observed for a homogeneous phantom with a radiological thickness of 17 cm and a 9 cm shift of the midplane-to-detector distance. The model can extract the radiological thickness within 7 mm (maximum difference) of the actual radiological thickness if the object is symmetrically distributed around the isocenter plane. This difference in radiological thickness is related to a primary portal dose difference of 3%. It can be concluded that our model can be used as an easy and accurate tool for the 2D verification of patient treatments by comparing predicted and measured PDIs. The model is also able to extract the primary portal dose with a high accuracy, which can be used as the input for a 3D dose reconstruction method based on back-projection.

  20. Prediction of three dimensional maximum isometric neck strength.

    PubMed

    Fice, Jason B; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    We measured maximum isometric neck strength under combinations of flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation to determine whether neck strength in three dimensions (3D) can be predicted from principal axes strength. This would allow biomechanical modelers to validate their neck models across many directions using only principal axis strength data. Maximum isometric neck moments were measured in 9 male volunteers (29±9 years) for 17 directions. The 3D moments were normalized by the principal axis moments, and compared to unity for all directions tested. Finally, each subject's maximum principal axis moments were used to predict their resultant moment in the off-axis directions. Maximum moments were 30±6 N m in flexion, 32±9 N m in lateral bending, 51±11 N m in extension, and 13±5 N m in axial rotation. The normalized 3D moments were not significantly different from unity (95% confidence interval contained one), except for three directions that combined ipsilateral axial rotation and lateral bending; in these directions the normalized moments exceeded one. Predicted resultant moments compared well to the actual measured values (r2=0.88). Despite exceeding unity, the normalized moments were consistent across subjects to allow prediction of maximum 3D neck strength using principal axes neck strength. PMID:24893597

  1. SU-E-T-498: Energy Minimization and Dose-Volume Inverse Optimization in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaylov, I; Moros, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare dose-volume (DVH) and energy minimization-based (EM) optimization for prostate cancer cases. Methods: A dozen of prostate plans were retrospectively studied. For each case two IMRT plans were generated, one with DVH and the other with EM objective cost function. Those different objective functions were used only for the organs at risk (OARs), while target objectives were achieved through DVH cost functions. The plans used the same beam angles, maximum number of segments per plan, minimum segment area and MUs per segment. Both plans were normalized such that 95% of the PTV was covered by the same prescription dose. After prescription was achieved, doses to the OARs were iteratively lowered until the standard deviation of the dose across the PTV was ~3.5%. Plan quality was evaluated by several dose indices (DIs). A DI represents the dose delivered to certain volume of a structure. Tallied DIs were for rectum and bladder 10%, 40%, 60% volumes, and 1% volumes of the femoral heads as surrogate for maximum doses. Statistical significance in the differences among DIs was quantified with two-tailed paired t-tests. Results: On average EM plans performed better than DVH plans. Statistically significant dose reduction in rectum DI10, DI40, and DI60, were 2.6%, 25.7%, and 35.9%, respectively. For bladder DI10, DI40, and DI60 the differences were 1.1%, 20.8%, and 29.7%. Left and right femoral head DI1s were better by 33.8% and 27.8% in EM plans. The quoted dose reduction is with respect to EM absolute doses for the DIs. Conclusion: The performance of EM optimization with respect to DVH optimization is patient and DI dependent. While in some cases specific DIs were better with DVH optimization, on average the energy minimization allows better (ranging from 1% to ~40%) OAR sparing than DVH optimization. NIH-NCI.

  2. CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer

    2011-12-01

    The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.

  3. CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.

    2002-07-01

    The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.

  4. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  5. PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

    2012-06-05

    For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

  6. Permanent stress allowable in field-installed fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Koichi; Stormbom, Lena

    1993-02-01

    One-third of the proof-test stress has been commonly quoted as the maximum allowable stress to ensure longevity of fibers. However, the basis of the rule are not appropriate for some installation practices and modern fibers. The Weibull parameter m for low-stress breaks was measured using a proof tester. The fatigue constant n was replaced with the parameter obtained from an abraded fiber. Using the new parameters and appropriate failure probabilities, engineering guidelines were derived for three representative lengths: 1000 km (long-haul cable), 1 m (fiber in a splice closure), and 1 cm (bent section of a pigtail fiber).

  7. Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

    1999-10-06

    On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other radionuclides. However, we continually see {sup 137}Cs in the groundwater at all contaminated atolls; the turnover time of the groundwater is about 5 y. The {sup 137}Cs can only get to the groundwater by leaching through the soil column when a portion of the soluble fraction of {sup 137}Cs inventory in the soil is transported to the groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the aquifer. This process is causing a loss of {sup 137}Cs out of the root zone of the plants that provides an environmental loss constant ({lambda}{sub env}) in addition to radiological decay {lambda}{sub rad}. Consequently, there is an effective rate of loss, {lambda}{sub eff} = {lambda}{sub rad} + {lambda}{sub env} that is the sum of the radiological and environmental-loss decay constants. We have had, and continue to have, a vigorous program to determine the rate of the environmental loss process. What we do know at this time is that the loss of {sup 137}Cs over time is greater than the estimate based on radiological decay only, and that the actual dose received by the Utirik people over 30-, 50-, or 70-y will be less than those presented in this report.

  8. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  9. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  10. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS LEASES § 1220.012 Overhead allowance. (a) During the capital recovery period the overhead... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  11. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  12. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  13. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subsistence allowance. 21... through 21.4275. 2 For on-job training, subsistence allowance may not exceed the difference between the... 385.80 478.57 563.94 41.11 3/4 time 289.88 359.45 421.64 31.62 1/2 time 193.96 240.33 282.50...

  14. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subsistence allowance. 21... through 21.4275. 2 For on-job training, subsistence allowance may not exceed the difference between the... 385.80 478.57 563.94 41.11 3/4 time 289.88 359.45 421.64 31.62 1/2 time 193.96 240.33 282.50...

  15. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence allowance. 21... rate of pursuit, see §§ 21.4270 through 21.4275. 2 For on-job training, subsistence allowance may not... 10.24 1 For measurement of rate of pursuit, see §§ 21.4270 through 21.4275. 2 For on-job...

  16. Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groer, P. G.; Carnes, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed dose thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as dose thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a dose threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold dose after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body doses for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body doses were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the dose thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a maximum value at zero with increasing doses. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types.

  17. Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds.

    PubMed

    Groer, P G; Carnes, B A

    2003-01-01

    An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed dose thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as dose thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a dose threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold dose after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body doses for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body doses were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the dose thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a maximum value at zero with increasing doses. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types. PMID:12593429

  18. Evaluation of Rectal Dose During High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, Rajib Lochan; Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri; Rao, Ramakrishna; Muralidhar, Kanaparthy R.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2011-01-01

    High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high doses being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the dose delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the dose delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured dose to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference point dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the dose, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated maximum dose and the measured dose was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated maximum dose was typically higher than the measured dose. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal dose for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the dose delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated dose.

  19. Ultralow dose computed tomography attenuation correction for pediatric PET CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Samuel L.; Shulkin, Barry L.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To develop ultralow dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultralow doses (10–35 mA s). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for 11 tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% volume computed tomography dose index (0.39/3.64; mGy) from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUV{sub bw}) of various diameter targets (range 8–37 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the nondose reduced CTAC image for 90% dose reduction. No change in SUV{sub bw}, background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols was found down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62% and 86% (3.2/8.3–0.9/6.2). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from predose-reduced patient images. Conclusions: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CT dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for colocalization of hybrid CT anatomy and PET radioisotope uptake.

  20. Variation of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} for the small-field dosimetric parameters percentage depth dose, tissue-maximum ratio, and off-axis ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Francescon, Paolo Satariano, Ninfa; Beddar, Sam; Das, Indra J.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Evaluate the ability of different dosimeters to correctly measure the dosimetric parameters percentage depth dose (PDD), tissue-maximum ratio (TMR), and off-axis ratio (OAR) in water for small fields. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to estimate the variation of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} for several types of microdetectors as a function of depth and distance from the central axis for PDD, TMR, and OAR measurements. The variation of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} enables one to evaluate the ability of a detector to reproduce the PDD, TMR, and OAR in water and consequently determine whether it is necessary to apply correction factors. The correctness of the simulations was verified by assessing the ratios between the PDDs and OARs of 5- and 25-mm circular collimators used with a linear accelerator measured with two different types of dosimeters (the PTW 60012 diode and PTW PinPoint 31014 microchamber) and the PDDs and the OARs measured with the Exradin W1 plastic scintillator detector (PSD) and comparing those ratios with the corresponding ratios predicted by the MC simulations. Results: MC simulations reproduced results with acceptable accuracy compared to the experimental results; therefore, MC simulations can be used to successfully predict the behavior of different dosimeters in small fields. The Exradin W1 PSD was the only dosimeter that reproduced the PDDs, TMRs, and OARs in water with high accuracy. With the exception of the EDGE diode, the stereotactic diodes reproduced the PDDs and the TMRs in water with a systematic error of less than 2% at depths of up to 25 cm; however, they produced OAR values that were significantly different from those in water, especially in the tail region (lower than 20% in some cases). The microchambers could be used for PDD measurements for fields greater than those produced using a 10-mm collimator. However, with the detector stem parallel to the beam axis, the microchambers could be used for TMR measurements for all field sizes. The microchambers could not be used for OAR measurements for small fields. Conclusions: Compared with MC simulation, the Exradin W1 PSD can reproduce the PDDs, TMRs, and OARs in water with a high degree of accuracy; thus, the correction used for converting dose is very close to unity. The stereotactic diode is a viable alternative because it shows an acceptable systematic error in the measurement of PDDs and TMRs and a significant underestimation in only the tail region of the OAR measurements, where the dose is low and differences in dose may not be therapeutically meaningful.

  1. Reassessing benzene risks using internal doses and Monte-Carlo uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, L A

    1996-01-01

    Human cancer risks from benzene have been estimated from epidemiological data, with supporting evidence from animal bioassay data. This article reexamines the animal-based risk assessments using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of benzene metabolism in animals and humans. Internal doses (total benzene metabolites) from oral gavage experiments in mice are well predicted by the PBPK model. Both the data and the PBPK model outputs are also well described by a simple nonlinear (Michaelis-Menten) regression model, as previously used by Bailer and Hoel [Metabolite-based internal doses used in risk assessment of benzene. Environ Health Perspect 82:177-184 (1989)]. Refitting the multistage model family to internal doses changes the maximum-likelihood estimate (MLE) dose-response curve for mice from linear-quadratic to purely cubic, so that low-dose risk estimates are smaller than in previous risk assessments. In contrast to Bailer and Hoel's findings using interspecies dose conversion, the use of internal dose estimates for humans from a PBPK model reduces estimated human risks at low doses. Sensitivity analyses suggest that the finding of a nonlinear MLE dose-response curve at low doses is robust to changes in internal dose definitions and more consistent with epidemiological data than earlier risk models. A Monte-Carlo uncertainty analysis based on maximum-entropy probabilities and Bayesian conditioning is used to develop an entire probability distribution for the true but unknown dose-response function. This allows the probability of a positive low-dose slope to be quantified: It is about 10%. An upper 95% confidence limit on the low-dose slope of excess risk is also obtained directly from the posterior distribution and is similar to previous q1* values. This approach suggests that the excess risk due to benzene exposure may be nonexistent (or even negative) at sufficiently low doses. Two types of biological information about benzene effects--pharmacokinetic and hematotoxic--are examined to test the plausibility of this finding. A framework for incorporating causally relevant biological information into benzene risk assessment is introduced, and it is shown that both pharmacokinetic and hematotoxic models appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that sufficiently low concentrations of inhaled benzene do not create and excess risk. PMID:9118928

  2. Using EPA`s allowance tracking system to assess the allowance market

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, M.; Kruger, J.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a credible framework for analyzing private allowance transfers recorded in EPA`s Allowance Tracking System (ATS) is essential for effective assessment of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market. The ATS began recording transfers of allowances in March, 1994, and since then has served as an automated record of allowance holdings and transfers of ownership. Though primarily concerned with determining compliance, the ATS contains details of private allowance transfers representing what is believed to be a significant portion of overall SO{sub 2} allowance market activity. This paper will analyze these private transfers recorded in ATS and will develop relevant categories for classification purposes. The resulting categorization will enable consistent analysis of the SO{sub 2} allowance market and provide substantial insight into the level and type of allowance trading activity under the Acid Rain Program.

  3. Maximum power flux of auroral kilometric radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.F.; Fainberg, J. )

    1991-08-01

    The maximum auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) power flux observed by distant satellites has been increased by more than a factor of 10 from previously reported values. This increase has been achieved by a new data selection criterion and a new analysis of antenna spin modulated signals received by the radio astronomy instrument on ISEE 3. The method relies on selecting AKR events containing signals in the highest-frequency channel (1980, kHz), followed by a careful analysis that effectively increased the instrumental dynamic range by more than 20 dB by making use of the spacecraft antenna gain diagram during a spacecraft rotation. This analysis has allowed the separation of real signals from those created in the receiver by overloading. Many signals having the appearance of AKR harmonic signals were shown to be of spurious origin. During one event, however, real second harmonic AKR signals were detected even though the spacecraft was at a great distance (17 R{sub E}) from Earth. During another event, when the spacecraft was at the orbital distance of the Moon and on the morning side of Earth, the power flux of fundamental AKR was greater than 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} W m{sup {minus}2} Hz{sup {minus}1} at 360 kHz normalized to a radial distance r of 25 R{sub E} assuming the power falls off as r{sup {minus}2}. A comparison of these intense signal levels with the most intense source region values (obtained by ISIS 1 and Viking) suggests that multiple sources were observed by ISEE 3.

  4. Allowable levels of take for the trade in Nearctic songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Walters, Matthew A.H.; Boomer, G. Scott

    2012-01-01

    The take of Nearctic songbirds for the caged-bird trade is an important cultural and economic activity in Mexico, but its sustainability has been questioned. We relied on the theta-logistic population model to explore options for setting allowable levels of take for 11 species of passerines that were subject to legal take in Mexico in 2010. Because estimates of population size necessary for making periodic adjustments to levels of take are not routinely available, we examined the conditions under which a constant level of take might contribute to population depletion (i.e., a population below its level of maximum net productivity). The chance of depleting a population is highest when levels of take are based on population sizes that happen to be much lower or higher than the level of maximum net productivity, when environmental variation is relatively high and serially correlated, and when the interval between estimation of population size is relatively long (≥5 years). To estimate demographic rates of songbirds involved in the Mexican trade we relied on published information and allometric relationships to develop probability distributions for key rates, and then sampled from those distributions to characterize the uncertainty in potential levels of take. Estimates of the intrinsic rate of growth (r) were highly variable, but median estimates were consistent with those expected for relatively short-lived, highly fecund species. Allowing for the possibility of nonlinear density dependence generally resulted in allowable levels of take that were lower than would have been the case under an assumption of linearity. Levels of take authorized by the Mexican government in 2010 for the 11 species we examined were small in comparison to relatively conservative allowable levels of take (i.e., those intended to achieve 50% of maximum sustainable yield). However, the actual levels of take in Mexico are unknown and almost certainly exceed the authorized take. Also, the take of Nearctic songbirds in other Latin American and Caribbean countries ultimately must be considered in assessing population-level impacts.

  5. 15 CFR 922.42 - Allowed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowed activities. 922.42 Section 922... activities. All activities (e.g., fishing, boating, diving, research, education) may be conducted unless... Administrator may only directly regulate fishing activities pursuant to the procedure set forth in section...

  6. 15 CFR 922.42 - Allowed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowed activities. 922.42 Section 922... activities. All activities (e.g., fishing, boating, diving, research, education) may be conducted unless... Administrator may only directly regulate fishing activities pursuant to the procedure set forth in section...

  7. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  8. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  9. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. In addition... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section...

  10. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 31.22 Section 31.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  11. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  12. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  13. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  14. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  15. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  16. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  17. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  18. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  19. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  20. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  1. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  2. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  3. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  4. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  5. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  6. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  7. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  8. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  9. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  10. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  11. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  12. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  13. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  14. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  15. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  16. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  17. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  18. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  19. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  20. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...