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1

Maximum Allowable Load of Two Cooperative Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a computational technique for determining the maximum allowable load of two cooperative manipulators for a desired trajectory of the load is presented. There are number of factors that limit the maximum allowable load of two cooperative robotic arms. With attention to configuration of cooperative manipulators with redundant actuation as a closed form chain, the most important limitation

H. Ghariblu; A. Javanmard

2010-01-01

2

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

James, John T.

2008-01-01

3

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2011-10-01

4

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2012-10-01

5

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2010-10-01

6

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2013-10-01

7

49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section 174.86 Transportation...174.86 Maximum allowable operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten...subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

2011-10-01

8

49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section 174.86 Transportation...174.86 Maximum allowable operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten...subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

2010-10-01

9

14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.  

...2014-01-01 false Maximum allowable weights. 375.23 Section 375.23 Aeronautics...Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are...the limitations on maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the...

2014-01-01

10

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...season, the maximum allowable diversion (MAD) for each year must...water from Lahontan Reservoir and diversions from the Truckee Canal (including any diversions from the Truckee Canal to Rock Dam Ditch) must be charged to the...

2010-10-01

11

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...season, the maximum allowable diversion (MAD) for each year must...water from Lahontan Reservoir and diversions from the Truckee Canal (including any diversions from the Truckee Canal to Rock Dam Ditch) must be charged to the...

2012-10-01

12

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...season, the maximum allowable diversion (MAD) for each year must...water from Lahontan Reservoir and diversions from the Truckee Canal (including any diversions from the Truckee Canal to Rock Dam Ditch) must be charged to the...

2011-10-01

13

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...season, the maximum allowable diversion (MAD) for each year must...water from Lahontan Reservoir and diversions from the Truckee Canal (including any diversions from the Truckee Canal to Rock Dam Ditch) must be charged to the...

2013-10-01

14

Prediction of Maximum Allowed RMS Currents for Electromigration Design Guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Experimentally verified, simulation-based three-dimensional models and methodology to predict temperature rise ({delta}T) above maximum junction temperature due to steady state Joule heating in copper interconnects have been developed. The models have been used to predict maximum allowed root mean squared (RMS) current, irms, in the interconnects to limit {delta}T to a chosen maximum. Effect of current, line location in the stack, dielectric materials and spacing between active lines has been investigated. For the first time, the effect of package type on {delta}T is addressed. A systematic investigation of Joule heating effects in a single line, effect of its unpowered neighbors and of vias has been carried out that logically culminated in a backend structure, which closely represents actual chip design. This structure is used to predict the maximum allowed irms values that limit {delta}T. Limitations of closed form solutions in predicting the maximum allowed irms values are delineated. The models have been implemented for a wide range of parameters of 90 and 130 nm technology nodes and are shown to be accurate within {+-}10% of the experimentally measured temperatures.

Ramakrishna, K.; Gall, M.; Justison, P.; Kawasaki, H. [Technology Solutions Organization, Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Austin, TX 78721 (United States)

2004-12-08

15

Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMAC's for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee.

1994-01-01

16

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to this request, the NRC first developed criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants, published in its 1992 report Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. Since then, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations has been reviewing NASA's documentation of chemical-specific SMAC's as described in the Introduction to this volume. This report is the third volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994 and the second in 1996.

1996-01-01

17

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report, prepared by the Committee on Toxicology of the National Research Council's Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, is in response to a request from NASA for guidelines to develop spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for space-station contaminants. SMACs are used to provide guidance on allowable chemical exposures during normal operations and emergency situations. Short-term SMACs refer to concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not compromise the performance of specific tasks during emergency conditions lasting up to 24 hours. Long-term SMACs are intended to avoid adverse health effects (either immediate or delayed) and to avoid degradation in crew performance with continuous exposure in a closed space-station environment for as long as 180 days.

1996-01-01

18

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2013-10-01

19

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2011-10-01

20

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2012-10-01

21

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2010-10-01

22

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. 192...192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a...segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds a maximum allowable...

2011-10-01

23

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52.01-55... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an...

2010-10-01

24

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52.01-55... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an...

2011-10-01

25

A comparison of minimum detectable and proposed maximum allowable soil concentration cleanup levels for selected radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations on the release of a radioactively contaminated site for unrestricted use are currently being established by the Environmental Protection Agency. The effective dose equivalent rate limit for the reasonably maximally exposed individual was proposed at 0.15 mSv y⁻¹. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not maximum allowable soil concentrations of common radionuclides corresponding to 0.15

J. L. Wood; R. R. Benke; S. M. Rohrer; K. J. Kearfott

1999-01-01

26

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

...not be offset later by increased efficiencies and may severely affect the District's water users by imposing an added “drought” on top of a real one. Therefore, the maximum efficiency debit cushion is set at 26,000 acre-feet. However,...

2014-10-01

27

77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...transmission pipelines that if the pipeline pressure exceeds maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus the build-up allowed...

2012-12-21

28

41 CFR 302-7.302 - What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment?  

...2014-07-01 false What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? 302-7...Allowance § 302-7.302 What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? The maximum weight allowance your agency may grant for a UAB...

2014-07-01

29

41 CFR 302-7.302 - What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? 302-7...Allowance § 302-7.302 What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? The maximum weight allowance your agency may grant for a UAB...

2012-07-01

30

41 CFR 302-7.302 - What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? 302-7...Allowance § 302-7.302 What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? The maximum weight allowance your agency may grant for a UAB...

2013-07-01

31

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2010-10-01

32

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2011-10-01

33

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54.10-5...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and...10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a)...

2010-10-01

34

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54.10-5...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and...10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a)...

2011-10-01

35

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2011-10-01

36

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2010-10-01

37

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to Part 213 Transportation...Part 213—Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds Table 1—Three Inches Unbalance ...6 (12) Maximum allowable operating speed (mph) 0°30? 93 100 107...

2010-10-01

38

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to Part 213 Transportation...Part 213—Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds Table 1—Three Inches Unbalance ...6 (12) Maximum allowable operating speed (mph) 0°30? 93 100 107...

2011-10-01

39

Correcting for electron contamination at dose maximum in photon beams.  

PubMed

Data are presented to allow the photon beam quality specifier being used in the new AAPM TG-51 protocol, %dd(10)x, to be extracted from depth-dose data measured with a 1 mm lead foil either 50 cm or 30 cm from the phantom surface. %dd(10)x is the photon component of the percentage depth dose at 10 cm depth for a 10x10 cm2 field on the surface of a phantom at an SSD of 100 cm. The purpose of the foil is to remove the unknown electron contamination from the accelerator head. Monte Carlo calculations are done: (a) to show these electrons are reduced to a negligible level; (b) to calculate the amount of electron contamination from the lead foil at the depth of dose maximum; and (c) to calculate the effect of beam hardening on %dd(10). The analysis extends the earlier work of Li and Rogers [Med. Phys. 21, 791-798 (1994)] which only provided data for the foil at 50 cm. An error in the earlier Monte Carlo simulations is reported and a more convenient method of analyzing and using the data is presented. It is shown that 20% variations in the foil thickness have a negligible effect on the calculated corrections. PMID:10227355

Rogers, D W

1999-04-01

40

F68-9 MAXIMUM NUMBER OF JUNIOR COLLEGE TRANSFER UNITS ALLOWED  

E-print Network

) No credit may be allowed for professional courses in education taken in a Junior college, other thanF68-9 MAXIMUM NUMBER OF JUNIOR COLLEGE TRANSFER UNITS ALLOWED Legislative History: Document dated policy on Junior College Transfer, presented by Chairman Gustafson of the Curriculum and Instruction

Gleixner, Stacy

41

Guidelines for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for Space Station contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing to launch a manned space station by the year 1996. Because of concerns about the health, safety, and functioning abilities of the crews, NASA has requested that the National Research Council (NRC) through the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST) provide advice on toxicological matters for the space-station program. The Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants was established by the Committee on Toxicology (COT) to address NASA's concerns. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) are defined as the maximum concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not cause adverse health effects, significant discomfort, or degradation in crew performance.

1992-01-01

42

Pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled particles and the maximum tolerated dose.  

PubMed Central

Chronic inhalation bioassays in rodents are used to assess pulmonary carcinogenicity for purposes of hazard identification and potentially for risk characterization. The influence of high experimental doses on tumor development has been recognized for some time and has led to the concept of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for dose selection, with the highest dose being at the MTD. Exposure at the MTD should ensure that the animals are sufficiently challenged while at the same time the animal's normal longevity is not altered from effects other than carcinogenicity. A characteristic of exposure-dose-response relationships for chronically inhaled particles is that lung tumors are significantly increased only at high exposure levels, and that lung tumors are seen in rats only but not in mice or hamsters. This lung tumor response in rats is thought to be secondary to persistent alveolar inflammation, indicating that the MTD may have been exceeded. Thus, mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity may be dose dependent and may not operate at lower doses that humans normally experience. Despite awareness of this problem, carcinogenicity bioassays that evaluate particulate compounds in rodents have not always been designed with the MTD concept in mind. This is due to several problems associated with determining an appropriate MTD for particle inhalation studies. One requirement for the MTD is that some toxicity should be observed. However, it is difficult to define what degree of toxic response is indicative of the MTD. For particle inhalation studies, various noncancer end points in addition to mortality and body weight gain have been considered as indicators of the MTD, i.e., pulmonary inflammation, increased epithelial cell proliferation, increased lung weight, impairment of particle clearance function, and significant histopathological findings at the end of a subchronic study. However, there is no general agreement about quantification of these end points to define the MTD. To determine whether pulmonary responses are indicative of the MTD, we suggest defining an MTD based on results of a multidose subchronic and chronic inhalation study with a known human particulate carcinogen, e.g., asbestos or crystalline silica. Quantification of effects in such a study using the noncancer end points listed above would identify a dose level without significant signs of toxicity at the end of the subchronic study. If this dose level still results in significant lung tumor incidence at the end of the chronic study. We will have a sound basis for characterizing the MTD and justifying its use in future particle inhalation studies. Also, a better understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of particle-induced lung tumors is needed to support the MTD concept. PMID:9400749

Oberdörster, G

1997-01-01

43

Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses  

SciTech Connect

Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

Marter, W.L.

1990-11-01

44

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

Langford, Shannon D.

2007-01-01

45

Predictive models for maximum recommended therapeutic dose of antiretroviral drugs.  

PubMed

A novel method for predicting maximum recommended therapeutic dose (MRTD) is presented using quantitative structure property relationships (QSPRs) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). MRTD data of 31 structurally diverse Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) were collected from FDA MRTD Database or package inserts. Molecular property descriptors of each compound, that is, molecular mass, aqueous solubility, lipophilicity, biotransformation half life, oxidation half life, and biodegradation probability were calculated from their SMILES codes. A training set (n = 23) was used to construct multiple linear regression and back propagation neural network models. The models were validated using an external test set (n = 8) which demonstrated that MRTD values may be predicted with reasonable accuracy. Model predictability was described by root mean squared errors (RMSEs), Kendall's correlation coefficients (tau), P-values, and Bland Altman plots for method comparisons. MRTD was predicted by a 6-3-1 neural network model (RMSE = 13.67, tau = 0.643, P = 0.035) more accurately than by the multiple linear regression (RMSE = 27.27, tau = 0.714, P = 0.019) model. Both models illustrated a moderate correlation between aqueous solubility of antiretroviral drugs and maximum therapeutic dose. MRTD prediction may assist in the design of safer, more effective treatments for HIV infection. PMID:22481974

Branham, Michael Lee; Ross, Edward A; Govender, Thirumala

2012-01-01

46

Predictive Models for Maximum Recommended Therapeutic Dose of Antiretroviral Drugs  

PubMed Central

A novel method for predicting maximum recommended therapeutic dose (MRTD) is presented using quantitative structure property relationships (QSPRs) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). MRTD data of 31 structurally diverse Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) were collected from FDA MRTD Database or package inserts. Molecular property descriptors of each compound, that is, molecular mass, aqueous solubility, lipophilicity, biotransformation half life, oxidation half life, and biodegradation probability were calculated from their SMILES codes. A training set (n = 23) was used to construct multiple linear regression and back propagation neural network models. The models were validated using an external test set (n = 8) which demonstrated that MRTD values may be predicted with reasonable accuracy. Model predictability was described by root mean squared errors (RMSEs), Kendall's correlation coefficients (tau), P-values, and Bland Altman plots for method comparisons. MRTD was predicted by a 6-3-1 neural network model (RMSE = 13.67, tau = 0.643, P = 0.035) more accurately than by the multiple linear regression (RMSE = 27.27, tau = 0.714, P = 0.019) model. Both models illustrated a moderate correlation between aqueous solubility of antiretroviral drugs and maximum therapeutic dose. MRTD prediction may assist in the design of safer, more effective treatments for HIV infection. PMID:22481974

Branham, Michael Lee; Ross, Edward A.; Govender, Thirumala

2012-01-01

47

A nomogram for calculating the maximum dose of local anaesthetic.  

PubMed

Toxic dose limits (mg.kg(-1)) for local anaesthetics based on body weight are well-established, but calculation of the maximum safe volume (ml) of a given agent and formulation is complex, and frequently results in errors. We therefore developed a nomogram to perform this calculation. We compared the performance of the nomogram with a spreadsheet and a general purpose calculator using simulated clinical data. Bland-Altman analysis showed close agreement between the nomogram and spreadsheet, with bias of -0.07 ml and limits of agreement of -0.38 to +0.24 ml (correlation coefficient r(2) = 0.9980; p < 0.001). The nomogram produced fewer and smaller errors compared with the calculator. Our nomogram calculates the maximum safe volume (ml) of local anaesthetic to a clinically acceptable degree of accuracy. It facilitates rapid cross-checking of dosage calculations performed by electronic or other means at negligible cost, and can potentially reduce the incidence of local anaesthetic toxicity. PMID:24820093

Williams, D J; Walker, J D

2014-08-01

48

Preliminary estimates of the virtually safe dose for tumors obtained from the maximum tolerated dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper was to examine the correlation between the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the low-dose estimate of the virtually safe dose (VSD) for animal carcinogens. Chronic bioassay results from the National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program carcinogenesis screening program were used. Estimates of the VSD were obtained by linear low-dose extrapolation for which an adequate dose-response relationship existed at the same tumor site in the same sex for both rats and mice. Estimates of the VSD were compared with the MTD for 69 tumor sites from 38 chemicals for rats and mice. The MTDs ranged from high to low toxicity (1 ppb to 4.4% in the diet). The overall geometric mean of the ratio of the MTD to the VSD corresponding to a maximum estimated risk of 10(-6) was 3.8 x 10(5). Of the 138 cases, only 3 cases were more than a factor of 10 from the mean ratio. This suggested that a quick estimate of the VSD could be obtained by dividing the MTD, obtained from a subchronic study, by 400,000. Further, if the human exposure is less than 10(-7) X MTD, the estimated risk is likely to be negligible even if the chemical is a carcinogen. It may not be worthwhile to conduct a chronic bioassay for the purpose of demonstrating a negligible risk, if the chemical is likely to be carcinogenic, unless the human exposure is extremely low.

Gaylor, D.W.

1989-04-01

49

The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

2009-01-01

50

Toxicological approach to setting spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for carbon monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are exposure limits for airborne chemicals used by NASA in spacecraft. The aim of these SMACs is to protect the spacecrew against adverse health effects and performance decrements that would interfere with mission objectives. Because of the 1 and 24 hr SMACs are set for contingencies, minor reversible toxic effects that do not affect mission objectives are acceptable. The 7, 30, or 180 day SMACs are aimed at nominal operations, so they are established at levels that would not cause noncarcinogenic toxic effects and more than one case of tumor per 1000 exposed individuals over the background. The process used to set the SMACs for carbon monoxide (CO) is described to illustrate the approach used by NASA. After the toxicological literature on CO was reviewed, the data were summarized and separated into acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity data. CO's toxicity depends on the formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood, reducing the blood's oxygen carrying capacity. The initial task was to estimate the COHb levels that would not produce toxic effects in the brain and heart.

Wong, K. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

1992-01-01

51

Heterogeneity-corrected vs -uncorrected critical structure maximum point doses in breast balloon brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) ? 0.930 (R{sup 2} = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) ? 0.955 (R{sup 2} = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor.

Kim, Leonard, E-mail: kimlh@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2013-07-01

52

Statistical Methods for Selecting Maximum Effective Dose and Evaluating Treatment Effect When Dose - Response is Monotonic  

PubMed Central

The maximum effective dose (MaxED) is an important quantity for therapeutic drugs. The MaxED for therapeutic drugs is defined as the dose above which no improvement in efficacy is obtained. In this article, we propose two experimental designs and analytic methods (one single-stage design and one two-stage design) to select the MaxED among several fixed doses and to compare the therapeutic effect of the selected MaxED with a control. The selection of MaxED is based on the isotonic regression under the restriction of monotonicity. In the single-stage design, both the selection of the MaxED and assessing its efficacy are carried out at the end of experiment. In the two-stage design, the selection of the MaxED and assessment of its efficacy are carried out at the interim analysis (first stage), the experiment in the second stage is carried out only at the selected MaxED and control if the first-stage test is not significant. Thus, the two-stage design enables selection of the MaxED at an earlier stage and stopping the trial earlier if the treatment effect at MaxED is extreme. Williams’ test (1972) is applied to test whether the selected MaxED is significantly different from control for the single-stage design and the first-stage test of the two-stage design. The sample size calculation for each design is provided. Extensive simulations are carried out to illustrate the performances of the proposed methods. PMID:25067994

Kong, Maiying; Rai, Shesh N.; Bolli, Roberto

2014-01-01

53

Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose  

E-print Network

Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose This paper addresses the problem of power and sample size calculation for a stepwise multiple test procedure functions, respectively. The sample sizes necessary on the zero dose control and each of the positive doses

Tamhane, Ajit C.

54

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...01-30) that are likely to occur, or the designated coincident operating temperature, excluding any metal thickness specified as corrosion allowance. (See UG-25 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.) (c)...

2012-10-01

55

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...01-30) that are likely to occur, or the designated coincident operating temperature, excluding any metal thickness specified as corrosion allowance. (See UG-25 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.) (c)...

2013-10-01

56

5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS...the requirement to wear the uniform, provided the agency publishes a notice of its intention to continue such payments in...

2010-01-01

57

Locally weighted learning methods for predicting dose-dependent toxicity with application to the human maximum recommended daily dose.  

PubMed

Toxicological experiments in animals are carried out to determine the type and severity of any potential toxic effect associated with a new lead compound. The collected data are then used to extrapolate the effects on humans and determine initial dose regimens for clinical trials. The underlying assumption is that the severity of the toxic effects in animals is correlated with that in humans. However, there is a general lack of toxic correlations across species. Thus, it is more advantageous to predict the toxicological effects of a compound on humans directly from the human toxicological data of related compounds. However, many popular quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods that build a single global model by fitting all training data appear inappropriate for predicting toxicological effects of structurally diverse compounds because the observed toxicological effects may originate from very different and mostly unknown molecular mechanisms. In this article, we demonstrate, via application to the human maximum recommended daily dose data that locally weighted learning methods, such as k-nearest neighbors, are well suited for predicting toxicological effects of structurally diverse compounds. We also show that a significant flaw of the k-nearest neighbor method is that it always uses a constant number of nearest neighbors in making prediction for a target compound, irrespective of whether the nearest neighbors are structurally similar enough to the target compound to ensure that they share the same mechanism of action. To remedy this flaw, we proposed and implemented a variable number nearest neighbor method. The advantages of the variable number nearest neighbor method over other QSAR methods include (1) allowing more reliable predictions to be achieved by applying a tighter molecular distance threshold and (2) automatic detection for when a prediction should not be made because the compound is outside the applicable domain. PMID:22963722

Liu, Ruifeng; Tawa, Gregory; Wallqvist, Anders

2012-10-15

58

MAXINE: An improved methodology for estimating maximum individual dose from chronic atmospheric radioactive releases  

SciTech Connect

An EXCEL{reg_sign} spreadsheet has been developed that, when combined with the PC version of XOQDOQ, will generate estimates of maximum individual dose from routine atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The spreadsheet, MAXINE, utilizes a variety of atmospheric dispersion factors to calculate radiation dose as recommended by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Regulatory Guide 1.109 [USNRC 1977a]. The methodology suggested herein includes use of both the MAXINE spreadsheet and the PC version of XOQDOQ.

Hamby, D.M.

1994-02-01

59

Calculation of maximum allowable free span length and safety assessment of the DF1-1 submarine pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DF1-1 submarine pipeline was investigated using a dual-frequency side-scan sonar and a swath sounder system. More than a hundred scour pits under the pipeline were found, most of which have caused the span of the pipeline to increase and threatened its safety. The maximum allowable free span length (MAFSL) of the pipeline was determined through the limitations regarding maximum allowable stress under static or quasi-static loads and the onset of Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV) under different hydrodynamic actions. The results show that the MAFSL under static conditions is 56 m. However, the MAFSLs are 30 m and 20 m under ordinary weather conditions and hurricane-induced currents for the 100-year return period, respectively, to avoid VIV as calculated by using the highest safety class factor. It is suggested that spanning pipelines longer than 20 m should be supported. Additionally, eight successive spans which may also threaten the pipeline were proposed. The most hazardous scour pits are along the pipeline section from KP42 to KP51.

Xu, Jishang; Li, Guangxue; Horrillo, Juan J.; Yang, Rongmin; Cao, Lihua

2010-03-01

60

The effect of maximum-allowable payload temperature on the mass of a multimegawatt space-based platform  

SciTech Connect

Calculations were performed to determine the mass of a space-based platform as a function of the maximum-allowed operating temperature of the electrical equipment within the platform payload. Two computer programs were used in conjunction to perform these calculations. The first program was used to determine the mass of the platform reactor, shield, and power conversion system. The second program was used to determine the mass of the main and secondary radiators of the platform. The main radiator removes the waste heat associated with the power conversion system and the secondary radiator removes the waste heat associated with the platform payload. These calculations were performed for both Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with two different types of payload cooling systems: a pumped-loop system (a heat exchanger with a liquid coolant) and a refrigerator system. The results indicate that increases in the maximum-allowed payload temperature offer significant platform mass savings for both the Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with either the pumped-loop or refrigerator payload cooling systems. Therefore, with respect to platform mass, the development of high temperature electrical equipment would be advantageous. 3 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

Dobranich, D.

1987-08-01

61

Variation of the peak temperature at the maximum as a function of dose in thermoluminescent phosphors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feature of the second and general-order kinetics equations is the shift of the peak temperature at the maximum towards lower temperatures as the dose increases. In this article, this effect is theoretically discussed. Some hypotheses are also given in order to explain this behaviour.

Favalli, A.; Furetta, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

2006-05-01

62

Fludarabine Allows Dose Reduction for Total Body Irradiation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine, in the setting of total body irradiation (TBI) for the preparation of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), whether TBI dose can be reduced without compromising the efficacy of a regimen consisting of fludarabine and radiotherapy; and whether there is any increased risk of pulmonary toxicity due to the radiosensitizing effect of fludarabine. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies received TBI-based conditioning regimens in preparation for allogeneic HSCT. Twenty-three patients received 12 Gy in 4 daily fractions in combination with cyclophosphamide, either alone or with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Twenty-nine patients received 9 Gy in 3 fractions in conjunction with fludarabine and melphalan. Clinical and radiation records were reviewed to determine engraftment, pulmonary toxicity (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria), transplant-related mortality, recurrence of primary disease, and overall survival. Results: The two groups of patients had comparable pretransplant clinical characteristics. For the 12-Gy and 9-Gy regimens, the engraftment (89% and 93%; p = 0.82), freedom from life-threatening pulmonary events (65% and 79%; p = 0.33), freedom from relapse (60% and 73%; p = 0.24), and overall survival (26% and 47%; p = 0.09) were not statistically different. Conclusions: The addition of fludarabine and melphalan seems to allow the dose of TBI to be lowered to 9 Gy without loss of engraftment or antitumor efficacy.

Kornguth, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States)]. E-mail: dkorngut@mdanderson.org; Mahajan, Anita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Woo, Shiao [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Chan, Ka Wah [Division of Pediatrics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Antolak, John [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Ha, Chul S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States)

2007-07-15

63

Rat sodium iodide symporter allows using lower dose of 131I for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Efficient gene delivery is a critical obstacle for gene therapy that must be overcome. Until current limits of gene delivery technology are solved, identification of systems with bystander effects is highly desirable. As an anticancer agent, radioactive iodine (131)I has minimal toxicity. The physical characteristics of (131)I decay allow radiation penetration within a local area causing bystander killing of adjacent cells. Accumulation of (131)I mediated by the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) provides a highly effective treatment for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Other types of cancer could also be treated by NIS-mediated concentration of lethal (131)I radiation in tumor cells. Our group and others previously reported that a significant antitumor effect in mice was achieved after adenoviral delivery of rat or human NIS gene following administration of 3 mCi of (131)I. We have also demonstrated 5-6-fold greater uptake of (125)I by rat NIS over human NIS in human cancer cells. Recently, we reported the capability of the rat NIS and (131)I to effectively induce growth arrest of relatively large tumors (approximately 800 mm(3)) in an animal model. In the present work tumor growth inhibition was achieved using adenoviral delivery of the rat NIS gene and 1 mCi of (131)I (one-third of the dose used in earlier reports). We also demonstrated that a higher concentration of (123)I was accumulated in the NIS-expressing tumors than in the thyroid 20 min after radioiodine administration. The highest intratumoral radioiodine concentration was observed along the needle track; however, the rat NIS-(131)I effectively induced growth arrest of tumor xenografts in mice through its radiological bystander effect. Importantly, the rat NIS allowed reducing the injected radioiodine dose by 70% with the same antitumor efficacy in pre-established tumors. These results suggest that the rat NIS gene may be advantageous compared to the human gene in its ability to enhance intratumoral (131)I uptake. PMID:16525480

Mitrofanova, E; Unfer, R; Vahanian, N; Link, C

2006-07-01

64

41 CFR 302-7.16 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished or...RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL...

2010-07-01

65

41 CFR 302-7.17 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...  

...2014-07-01 false Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage...Rules § 302-7.17 Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage...Government OCONUS, your agency may limit the weight of HHG and temporary storage that...

2014-07-01

66

Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.  

PubMed Central

Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time. PMID:10964787

Backer, H; Hollowell, J

2000-01-01

67

Maximum tolerated dose versus metronomic scheduling in the treatment of metastatic cancers.  

PubMed

Although optimal control theory has been used for the theoretical study of anti-cancerous drugs scheduling optimization, with the aim of reducing the primary tumor volume, the effect on metastases is often ignored. Here, we use a previously published model for metastatic development to define an optimal control problem at the scale of the entire organism of the patient. In silico study of the impact of different scheduling strategies for anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic agents (either in monotherapy or in combination) is performed to compare a low-dose, continuous, metronomic administration scheme with a more classical maximum tolerated dose schedule. Simulation results reveal differences between primary tumor reduction and control of metastases but overall suggest use of the metronomic protocol. PMID:23850479

Benzekry, Sébastien; Hahnfeldt, Philip

2013-10-21

68

Erythropoietin and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor allow acceleration and dose escalation of cyclophosphamide/epidoxorubicin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy: a dose-finding study in patients with advanced breast cancer.  

PubMed

To verify whether the association of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and erythropoietin (EPO) would allow both the acceleration and the dose escalation of the cyclophosphamide/epidoxorubicin/5-fluorouracil (CEF) regimen as first-line therapy in advanced breast cancer patients, we conducted a dose-finding study. Cohorts of three consecutive patients received cyclophosphamide (Ctx, dose range 800-1400 mg/m2), epidoxorubicin (Epidx, dose range 70-100 mg/m2), and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu, 600 mg/m2, fixed dose) given as an intravenous bolus on day 1 every 14 days; GM-CSF at 5 micrograms/kg given as a subcutaneous injection from day 4 to day 11; and EPO at 150 IU/kg given as a subcutaneous injection three times a week. In no single patient was any dose escalation allowed. A total of 14 patients entered the study. At the 4th dose level (Ctx 1400 mg/m2, Epidx 100 mg/m2, 5-Fu 600 mg/m2), two patients had dose-limiting mucositis and one patient developed dose-limiting neutropenia. Therefore, the 3rd cohort received the maximum tolerated dose, i.e. Ctx at 1200 mg/m2, Epidx at 90 mg/m2, and 5-Fu at 600 mg/m2, given every 18.5 (+/-2.5) days. Toxicity was moderate and manageable in an outpatient setting. Only 1 admission at the 4th dose level was required. Throughout the 4 dose levels there was no toxicity-related death; grade IV leukopenia ranged from 24% to 75% of cycles and grade IV thrombocytopenia ranged from 6% to 8%. No grade IV anemia was recorded. Increasing the doses of Ctx and Epidx while maintaining a fixed dose of 5-Fu with the support of both EPO and GM-CSF allows safe acceleration and dose escalation of CEF chemotherapy. Further controlled studies will evaluate the activity and efficacy of this strategy. PMID:8823488

Venturini, M; Del Mastro, L; Testore, F; Danova, M; Garrone, O; Lanfranco, C; Latini, F; Sertoli, M R; Lionetto, R; Queirolo, P; Ardizzoni, A; Rosso, R

1996-01-01

69

Subacute toxicity and maximum tolerable dose of sertaconazole in repeated administration studies.  

PubMed

28-Day oral and dermal subacute toxicity studies of 7-chloro-3-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl) ethoxy-methyl] benzo [b] thiophene (sertaconazole, FI-7045, CAS 99592-32-2), were carried out. The oral studies included the evaluation of subacute toxicity in rat (dose levels of 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg) and maximum tolerable dose in repeated administration in ferrets (consecutive dose levels in accordance with a geometric progression of 50, 75, 112.5, 168 and 250 mg/kg), which were the animal species intended for chronic toxicity studies. The dermal studies included the evaluation of subacute toxicity in rats and rabbits (1 ml/kg of a 2% cream). The results, in general, have shown low toxic effects, which can be summarized as a slight non-significant hepatomegalia in the rat with increased gamma-GTP and alkaline phosphatase values and a high urinary pH value; no histopathological changes were observed. These effects are characteristic of azole derivatives and are therefore common to other antifungals with this chemical group. PMID:1627193

Romero, A; Villamayor, F; Grau, M T; Sacristán, A; Ortíz, J A

1992-05-01

70

Evaluation of Defined Daily Dose, percentage of British National Formulary maximum and chlorpromazine equivalents in antipsychotic drug utilization  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study was carried out to investigate and compare the three methods for calculating total antipsychotic dose among outpatients with schizophrenia attending primary psychiatric health care centers. The three methods were: Defined Daily Doses (DDDs), chlorpromazine equivalents (CPZeq) and percentages of the British National Formulary (BNF) maximum. Methodology Antipsychotic drug dosing data for 250 patients with schizophrenia were investigated by calculating Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients. Factors associated with antipsychotic dose, expressed as DDDs, CPZeq and percentages of the BNF maximum recommended daily dose, were investigated by means of linear regression analysis. Results Spearman’s correlation showed that there is a significant relationship between all pairs of the three dosing methods. In all three methods, coherence was strongest when dealing with first generation antipsychotics (FGA). Linear regression analyses showed a high degree of coherence between antipsychotic doses expressed as DDDs, CPZeq and percentages of the BNF maximum recommended daily dose. Conclusion All three tested methods are reliable and coherent for calculating antipsychotic dosing. PMID:24648824

Sweileh, Waleed M.; Odeh, Jihad Bani; Shraim, Naser Y.; Zyoud, Sa'ed H.; Sawalha, Ansam F.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.

2013-01-01

71

An overview of the report: Correlation between carcinogenic potency and the maximum tolerated dose: Implications for risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Current practice in carcinogen bioassay calls for exposure of experimental animals at doses up to and including the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Such studies have been used to compute measures of carcinogenic potency such as the TD[sub 50] as well as unit risk factors such as q[sub 1] for predicting low-dose risks. Recent studies have indicated that these measures of carcinogenic potency are highly correlated with the MTD. Carcinogenic potency has also been shown to be correlated with indicators of mutagenicity and toxicity. Correlation of the MTDs for rats and mice implies a corresponding correlation in TD[sub 50] values for these two species. The implications of these results for cancer risk assessment are examined in light of the large variation in potency among chemicals known to induce tumors in rodents. 119 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Krewski, D. (Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada) Carleton Univ. Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Gaylor, D.W. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)); Soms, A.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)); Szyszkowicz, M. (Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1993-08-01

72

EPR spectrum deconvolution and dose assessment of fossil tooth enamel using maximum likelihood common factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the components which give rise to the EPR spectrum around g = 2 we have applied Maximum Likelihood Common Factor Analysis (MLCFA) on the EPR spectra of enamel sample 1126 which has previously been analysed by continuous wave and pulsed EPR as well as EPR microscopy. MLCFA yielded agreeing results on three sets of X-band spectra

G. Vanhaelewyn; F. Callens; R. Grün

2000-01-01

73

Development of Numerical Computational Model for Metallic Wire Particles’ Behavior in GIS for the Estimation of the Partial Discharge-free Allowable Maximum Flight Height  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been widely accepted that Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) has proven to be reliable, compact and has high availability. However, metallic particles forced to fly and kept in motion in high electric field, can cause partial discharges which lead to a flashover of GIS. Authors have formulated time vs vertical motion equation for a metallic particle on the basis of the statistical analysis of the time-resolved and digitized motion data obtained by a high speed framing video camera, introducing charging-suppress factor ? for the coated electrode. Numerical solution of the time-motion equation gives the incidence/departure velocity upon the grounded electrode. Fairly well-agreements have been confirmed between the measured and simulated behavior of the particle’s motion, including its maximum flight height. A metallic wire particle was fixed at various height on a Teflon (PTFE) string tighten radially across the coaxial electrodes. The radius of light emission generated by the partial discharge on both ends of the metallic particle have been observed by an Image-Intesifier. The partial discharge-free allowable maximum flight height and the insulation reliability of GIS have been deduced for various size of the particle as a function of electric field and coating condition, on the grounded electrode combining the simulated particle behavior and observed radius for streamer criteria.

Natsuume, Daisuke; Inami, Kiyoshi; Hama, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shinji; Yoshimura, Manabu; Miyamoto, Toshio; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Fukami, Tadashi

74

A Comparative Analysis of Low-Dose Metronomic Cyclophosphamide Reveals Absent or Low-Grade Toxicity on Tissues Highly Sensitive to the Toxic Effects of Maximum Tolerated Dose Regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival benefits of traditional maximum tolerated dose (MTD) cytotoxic therapy have been modest for the treatment of most types of metastatic malignancy and, moreover, often come with increased acute and chronic toxicity. Recent studies have demonstrated that the frequent administration of comparatively low doses of cytotoxic agents, with no extended breaks (low-dose metronomic (LDM) chemotherapy), may not only be

Urban Emmenegger; Shan Man; Yuval Shaked; Giulio Francia; John W. Wong; Daniel J. Hicklin; Robert S. Kerbel

2004-01-01

75

The maximal cumulative solar UVB dose allowed to maintain healthy and young skin and prevent premature photoaging.  

PubMed

The young facial skin of children with a smooth healthy appearance changes over time to photoaged skin having mottled pigmentation, solar lentigines, wrinkles, dry and rough skin, leathery texture, and benign and malignant tumors after exposure to chronic, repeated solar radiation. The first sign of photoaging in Japanese subjects is usually solar lentigines appearing around 20 years of age on the face. Fine wrinkles can then appear after 30 years of age, and benign skin tumors, seborrhoeic keratoses, can occur after 35 years of age in sun-exposed skin. We theoretically calculated the maximal daily exposure time to solar radiation, which could prevent the development of photoaged skin until 60 and 80 years of age, based on published data of personal solar UVB doses in sun-exposed skin. One MED (minimal erythema dose) was determined to be 20 mJ/cm(2) , and 200 MED was used as the average yearly dose of Japanese children. Further, we hypothesized that the annual dose of Japanese adults is the same as that of the children. The cumulative UVB dose at 20 years of age was thus calculated to be 4000 MED, and 22 MED was used as the maximal daily UVB dose based on data measured in Kobe, located in the central area of Japan. We used the solar UVB dose from 10:00 a.m. to 14:00 p.m. which occupies 60% of the total daily UV dose, to obtain the maximal UVB per hour in a day, and calculated the maximal daily UV exposure time that would delay the onset of solar lentigines until 60 or 80 years of age. The mean daily sun exposure time to maintain healthy skin until 80 years of age in the summer was calculated to be 2.54 min (0.14 MED) for unprotected skin and 127 min with the use of a sunscreen of SPF (sun protection factor) of 50. In this study, we did not evaluate the photoaging effect of UVA radiation, but findings of the adverse effects of UVA radiation on the skin have accumulated in the last decade. Therefore, it will be important to estimate the maximal dose of solar UV radiation to retard the onset of photoaging based on an evaluation of both solar UVB and UVA in the future. Finally, we expect that this study may contribute to keeping Japanese and other types of skin young and healthy by limiting the exposure of the skin to solar radiation outdoors during the day. PMID:25234836

Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Ando, Hideya

2014-10-01

76

Continuous closed-loop decoder adaptation with a recursive maximum likelihood algorithm allows for rapid performance acquisition in brain-machine interfaces.  

PubMed

Closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA) is an emerging paradigm for both improving and maintaining online performance in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). The time required for initial decoder training and any subsequent decoder recalibrations could be potentially reduced by performing continuous adaptation, in which decoder parameters are updated at every time step during these procedures, rather than waiting to update the decoder at periodic intervals in a more batch-based process. Here, we present recursive maximum likelihood (RML), a CLDA algorithm that performs continuous adaptation of a Kalman filter decoder's parameters. We demonstrate that RML possesses a variety of useful properties and practical algorithmic advantages. First, we show how RML leverages the accuracy of updates based on a batch of data while still adapting parameters on every time step. Second, we illustrate how the RML algorithm is parameterized by a single, intuitive half-life parameter that can be used to adjust the rate of adaptation in real time. Third, we show how even when the number of neural features is very large, RML's memory-efficient recursive update rules can be reformulated to also be computationally fast so that continuous adaptation is still feasible. To test the algorithm in closed-loop experiments, we trained three macaque monkeys to perform a center-out reaching task by using either spiking activity or local field potentials to control a 2D computer cursor. RML achieved higher levels of performance more rapidly in comparison to a previous CLDA algorithm that adapts parameters on a more intermediate timescale. Overall, our results indicate that RML is an effective CLDA algorithm for achieving rapid performance acquisition using continuous adaptation. PMID:24922501

Dangi, Siddharth; Gowda, Suraj; Moorman, Helene G; Orsborn, Amy L; So, Kelvin; Shanechi, Maryam; Carmena, Jose M

2014-09-01

77

Dose response study of ipratropium bromide aerosol on maximum exercise performance in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the bronchodilating effect of inhaled anticholinergics has been established in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), their effects on exercise capacity are still controversial. Previous studies have suggested that the standard dosage hardly affects exercise tolerance, whereas higher doses might elicit an improvement. The aim of the present study was to determine the dose of ipratropium bromide

A. Ikeda; K. Nishimura; H. Koyama; M. Tsukino; M. Mishima; T. Izumi

1996-01-01

78

Methodology used to compute maximum potential doses from ingestion of edible plants and wildlife found on the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the assumptions, dose factors, consumption rates, and methodology used to evaluate potential radiation doses to persons who may eat contaminated wildlife or contaminated plants collected from the Hanford Site. This report includes a description of the number and variety of wildlife and edible plants on the Hanford Site, methods for estimation of the quantities of these items consumed and conversion of intake of radionuclides to radiation doses, and example calculations of radiation doses from consumption of plants and wildlife. Edible plants on the publicly accessible margins of the shoreline of the Hanford Site and Wildlife that move offsite are potential sources of contaminated food for the general public. Calculations of potential radiation doses from consumption of agricultural plants and farm animal products are made routinely and reported annually for those produced offsite, using information about concentrations of radionuclides, consumption rates, and factors for converting radionuclide intake into dose. Dose calculations for onsite plants and wildlife are made intermittently when appropriate samples become available for analysis or when special studies are conducted. Consumption rates are inferred from the normal intake rates of similar food types raised offsite and from the edible weight of the onsite product that is actually available for harvest. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

1990-10-01

79

Maximum tolerated doses of methotrexate and 7-hydroxy-methotrexate in a model of acute toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: After more than 50?years of methotrexate (MTX) treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), it is currently believed\\u000a that as long as dose escalations are followed by adequate leucovorin rescue guided by monitoring MTX serum concentrations,\\u000a hydration and urinary alkalinization, high-dose MTX (HD-MTX) can be tolerated without life-threatening toxicity. However,\\u000a our recent experimental animal studies of the major metabolite of

Ole-Martin Fuskevåg; Christel Kristiansen; Sigurd Lindal; Jarle Aarbakke

2000-01-01

80

An open-label study to determine the maximum tolerated dose of the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor CEP-11981 in patients with advanced cancer.  

PubMed

Background This phase I study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CEP-11981, an oral vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced, relapsed, or refractory solid tumors. Methods Oral CEP-11981 dose escalations followed a modified Fibonacci sequence (from 3.0 to 4.2, 5.9, 11.8, 19.7, 29.6, 41.4, 55.0, 73.0, 97.4, and 126.6 mg/m(2)). The maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), tumor response, and safety were evaluated. Results CEP-11981 was tolerated at doses between 3.0 and 97.4 mg/m(2). The MTD of CEP-11981 was determined to be 97.4 mg/m(2), with DLTs observed at the 126.6 mg/m(2) dose. The DLTs were grade 4 neutropenia in 1 patient and grade 3 T-wave inversion with chest heaviness and fatigue in 1 patient. All 3 events resolved on stopping CEP-11981. The most frequently reported adverse events of any grade were fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, abdominal pain, back pain, vomiting, constipation, headache, dizziness, and dyspnea. Treatment-related grade 3/4 neutropenia was observed in the highest-dose cohorts (2 patients at 97.4 mg/m(2) and 1 patient at 126.6 mg/m(2)), indicating some off-target inhibition. VEGF inhibition was greatest in the higher-dose groups. Although no patient experienced complete or partial response, 44 % patients achieved stable disease when measured at ??6 weeks, which occurred more frequently in cohorts receiving ??73.0 mg/m(2). Conclusions In patients with recurrent or refractory solid tumors, disease stabilization was achieved. Despite acceptable tolerability of CEP-11981 at the MTD, further development by the sponsor has ceased. PMID:25152243

Pili, Roberto; Carducci, Michael; Brown, Peter; Hurwitz, Herbert

2014-12-01

81

Biocompatibility of antimicrobials to maggot debridement therapy: medical maggots Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) exhibit tolerance to clinical maximum doses of antimicrobials.  

PubMed

The larvae of calliphorid flies are used to debride wounds of patients with severe tissue destruction, often concurrently with antimicrobials. The current study evaluates the effects of ceftazidime, tobramycin, amikacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, doxycycline, paromomycin, amphotericin B, sodium stibogluconate, and miltefosine at 1, 10, and 100 x the Maximum Clinical Concentration (mg/kg/d) in raw liver assays. Effects on larvae were small and depended on dose and antimicrobial formulation, with hours in assay (24 or 48 h) having a significant effect on larval survival. Sodium stibgluconate had the strongest effect on maggot survival (80.0% at 48 h). These results suggest that the antimicrobials tested here may be used simultaneously with maggot debridement therapy, and may actually increase the effectiveness of maggot debridement therapy in certain applications where >1 x Maximum Clinical Concentration is indicated, such as topical creams for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:23025196

Peck, George W; Kirkup, Benjamin C

2012-09-01

82

Use of lung toxicity and lung particle clearance to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for a fiber glass chronic inhalation study in the rat.  

PubMed

Short-term toxicity and lung clearance were assessed in rats exposed by inhalation to size-selected fibrous glass (FG) for 13 weeks. Results from this study and from a recent FG chronic inhalation study are presented here as guidelines for the selection of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for chronic inhalation studies of fibers. Fischer 344 rats were exposed using nose-only inhalation chambers, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 13 weeks to one of five concentrations of FG (36, 206, 316, 552, or 714 fibers/cc; expressed gravimetrically, 3, 16, 30, 45, or 60 mg/m3) or to filtered air. Rats were then held for an additional 10 weeks of postexposure recovery. Test fiber was size-selected from glass wool having a chemical composition representative of building insulation. Rats were terminated at 7, 13, 19, and 23 weeks after the onset of exposure to evaluate pulmonary pathology, lung epithelium cell proliferation, lung fiber burden, and lung lavage cells and chemistry. The effect of fiber inhalation on lung clearance of innocuous microspheres was also evaluated: following fiber exposure, six rats/group were exposed to 85Sr-labeled 3.0-microns polystyrene microspheres by intratracheal inhalation and then monitored for whole-body radioactivity during the 10-week recovery period. Data from the short-term study support the choice of 30 mg/m3 as the MTD for the previous chronic FG study and also provide indicators of long-term lung toxicity and functional impairment that can be used to estimate the MTD for future chronic fiber inhalation studies. PMID:8812213

Hesterberg, T W; McConnel, E E; Miiller, W C; Chevalier, J; Everitt, J; Thevenaz, P; Fleissner, H; Oberdörster, G

1996-07-01

83

Approach to calculating upper bounds on maximum individual doses from the use of contaminated well water following a WIPP repository breach. Report EEG-9  

SciTech Connect

As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report.

Spiegler, P.

1981-09-01

84

Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic modeling of abexinostat-induced thrombocytopenia across different patient populations: application for the determination of the maximum tolerated doses in both lymphoma and solid tumour patients.  

PubMed

Background In the clinical development of oncology drugs, the recommended dose is usually determined using a 3?+?3 dose-escalation study design. However, this phase I design does not always adequately describe dose-toxicity relationships. Methods 125 patients, with either solid tumours or lymphoma, were included in the study and 1217 platelet counts were available over three treatment cycles. The data was used to build a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model using a sequential modeling approach. Model-derived Recommended Doses (MDRD) of abexinostat (a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor) were determined from simulations of different administration schedules, and the higher bound for the probability of reaching these MDRD with a 3?+?3 design were obtained. Results The PKPD model developed adequately described platelet kinetics in both patient populations with the inclusion of two platelet baseline counts and a disease progression component for patients with lymphoma. Simulation results demonstrated that abexinostat administration during the first 4 days of each week in a 3-week cycle led to a higher MDRD compared to the other administration schedules tested, with a maximum probability of 40 % of reaching these MDRDs using a 3?+?3 design. Conclusions The PKPD model was able to predict thrombocytopenia following abexinostat administration in both patient populations. A model-based approach to determine the recommended dose in phase I trials is preferable due to the imprecision of the 3?+?3 design. PMID:24875134

Chalret du Rieu, Quentin; Fouliard, Sylvain; White-Koning, Mélanie; Kloos, Ioana; Chatelut, Etienne; Chenel, Marylore

2014-10-01

85

49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.  

...TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers...not exceed 24 km/hour (15 mph) for shipments by rail. (b) For trains transporting any...

2014-10-01

86

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED  

E-print Network

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED Batteries, toner, ink cartridges & cell phones and recycling is an important part of that effort. Below is a guide to on-campus recycling at RSMAS: Visit http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/msgso/ for map of recycling bin locations. NOTE: This is not an exhaustive list. If unauthorized items are found

Miami, University of

87

Maximum Likelihood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This material introduces the basic theory of maximum likelihood estimation by discussing the likelihood function, the log likelihood function, and maximizing these functions using calculus. Several exercises ask students to derive certain estimators, while others have students compare the behavior of those estimators with other possibilities through the use of various JAVA applets. The applets use the same control features: the sliders set the parameter values, the ÃÂStop #ÃÂ drop down menu sets the number of samples taken, the ÃÂUpdate #ÃÂ drop down menu sets how often the graph and tables update during the experiment, the single arrow takes one sample, the double arrow runs the full experiment, the square stops the experiment, and the back arrow resets the applet. This page is one lesson from the Virtual Laboratories in Statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

2009-07-20

88

Comparative evaluation of US Food and Drug Administration and pharmacologically guided approaches to determine the maximum recommended starting dose for first-in-human clinical trials in adult healthy men.  

PubMed

The authors compared US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and 9 pharmacologically guided approaches (PGAs; simple allometry, maximum life span potential [MLP], brain weight, rule of exponent [ROE], two 2-sp methods and 3 one-sp methods) to determine the maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD) for first-in-human clinical trials in adult healthy men using 10 drugs. The ROE method as suggested by Mahmood and Balian1 gave the best prediction accuracy for a pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter. Values derived from clearance were consistently better than volume of distribution (Vd)-based methods and had lower root mean square error (RMSE) values. A pictorial method evaluation chart was developed based on fold errors for simultaneous evaluation of various methods. The one-sp method (rat) and the US FDA methods gave the highest prediction accuracy and low RMSE values, and the 2-sp methods gave the least prediction accuracy with high RMSE values. The ROE method gave more consistent predictions for PK parameters than other allometric methods. Despite this, the MRSD predictions were not better than US FDA methods, probably indicating that across-species variation in clearance may be higher than variation in no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and that PGA methods may not be consistently better than the NOAEL based methods. PMID:21415286

Imam, Md Tarique; Venkateshan, S P; Tandon, Monika; Saha, Nilanjan; Pillai, K K

2011-12-01

89

76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...including seam type, coating, welding technique, cathodic protection...surrounding environment, operational history, or other relevant factors...non-covered segments, past incident history, corrosion control records...patrolling records, maintenance history, internal inspection...

2011-01-10

90

Special State Standard of absorbed dose unit of x-ray radiation with maximum photon energy from 3 to 9 fJ (20–60 keV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The special State standard reproduces the absorbed dose unit of x-ray radiation in an absorber within the range from 1 to 5 J\\/kg. The unit is reproduced by calorimetric techniques which is the only method of direct and absolute measurement of absorbed radiation energy. In compliance with the ICRU recommendations, the absorber material is graphite. The block diagram of the

R. F. Kononova; A. P. Sebekin; V. I. Fominykh; M. F. Yudin

1976-01-01

91

Stellar disks Maximum disk  

E-print Network

& Stellar Systems 5, ch.21 (1965) 7 P.C. van der Kruit & K.C. Freeman, K.C., Ap.J. 303, 556 (1986) Piet vanOutline Stellar disks Maximum disk Truncations Conclusions STRUCTURE, MASS AND STABILITY Stellar disks Maximum disk Truncations Conclusions Outline Stellar disks Vertical stellar dynamics Stellar

Kruit, Piet van der

92

Experimental design of bioassays for screening and low dose extrapolation  

SciTech Connect

Relatively high doses of chemicals generally are employed in animal bioassays to detect potential carcinogens with relatively small numbers of animals. The problem investigated here is the development of experimental designs which are effective for high to low dose extrapolation for tumor incidence as well as for screening (detecting) carcinogens. Several experimental designs are compared over a wide range of different dose response curves. Linear extrapolation is used below the experimental data range to establish an upper bound on carcinogenic risk at low doses. The goal is to find experimental designs which minimize the upper bound on low dose risk estimates (i.e., maximize the allowable dose for a given level of risk). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is employed for screening purposes. Among the designs investigated, experiments with doses at the MTD, 1/2 MTD, 1/4 MTD, and controls generally provide relatively good data for low dose extrapolation with relatively good power for detecting carcinogens. For this design, equal numbers of animals per dose level perform as well as unequal allocations.

Gaylor, D.W.; Chen, J.J.; Kodell, R.L.

1985-03-01

93

Maximum thrust mode evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

1995-01-01

94

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

95

Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests  

E-print Network

Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests Character Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests Character Reconstruction PHYLIP and T-REX Exercises Outline 1 Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood 2 Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests 3 Character

Qiu, Weigang

96

Maximum life spur gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

Savage, M.; Mackulin, B. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

1991-01-01

97

Last Glacial Maximum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short lecture on CLIMAP project (see PowerPoint) 20 minutes Powerpoint (PowerPoint 444kB Nov7 10) Group activity - Reading for CLIMAP study assumptions, 20 minutes to read, 20 minutes for discussion Student Handout (Microsoft Word 50kB Nov7 10) Students break into groups (4 per group is good division of work) with 2 students per paper. Split the assumptions between students. Each group skims the CLIMAP papers for the assumptions (modern and/or LGM) used in the CLIMAP model-based reconstruction of the LGM. In the groups, students compare the assumptions between papers. Resources: CLIMAP (1976), The surface of the ice-age earth, Science, 191(4232), 1131-1137 and CLIMAP (1984), The last interglacial ocean, Quaternary Research, 21(2), 123. Class Discussion - Summarize assumptions used in CLIMAP studies. Group activity Exploring CLIMAP LGM Reconstructions, 40 minutes for model data, 20 minutes for discussion (Could be modified with as a "jigsaw" activity with a larger class). Learn more about the jigsaw teaching method. Students work on this activity in pairs; one person will create LGM maps, the other modern. Students should sit together with their computer monitors close together to compare. The students will use the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library to access the CLIMAP reconstruction and produce maps using the tools available on this web site. In a web browser, go to http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/ This is the main page for the CLIMAP Model output for the LGM 18,000 BP. In the middle of the page is the label "Datasets and variables" with two data sets below http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.LGM/ and http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.MOD/. Each student clicks on the link they are assigned to. There are several data sets listed for each period and the students will examine each data set and compare the LGM and Modern. As a class, go through each data set allowing pairs to compare the maps then summarize the results as a class. The worksheet has a table for the students and the PowerPoint has table for summarizing. Class Discussion - Summarize differences between modern and LGM in the CLIMAP model output. Discuss how the assumptions of the CLIMAP model studies may have influenced the results. Extra activities The students can explore the data further using the data selection and filters in the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library. For the two SST data sets, click on "Data Selection" and narrow the data to the just the tropics (23.5º N-S). Click on "Filters" then select XY next to "Average over." The next window gives you the average over the tropics close to the top of the page. In the next class, the students repeat the Readings exercise by reading the COHMAP and MARGO papers to see how the scientific knowledge has progressed since the original CLIMAP studies. COHMAP Members, (1988), Climatic Changes of the Last 18,000 Years: Observations and Model Simulations, Science, 241(4869), 1043-1052. MARGO (2009), Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum, Nature Geoscience, 2(2), 127-132.

Delong, Kristine

98

Maximum-Likelihood Parameter-Estimation Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient version of maximum-likelihood algorithm devised for calculating normal-mode frequencies and damping parameters of vibrating system from experimental data where both process noise and measurement noise present. Method applicable in vibration analysis of such complicated structures as vehicles, aircraft, and spacecraft. New algorithm simplification of existing maximum-likelihood formulation using Kalman filter that allows for both process and measurement noise.

Eldred, D. B.; Hamidi, M.; Rodriguez, G.

1986-01-01

99

Disposition of firocoxib in equine plasma after an oral loading dose and a multiple dose regimen.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if a single loading dose (LD), 3× the label dose of firocoxib oral paste, followed by nine maintenance doses at the current label dose achieves and maintains near steady state concentrations. Six healthy, adult mares were administered 0.3mg/kg of firocoxib on Day 0, and 0.1 mg/kg 24 h later on Day 1, and at 24 h intervals from Day 2 to Day 9, for a total of 10 doses. Blood samples were collected throughout the study. The mean firocoxib maximum plasma concentration and standard deviation was 199±97 ng/mL, 175±44 ng/mL and 183±50 ng/mL after the LD, and first and last maintenance doses, respectively. The minimum mean concentration (C(min)) increased from 100±23 ng/mL after the LD to 132±38 ng/mL at Day 7. Then, the C(min) remained constant until Day 9. The average concentration at steady state (C(avg)) was 150±45 ng/mL, which compares well to the C(avg) (130±36 ng/mL) reported after multiple daily doses at 0.1 mg/kg. The administration of the single LD allowed achievement of the average steady state drug concentrations faster than a multi-dose regimen without a loading dose. After the LD, firocoxib at 0.1 mg/kg every 24 h was able to maintain a relatively constant average drug concentration which should produce less variability in onset of action and efficacy. PMID:24076125

Cox, S; Villarino, N; Sommardahl, C; Kvaternick, V; Zarabadipour, C; Siger, L; Yarbrough, J; Amicucci, A; Reed, K; Breeding, D; Doherty, T

2013-11-01

100

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the weld seam of one pipe from each heat plus one pipe from each welding line...minimum of 13 readings (three for each heat affected zone, three in the weld metal...qualified welding procedures must include a pre-heat procedure. (3) Valves,...

2012-10-01

101

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the weld seam of one pipe from each heat plus one pipe from each welding line...minimum of 13 readings (three for each heat affected zone, three in the weld metal...qualified welding procedures must include a pre-heat procedure. (3) Valves,...

2011-10-01

102

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the weld seam of one pipe from each heat plus one pipe from each welding line...minimum of 13 readings (three for each heat affected zone, three in the weld metal...qualified welding procedures must include a pre-heat procedure. (3) Valves,...

2010-10-01

103

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the weld seam of one pipe from each heat plus one pipe from each welding line...minimum of 13 readings (three for each heat affected zone, three in the weld metal...qualified welding procedures must include a pre-heat procedure. (3) Valves,...

2013-10-01

104

GLOSSARY OF TERMS Balance Billing Out-of-network reimbursements are based on a maximum allowable  

E-print Network

Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) ­ is a federal law that, among other things, requires employers the medical plan, i.e., does not share a common deductible): a) The prescription drug coverage has no annual Medicare eligible individual in 2008. #12;- 55 - For integrated plans (a plan where medical and Rx expenses

105

49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating...testing field applied coating to girth welds must be: (i) Equivalent to that required...effective coating application. (b) Girth welds (1) All girth welds on a new...

2010-10-01

106

49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating...testing field applied coating to girth welds must be: (i) Equivalent to that required...effective coating application. (b) Girth welds (1) All girth welds on a new...

2013-10-01

107

49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating...testing field applied coating to girth welds must be: (i) Equivalent to that required...effective coating application. (b) Girth welds (1) All girth welds on a new...

2012-10-01

108

49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating...testing field applied coating to girth welds must be: (i) Equivalent to that required...effective coating application. (b) Girth welds (1) All girth welds on a new...

2011-10-01

109

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (i) Eighty percent of the first test pressure that produces yield under section...plastic pipe in all locations, the test pressure is divided by a factor of 1.5...i. (689 kPa) gage or more, the test pressure is divided by a factor determined...

2010-10-01

110

30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel:air ratio.  

...44 Section 36.44 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test...

2014-07-01

111

Calculations of maximum allowable heat losses for various shallow-trench heat-distribution systems  

SciTech Connect

The calculation of heat losses for shallow-trench underground heat-distribution systems was performed using a finite=element computer program. The finite-element analysis solved a two-dimensional steady-state heat-transfer problem for two insulated pipes in a rectangular trench with surrounding soil. A life-cycle-cost analysis was performed to determine the cost of construction and annual energy cost associated with pipe heat loss for underground concrete trench systems of different trench dimensions and insulated-pipe sizes.

Fang, J.B.

1987-11-01

112

EMPLOYEE'S WITHHOLDING ALLOWANCE CERTIFICATE 1. Number of allowances for Regular Withholding Allowances, Worksheet A  

E-print Network

Personal Income Tax (PIT) withholding purposes only. The DE 4 is used to compute the amount of taxes, compare the state income tax withheld with your estimated total annual tax. For state withholding, use of Allowances (A + B) when using the California Withholding Schedules for 2013 OR 2. Additional amount of state

Simaan, Nabil

113

EMPLOYEE'S WITHHOLDING ALLOWANCE CERTIFICATE 1. Number of allowances for Regular Withholding Allowances, Worksheet A  

E-print Network

personal income tax withholding purposes only. The DE 4 is used to compute the amount of taxes, compare the State income tax withheld with your estimated total annual tax. For State withholding, use of Allowances (A + B) when using the California Withholding Schedules for 2011 OR 2. Additional amount of State

Bordenstein, Seth

114

EMPLOYEE'S WITHHOLDING ALLOWANCE CERTIFICATE 1. Number of allowances for Regular Withholding Allowances, Worksheet A  

E-print Network

personal income tax withholding purposes only. The DE 4 is used to compute the amount of taxes the state income tax withheld with your estimated total annual tax. For state withholding, use of Allowances (A + B) when using the California Withholding Schedules for 2007 OR 2. Additional amount of state

Bordenstein, Seth

115

The Solar Maximum observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots.

Rust, D. M.

1984-01-01

116

Experimental Evaluation of the Impact of Different Head-and-Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning Techniques on Doses to the Skin and Shallow Targets  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate experimentally the impact of different head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning techniques on doses to the skin and shallow targets. Methods and Materials: A semicylindrical phantom was constructed with micro-MOSFET dosimeters (Thomson-Nielson, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) at 0-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-mm depths. The planning target volume (PTV) was pulled back 0, 3, or 5 mm from the body contour. The IMRT plans were created to maximize PTV coverage, with one of the following strategies: (a) aim for a maximum 110% hotspot, with 115% allowed; (b) aims for a maximum 105% hotspot; (c) aims for a maximum 105% hotspot and 50% of skin to get a maximum 70% of the prescribed dose; and (d) aim for 99% of the PTV volume to receive 90-93% of prescribed dose, with a maximum 105% hotspot, and with the dose to the skin structure minimized. Doses delivered using a linear accelerator were measured. Setup uncertainty was simulated by intentionally shifting the phantom in a range of {+-}8 mm, and calculating the delivered dose for a range of systematic and random uncertainties. Results: From lowest to highest skin dose, the planning strategies were in the order of c, d, b, and a, but c showed a tendency to underdose tissues at depth. Delivered doses varied by 10-20%, depending on planning strategy. For typical setup uncertainties, cumulative dose reduction to a point 6 mm deep was <4%. Conclusions: It is useful to use skin as a sensitive structure, but a minimum dose constraint must be used for the PTV if unwanted reductions in dose to nodes near the body surface are to be avoided. Setup uncertainties are unlikely to give excessive reductions in cumulative dose.

Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber and Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: lcourt@lroc.harvard.edu; Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber and Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

2007-10-01

117

Generalized Maximum Entropy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

2005-01-01

118

20 CFR 429.204 - Are there any restrictions on what is allowable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the amount of the deductible. If the vehicle is uninsured, the maximum allowed will be $500.00. (e) Computers and electronics. Claims may be allowed for loss of, or damage to, cellular phones, fax machines, computers and related...

2010-04-01

119

20 CFR 429.204 - Are there any restrictions on what is allowable?  

...the amount of the deductible. If the vehicle is uninsured, the maximum allowed will be $500.00. (e) Computers and electronics. Claims may be allowed for loss of, or damage to, cellular phones, fax machines, computers and related...

2014-04-01

120

20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46...1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and...

2014-04-01

121

Clinical Trials of a Urethral Dose Measurement System in Brachytherapy Using Scintillation Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on the clinical feasibility of a novel scintillation detector system with fiberoptic readout that measures the urethral dose during high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of the prostate. Methods and Materials: The clinical trial enrolled 24 patients receiving high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment to the prostate. After the first 14 patients, three improvements were made to the dosimeter system design to improve clinical reliability: a dosimeter self-checking facility; a radiopaque marker to determine the position of the dosimeter, and a more robust optical extension fiber. Results: Improvements to the system design allowed for accurate dose measurements to be made in vivo. A maximum measured dose departure of 9% from the calculated dose was observed after dosimeter design improvements. Conclusions: Departures of the measured from the calculated dose, after improvements to the dosimetry system, arise primarily from small changes in patient anatomy. Therefore, we recommend that patient response be correlated with the measured in vivo dose rather than with the calculated dose.

Suchowerska, Natalka, E-mail: natalka@email.cs.nsw.gov.a [Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Jackson, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Lambert, Jamil; Yin, Yong Bai [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hruby, George [Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); McKenzie, David R. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

2011-02-01

122

Dose Calculations for [131I] Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine-Induced Bystander Effects  

PubMed Central

Targeted radiotherapy is a potentially useful treatment for some cancers and may be potentiated by bystander effects. However, without estimation of absorbed dose, it is difficult to compare the effects with conventional external radiation treatment. Methods: Using the Vynckier – Wambersie dose point kernel, a model for dose rate evaluation was created allowing for calculation of absorbed dose values to two cell lines transfected with the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene and treated with [131I]MIBG. Results: The mean doses required to decrease surviving fractions of UVW/NAT and EJ138/NAT cells, which received medium from [131I]MIBG-treated cells, to 25 – 30% were 1.6 and 1.7 Gy respectively. The maximum mean dose rates achieved during [131I]MIBG treatment were 0.09 – 0.75 Gy/h for UVW/NAT and 0.07 – 0.78 Gy/h for EJ138/NAT. These were significantly lower than the external beam gamma radiation dose rate of 15 Gy/h. In the case of control lines which were incapable of [131I]MIBG uptake the mean absorbed doses following radiopharmaceutical were 0.03 – 0.23 Gy for UVW and 0.03 – 0.32 Gy for EJ138. Conclusion: [131I]MIBG treatment for ICCM production elicited a bystander dose-response profile similar to that generated by external beam gamma irradiation but with significantly greater cell death. PMID:24659931

Gow, M. D.; Seymour, C. B.; Boyd, M.; Mairs, R. J.; Prestiwch, W. V.; Mothersill, C. E.

2014-01-01

123

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06

124

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2007 Site environmental report8-  

E-print Network

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2007 Site environmental report8- DRAFT Brookhaven National that the overall radiological dose impact to members of the public, workers, visitors, and the environment is "As radiological dose to the public is calculated at the site boundary as the "maximum" dose that could be received

125

Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect

At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

Han, Eun Young, E-mail: eyhan@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Moros, Eduardo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Corry, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

2012-01-01

126

Maximum entropy discrimination Tommi Jaakkola  

E-print Network

;) that maximizes the entropy H(P ) subject to the classi#12;cation constraints R P(#2;) [ y t L(X t j#2;) ] d#2Maximum entropy discrimination Tommi Jaakkola MIT AI Lab 545 Technology Sq. Cambridge, MA 02139 framework for discriminative estimation based on the maximum entropy principle and its extensions. All

Jaakkola, Tommi S.

127

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

... 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2014-10-01

128

46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping...Independent Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must:...

2014-10-01

129

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2014-10-01

130

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2013-10-01

131

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2012-10-01

132

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2011-10-01

133

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2011-10-01

134

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2013-10-01

135

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2010-10-01

136

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2010-10-01

137

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2012-10-01

138

Furman University Cell Phone Allowance Request Form  

E-print Network

Furman University Cell Phone Allowance Request Form Date Payment: $___________ All cell phone allowance payments are departmental responsibility and considered other compensation charged to object code ________. The cell phone allowance will start at the next

139

PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

2012-06-05

140

Assessing allowable take of migratory birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M. L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

2009-01-01

141

Radiation doses to patients during ERCP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is a scarcity of data regarding the radiation dose and associated risks to patients during ERCP. Dose area product (DAP) measurements can be used to estimate an effective dose (ED) to patients undergoing ERCP. This measure allows radiation risk associated with such procedures to be quantified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ED to patients

Catherine J. Larkin; Adam Workman; Richard E. R. Wright; Tony C. K. Tham

2001-01-01

142

Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment  

SciTech Connect

On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other radionuclides. However, we continually see {sup 137}Cs in the groundwater at all contaminated atolls; the turnover time of the groundwater is about 5 y. The {sup 137}Cs can only get to the groundwater by leaching through the soil column when a portion of the soluble fraction of {sup 137}Cs inventory in the soil is transported to the groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the aquifer. This process is causing a loss of {sup 137}Cs out of the root zone of the plants that provides an environmental loss constant ({lambda}{sub env}) in addition to radiological decay {lambda}{sub rad}. Consequently, there is an effective rate of loss, {lambda}{sub eff} = {lambda}{sub rad} + {lambda}{sub env} that is the sum of the radiological and environmental-loss decay constants. We have had, and continue to have, a vigorous program to determine the rate of the environmental loss process. What we do know at this time is that the loss of {sup 137}Cs over time is greater than the estimate based on radiological decay only, and that the actual dose received by the Utirik people over 30-, 50-, or 70-y will be less than those presented in this report.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

1999-10-06

143

Evaluation of Rectal Dose During High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high doses being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the dose delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the dose delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured dose to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference point dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the dose, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated maximum dose and the measured dose was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated maximum dose was typically higher than the measured dose. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal dose for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the dose delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated dose.

Sha, Rajib Lochan [Department of Radiation Physics, Indo-American Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Hyderabad (India); Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India); Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India); Rao, Ramakrishna [Department of Radiation Physics, MNJ Institute of Oncology and Regional Cancer Center, Hyderabad (India); Muralidhar, Kanaparthy R. [Department of Radiation Physics, Indo-American Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Hyderabad (India); Kudchadker, Rajat J., E-mail: rkudchad@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2011-01-01

144

Adaptive Randomization to Improve Utility-Based Dose-Finding with Bivariate Ordinal Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Summary A sequentially outcome-adaptive Bayesian design is proposed for choosing the dose of an experimental therapy based on elicited utilities of a bivariate ordinal (toxicity, efficacy) outcome. Subject to posterior acceptability criteria to control the risk of severe toxicity and exclude unpromising doses, patients are randomized adaptively among the doses having posterior mean utilities near the maximum. The utility increment used to define near-optimality is non-increasing with sample size. The adaptive randomization uses each dose’s posterior probability of a set of good outcomes, defined by a lower utility cut-off. Saturated parametric models are assumed for the marginal dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy distributions, allowing the possible requirement of monotonicity in dose, and a copula is used to obtain a joint distribution. Prior means are computed by simulation using elicited outcome probabilities, and prior variances are calibrated to control prior effective sample size and obtain a design with good operating characteristics. The method is illustrated by a phase I/II trial of radiation therapy for children with brain stem gliomas. PMID:22651115

Nguyen, Hoang Q.

2012-01-01

145

77 FR 46987 - Utility Allowances Submetering  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the applicable Public Housing Authority (PHA) utility allowance established for the...applicable utility allowance is the applicable PHA utility allowance under Sec. 1.42-10...that the regulations should limit use of a PHA utility allowance for non-Section 8...

2012-08-07

146

Preliminary liver dose estimation in the new facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor.  

PubMed

As a part of the project concerning the irradiation of a section of the human liver left lobe, a preliminary estimation of the expected dose was performed. To obtain proper input values for the calculation, neutron flux and gamma dose rate characterization were carried out using adequate portions of cow or pig liver covered with demineralized water simulating the preservation solution. Irradiations were done inside a container specially designed to fulfill temperature preservation of the organ and a reproducible irradiation position (which will be of importance for future planification purposes). Implantable rhodium based self-powered neutron detectors were developed to obtain neutron flux profiles both external and internal. Implantation of SPND was done along the central longitudinal axis of the samples, where lowest flux is expected. Gamma dose rate was obtained using a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber moved along external surfaces of the samples. The internal neutron profile resulted uniform enough to allow for a single and static irradiation of the liver. For dose estimation, irradiation condition was set in order to obtain a maximum of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. Additionally, literature reported boron concentrations of 47 ppm in tumor and 8 ppm in healthy tissue and a more conservative relationship (30/10 ppm) were used. To make a conservative estimation of the dose the following considerations were done: i). Minimum measured neutron flux inside the sample (approximately 5 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1) was considered to calculate dose in tumor. (ii). Maximum measured neutron flux (considering both internal as external profiles) was used to calculate dose in healthy tissue (approximately 8.7 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1). (iii). Maximum measured gamma dose rate (approximately 13.5 Gy h-1) was considered for both tumor and healthy tissue. Tumor tissue dose was approximately 69 Gy-eq for 47 ppm of (10)B and approximately 42 Gy-eq for 30 ppm, for a maximum dose of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. As can be seen from these results, even for the most conservative case, minimum tumor dose will be acceptable from the treatment point of view, which shows that the irradiation conditions at this facility have quite good characteristics for the proposed irradiation. PMID:19394239

Gadan, M; Crawley, V; Thorp, S; Miller, M

2009-07-01

147

Radiation measurements and doses at SST altitudes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation components and dose equivalents due to galactic and solar cosmic rays in the high atmosphere, especially at SST altitudes, are presented. The dose equivalent rate for the flight personnel flying 500 hours per year in cruise altitudes of 60,000-65,000 feet (18-19.5 km) in high magnetic latitudes is about 0.75-1.0 rem per year averaged over the solar cycle, or about 15-20 percent of the maximum permissible dose rate.

Foelsche, T.

1972-01-01

148

Superstatistical distributions from a maximum entropy principle.  

PubMed

We deal with a generalized statistical description of nonequilibrium complex systems based on least biased distributions given some prior information. A maximum entropy principle is introduced that allows for the determination of the distribution of the fluctuating intensive parameter beta of a superstatistical system, given certain constraints on the complex system under consideration. We apply the theory to three examples: the superstatistical quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator, the superstatistical classical ideal gas, and velocity time series as measured in a turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. PMID:19113089

Van der Straeten, Erik; Beck, Christian

2008-11-01

149

Allowable systematic difference between two instruments measuring the same analyte.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. If a laboratory has two analytical instruments for measuring the concentration of the same analyte and samples from the patients are randomly allocated to either of the two, then an allowable systematic difference between the two instruments should be defined. We present a solution to this problem, based on the traditional criterion that the total analytical standard deviation (SD) shall be less than half the within-subject biological SD. Methods. We derived a formula for estimating the SD of the distribution of analytical results that may stem from two instruments with different means and SDs and different probabilities of being used. The formula was used to estimate the allowable systematic difference between the two instruments. Results. The allowable systematic difference depends on the within-subject biological SD, the SDs of the two instruments, and the probability that a sample is analyzed with a certain instrument. When this probability is 0.5, the allowable systematic difference approaches the magnitude of the within-subject biological SD as the analytical SDs approach zero, while no systematic difference is allowed when the two analytical SDs are equal to their maximum allowable value of half the within-subject biological SD. Conclusions. In a monitoring situation, the allowable systematic difference between two analytical instruments depends on the probability that a sample is allocated to each of the instruments as well as the analytical SDs and the within-subject biological SD. PMID:24909157

Asberg, Arne; Solem, Kristine B; Mikkelsen, Gustav

2014-10-01

150

Dose to medium versus dose to water as an estimator of dose to sensitive skeletal tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to determine whether dose to medium, Dm, or dose to water, Dw, provides a better estimate of the dose to the radiosensitive red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSC) in spongiosa, or cancellous bone. This is addressed in the larger context of the ongoing debate over whether Dm or Dw should be specified in Monte Carlo calculated radiotherapy treatment plans. The study uses voxelized, virtual human phantoms, FAX06/MAX06 (female/male), incorporated into an EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations during simulated irradiation by a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta SL25 accelerator. Head and neck, chest and pelvis irradiations are studied. FAX06/MAX06 include precise modelling of spongiosa based on µCT images, allowing dose to RBM and BSC to be resolved from the dose to bone. Modifications to the FAX06/MAX06 user codes are required to score Dw and Dm in spongiosa. Dose uncertainties of ~1% (BSC, RBM) or ~0.5% (Dm, Dw) are obtained after up to 5 days of simulations on 88 CPUs. Clinically significant differences (>5%) between Dm and Dw are found only in cranial spongiosa, where the volume fraction of trabecular bone (TBVF) is high (55%). However, for spongiosa locations where there is any significant difference between Dm and Dw, comparisons of differential dose volume histograms (DVHs) and average doses show that Dw provides a better overall estimate of dose to RBM and BSC. For example, in cranial spongiosa the average Dm underestimates the average dose to sensitive tissue by at least 5%, while average Dw is within ~1% of the average dose to sensitive tissue. Thus, it is better to specify Dw than Dm in Monte Carlo treatment plans, since Dw provides a better estimate of dose to sensitive tissue in bone, the only location where the difference is likely to be clinically significant.

Walters, B. R. B.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I.

2010-08-01

151

15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.  

...WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL...The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the...Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs...

2014-01-01

152

Child allowances, fertility, and chaotic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the dynamics in an overlapping generations model with the provision of child allowances. Fertility is an increasing function of child allowances and there exists a threshold effect of the marginal effect of child allowances on fertility. We show that if the effectiveness of child allowances is sufficiently high, an intermediate-sized tax rate will be enough to generate chaotic dynamics. Besides, a decrease in the inter-temporal elasticity of substitution will prevent the occurrence of irregular cycles.

Chen, Hung-Ju; Li, Ming-Chia

2013-06-01

153

[Influence of thermoplastic masks on the absorbed skin dose for head and neck tumor radiotherapy].  

PubMed

The influence of thermoplastic masks used in clinical routine for patient immobilization in head and neck radiotherapy treatment on the absorbed skin dose has been investigated at Gustave-Roussy Institute. The measurements were performed in 60Co gamma-rays, 4 and 6MV X-rays and in 8 and 10MeV electron beams. Initially, the measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF) and a NACP chamber on a polystyrene phantom in order to study the influence of physical parameters (distance, field size, energy...) on first millimeters depth variation dose. The study was completed with in vivo measurements on 14 patients using various dosimeters (thermoluminescent detectors, diodes) in order to assess the increase of dose on first millimeters depth and to verify the delivered dose during treatment sessions (quality control). In treatment conditions, masks lead to an important increase of dose on the first millimeter in 60Co gamma-rays beams (dose value normalized to maximum of dose increase from 57.1% to 77.7% for 0.5 mm-water depth and from 78.5% to 88% for 1 mm-water depth); its contribution is less important in 4 and 6 MV X-rays beams (dose value normalized to maximum of dose increase from 49.5% to 63.2% for 0.5 mm-water depth and from 59% to 70.1% for 1 mm-water depth). Concerning 8 and 10 MeV electron beams, the normalized dose value increase respectively from 78.4% to 81.7% and from 82.2% to 86.1% for 0.5 mm-water depth. In vivo dosimetry enabled the quality control of delivered dose during treatment. Measured dose is in agreement within +/- 5% with the prescribed dose for 92.3% of cases. In routine, in vivo dosimetry allowed to quantify the increase of skin dose induced by thermoplastic masks for various energies of photon and electron beams as well as quality control. PMID:12412370

Halm, E Amiel; Tamri, A; Bridier, A; Wibault, P; Eschwège, F

2002-09-01

154

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2014-10-01

155

STATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCE  

E-print Network

) WATTS PER (ft2 ) COMPLETE BLDG. AREA ALLOWED WATTSX = TOTALS AREA WATTS AREA CATEGORY METHOD ­ Part A A B C D AREA CATEGORY (From §146 Table 146-F) WATTS PER (ft2 ) X AREA (ft 2 ) ALLOWED WATTS= Sum of Additional Allowed Watts from Area Category Method ­ Part B (from table below) TOTALS AREA WATTS AREA

156

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2012-10-01

157

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2013-10-01

158

The potential for dose escalation in lung cancer as a result of systematically reducing margins used to generate planning target volume  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine how much the radiation dose to lung tumors could be increased as the margins used to generate planning target volume (PTV) are reduced. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans for 18 patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma were retrospectively generated. Dose escalation was performed in two phases: The dose was increased as long as healthy tissue dose-volume constraints did not exceed (1) the values from the treatment plan originally used for the patients and (2) clinically acceptable values. Results: No correlation of dose escalation was observed with tumor location, tumor stage, tumor motion, and tumor volume. An increase in dose was observed for many of the patients with as little as 2-mm uniform reduction in PTV margin, with increases in mean PTV dose exceeding 15 Gy for 5 patients. Sixteen of 18 patients experienced a decrease in mean heart, esophagus, and lung dose when margins were reduced and prescription doses were increased. Conclusions: Reduced margins allowed an increased dose to the tumors. However, a much larger dose escalation was possible for some patients but not for others, demonstrating that each patient is different, so individual treatment plans must be tailored for maximum tumor coverage and minimum exposure of healthy tissue.

Nelson, Christopher [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: chnelson@mdanderson.org; Starkschall, George [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2006-06-01

159

Maximum Entropy Inverse Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown the benefit of framing problems of imitation learning as solutions to Markov Decision Prob- lems. This approach reduces learning to the problem of re- covering a utility function that makes the behavior induced by a near-optimal policy closely mimic demonstrated behav- ior. In this work, we develop a probabilistic approach based on the principle of maximum

Brian Ziebart; Andrew L. Maas; J. Andrew Bagnell; Anind K. Dey

2008-01-01

160

Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed.

Choi, A.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

161

Experimental estimates of peak skin dose and its relationship to the CT dose index using the CTDI head phantom.  

PubMed

A straightforward method is presented to estimate peak skin doses (PSDs) delivered by computed tomography (CT) scanners. The measured PSD values are related to the well-known volume CT dose index (CTDI(vol)), displayed on the console of CT scanners. PSD measurement estimates were obtained, in four CT units, by placing radiochromic film on the surface of a CTDI head phantom. Six different X-ray tube currents including the maximum allowed value were used to irradiate the phantom. PSD and CTDI(vol) were independently measured and later related to the CTDI(vol) value displayed on the console. A scanner-specific relationship was found between the measured PSD and the associated CTDI(vol) displayed on the console. The measured PSD values varied between 27 and 136 mGy among all scanners when the routine head scan parameters were used. The results of this work allow relating the widely used CTDI(vol) to an actual radiation dose delivered to the skin of a patient. PMID:23864642

de las Heras, Hugo; Minniti, Ronaldo; Wilson, Sean; Mitchell, Chad; Skopec, Marlene; Brunner, Claudia C; Chakrabarti, Kish

2013-12-01

162

Independent calculation-based verification of IMRT plans using a 3D dose-calculation engine  

SciTech Connect

Independent monitor unit verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans requires detailed 3-dimensional (3D) dose verification. The aim of this study was to investigate using a 3D dose engine in a second commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for this task, facilitated by in-house software. Our department has XiO and Pinnacle TPSs, both with IMRT planning capability and modeled for an Elekta-Synergy 6 MV photon beam. These systems allow the transfer of computed tomography (CT) data and RT structures between them but do not allow IMRT plans to be transferred. To provide this connectivity, an in-house computer programme was developed to convert radiation therapy prescription (RTP) files as generated by many planning systems into either XiO or Pinnacle IMRT file formats. Utilization of the technique and software was assessed by transferring 14 IMRT plans from XiO and Pinnacle onto the other system and performing 3D dose verification. The accuracy of the conversion process was checked by comparing the 3D dose matrices and dose volume histograms (DVHs) of structures for the recalculated plan on the same system. The developed software successfully transferred IMRT plans generated by 1 planning system into the other. Comparison of planning target volume (TV) DVHs for the original and recalculated plans showed good agreement; a maximum difference of 2% in mean dose, ? 2.5% in D95, and 2.9% in V95 was observed. Similarly, a DVH comparison of organs at risk showed a maximum difference of +7.7% between the original and recalculated plans for structures in both high- and medium-dose regions. However, for structures in low-dose regions (less than 15% of prescription dose) a difference in mean dose up to +21.1% was observed between XiO and Pinnacle calculations. A dose matrix comparison of original and recalculated plans in XiO and Pinnacle TPSs was performed using gamma analysis with 3%/3 mm criteria. The mean and standard deviation of pixels passing gamma tolerance for XiO-generated IMRT plans was 96.1 ± 1.3, 96.6 ± 1.2, and 96.0 ± 1.5 in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes respectively. Corresponding results for Pinnacle-generated IMRT plans were 97.1 ± 1.5, 96.4 ± 1.2, and 96.5 ± 1.3 in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes respectively.

Arumugam, Sankar, E-mail: Sankar.Arumugam@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, New South Wales (Australia); The Ingham Institute, New South Wales (Australia); Xing, Aitang [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, New South Wales (Australia); The Ingham Institute, New South Wales (Australia); Goozee, Gary [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, New South Wales (Australia); The Ingham Institute, New South Wales (Australia); South West Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Holloway, Lois [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, New South Wales (Australia); The Ingham Institute, New South Wales (Australia); South West Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia)

2013-01-01

163

Solar maximum thermal surface assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inflight repair of the Solar Maximum Spacecraft provided the first opportunity to make actual measurements of thermal control surfaces after 4 years exposure in low Earth orbit. Defective hardware was replaced by astronauts and returned to Earth while protected from reentry damage in the Shuttle Payload bay. A preliminary thermal surface assessment was made soon after retrieval in support of Space Telescope and other current spacecraft programs. This included visual examination and measurement of Kapton and Teflon film to determine change in thermal radiative properties after 4 years exposure to solar radiation and reaction with atomic oxygen. Comparative measurements were made with a portable solar reflectometer used for inspection of spacecraft hardware. Post flight measurements and observations reveal significant surface changes that further confirm Kapton mass loss predictions made prior to Solar Maximum repair. Details of thermal surface application, measurements and experimental results are presented and discussed.

Rhoads, G. D.

1985-01-01

164

Maximum Sustainable Yield Lives On  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined 142 papers published from 1977 through 1985 that used the concept of maximum sustainable yield (MSY). I classified them as to how MSY was used, year of publication, subject, and publication forum. The primary uses of MSY were in estimating long-term yield (28.9%), evaluating stock condition (28.2%), and analyzing policy (21.8%). The number of such publications declined significantly

Willard E. Barber

1988-01-01

165

BGIM : Maximum Likelihood Estimation Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Shaun Purcell of the Social, Genetic and Development Pyschiatry Research Centre, this set of pages is an introduction to the maximum likelihood estimation. It discusses the likelihood and log-likelihood functions and the process of optimizing. The author breaks the page down in this way: introduction, model-fitting, MLE in practice, likelihood ratio test, MLE analysis of twin data and MLE analysis of linkage data. The author offers further reading for extra study of this statistical method.

Purcell, Shaun

2009-02-26

166

LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power  

SciTech Connect

The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed.

Clendenin, J.

2005-01-12

167

41 CFR 301-11.7 - What determines my maximum per diem reimbursement rate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determines my maximum per diem reimbursement rate? 301-11.7 Section 301-11.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

168

When is high-dose intravenous iron repletion needed? Assessing new treatment options.  

PubMed

High doses of intravenous iron have a role in the treatment of a number of clinical situations associated with iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and blood loss. In the presence of functioning erythropoiesis, iron supplementation alone may be adequate to replenish iron stores and restore blood loss. Where hormone replacement with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent is required, iron adequacy will optimize treatment. Intravenous iron offers a rapid means of iron repletion and is superior to oral iron in many circumstances, especially in the presence of anemia of chronic disease, where it appears to overcome the block to absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and immobilization of stored iron. The clinical situations where high doses of iron are commonly required are reviewed. These include nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, obstetrics, menorrhagia, and anemia associated with cancer and its treatment. The literature indicates that high doses of iron are required, with levels of 1500 mg in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease and up to 3600 mg in inflammatory bowel disease. New formulations of intravenous iron have recently been introduced that allow clinicians to administer high doses of iron in a single administration. Ferumoxytol is available in the US, has a maximum dose of 510 mg iron in a single administration, but is limited to use in chronic kidney disease. Ferric carboxymaltose can be rapidly administered in doses of 15 mg/kg body weight, up to a ceiling dose of 1000 mg. A test dose is not required, and it can be used more widely across a spectrum of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia indications. The latest introduction is iron isomaltoside 1000. Again, a test dose is not required, and it can be delivered rapidly as an infusion (in an hour), allowing even higher doses of iron to be administered in a single infusion, ie, 20 mg/kg body weight with no ceiling. This will allow clinicians to achieve high-dose repletion more frequently as a single administration. Treatment options for iron repletion have taken a major leap forward in the past two years, especially to meet the demand for high doses given as a single administration. PMID:21340038

Gozzard, David

2011-01-01

169

HADOC: a computer code for calculation of external and inhalation doses from acute radionuclide releases  

SciTech Connect

The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.

Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.

1981-04-01

170

Dose-response relationship from longitudinal data with response-dependent dose modification using likelihood methods.  

PubMed

In some clinical trials or clinical practice, the therapeutic agent is administered repeatedly, and doses are adjusted in each patient based on repeatedly measured continuous responses, to maintain the response levels in a target range. Because a lower dose tends to be selected for patients with a better outcome, simple summarizations may wrongly show a better outcome for the lower dose, producing an incorrect dose-response relationship. In this study, we consider the dose-response relationship under these situations. We show that maximum-likelihood estimates are consistent without modeling the dose-modification mechanisms when the selection of the dose as a time-dependent covariate is based only on observed, but not on unobserved, responses, and measurements are generated based on administered doses. We confirmed this property by performing simulation studies under several dose-modification mechanisms. We examined an autoregressive linear mixed effects model. The model represents profiles approaching each patient's asymptote when identical doses are repeatedly administered. The model takes into account the previous dose history and provides a dose-response relationship of the asymptote as a summary measure. We also examined a linear mixed effects model assuming all responses are measured at steady state. In the simulation studies, the estimates of both the models were unbiased under the dose modification based on observed responses, but biased under the dose modification based on unobserved responses. In conclusion, the maximum-likelihood estimates of the dose-response relationship are consistent under the dose modification based only on observed responses. PMID:22641310

Funatogawa, Ikuko; Funatogawa, Takashi

2012-07-01

171

28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS...FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable...to any of a carrier's systems or services, as...

2012-07-01

172

28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS...FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable...to any of a carrier's systems or services, as...

2013-07-01

173

28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS...FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable...to any of a carrier's systems or services, as...

2010-07-01

174

28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS...FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable...to any of a carrier's systems or services, as...

2011-07-01

175

Dose responses for adaption to low doses of (60)Co gamma rays and (3)H beta particles in normal human fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The dose response for adaption to radiation at low doses was compared in normal human fibroblasts (AG1522) exposed to either (60)Co gamma rays or (3)H beta particles. Cells were grown in culture to confluence and exposed at either 37 degrees C or 0 degrees C to (3)H beta-particle or (60)Co gamma-ray adapting doses ranging from 0.1 mGy to 500 mGy. These cells, and unexposed control cells, were allowed to adapt during a fixed 3-h, 37 degrees C incubation prior to a 4-Gy challenge dose of (60)Co gamma rays. Adaption was assessed by measuring micronucleus frequency in cytokinesis-blocked, binucleate cells. No adaption was detected in cells exposed to (60)Co gamma radiation at 37 degrees C after a dose of 0.1 mGy given at a low dose rate or to 500 mGy given at a high dose rate. However, low-dose-rate exposure (1-3 mGy/min) to any dose between 1 and 500 mGy from either radiation, delivered at either temperature, caused cells to adapt and reduced the micronucleus frequency that resulted from the subsequent 4-Gy exposure. Within this dose range, the magnitude of the reduction was the same, regardless of the dose or radiation type. These results demonstrate that doses as low as (on average) about one track per cell (1 mGy) produce the same maximum adaptive response as do doses that deposit many tracks per cell, and that the two radiations were not different in this regard. Exposure at a temperature where metabolic processes, including DNA repair, were inactive (0 degrees C) did not alter the result, indicating that the adaptive response is not sensitive to changes in the accumulation of DNA damage within this range. The results also show that the RBE for low doses of tritium beta-particle radiation is 1, using adaption as the end point. PMID:12105988

Broome, E J; Brown, D L; Mitchel, R E J

2002-08-01

176

Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences  

PubMed Central

This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

SCHELLEKENS, JONA

2009-01-01

177

Maximum likelihood techniques in QELS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A framework for the analysis of Quasi Elastic Light Scattering (QELS) experiments designed to be used in microgravity environment is derived. Example calculations of the type to be used to design the QELS system are given. The framework for the analysis is based on the concepts of parameter estimation typified by Maximum Likelihood Estimation methods. These methods not only serve as the template for parameter estimation algorithms, but can also be used for optimal design of the experiments. Optimal design of experiments is facilitated by the fact that these methods not only give procedures for parameter estimation, but also estimates of the errors associated with the parameter estimation.

Edwards, Robert V.

1989-01-01

178

Maximum Diameter of Impacting Liquid Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum diameter a droplet that impacts on a surface will attain is the subject of controversy, notably for high-velocity impacts of low-viscosity liquids such as water or blood. We study the impact of droplets of simple liquids of different viscosities, and a shear-thinning complex fluid (blood), for a wide range of surfaces, impact speeds, and impact angles. We show that the spreading behavior cannot simply be predicted by equating the inertial to either capillary or viscous forces, since, for most situations of practical interest, all three forces are important. We determine the correct scaling behaviors for the viscous and capillary regimes and, by interpolating between the two, allow for a universal rescaling. The results for different impact angles can be rescaled on this universal curve also, by doing a simple geometrical correction for the impact angle. For blood, we show that the shear-thinning properties do not affect the maximum diameter and only the high-shear rate viscosity is relevant. With our study, we solve a long-standing problem within the fluid-dynamics community: We attest that the spreading behavior of droplets is governed by the conversion of kinetic energy into surface energy or dissipated heat. Energy transfer into internal flows marginally hinders droplet spreading upon impact.

Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Bartolo, Denis; Josserand, Christophe; Bonn, Daniel

2014-10-01

179

40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-07-01

180

22 CFR 145.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-04-01

181

29 CFR 95.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-07-01

182

10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-01-01

183

49 CFR 19.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-10-01

184

38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-07-01

185

2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-01-01

186

32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education that may be recipients, subrecipients...Educational Institutions.” (e) Hospitals. The allowability of...

2010-07-01

187

20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...Allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-04-01

188

45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-10-01

189

24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-04-01

190

7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-01-01

191

14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-01-01

192

15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-01-01

193

22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-04-01

194

36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with...allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance...

2010-07-01

195

34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.  

...REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL EDUCATION-PERSONNEL DEVELOPMENT TO IMPROVE SERVICES AND RESULTS FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Conditions That Must be Met by Grantee § 304.21 Allowable...

2014-07-01

196

42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are...

2010-10-01

197

42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are...

2011-10-01

198

20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL...efficient administration of the program, be allocable...costs such as instructors' salaries, training tools, books...transportation in the performance of their jobs are allowable and...

2012-04-01

199

45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...except that independent research and development costs...costs or independent research and development costs...including the development of scientific, cost, and other...costs of the current accounting period are allowable...include independent research and development...

2010-10-01

200

45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...except that independent research and development costs...costs or independent research and development costs...including the development of scientific, cost, and other...costs of the current accounting period are allowable...include independent research and development...

2011-10-01

201

41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or conference lodging) prescribed in applicable travel regulations for travel expenses paid by a non-Federal source? 304-3...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2012-07-01

202

41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or conference lodging) prescribed in applicable travel regulations for travel expenses paid by a non-Federal source? 304-3...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2011-07-01

203

41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or conference lodging) prescribed in applicable travel regulations for travel expenses paid by a non-Federal source? 304-3...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2013-07-01

204

Glossary of Terms Balance Billing Out-of-network reimbursements are based on a maximum allowable fee  

E-print Network

applies after first meeting a deductible requirement. Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act: For plans that are not integrated (a plan that provides Rx benefits that are separate from the medical plan eligible individual in 2008. - 1 - #12;For integrated plans (a plan where medical and Rx expenses

205

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established...Class 4 locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS...192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the...

2011-10-01

206

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established...Class 4 locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS...192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the...

2010-10-01

207

Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

Rose, K. [National Regulatory Research Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

1993-07-01

208

Dose verification of single shot gamma knife applications using VIPAR polymer gel and MRI.  

PubMed

This work describes an experimental procedure with potential to assess the overall accuracy associated with gamma knife clinical applications, from patient imaging and dosimetry planning to patient positioning and dose delivery using the automated positioning system of a Leksell Gamma Knife model C. The VIPAR polymer gel-MRI dosimetry method is employed due to its inherent three-dimensional feature and linear dose response over the range of gamma knife applications. Different polymer gel vials were irradiated with single shot gamma knife treatment plans using each of the four available collimator helmets to deliver a maximum dose of 30 Gy. Percentage relative dose results are presented not only in the form of one-dimensional profiles but also planar isocontours and isosurfaces in three dimensions. Experimental results are compared with corresponding Gammaplan treatment planning system calculations as well as acceptance test radiochromic film measurements. A good agreement, within the experimental uncertainty, is observed between measured and expected dose distributions. This experimental uncertainty is of the order of one imaging pixel in the MRI gel readout session (<1 mm) and allows for the verification of single shot gamma knife applications in terms of acceptance specifications for precision in beam alignment and accuracy. Averaging net R(2) results in the dose plateau of the 4 mm and 18 mm collimator irradiated gel vials, which were MR scanned in the same session, provides a crude estimate of the 4 mm output factor which agrees within errors with the default value of 0.870. PMID:15798319

Karaiskos, P; Petrokokkinos, L; Tatsis, E; Angelopoulos, A; Baras, P; Kozicki, M; Papagiannis, P; Rosiak, J M; Sakelliou, L; Sandilos, P; Vlachos, L

2005-03-21

209

Dose verification of single shot gamma knife applications using VIPAR polymer gel and MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes an experimental procedure with potential to assess the overall accuracy associated with gamma knife clinical applications, from patient imaging and dosimetry planning to patient positioning and dose delivery using the automated positioning system of a Leksell Gamma Knife model C. The VIPAR polymer gel-MRI dosimetry method is employed due to its inherent three-dimensional feature and linear dose response over the range of gamma knife applications. Different polymer gel vials were irradiated with single shot gamma knife treatment plans using each of the four available collimator helmets to deliver a maximum dose of 30 Gy. Percentage relative dose results are presented not only in the form of one-dimensional profiles but also planar isocontours and isosurfaces in three dimensions. Experimental results are compared with corresponding Gammaplan treatment planning system calculations as well as acceptance test radiochromic film measurements. A good agreement, within the experimental uncertainty, is observed between measured and expected dose distributions. This experimental uncertainty is of the order of one imaging pixel in the MRI gel readout session (<1 mm) and allows for the verification of single shot gamma knife applications in terms of acceptance specifications for precision in beam alignment and accuracy. Averaging net R2 results in the dose plateau of the 4 mm and 18 mm collimator irradiated gel vials, which were MR scanned in the same session, provides a crude estimate of the 4 mm output factor which agrees within errors with the default value of 0.870.

Karaiskos, P.; Petrokokkinos, L.; Tatsis, E.; Angelopoulos, A.; Baras, P.; Kozicki, M.; Papagiannis, P.; Rosiak, J. M.; Sakelliou, L.; Sandilos, P.; Vlachos, L.

2005-03-01

210

Discriminative Training and Maximum Entropy Models for Statistical Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for statistical machine translation of natural languages based on direct maximum entropy mod- els, which contains the widely used sour- ce-channel approach as a special case. All knowledge sources are treated as feature functions, which depend on the source language sentence, the target language sentence and possible hidden variables. This approach allows a baseline machine translation

Franz Josef Och; Hermann Ney

2002-01-01

211

A maximum power transfer battery charger for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery charger is described that uses an on-line microcontroller to maximize its output power. This is done by always operating at either the maximum allowable input current or the thermal limit imposed by the charger itself. In this case the thermal limit is determined by the junction temperatures of the two main insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). Since direct

B. J. Masserant; T. A. Stuart

1997-01-01

212

THREE MILE CREEK TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The pupose of this project is to establish the allowable loading of pollutants, or other quantifiable parameters for Threemile Creek. These funds will assist ADEM in the preparation of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) for the reduction and elimination of pollution in Threemile C...

213

System for memorizing maximum values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

1992-08-01

214

Allowable levels of take for the trade in Nearctic songbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The take of Nearctic songbirds for the caged-bird trade is an important cultural and economic activity in Mexico, but its sustainability has been questioned. We relied on the theta-logistic population model to explore options for setting allowable levels of take for 11 species of passerines that were subject to legal take in Mexico in 2010. Because estimates of population size necessary for making periodic adjustments to levels of take are not routinely available, we examined the conditions under which a constant level of take might contribute to population depletion (i.e., a population below its level of maximum net productivity). The chance of depleting a population is highest when levels of take are based on population sizes that happen to be much lower or higher than the level of maximum net productivity, when environmental variation is relatively high and serially correlated, and when the interval between estimation of population size is relatively long (?5 years). To estimate demographic rates of songbirds involved in the Mexican trade we relied on published information and allometric relationships to develop probability distributions for key rates, and then sampled from those distributions to characterize the uncertainty in potential levels of take. Estimates of the intrinsic rate of growth (r) were highly variable, but median estimates were consistent with those expected for relatively short-lived, highly fecund species. Allowing for the possibility of nonlinear density dependence generally resulted in allowable levels of take that were lower than would have been the case under an assumption of linearity. Levels of take authorized by the Mexican government in 2010 for the 11 species we examined were small in comparison to relatively conservative allowable levels of take (i.e., those intended to achieve 50% of maximum sustainable yield). However, the actual levels of take in Mexico are unknown and almost certainly exceed the authorized take. Also, the take of Nearctic songbirds in other Latin American and Caribbean countries ultimately must be considered in assessing population-level impacts.

Johnson, Fred A.; Walters, Matthew A.H.; Boomer, G. Scott

2012-01-01

215

Using EPA`s allowance tracking system to assess the allowance market  

SciTech Connect

The development of a credible framework for analyzing private allowance transfers recorded in EPA`s Allowance Tracking System (ATS) is essential for effective assessment of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market. The ATS began recording transfers of allowances in March, 1994, and since then has served as an automated record of allowance holdings and transfers of ownership. Though primarily concerned with determining compliance, the ATS contains details of private allowance transfers representing what is believed to be a significant portion of overall SO{sub 2} allowance market activity. This paper will analyze these private transfers recorded in ATS and will develop relevant categories for classification purposes. The resulting categorization will enable consistent analysis of the SO{sub 2} allowance market and provide substantial insight into the level and type of allowance trading activity under the Acid Rain Program.

Dean, M.; Kruger, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31

216

RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

SciTech Connect

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

217

NIEL Dose Dependence for Solar Cells Irradiated with Electrons and Protons  

E-print Network

The investigation of solar cells degradation and the prediction of its end-of-life performance is of primary importance in the preparation of a space mission. In the present work, we investigate the reduction of solar-cells' maximum power resulting from irradiations with electrons and protons. Both GaAs single junction and GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells were studied. The results obtained indicate how i) the dominant radiation damaging mechanism is due to atomic displacements, ii) the relative maximum power degradation is almost independent of the type of incoming particle, i.e., iii) to a first approximation, the fitted semi-empirical function expressing the decrease of maximum power depends only on the absorbed NIEL dose, and iv) the actual displacement threshold energy value (Ed=21 eV) accounts for annealing treatments, mostly due to self-annealing induced effects. Thus, for a given type of solar cell, a unique maximum power degradation curve can be determined as a function of the absorbed NIEL dose. The latter expression allows one to predict the performance of those solar cells in space radiation environment.

C. Baur; M. Gervasi; P. Nieminen; S. Pensotti; P. G. Rancoita; M. Tacconi

2013-12-02

218

Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference between the dynamic dose and 4D dose as a function of number of deliveries and/or total deliver time was also established.

Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2012-12-15

219

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or CFC-12 or CFC-114....

2011-07-01

220

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

...Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or CFC-12 or CFC-114....

2014-07-01

221

Radiation Doses in Perspective  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation Doses in Perspective Health Effects Main Page Exposure ... Sources Doses from Common Radiation Sources Average U.S. Radiation Doses and Sources All of us are exposed ...

222

Radiation Dose Chart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an illustration of the ionizing radiation dose a person can absorb from various sources. It provides a visual comparison of doses ranging from 0.1 microsieverts (from eating a banana) to a fatal dose of 8 sieverts.

Munroe, Randall

223

Cell Phone Allowance Responsible Administrative Units  

E-print Network

Cell Phone Allowance Policy Responsible Administrative Units: Office of Finance & Administration 1 of 3 1.0 BACKGROUND It is essential for certain employees in some circumstances to use cell phones of Colorado policy that dictates use of a state-provided cell phone or smartphone. Additionally, the Internal

224

50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...incurred prior to the date of the grant? Costs incurred...to the effective date of the grant are allowable...the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration or Pittman-Robertson...provide for the allocation of costs among the various...on the relative uses or benefits provided. (e)...

2010-10-01

225

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may be allowed...Claims for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft...civilian employee outside the U.S. is a local inhabitant. (3) Claims for damage to, or loss of,...

2011-10-01

226

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may be allowed...Claims for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft...civilian employee outside the U.S. is a local inhabitant. (3) Claims for damage to, or loss of,...

2010-10-01

227

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may be allowed...Claims for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft...civilian employee outside the U.S. is a local inhabitant. (3) Claims for damage to, or loss of,...

2013-10-01

228

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may be allowed...Claims for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft...civilian employee outside the U.S. is a local inhabitant. (3) Claims for damage to, or loss of,...

2012-10-01

229

Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response  

SciTech Connect

The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

1992-12-31

230

Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response  

SciTech Connect

The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

1992-01-01

231

28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...costs or independent research and development costs...including the development of scientific, costs, and other...costs of the current accounting period are all allowable...proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable...include independent research and development...

2010-07-01

232

28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...costs or independent research and development costs...including the development of scientific, costs, and other...costs of the current accounting period are all allowable...proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable...include independent research and development...

2011-07-01

233

45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2010-10-01

234

45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...including allowable costs in the form of payments to...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2010-10-01

235

45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2011-10-01

236

45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2013-10-01

237

45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2013-10-01

238

45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...including allowable costs in the form of payments to...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2013-10-01

239

45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2011-10-01

240

45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2010-10-01

241

45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...including allowable costs in the form of payments to...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2012-10-01

242

45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2012-10-01

243

45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...including allowable costs in the form of payments to...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2011-10-01

244

45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ...including allowable costs in the form of payments to... Use the principles in— State, local or Indian...institution of higher education, (2) hospital, or (3) organization named in OMB Circular A-122...

2012-10-01

245

Mobile Communications Device Allowances Frequently Asked Questions  

E-print Network

Mobile Communications Device Allowances Frequently Asked Questions Q: Why is NC State University-saving measure and to provide more flexibility for employees who must carry a mobile communications device education, state agencies, federal agencies, etc., as well as private corporations. Q: Why is my MCD

246

Maximum entropy production in daisyworld  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

2012-05-01

247

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1  

E-print Network

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1 Brookhaven National Laboratory routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any potential radiological dose to the public, BNL workers radiological dose to the public is calculated as the maximum dose to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed

Homes, Christopher C.

248

Toward Truly Optimal IMRT Dose Distribution: Inverse Planning with Voxel-Specific Penalty  

PubMed Central

Purpose To establish an inverse planning framework with adjustable voxel penalty for more conformal IMRT dose distribution as well as improved interactive controllability over the regional dose distribution of the resultant plan. Materials and Method In the proposed coarse-to-fine planning scheme, a conventional inverse planning with organ specific parameters is first performed. The voxel penalty scheme is then “switched on” by allowing the prescription dose to change on an individual voxel scale according to the deviation of the actual voxel dose from the ideally desired dose. The rationale here is intuitive: when the dose at a voxel does not meet its ideal dose, it simply implies that this voxel is not competitive enough when compared with the ones that have met their planning goal. In this case, increasing the penalty of the voxel by varying the prescription can boost its competitiveness and thus improve its dose. After the prescription adjustment, the plan is re-optimized. The dose adjustment/re-optimization procedure is repeated until the resultant dose distribution cannot be improved anymore. The prescription adjustment on a finer scale can be accomplished either automatically or manually. In the latter case, the regions/voxels where a dose improvement is needed are selected visually, unlike in the automatic case where the selection is done purely based on the difference of the actual dose at a given voxel and its ideal prescription. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using a head and neck and a prostate case. Results An inverse planning framework with the voxel-specific penalty is established. By adjusting voxel prescriptions iteratively to boost the region where large mismatch between the actual calculated and desired doses occurs, substantial improvements can be achieved in the final dose distribution. The proposed method is applied to a head and neck case and a prostate case. For the former case, a significant reduction in the maximum dose to the brainstem is achieved while the PTV dose coverage is greatly improved. The doses to other organs at risk are also reduced, ranging from 10% to 30%. For the prostate case, the use of the voxel penalty scheme also results in vast improvements to the final dose distribution. The PTV experiences improved dose uniformity and the mean dose to the rectum and bladder is reduced by as much as 15%. Conclusion Introduction of the spatially non-uniform and adjustable prescription provides room for further improvements of currently achievable dose distributions and equips the planner with an effective tool to modify IMRT dose distributions interactively. The technique is easily implementable in any existing inverse planning platform, which should facilitate clinical IMRT planning process and, in future, off-line/on-line adaptive IMRT. PMID:21070085

Lougovski, Pavel; LeNoach, Jordan; Zhu, Lei; Ma, Yunzhi; Censor, Yair; Xing, Lei

2010-01-01

249

SPACE ALLOWANCES FOR LAMBS ON SLOTTED FLOORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

N reviewing the use of slotted floors in lamb production little information is available on the influence of animal density on lamb performance. Several floor space allowances for growing-finishing swine confined to slotted and concrete floors have been studied. Gehl- bach (1966) indicates swine up to 45.4 kg. perform acceptably on 0.37 m. 2 per animal. Watson (1962) suggested that

L. A. AREHART; J. M. LEWIS; F. C. HINDS; M. E. MANSFIELD

2010-01-01

250

An algorithm for kilovoltage x-ray dose calculations with applications in kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs.  

PubMed

A new model-based dose calculation algorithm is presented for kilovoltage x-rays and is tested for the cases of calculating the radiation dose from kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT) and 2D planar projected radiographs. This algorithm calculates the radiation dose to water-like media as the sum of primary and scattered dose components. The scatter dose is calculated by convolution of a newly introduced, empirically parameterized scatter dose kernel with the primary photon fluence. Several approximations are introduced to increase the scatter dose calculation efficiency: (1) the photon energy spectrum is approximated as monoenergetic; (2) density inhomogeneities are accounted for by implementing a global distance scaling factor in the scatter kernel; (3) kernel tilting is ignored. These approximations allow for efficient calculation of the scatter dose convolution with the fast Fourier transform. Monte Carlo simulations were used to obtain the model parameters. The accuracy of using this model-based algorithm was validated by comparing with the Monte Carlo method for calculating dose distributions for real patients resulting from radiotherapy image guidance procedures including volumetric kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs. For all patients studied, mean dose-to-water errors for kV-CBCT are within 0.3% with a maximum standard deviation error of 4.1%. Using a medium-dependent correction method to account for the effects of photoabsorption in bone on the dose distribution, mean dose-to-medium errors for kV-CBCT are within 3.6% for bone and 2.4% for soft tissues. This algorithm offers acceptable accuracy and has the potential to extend the applicability of model-based dose calculation algorithms from megavoltage to kilovoltage photon beams. PMID:24694756

Pawlowski, Jason M; Ding, George X

2014-04-21

251

14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982,...

2010-01-01

252

MILDOS - A Computer Program for Calculating Environmental Radiation Doses from Uranium Recovery Operations  

SciTech Connect

The MILDOS Computer Code estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This code is multi-purposed and can be used to evaluate population doses for NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. Emissions of radioactive materials from fixed point source locations and from area sources are modeled using a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model, which utilizes user-provided wind frequency data. Mechanisms such as deposition of particulates, resuspension. radioactive decay and ingrowth of daughter radionuclides are included in the transport model. Annual average air concentrations are computed, from which subsequent impacts to humans through various pathways are computed. Ground surface concentrations are estimated from deposition buildup and ingrowth of radioactive daughters. The surface concentrations are modified by radioactive decay, weathering and other environmental processes. The MILDOS Computer Code allows the user to vary the emission sources as a step function of time by adjustinq the emission rates. which includes shutting them off completely. Thus the results of a computer run can be made to reflect changing processes throughout the facility's operational lifetime. The pathways considered for individual dose commitments and for population impacts are: • Inhalation • External exposure from ground concentrations • External exposure from cloud immersion • Ingestioo of vegetables • Ingestion of meat • Ingestion of milk • Dose commitments are calculated using dose conversion factors, which are ultimately based on recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These factors are fixed internally in the code, and are not part of the input option. Dose commitments which are available from the code are as follows: • Individual dose commitments for use in predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations (Radon and short-lived daughters are excluded) • Total individual dose commitments (impacts from all available radionuclides are considered) • Annual population dose commitments (regional, extraregional, total and cummulative). This model is primarily designed for uranium mill facilities, and should not be used for operations with different radionuclides or processes.

Strange, D. L.; Bander, T. J.

1981-04-01

253

Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56-87.5 Gy; 1.5-2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade {>=}2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4-37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512-67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm{sup 3} of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966-24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267-17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future prospective trials with high-dose radiation therapy for unresectable lung cancer.

Amini, Arya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Yang Jinzhong; Williamson, Ryan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McBurney, Michelle L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Erasmus, Jeremy [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Karhade, Mandar; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-03-01

254

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL REPORT NO. 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION"  

E-print Network

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL REPORT NO. 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION" IN THE HAWAllAN ISLANDS LOAN COPY (Nos. 6-22 Numbered Retroactively) *No: 1. Maximum possible precipitation over the Ompompanoos~c Basin above Union Villag~, Vt. 1943. *No. 2. Maximum possible precipitation over'the Ohio River-Basin above

255

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 1973-96. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and is strong in autumn and winter. Similar to previous studies for other cities, the maximum UHI intensity is more frequently

Yeon-Hee Kim; Jong-Jin Baik

2002-01-01

256

TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS  

SciTech Connect

Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

2007-11-12

257

Maximum likelihood inference of reticulate evolutionary histories.  

PubMed

Hybridization plays an important role in the evolution of certain groups of organisms, adaptation to their environments, and diversification of their genomes. The evolutionary histories of such groups are reticulate, and methods for reconstructing them are still in their infancy and have limited applicability. We present a maximum likelihood method for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories while accounting simultaneously for incomplete lineage sorting. Additionally, we propose methods for assessing confidence in the amount of reticulation and the topology of the inferred evolutionary history. Our method obtains accurate estimates of reticulate evolutionary histories on simulated datasets. Furthermore, our method provides support for a hypothesis of a reticulate evolutionary history inferred from a set of house mouse (Mus musculus) genomes. As evidence of hybridization in eukaryotic groups accumulates, it is essential to have methods that infer reticulate evolutionary histories. The work we present here allows for such inference and provides a significant step toward putting phylogenetic networks on par with phylogenetic trees as a model of capturing evolutionary relationships. PMID:25368173

Yu, Yun; Dong, Jianrong; Liu, Kevin J; Nakhleh, Luay

2014-11-18

258

Maximum entropy deconvolution of low-count nuclear medicine images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum entropy is applied to the problem of deconvolving nuclear medicine images, with special consideration for very low count data. The physics of the formation of scintigraphic images is described, illustrating the phenomena which degrade planar estimates of the tracer distribution. Various techniques which are used to restore these images are reviewed, outlining the relative merits of each. The development and theoretical justification of maximum entropy as an image processing technique is discussed. Maximum entropy is then applied to the problem of planar deconvolution, highlighting the question of the choice of error parameters for low count data. A novel iterative version of the algorithm is suggested which allows the errors to be estimated from the predicted Poisson mean values. This method is shown to produce the exact results predicted by combining Poisson statistics and a Bayesian interpretation of the maximum entropy approach. A facility for total count preservation has also been incorporated, leading to improved quantification. In order to evaluate this iterative maximum entropy technique, two comparable methods, Wiener filtering and a novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique, were implemented. The comparison of results obtained indicated that this maximum entropy approach may produce equivalent or better measures of image quality than the compared methods, depending upon the accuracy of the system model used. The novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique was shown to be preferable over many existing maximum a posteriori methods due to its simplicity of implementation. A single parameter is required to define the Bayesian prior, which suppresses noise in the solution and may reduce the processing time substantially. Finally, maximum entropy deconvolution was applied as a pre-processing-step in single photon emission computed tomography reconstruction of low count data. Higher contrast results were obtained than those achieved by a Wiener pre-filtering approach and a scatter-subtracted attenuation corrected filtered back projection method. Maximum entropy optimised for low counts holds promise for nuclear medicine applications where counts are necessarily low, and may facilitate reduction of the administered activity for other applications. The algorithm was in fact deemed advantageous for the processing of low count Poisson data in general.

McGrath, Deirdre Maria

259

Low-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Oral Bioavailability of Dichloroacetate in Naive and GST-zeta Depleted Rats  

SciTech Connect

Pharmacokinetics of dichloroacetate (DCA) in naive and glutathione-S-transferase-zeta (GSTzeta) depleted rats was studied at doses approaching human daily exposure levels. In vitro metabolism of DCA by rat and human liver cytosol was also compared. Jugular vein cannulated male Fischer-344 rats were administered (i.v or gavage) with graded doses of DCA ranging from 0.05-20 mg/kg and time-course blood samples collected from the cannula. GSTzeta was depleted by exposing rats to DCA (0.2 g/L DCA) in drinking water for 7 days. Elimination of DCA by naive rats was so rapid that only the 1-20 mg/kg i.v. and 5 and 20 mg/kg gavage doses provided plasma concentrations above the method detection limit. GSTzeta depletion slowed DCA elimination from plasma allowing kinetic analysis of doses as low as 0.05 mg/kg. DCA elimination was strongly dose-dependent in the naive rats with total body clearance declining with increasing dose. In the GSTzeta depleted rats, the pharmacokinetics became line ar at doses No.1 mg/kg. All oral doses were rapidly absorbed without any lag time. At higher oral doses (?5 mg/kg in GSTzeta depleted and?20 mg/kg in naive), secondary peaks in the plasma concentration appeared long after the completion of the initial absorption phase. Virtually all the dose was eliminated through metabolic clearance; the rate of urinary elimination of DCA was < 1 ml h-1kg-1. A maximum of 1.0?0.3% dose was recovered in urine within 24 h in the GSTzeta depleted rats dosed i.v. with 20 mg/kg. The rate of in vitro metabolism of DCA by human cytosol was statistically similar to the GSTzeta depleted rats (p > 0.3), which supported the use of GSTzeta depleted rats as a model for assessing kinetics of DCA in humans. Oral bioavailability of DCA was 0-13% in naive and 14-75% in GSTzeta depleted rats. Oral bioavailability of DCA to humans through consumption of drinking water was predicted to be a maximum of 0.05%.

Saghir, Shakil A. (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Schultz, Irv R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-01-01

260

Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution.

Schlaefer, Alexander [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany); Viulet, Tiberiu [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)] [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)

2013-12-15

261

Oral anticancer drugs: how limited dosing options and dose reductions may affect outcomes in comparative trials and efficacy in patients.  

PubMed

Historically, cancer medicine has avoided the problem of unequal dosing by comparing maximum-tolerated doses of intravenous regimens with proportionate dose reductions for toxicity. However, in recent years, with the development of numerous oral anticancer agents, dosing options are arbitrarily and increasingly limited by the size of pills. We contend that an underappreciated consequence of pill size is unequal dosing in comparative clinical trials and that this can have an impact on outcomes. We discuss how comparative effectiveness trials can be unbalanced and how the use of doses that are not sustainable might affect outcomes, especially marginal ones. We further argue that because of their poor tolerability and their limited dosing options, which often result in large dose adjustments in response to toxicity, the real-world clinical effectiveness of oral anticancer agents may be diminished and may not emulate results achieved in registration trials. PMID:24711558

Prasad, Vinay; Massey, Paul R; Fojo, Tito

2014-05-20

262

42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...

2011-10-01

263

76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-05; 2011-0002; Sequence 2] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances...Governmentwide Policy (M), Office of Travel, Transportation, and Asset Management...2011. Janet Dobbs, Director, Office of Travel, Transportation & Asset Mgmt. [FR...

2011-03-24

264

42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...

2013-10-01

265

Calculate Your Radiation Dose  

MedlinePLUS

... Do you live within 50 miles of a nuclear power plant? Do you live within 50 miles of a coal fired power plant? TOTAL YEARLY DOSE (in mrem) ... the American Nuclear Society's brochure, "Personal Radiation Dose Chart". The primary ...

266

Digital combining-weight estimation for broadband sources using maximum-likelihood estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm described for estimating the optimum combining weights for the Ka-band (33.7-GHz) array feed compensation system is compared with the maximum-likelihood estimate. This provides some improvement in performance, with an increase in computational complexity. However, the maximum-likelihood algorithm is simple enough to allow implementation on a PC-based combining system.

Rodemich, E. R.; Vilnrotter, V. A.

1994-01-01

267

Research and development of maximum power transfer tracking system for solar cell unit by matching impedance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing the theorem that matching impedance produces maximum power transfer, the current study develops a low-cost and highly efficient “maximum power point tracker for a solar cell unit,” for the purpose of allowing a solar cell to achieve optimal power transfer under different solar intensities and temperatures. Circuit control takes a single-chip microprocessor as the core and the booster circuit

Tun-Ping Teng; Hwa-Ming Nieh; Jiann-Jyh Chen; Yu-Cheng Lu

2010-01-01

268

A. Advertising and Signs Exterior signage is allowed for students sponsored activities, clubs and events to  

E-print Network

A. Advertising and Signs Exterior signage is allowed for students sponsored activities, clubs and events to promote student participation. 1. Student organizations may use exterior signs to advertise. A maximum of three wood signs may be posted for advertising an activity, club or event. 4. All signs must

Wu, Shin-Tson

269

Allowing for Correlations between Correlations in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis of Correlation Matrices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical meta-analysis of correlation matrices generally ignores covariances (and hence correlations) between correlation estimates. The authors consider various methods for allowing for covariances, including generalized least squares, maximum marginal likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, illustrated using a 6-dimensional response in a series of…

Prevost, A. Toby; Mason, Dan; Griffin, Simon; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Sutton, Stephen; Spiegelhalter, David

2007-01-01

270

Maximum power point regulator for 4 kW solar cell array connected through invertor to the AC grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system which allows the solar cell array (SCA) to operate at the maximum power point and to produce the maximum energy for any solar radiation is described. A control system is based on the maximum power point regulator (MPPR). The MPPR is designed to match a 4 kW SCA to a single phase bridge invertor. Operational principles of

Michael A. Slonim; Leo M. Rahovich

1996-01-01

271

Developing population estimates for dose reconstruction projects  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established in 1987 to estimate radiation doses that people received from nuclear operations at the Hanford site since 1944. To achieve this objective, demographic information was developed that describes the study population in enough detail to allow researchers to identify potentially exposed groups and the number of people in each of those groups. This type of information is central to most dose reconstruction projects. The purpose of this paper is to detail how historical population estimates can be reconstructed in a reliable manner by comparing results using three different estimation methods.

Beck, D.M. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-01-01

272

Maximum likelihood training of probabilistic neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum likelihood method is presented for training probabilistic neural networks (PNN's) using a Gaussian kernel, or Parzen window. The proposed training algorithm enables general nonlinear discrimination and is a generalization of Fisher's method for linear discrimination. Important features of maximum likelihood training for PNN's are: 1) it economizes the well known Parzen window estimator while preserving feedforward NN architecture,

Roy L. Streit; Tod E. Luginbuhl

1994-01-01

273

Learning Markov Structure by Maximum Entropy Relaxation  

E-print Network

the maximum entropy re- laxation (MER) within an exponential fam- ily, which maximizes entropy subject to con on a set of statis- tics, the entropy-maximizing distribution among all distributions liesLearning Markov Structure by Maximum Entropy Relaxation Jason K. Johnson, Venkat Chandrasekaran

Willsky, Alan S.

274

The maximum modulus of a trigonometric trinomial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let ? be a set of three integers and let \\u000a be the space of 2?-periodic functions with spectrum in ? endowed with the maximum modulus norm. We isolate the maximum modulus points x of trigonometric trinomials T ? \\u000a and prove that x is unique unless |T| has an axis of symmetry. This enables us to compute the exposed and the

Stefan Neuwirth

2008-01-01

275

Inverse maximum flow and minimum cut problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider two inverse problems in combinatorial optimization: inverse maximum flow (IMF) problem and inverse minimum cut (IMC) problem. IMF (or IMC) problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector C of a network as little as possible so that a given flow (or cut) becomes a maximum flow (or minimum cut) in the

C. Yang; J. Zhang; Z. Ma

1997-01-01

276

Fitting Emax models to clinical trial dose-response data when the high dose asymptote is ill defined.  

PubMed

We consider fitting the so-called Emax model to continuous response data from clinical trials designed to investigate the dose-response relationship for an experimental compound. When there is insufficient information in the data to estimate all of the parameters because of the high dose asymptote being ill defined, maximum likelihood estimation fails to converge. We explore the use of either bootstrap resampling or the profile likelihood to make inferences about effects and doses required to give a particular effect, using limits on the parameter values to obtain the value of the maximum likelihood when the high dose asymptote is ill defined. The results obtained show these approaches to be comparable with or better than some others that have been used when maximum likelihood estimation fails to converge and that the profile likelihood method outperforms the method of bootstrap resampling used. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25228394

Brain, P; Kirby, S; Larionov, R

2014-11-01

277

Maximum-confidence discrimination among symmetric qudit states  

SciTech Connect

We study the maximum-confidence (MC) measurement strategy for discriminating among nonorthogonal symmetric qudit states. Restricting to linearly dependent and equally likely pure states, we find the optimal positive operator valued measure (POVM) that maximizes our confidence in identifying each state in the set and minimizes the probability of obtaining inconclusive results. The physical realization of this POVM is completely determined and it is shown that after an inconclusive outcome, the input states may be mapped into a new set of equiprobable symmetric states, restricted, however, to a subspace of the original qudit Hilbert space. By applying the MC measurement again onto this new set, we can still gain some information about the input states, although with less confidence than before. This leads us to introduce the concept of sequential maximum-confidence (SMC) measurements, where the optimized MC strategy is iterated in as many stages as allowed by the input set, until no further information can be extracted from an inconclusive result. Within each stage of this measurement our confidence in identifying the input states is the highest possible, although it decreases from one stage to the next. In addition, the more stages we accomplish within the maximum allowed, the higher will be the probability of correct identification. We will discuss an explicit example of the optimal SMC measurement applied in the discrimination among four symmetric qutrit states and propose an optical network to implement it.

Jimenez, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Casilla 170, Antofagasta (Chile); Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Delgado, A.; Neves, L. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

2011-12-15

278

Application of a Novel Dose-Uncertainty Model for Dose-Uncertainty Analysis in Prostate Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze dose uncertainty using a previously published dose-uncertainty model, and to assess potential dosimetric risks existing in prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The dose-uncertainty model provides a three-dimensional (3D) dose-uncertainty distribution in a given confidence level. For 8 retrospectively selected patients, dose-uncertainty maps were constructed using the dose-uncertainty model at the 95% CL. In addition to uncertainties inherent to the radiation treatment planning system, four scenarios of spatial errors were considered: machine only (S1), S1 + intrafraction, S1 + interfraction, and S1 + both intrafraction and interfraction errors. To evaluate the potential risks of the IMRT plans, three dose-uncertainty-based plan evaluation tools were introduced: confidence-weighted dose-volume histogram, confidence-weighted dose distribution, and dose-uncertainty-volume histogram. Results: Dose uncertainty caused by interfraction setup error was more significant than that of intrafraction motion error. The maximum dose uncertainty (95% confidence) of the clinical target volume (CTV) was smaller than 5% of the prescribed dose in all but two cases (13.9% and 10.2%). The dose uncertainty for 95% of the CTV volume ranged from 1.3% to 2.9% of the prescribed dose. Conclusions: The dose uncertainty in prostate IMRT could be evaluated using the dose-uncertainty model. Prostate IMRT plans satisfying the same plan objectives could generate a significantly different dose uncertainty because a complex interplay of many uncertainty sources. The uncertainty-based plan evaluation contributes to generating reliable and error-resistant treatment plans.

Jin Hosang [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Kim, You-Hyun [Department of Radiologic Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Siyong, E-mail: kim.siyong@mayo.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2010-11-01

279

Periodic reversal of direction allows Myxobacteria to swarm  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria can rapidly traverse surfaces from which they are extracting nutrient for growth. They generate flat, spreading colonies, called swarms because they resemble swarms of insects. We seek to understand how members of any dense swarm spread efficiently while being able to perceive and interfere minimally with the motion of others. To this end, we investigate swarms of the myxobacterium, Myxococcus xanthus. Individual M. xanthus cells are elongated; they always move in the direction of their long axis; and they are in constant motion, repeatedly touching each other. Remarkably, they regularly reverse their gliding directions. We have constructed a detailed cell- and behavior-based computational model of M. xanthus swarming that allows the organization of cells to be computed. By using the model, we are able to show that reversals of gliding direction are essential for swarming and that reversals increase the outflow of cells across the edge of the swarm. Cells at the swarm edge gain maximum exposure to nutrient and oxygen. We also find that the reversal period predicted to maximize the outflow of cells is the same (within the errors of measurement) as the period observed in experiments with normal M. xanthus cells. This coincidence suggests that the circuit regulating reversals evolved to its current sensitivity under selection for growth achieved by swarming. Finally, we observe that, with time, reversals increase the cell alignment, and generate clusters of parallel cells. PMID:19164578

Wu, Yilin; Kaiser, A. Dale; Jiang, Yi; Alber, Mark S.

2009-01-01

280

Low-Dose Pretreatment for Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

In radiotherapy, a large radiation dose must be applied to both cancer and neighboring healthy cells. Recent experiments have shown that a low dose of ionizing radiation turns on certain protective mechanisms that allow a cell to better survive a subsequent high dose of radiation. This adaptive response can have important and positive consequences for radiotherapy. This paper describes a simple change in treatment procedures to make use of these beneficial effects. A low dose applied only to the healthy cells will probably produce some damage. However, it will also start the adaptive response which will yield increased protection when the large therapeutic dose is applied. The resultant immediate damage will be thereby reduced as well as the probability that the high dose therapy itself will induce a subsequent secondary cancer. After a brief historical review, the effects of a low radiation dose on a canine cancer cell line will be discussed as well as trials of the suggested pre-dose therapy on canine cancer patients undergoing standard radiation therapy. PMID:21191490

Blankenbecler, Richard

2010-01-01

281

Occupational radiation doses to the extremities and the eyes in interventional radiology and cardiology procedures  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine occupational dose levels in interventional radiology and cardiology procedures. Methods The study covered a sample of 25 procedures and monitored occupational dose for all laboratory personnel. Each individual wore eight thermoluminescent dosemeters next to the eyes, wrists, fingers and legs during each procedure. Radiation protection shields used in each procedure were recorded. Results The highest doses per procedure were recorded for interventionists at the left wrist (average 485 ?Sv, maximum 5239 ?Sv) and left finger (average 324 ?Sv, maximum 2877 ?Sv), whereas lower doses were recorded for the legs (average 124 ?Sv, maximum 1959 ?Sv) and the eyes (average 64 ?Sv, maximum 1129 ?Sv). Doses to the assisting nurses during the intervention were considerably lower; the highest doses were recorded at the wrists (average 26 ?Sv, maximum 41 ?Sv) and legs (average 18 ?Sv, maximum 22 ?Sv), whereas doses to the eyes were minimal (average 4 ?Sv, maximum 16 ?Sv). Occupational doses normalised to kerma area product (KAP) ranged from 11.9 to 117.3 ?Sv/1000 cGy cm2 and KAP was poorly correlated to the interventionists' extremity doses. Conclusion Calculation of the dose burden for interventionists considering the actual number of procedures performed annually revealed that dose limits for the extremities and the lenses of the eyes were not exceeded. However, there are cases in which high doses have been recorded and this can lead to exceeding the dose limits when bad practices are followed and the radiation protection tools are not properly used. PMID:21172967

Efstathopoulos, E P; Pantos, I; Andreou, M; Gkatzis, A; Carinou, E; Koukorava, C; Kelekis, N L; Brountzos, E

2011-01-01

282

Dose-response stability and integrity of the dose distribution of various polymer gel dosimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the stability of different polymer gel dosimeters is investigated. Further to a previous chemical stability study on a (6%T, 50%C) PAG gel, the change in slope and intercept of the linear part of the R2-dose plot is recorded with time for different gel formulations. In addition to this R2-dose-response stability study, the dose edge of a half-blocked field was recorded with time. Three different PAG type polymer gels, a hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) gel and two different normoxic polymer gels were investigated. In the PAG type polymer gels, the relative concentration of gelatin and comonomers was varied in order to study the influence of the different components, that constitute the dosimeter, on the stability. It is shown that the R2-dose-response stability is largely determined by the chemical composition of the gel dosimeters. All the PAG gel dosimeters and the normoxic gel dosimeters are found to preserve the integrity of the dose distribution up to 22 days after irradiation. The half-life of the change in dose sensitivity of a MAGIC gel is found to be 18 h compared to 5.7 h for a (6%T, 50%C) PAG gel. A maximum relative decrease in dose sensitivity of 21% was noted for the MAGIC gel compared to an increase of 50% for a (6%T, 50%C) PAG gel. A loss of integrity of the dose distribution was found in the HEA gel.

DeDeene, Y.; Venning, A.; Hurley, C.; Healy, B. J.; Baldock, C.

2002-07-01

283

MaxOcc: a web portal for maximum occurrence analysis.  

PubMed

The MaxOcc web portal is presented for the characterization of the conformational heterogeneity of two-domain proteins, through the calculation of the Maximum Occurrence that each protein conformation can have in agreement with experimental data. Whatever the real ensemble of conformations sampled by a protein, the weight of any conformation cannot exceed the calculated corresponding Maximum Occurrence value. The present portal allows users to compute these values using any combination of restraints like pseudocontact shifts, paramagnetism-based residual dipolar couplings, paramagnetic relaxation enhancements and small angle X-ray scattering profiles, given the 3D structure of the two domains as input. MaxOcc is embedded within the NMR grid services of the WeNMR project and is available via the WeNMR gateway at http://py-enmr.cerm.unifi.it/access/index/maxocc . It can be used freely upon registration to the grid with a digital certificate. PMID:22639196

Bertini, Ivano; Ferella, Lucio; Luchinat, Claudio; Parigi, Giacomo; Petoukhov, Maxim V; Ravera, Enrico; Rosato, Antonio; Svergun, Dmitri I

2012-08-01

284

Maximum-Likelihood Fits to Histograms for Improved Parameter Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Straightforward methods for adapting the familiar statistic to histograms of discrete events and other Poisson distributed data generally yield biased estimates of the parameters of a model. The bias can be important even when the total number of events is large. For the case of estimating a microcalorimeter's energy resolution at 6 keV from the observed shape of the Mn K fluorescence spectrum, a poor choice of can lead to biases of at least 10 % in the estimated resolution when up to thousands of photons are observed. The best remedy is a Poisson maximum-likelihood fit, through a simple modification of the standard Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for minimization. Where the modification is not possible, another approach allows iterative approximation of the maximum-likelihood fit.

Fowler, J. W.

2014-08-01

285

Maximum work extraction and implementation costs for nonequilibrium Maxwell's demons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the maximum amount of work extractable in finite time by a demon performing continuous measurements on a quadratic Hamiltonian system subjected to thermal fluctuations, in terms of the information extracted from the system. The maximum work demon is found to apply a high-gain continuous feedback involving a Kalman-Bucy estimate of the system state and operates in nonequilibrium. A simple and concrete electrical implementation of the feedback protocol is proposed, which allows for analytic expressions of the flows of energy, entropy, and information inside the demon. This let us show that any implementation of the demon must necessarily include an external power source, which we prove both from classical thermodynamics arguments and from a version of Landauer's memory erasure argument extended to nonequilibrium linear systems.

Sandberg, Henrik; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Newton, Nigel J.; Mitter, Sanjoy K.

2014-10-01

286

75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

FRA is adjusting the ordinary maximum penalty and the aggravated maximum penalty that it will apply when assessing a civil monetary penalty for a violation of the Federal hazardous material transportation laws or a regulation, special permit, or approval issued under those laws. The aggravated maximum penalty is available only for a violation that results in death, serious illness, or severe......

2010-07-27

287

Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning.

Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.; Cole, R. K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R. W. C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G.; Underwood, J. H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R. C. C.

1990-06-01

288

On the efficiency at maximum cooling power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of heat engines operating as generators is one corner stone of finite-time thermodynamics, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency \\eta_CA being considered as a universal upper bound. Yet, no valid counterpart to \\eta_CA has been derived for the efficiency at maximum cooling power (EMCP) for heat engines operating as refrigerators. In this letter we analyse the reasons of the failure to obtain such a bound and we demonstrate that, despite the introduction of several optimisation criteria, the maximum cooling power condition should be considered as the genuine equivalent of maximum power condition in the finite-time thermodynamics frame. We then propose and discuss an analytic expression for the EMCP in the specific case of exoreversible refrigerators.

Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Michot, A.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

2013-08-01

289

A dual method for maximum entropy restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.

Smith, C. B.

1979-01-01

290

The Minimum Cannot Become the Maximum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author shares his concerns about minimal competency testing, fearing that the minimum may become the maximum. He discusses this fear based on examples from the English curriculum--Language, Writing, and Literature. (KC)

Bushman, John H.

1980-01-01

291

Incremental Network Design with Maximum Flows  

E-print Network

Dec 21, 2013 ... We study an incremental network design problem, where in each time period of ... In a series of computational experiments, we compare ...... maximum flow (F - f), the number of instances not solved to optimality within the time.

2013-12-21

292

Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems  

E-print Network

The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...

Zamani, Mahdi

2012-01-01

293

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Maximum stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...

2011-01-01

294

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maximum stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...

2013-01-01

295

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Maximum stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...

2012-01-01

296

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2014-01-01

297

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2013-01-01

298

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2011-01-01

299

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2012-01-01

300

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2010-01-01

301

Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

1993-01-01

302

Shape-enhanced maximum intensity projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum intensity projection (MIP) displays the voxel with the maximum intensity along the viewing ray, and this offers simplicity\\u000a in usage, as it does not require a complex transfer function, the specification of which is a highly challenging and time-consuming\\u000a process in direct volume rendering (DVR). However, MIP also has its inherent limitation, the loss of spatial context and shape

Zhiguang Zhou; Yubo Tao; Hai Lin; Feng Dong; Gordon Clapworthy

2011-01-01

303

Theoretical maximum concentration factors for solar concentrators  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical maximum concentration factors are determined for different definitions of the factor for two-dimensional and three-dimensional solar concentrators that are valid for any source with nonuniform intensity distribution. Results are obtained starting from those derived by Winston (1970) for Lambertian sources. In particular, maximum concentration factors for three models of the solar-disk intensity distribution are calculated. 12 references.

Nicolas, R.O.; Duran, J.C.

1984-11-01

304

The measurement of maximum cylinder pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work presented in this report was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine a suitable method for measuring the maximum pressures occurring in aircraft engine cylinders. The study and development of instruments for the measurement of maximum cylinder pressures has been conducted in connection with carburetor and oil engine investigations on a single cylinder aircraft-type engine. Five maximum cylinder-pressure devices have been designed, and tested, in addition to the testing of three commercial indicators. Values of maximum cylinder pressures are given as obtained with various indicators for the same pressures and for various kinds and values of maximum cylinder pressures, produced chiefly by variation of the injection advance angle in high-speed oil engine. The investigations indicate that the greatest accuracy in determining maximum cylinder pressures can be obtained with an electric, balanced-pressure, diaphragm or disk-type indicator so constructed as to have a diaphragm or disk of relatively large area and minimum seat width and mass.

Hicks, Chester W

1929-01-01

305

Effect of Breathing Motion on Radiotherapy Dose Accumulation in the Abdomen Using Deformable Registration  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effect of breathing motion and dose accumulation on the planned radiotherapy dose to liver tumors and normal tissues using deformable image registration. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one free-breathing stereotactic liver cancer radiotherapy patients, planned on static exhale computed tomography (CT) for 27-60 Gy in six fractions, were included. A biomechanical model-based deformable image registration algorithm retrospectively deformed each exhale CT to inhale CT. This deformation map was combined with exhale and inhale dose grids from the treatment planning system to accumulate dose over the breathing cycle. Accumulation was also investigated using a simple rigid liver-to-liver registration. Changes to tumor and normal tissue dose were quantified. Results: Relative to static plans, mean dose change (range) after deformable dose accumulation (as % of prescription dose) was -1 (-14 to 8) to minimum tumor, -4 (-15 to 0) to maximum bowel, -4 (-25 to 1) to maximum duodenum, 2 (-1 to 9) to maximum esophagus, -2 (-13 to 4) to maximum stomach, 0 (-3 to 4) to mean liver, and -1 (-5 to 1) and -2 (-7 to 1) to mean left and right kidneys. Compared to deformable registration, rigid modeling had changes up to 8% to minimum tumor and 7% to maximum normal tissues. Conclusion: Deformable registration and dose accumulation revealed potentially significant dose changes to either a tumor or normal tissue in the majority of cases as a result of breathing motion. These changes may not be accurately accounted for with rigid motion.

Velec, Michael, E-mail: michael.velec@rmp.uhn.on.c [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Moseley, Joanne L. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Eccles, Cynthia L.; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.; Dawson, Laura A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

2011-05-01

306

Liquid medication dispensing and dose monitoring: the CycloTech Cyclosporine Oral Solution Dispenser.  

PubMed

This liquid medication dispenser offers an easy, convenient means for accurate dispensing of medication. The ability of the device to store dose size, time to next dose, remaining available doses, and doses dispensed may allow for future analysis of patient behavior and improve compliance. PMID:10372052

Rossi, S J; McEnroe, D L; Tanner, T; Levy, R E; Pouletty, P

1999-06-01

307

Direct determination of internal radiation dose in human blood  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to measure the internal radiation dose using a human blood sample. In the literature, there is no process that allows the direct measurement of the internal radiation dose received by a person. The luminescence counts from a blood sample having a laboratory-injected radiation dose and the waste blood of the patient injected with a radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes were both measured. The decay and dose-response curves were plotted for the different doses. The doses received by the different blood aliquots can be determined by interpolating the luminescence counts to the dose-response curve. This study shows that the dose received by a person can be measured directly, simply and retrospectively by using only a very small amount of blood sample. The results will have important ramifications for the medicine and healthcare fields in particular. This will also be very important in cases of suspicion of radiation poisoning, malpractice and so on.

Tan?r, Ayse Güne?

2014-01-01

308

Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Reduces the Dose to Normal Tissue Compared With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy or Passive Scattering Proton Therapy and Enables Individualized Radical Radiotherapy for Extensive Stage IIIB Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Virtual Clinical Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare dose volume histograms of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) with those of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) for the treatment of stage IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to explore the possibility of individualized radical radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose volume histograms designed to deliver IMRT at 60 to 63 Gy, PSPT at 74 Gy, and IMPT at the same doses were compared and the use of individualized radical radiotherapy was assessed in patients with extensive stage IIIB NSCLC (n = 10 patients for each approach). These patients were selected based on their extensive disease and were considered to have no or borderline tolerance to IMRT at 60 to 63 Gy, based on the dose to normal tissue volume constraints (lung volume receiving 20 Gy [V20] of <35%, total mean lung dose <20 Gy; spinal cord dose, <45 Gy). The possibility of increasing the total tumor dose with IMPT for each patient without exceeding the dose volume constraints (maximum tolerated dose [MTD]) was also investigated. Results: Compared with IMRT, IMPT spared more lung, heart, spinal cord, and esophagus, even with dose escalation from 63 Gy to 83.5 Gy, with a mean MTD of 74 Gy. Compared with PSPT, IMPT allowed further dose escalation from 74 Gy to a mean MTD of 84.4 Gy (range, 79.4-88.4 Gy) while all parameters of normal tissue sparing were kept at lower or similar levels. In addition, IMPT prevented lower-dose target coverage in patients with complicated tumor anatomies. Conclusions: IMPT reduces the dose to normal tissue and allows individualized radical radiotherapy for extensive stage IIIB NSCLC.

Zhang Xiaodong; Li Yupeng; Pan Xiaoning; Xiaoqiang, Li; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.or [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2010-06-01

309

Direct thermal dose control of constrained focused ultrasound treatments: phantom and in vivo evaluation  

PubMed Central

The first treatment control system that explicitly and automatically balances the efficacy and safety goals of noninvasive thermal therapies is described, and its performance is evaluated in phantoms and in vivo using ultrasound heating with a fixed, focused transducer. The treatment efficacy is quantified in terms of thermal dose delivered to the target. The developed feedback thermal dose controller has a cascade structure with the main nonlinear dose controller continuously generating the reference temperature trajectory for the secondary, constrained, model predictive temperature controller. The control system ensures thermal safety of the normal tissue by automatically complying with user-specified constraints on the maximum allowable normal tissue temperatures. To reflect hardware limitations and to prevent cavitation, constraints on the maximum transducer power can also be imposed. It is shown that the developed controller can be used to achieve the minimum-time delivery of the desired thermal dose to the target without violating safety constraints, which is a novel and clinically desirable feature. The developed controller is model based, and requires patient- and site-specific models for its operation. These models were obtained during pre-treatment identification experiments. In our implementation, predictive models, internally used by the automatic treatment controller, are dynamically updated each time new temperature measurements become available. The adaptability of internal models safeguards against adverse effects of modelling errors, and ensures robust performance of the control system in the presence of a priori unknown treatment disturbances. The successful validation with two experimental models of considerably different thermal and ultrasound properties suggests the applicability of the developed treatment control system to different anatomical sites. PMID:15815104

Arora, Dhiraj; Cooley, Daniel; Perry, Trent; Skliar, Mikhail; Roemer, Robert B

2013-01-01

310

Dose tracking and dose auditing in a comprehensive computed tomography dose-reduction program.  

PubMed

Implementation of a comprehensive computed tomography (CT) radiation dose-reduction program is a complex undertaking, requiring an assessment of baseline doses, an understanding of dose-saving techniques, and an ongoing appraisal of results. We describe the role of dose tracking in planning and executing a dose-reduction program and discuss the use of the American College of Radiology CT Dose Index Registry at our institution. We review the basics of dose-related CT scan parameters, the components of the dose report, and the dose-reduction techniques, showing how an understanding of each technique is important in effective auditing of "outlier" doses identified by dose tracking. PMID:25129210

Duong, Phuong-Anh; Little, Brent P

2014-08-01

311

Reducing Degeneracy in Maximum Entropy Models of Networks  

E-print Network

Based on Jaynes's maximum entropy principle, exponential random graphs provide a family of principled models that allow the prediction of network properties as constrained by empirical data. However, their use is often hindered by the degeneracy problem characterized by spontaneous symmetry-breaking, where predictions simply fail. Here we show that degeneracy appears when the corresponding density of states function is not log-concave. We propose a solution to the degeneracy problem for a large class of models by exploiting the nonlinear relationships between the constrained measures to convexify the domain of the density of states. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method on examples, including on Zachary's karate club network data.

Horvát, Szabolcs; Toroczkai, Zoltán

2014-01-01

312

Higher than Physician's Desk Reference (US) doses on atypical antipsychotics.  

PubMed

The Physician's Desk Reference (PDR) was established to provide for the practicing of a complete listing of all medications with the FDA-approved labelling, including dosage recommendations. Perhaps in order to maximise individual usage of medications, pharmaceutical companies have frequently targeted lowest possible doses for FDA approval. However, many patients with a variety of illnesses due to resistance and/or multiple illnesses, may need higher than these dose ranges to maximise therapeutic response. In terms of regularly prescribed atypical antipsychotics released over the past 10 years, only risperidone initially obtained approval for a dose for psychosis (16 mg) higher than that suggested currently (maximum of 8 mg). The dose that was approved for mania was lower: a maximum of 6 mg. The others: respectfully, olanzapine (schizophrenia: 15 mg, mania: 20 mg), quetiapine (schizophrenia: 750 mg; mania: 800 mg), ziprasidone (schizophrenia and mania: 160 mg) and aripiprazole (schizophrenia and mania: 30 mg) obtained approvals for psychosis that may limit adverse events but, at the same time, limit benefits. Other data from various sources (double-blind trials, open-label trials, reviews and case reports) have found safety and/or efficacy for the following maximum doses: olanzapine (40 mg), quetiapine (1600 mg), ziprasidone (320 mg) and aripiprazole (75 mg). Reports above those doses are included, but either are insufficient in numbers or bring up questions on safety. In many situations, feared increase in adverse events were not magnified by use of higher doses. PMID:16011445

Goodnick, Paul J

2005-07-01

313

48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

2010-10-01

314

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2013-10-01

315

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2011-10-01

316

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2010-10-01

317

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2012-10-01

318

48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

2013-10-01

319

48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

2012-10-01

320

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-print Network

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air and the Columbia River April 21,1994 TheTechnid Steering Panel of the Hanford - Environmental Dose Reconstruction than 40years, the U.S. Government made plutonium for nuclear weapons at the Hanford

321

Cancer chemoprevention by dietary chlorophylls: a 12,000-animal dose-dose matrix biomarker and tumor study.  

PubMed

Recent pilot studies found natural chlorophyll (Chl) to inhibit carcinogen uptake and tumorigenesis in rodent and fish models, and to alter uptake and biodistribution of trace (14)C-aflatoxin B1 in human volunteers. The present study extends these promising findings, using a dose-dose matrix design to examine Chl-mediated effects on dibenzo(def,p)chrysene (DBC)-induced DNA adduct formation, tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and changes in gene regulation in the trout. The dose-dose matrix design employed an initial 12,360 rainbow trout, which were treated with 0-4000ppm dietary Chl along with 0-225ppm DBC for up to 4weeks. Dietary DBC was found to induce dose-responsive changes in gene expression that were abolished by Chl co-treatment, whereas Chl alone had no effect on the same genes. Chl co-treatment provided a dose-responsive reduction in total DBC-DNA adducts without altering relative adduct intensities along the chromatographic profile. In animals receiving DBC alone, liver tumor incidence (as logit) and tumor multiplicity were linear in DBC dose (as log) up to their maximum-effect dose, and declined thereafter. Chl co-treatment substantially inhibited incidence and multiplicity at DBC doses up to their maximum-effect dose. These results show that Chl concentrations encountered in Chl-rich green vegetables can provide substantial cancer chemoprotection, and suggest that they do so by reducing carcinogen bioavailability. However, at DBC doses above the optima, Chl co-treatments failed to inhibit tumor incidence and significantly enhanced multiplicity. This finding questions the human relevance of chemoprevention studies carried out at high carcinogen doses that are not proven to lie within a linear, or at least monotonic, endpoint dose-response range. PMID:22079312

McQuistan, Tammie J; Simonich, Michael T; Pratt, M Margaret; Pereira, Cliff B; Hendricks, Jerry D; Dashwood, Roderick H; Williams, David E; Bailey, George S

2012-02-01

322

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2010-07-01

323

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2011-07-01

324

Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information  

E-print Network

Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

2014-04-29

325

Assessment of public doses due to a neutron calibration bunker.  

PubMed

In this work, the expected neutron and gamma doses in the populated areas outside the newly constructed neutron calibration bunker at the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria will be assessed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4C2. The results showed that the maximum ambient dose equivalent rate (neutrons and gammas) outside the bunker would not exceed 0.5 microSv h(-1), assuming an Am-Be neutron source of emission rate of 10(8) n s(-1). The neutron dose is approximately 10 times higher than the photon dose. Sky shine contributes by about 25-50% of the neutron dose and 7-27% of the gamma dose, depending on the location. The simulation uncertainty due to the possible variations in the simulation parameters has been given particular importance. PMID:19946121

Suman, H; Kharita, M H; Yousef, S

2010-03-01

326

Nonnegative Factorization and The Maximum Edge Biclique Problem  

E-print Network

Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) is a data analysis technique which allows compression and interpretation of nonnegative data. NMF became widely studied after the publication of the seminal paper by Lee and Seung (Learning the Parts of Objects by Nonnegative Matrix Factorization, Nature, 1999, vol. 401, pp. 788--791), which introduced an algorithm based on Multiplicative Updates (MU). More recently, another class of methods called Hierarchical Alternating Least Squares (HALS) was introduced that seems to be much more efficient in practice. In this paper, we consider the problem of approximating a not necessarily nonnegative matrix with the product of two nonnegative matrices, which we refer to as Nonnegative Factorization (NF); this is the subproblem that HALS methods implicitly try to solve at each iteration. We prove that NF is NP-hard for any fixed factorization rank, using a reduction to the maximum edge biclique problem. We also generalize the multiplicative updates to NF, which allows us to shed s...

Gillis, Nicolas

2008-01-01

327

Maximum likelihood deconvolution: a new perspective  

SciTech Connect

Maximum-likelihood deconvolution can be presented from at least two very different points of view. Unfortunately, in most journal articles, it is couched in the mystique of state-variable models and estimation theory, both of which, are generally quite foreign to geophysical signal processors. This paper explains maximum-likelihood deconvolution using the well-known convolutional model and some relatively simple ideas from optimization theory. Both of these areas should be well known to geophysical signal processors. Although it is straightforward to develop the theory of maximum-likelihood deconvolution using the convolutional model and optimization theory, this approach does not lead to practical computational algorithms. Recursive algorithms must be used; they are orders of magnitude faster than the batch algorithms that are associated with the convolutional model.

Mendel, J.M.

1988-03-01

328

Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states  

SciTech Connect

Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: We show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.

Walck, Scott N.; Lyons, David W. [Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pennsylvania 17003 (United States)

2007-08-15

329

Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states  

E-print Network

Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: we show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.

Scott N. Walck; David W. Lyons

2007-06-12

330

Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of eliglustat tartrate (Genz-112638) after single doses, multiple doses, and food in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Three phase 1 studies of eliglustat tartrate (Genz-112638), an oral inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase under development for treating Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1), evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers after escalating single doses (n = 99), escalating multiple doses (n = 36), and food (n = 24). Eliglustat tartrate was well tolerated at single doses ? 20 mg/kg and multiple doses ? 200 mg bid, with 50 mg bid producing plasma concentrations in the predicted therapeutic range. No serious adverse events occurred. Mild to moderate events of nausea, dizziness, and vomiting increased in frequency with escalating single and multiple doses. Single doses ? 10 mg/kg caused mild increases in electrocardiogram PR, QRS, and QT/QTc intervals. Single-dose pharmacokinetics showed dose linearity but not proportionality. Maximum plasma concentrations occurred at ~2 hours, followed by a monophasic decline with a ~6-hour terminal half-life. Unchanged drug in 8-hour urine collections was <1.5% of administered doses. Food did not significantly affect the rate or extent of absorption. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics was nonlinear, showing higher than expected plasma drug concentrations. Steady state was reached ~60 hours after bid dosing. Higher drug exposure occurred in slower CYP2D6 metabolizers. Based on favorable results in healthy participants, a phase 2 trial of eliglustat tartrate was initiated in GD1 patients. PMID:20864621

Peterschmitt, M Judith; Burke, Amy; Blankstein, Larry; Smith, Sharon E; Puga, Ana Cristina; Kramer, William G; Harris, James A; Mathews, David; Bonate, Peter L

2011-05-01

331

41 CFR 301-11.3 - Must my agency pay an allowance (either a per diem allowance or actual expense)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...either a per diem allowance or actual expense)? 301-11.3 Section 301-11.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

332

40 CFR 82.9 - Availability of production allowances in addition to baseline production allowances for class I...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...considered a request for consumption allowances under § 82...company must expend its consumption allowances allocated under...i) Possible creation of economic hardship; (ii) Possible...no trade in production or consumption allowances with other...

2010-07-01

333

Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy  

SciTech Connect

A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets.

Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

1993-11-01

334

Entropy generation: Minimum inside and maximum outside  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extremum of entropy generation is evaluated for both maximum and minimum cases using a thermodynamic approach which is usually applied in engineering to design energy transduction systems. A new result in the thermodynamic analysis of the entropy generation extremum theorem is proved by the engineering approach. It follows from the proof that the entropy generation results as a maximum when it is evaluated by the exterior surroundings of the system and a minimum when it is evaluated within the system. The Bernoulli equation is analyzed as an example in order to evaluate the internal and external dissipations, in accordance with the theoretical results obtained.

Lucia, Umberto

2014-02-01

335

Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packard Hospital, Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (United States); EBG MedAustron, Wiener Neustadt, Austria A2700 (Austria)

2011-10-15

336

Estimates of potential radiation doses from wristwatches containing tritium gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential radiation doses were estimated for the United States population from normal distribution, use, repair, and disposal of wrist watches containing up to 200 mCi of tritium (H-3) gas in sealed glass tubes which function as self-luminous light sources. The maximum annual total-body dose was calculated to be 0.3 mrem during watch distribution. Watch wearers were estimated to receive annual

L. M. McDowell-Boyer; F. R. ODonnell

1978-01-01

337

Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of etizolam in healthy subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics of etizolam, a new thienodiazepine derivative, has been examined after single and multiple (0.5 mg tablet) (0.5 mg b.d for 1 week) oral therapeutic doses in healthy volunteers. The single-dose kinetic profile of etizolam suggested that absorption after oral dosage was reasonably rapid, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) being attained within 0.5–2 h in all subjects. The mean

C. Fracasso; S. Confalonieri; S. Garattini; S. Caccia

1991-01-01

338

Retrospective Monte Carlo dose calculations with limited beam weight information  

SciTech Connect

An important unresolved issue in outcomes analysis for lung complications is the effect of poor or completely lacking heterogeneity corrections in previously archived treatment plans. To estimate this effect, we developed a novel method based on Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations which can be applied retrospectively to RTOG/AAPM-style archived treatment plans (ATP). We applied this method to 218 archived nonsmall cell lung cancer lung treatment plans that were originally calculated either without heterogeneity corrections or with primitive corrections. To retrospectively specify beam weights and wedges, beams were broken into Monte Carlo-generated beamlets, simulated using the VMC++ code, and mathematical optimization was used to match the archived water-based dose distributions. The derived beam weights (and any wedge effects) were then applied to Monte Carlo beamlets regenerated based on the patient computed tomography densities. Validation of the process was performed against five comparable lung treatment plans generated using a commercial convolution/superposition implementation. For the application here (normal lung, esophagus, and planning target volume dose distributions), the agreement was very good. Resulting MC and convolution/superposition values were similar when dose distributions without heterogeneity corrections or dose distributions with corrections were compared. When applied to the archived plans (218), the average absolute percent difference between water-based MC and water-based ATPs, for doses above 2.5% of the maximum dose was 1.8{+-}0.6%. The average absolute percent difference between heterogeneity-corrected MC and water-based ATPs increased to 3.1{+-}0.9%. The average absolute percent difference between the MC heterogeneity-corrected and the ATP heterogeneity-corrected dose distributions was 3.8{+-}1.6% (available in 132/218 archives). The entire dose-volume-histograms for lung, tumor, and esophagus from the different calculation methods, as well as specific dose metrics, were compared. The average difference in maximum lung dose between water-based ATPs and heterogeneity-corrected MC dose distributions was -1.0{+-}2.1 Gy. Potential errors in relying on primitive heterogeneity corrections are most evident from a comparison of maximum lung doses, for which the average MC heterogeneity-corrected values were 5.3{+-}2.8 Gy less than the ATP heterogeneity-corrected values. We have demonstrated that recalculation of archived dose distributions, without explicit information about beam weights or wedges, is feasible using beamlet-based optimization methods. The method provides heterogeneity-corrected dose data consistent with convolution-superposition calculations and is one feasible approach for improving dosimetric data for outcomes analyses.

Lindsay, Patricia E.; Naqa, Issam El; Hope, Andrew J.; Vicic, Milos; Cui Jing; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2007-01-15

339

Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

Texas Child Care, 1995

1995-01-01

340

Learning Graphical Models by Maximum Entropy Relaxation  

E-print Network

.t. dE(, ) E, E H Maximize entropy subject to constraint that, for each subset E H, the marginal. Dual Problem: Maximize entropy h(r) -Er{log r} over all r M that satisfy linear moment con- straintsLearning Graphical Models by Maximum Entropy Relaxation Jason K. Johnson (Joint work with V

Willsky, Alan S.

341

Maximum Entropy MIMO Wireless Channel Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, models of wireless channels are derived from the maximum entropy principle, for several cases where only limited information about the propagation environment is available. First, ana- lytical models are derived for the cases where certain parameters (channel energy, average energy, spatial correlation matrix) are known deterministically. Frequently, these parameters are unknown (typically because the received energy or

Maxime Guillaud; Mérouane Debbah; Aris L. Moustakas

2006-01-01

342

Learning Markov Structure by Maximum Entropy Relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new approach for learning a sparse graphical model approximation to a specified multivariate probability distri- bution (such as the empirical distribution of sample data). The selection of sparse graph structure arises naturally in our ap- proach through solution of a convex opti- mization problem, which differentiates our method from standard combinatorial ap- proaches. We seek the maximum

Jason K. Johnson; Venkat Chandrasekaran; Alan S. Willsky

2006-01-01

343

Maximum entropy methods for generating simulated rainfall  

E-print Network

Maximum entropy methods for generating simulated rainfall Julia Piantadosi Co-authors Phil Howlett entropy that matches an observed set of grade correlation coefficients. This problem is formulated as the maximization of a concave function on a convex polytope. · Under mild constraint qualifications we show

Borwein, Jonathan

344

Maximum entropy models for speech confidence estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we implement a confidence estimation system based on a Naive Bayes classifier, by using the maximum entropy paradigm. The model takes information from various sources including a set of scores which have proved to be useful in confidence estimation tasks. Two different approaches are modeled. First a basic model which takes advantages of smoothing techniques used in

Claudio Estienne; Alberto Sanchís; Alfons Juan; Enrique Vidal

2008-01-01

345

Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle  

E-print Network

The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kiyoharu Kawana

2014-09-23

346

Muscle coordination of maximum-speed pedaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation based on a forward dynamical musculoskeletal model was computed from an optimal control algorithm to understand uni- and bi-articular muscle coordination of maximum-speed startup pedaling. The muscle excitations, pedal reaction forces, and crank and pedal kinematics of the simulation agreed with measurements from subjects. Over the crank cycle, uniarticular hip and knee extensor muscles provide 55% of the

Christine C. Raasch; Felix E. Zajac; Baoming Ma; William S. Levine

1997-01-01

347

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM...defined. Under the Social Security Act, the...maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum...Secretary of Health and Human Services on the...with the entitlement to more than one child's...

2010-04-01

348

: runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress  

E-print Network

: runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress fe,i : elastic limit strength of each specimen 750 uniaxial tensile fatigue stress. Interests in tensile fatigue strength and behaviour come from the fact.g. cantilever of bridge deck slab). Tensile Fatigue behaviour of UHPFRC Doctoral student: Tohru Makita

349

Maximum terminal velocity of relativistic rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum terminal velocity problem of the classical propulsion is extended to a relativistic rocket assumed broken down into active mass, inert mass and gross payload. A fraction of the active mass is converted into energy shared between inert mass and active mass residual. Significant effects are considered. State and co-state equations are carried out to find the exhaust speed

G. Vulpetti

1985-01-01

350

Maximum Entropy Models for Named Entity Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a system that applies maximum entropy (ME) models to the task of named entity recognition (NER). Starting with an annotated corpus and a set of features which are easily obtainable for almost any language, we first build a baseline NE recognizer which is then used to extract the named entities and their context information from

Oliver Bender; Franz Josef Och; Hermann Ney

351

Maximum Entropy Models for Named Entity Recoginition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a system that applies maximum entropy (ME) models to the task of named entity recognition (NER). Starting with an annotated corpus and a set of features which are easily obtainable for almost any language, we first build a baseline NE recognizer which is then used to extract the named entities and their context information from

O. Bender; F. J. Och; H. Ney

2003-01-01

352

Integrated photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-power low-cost highly efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to be integrated into a photovoltaic (PV) panel is proposed. This can result in a 25% energy enhancement compared to a standard photovoltaic panel, while performing functions like battery voltage regulation and matching of the PV array with the load. Instead of using an externally connected MPPT, it is proposed

Johan H. R. Enslin; Mario S. Wolf; D. B. Snyman; Wernher Swiegers

1997-01-01

353

Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed  

SciTech Connect

DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T{ampersand}E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit.

Choi, A.S.

1995-03-13

354

Novel maximum-power-point-tracking controller for photovoltaic energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) controller for a photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion system is presented. Using the slope of power versus voltage of a PV array, the proposed MPPT controller allows the conversion system to track the maximum power point very rapidly. As opposed to conventional two-stage designs, a single-stage configuration is implemented, resulting in size and weight reduction and increased

Yeong-Chau Kuo; Tsorng-Juu Liang; Jiann-Fuh Chen

2001-01-01

355

Theoretical Analysis of Maximum Flow Declination Rate versus Maximum Area Declination Rate in Phonation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the maximum area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…

Titze, Ingo R.

2006-01-01

356

Maximum entropy and maximum likelihood criteria for feature selection from multivariate data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss several numerical methods for optimum feature selection for multivariate data based on maximum entropy and maximum likelihood criteria. Our point of view is to consider observed data x1, x2,..., xN in Rd to be samples from some unknown pdf P. We project this data onto d directions, subsequently estimate the pdf of the univariate data, then find the

Sankar Basu; Charles A. Micchelli; Peder Olsen

2000-01-01

357

Maximum-Flow Neural Network: A Novel Neural Network for the Maximum Flow Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In advance of network communication society by the internet, the way how to send data fast with a little loss becomes an important transportation problem. A generalized maximum flow algorithm gives the best solution for the transportation problem that which route is appropriated to exchange data. Therefore, the importance of the maximum flow algorithm is growing more and more. In this paper, we propose a Maximum-Flow Neural Network (MF-NN) in which branch nonlinearity has a saturation characteristic and by which the maximum flow problem can be solved with analog high-speed parallel processing. That is, the proposed neural network for the maximum flow problem can be realized by a nonlinear resistive circuit where each connection weight between nodal neurons has a sigmodal or piece-wise linear function. The parallel hardware of the MF-NN will be easily implemented.

Sato, Masatoshi; Aomori, Hisashi; Tanaka, Mamoru

358

Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates  

SciTech Connect

The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

2013-09-25

359

Maximum likelihood estimation of turbulence spectrum parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimation of the integral scale and intensity of a generic turbulence record is treated as a statistical problem of parameter estimation. Properties of parameter estimators and the method of maximum likelihood are reviewed. Likelihood equations are derived for estimation of the integral scale and intensity applicable to a general class of turbulence spectra that includes the von Karman and Dryden transverse and longitudinal spectra as special cases. The method is extended to include the Bullen transverse and longitudinal spectra. Coefficients of variation are given for maximum likelihood estimates of the integral scale and intensity of the von Karman spectra. Application of the method is illustrated by estimating the integral scale and intensity of an atmospheric turbulence vertical velocity record assumed to be governed by the von Karman transverse spectrum.

Mark, W. D.

1984-01-01

360

The maximum possible magnetocaloric ?T effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current boom of research activity in magnetocaloric materials science is fuelled by the expectation that new advanced refrigerants may be found whose ?T will significantly surpass that of gadolinium (Gd) metal (2.6-2.9 K/T). Because of this expectation, the main effort in the field has been diverted from the important issues of refrigerator design to the routine characterization of magnetic materials. Estimating the maximum adiabatic temperature change that can be achieved in principle by applying a certain magnetic field, say 1 T, is a matter of priority. In this work the problem of maximum ?T is approached from general principles. According to the most optimistic estimates, ?T can never exceed ˜18 K/T, the more realistic upper limit lying somewhere in high single figures. We therefore deem it most unlikely that a refrigerant much better than Gd, in respect of the ?T value, will ever be found.

Zverev, V. I.; Tishin, A. M.; Kuz'min, M. D.

2010-02-01

361

MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS  

PubMed Central

A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator.

Snijders, Tom A.B.; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael

2014-01-01

362

Minimum Convex Partitions and Maximum Empty Polytopes  

E-print Network

Let S be a set of n points in d-space. A convex Steiner partition is a tiling of CH(S) with empty convex bodies. For every integer d, we show that S admits a convex Steiner partition with at most (n-1)/d tiles. This bound is the best possible for affine independent points in the plane, and it is best possible apart from constant factors in every dimension d>= 3. We also give the first constant-factor approximation algorithm for computing a minimum Steiner convex partition of an affine independent point set in the plane. Determining the maximum possible volume of a single tile in a Steiner partition is equivalent to a famous problem of Danzer and Rogers. We give a (1-epsilon)-approximation for the maximum volume of an empty convex body when S lies in the d-dimensional unit box [0,1]^d.

Dumitrescu, Adrian; Tóth, Csaba D

2011-01-01

363

Maximum likelihood estimation in pooled sample tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pooled sample tests, firstly used on the classification problem (identifying all individuals with some characteristic), may also be applied to estimate the prevalence rate. Moreover, the pooled sample methods may attain greater efficiency when applied to estimate some prevalence rate, since it is no longer necessary to perform any individual test. We develop a maximum likelihood computational algorithm for the prevalence rate estimation, and we analyze its performance.

Martins, João Paulo; Felgueiras, Miguel; Santos, Rui

2014-10-01

364

Maximum Bounded Rooted-Tree Packing Problem  

E-print Network

Given a graph and a root, the Maximum Bounded Rooted-Tree Packing (MBRTP) problem aims at finding K rooted-trees that span the largest subset of vertices, when each vertex has a limited outdegree. This problem is motivated by peer-to-peer streaming overlays in under-provisioned systems. We prove that the MBRTP problem is NP-complete. We present two polynomial-time algorithms that computes an optimal solution on complete graphs and trees respectively.

Kerivin, Herve; Simon, Gwendal; Zhou, Fen

2011-01-01

365

Maximum likelihood identification using an array processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a method used to calculate the parameters of a dynamic system. It can be applied to a large class of problems and has good statistical properties. The main disadvantage of the MLE method is the amount of computation required. This paper describes how the computation time can be reduced significantly by using an array processor. The estimation of the parameters of a dynamic model of the Space Station is used as an example to evaluate the method.

Sridhar, Banavar; Aubrun, Jean-Noel

1987-01-01

366

Polyenes with maximum HOMO–LUMO gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a variable neighbourhood search with the AutoGraphiX software, it is conjectured that for even numbers of atoms the fully conjugated acyclic ? system of maximum HOMO–LUMO gap is a `comb' in which each vertex of a backbone carries a single pendant edge. Chemically, this represents CnH3n\\/2+2, an ?,?-diene with methylene groups attached at all intermediate positions.

P. W. Fowler; P. Hansen; G. Caporossi; A. Soncini

2001-01-01

367

Maximum Likelihood Based Quantum Set Separation  

E-print Network

In this paper we introduce a method, which is used for set separation based on quantum computation. In case of no a-priori knowledge about the source signal distribution, it is a challenging task to find an optimal decision rule which could be implemented in the separating algorithm. We lean on the Maximum Likelihood approach and build a bridge between this method and quantum counting. The proposed method is also able to distinguish between disjunct sets and intersection sets.

Sándor Imre; Ferenc Balázs

2004-02-12

368

Maximum entropy production - Full steam ahead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of a principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP, or less ambiguously MaxEP) to planetary climate is discussed. This idea suggests that if sufficiently free of dynamical constraints, the atmospheric and oceanic heat flows across a planet may conspire to maximize the generation of mechanical work, or entropy. Thermodynamic and information-theoretic aspects of this idea are discussed. These issues are also discussed in the context of dust devils, convective vortices found in strongly-heated desert areas.

Lorenz, Ralph D.

2012-05-01

369

Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy  

SciTech Connect

The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar [UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain) and University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba); University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba)

2010-10-08

370

34 CFR 379.41 - What are allowable costs?  

...addition to those costs that are allowable...items are allowable costs under this program: (a) The costs of job readiness...access to and use of buildings by individuals with...disabilities served by the project. (g) To...

2014-07-01

371

24 CFR 242.28 - Allowable costs for consultants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs for consultants. 242.28 Section 242.28 Housing and Urban Development... Mortgage Requirements § 242.28 Allowable costs for consultants. Consulting fees for work essential to the...

2010-04-01

372

48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable Cost...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost...have reviewed this accounting statement and to the...Office of Personnel Management and fairly...

2011-10-01

373

48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Accounting and allowable cost...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... 2152.231-70 Accounting and allowable cost...proper justification and accounting support; (iii...Office of Personnel Management and fairly...

2011-10-01

374

30 CFR 206.262 - Determination of transportation allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...estimates of the allowable coal transportation costs for...recently available operations data for the transportation...lessee shall submit all data used to prepare the allowance deduction. The data shall be provided within... (1) If the actual coal transportation...

2010-07-01

375

40 CFR 60.4160 - Submission of Hg allowance transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An Hg authorized account representative seeking recordation of a Hg allowance transfer shall submit the transfer to the Administrator. To be considered correctly submitted, the Hg allowance transfer shall include the following elements, in a format specified by the...

2010-07-01

376

38 CFR 21.268 - Employment adjustment allowance.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employment adjustment allowance. 21...Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter...Assistance Services § 21.268 Employment adjustment allowance....

2014-07-01

377

38 CFR 21.268 - Employment adjustment allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment adjustment allowance. 21...Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter...Assistance Services § 21.268 Employment adjustment allowance....

2011-07-01

378

38 CFR 21.268 - Employment adjustment allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment adjustment allowance. 21...Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter...Assistance Services § 21.268 Employment adjustment allowance....

2013-07-01

379

38 CFR 21.268 - Employment adjustment allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment adjustment allowance. 21...Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter...Assistance Services § 21.268 Employment adjustment allowance....

2010-07-01

380

38 CFR 21.268 - Employment adjustment allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment adjustment allowance. 21...Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter...Assistance Services § 21.268 Employment adjustment allowance....

2012-07-01

381

46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR...

2011-10-01

382

46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR...

2010-10-01

383

46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR...

2013-10-01

384

46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR...

2012-10-01

385

46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

2011-10-01

386

46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

2010-10-01

387

46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

2013-10-01

388

46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

2012-10-01

389

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Allowable advance planning costs. 151.125 Section 151...AIRPORTS Rules and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable advance planning costs. (a) The United...

2010-01-01

390

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

2014-01-01

391

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

2013-01-01

392

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

2012-01-01

393

Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (DoSEN) are an early-stage space technology research project that combines two advanced complementary radiation detection concepts with fundamental advantages over traditional dosimetry. DoSEN measures not only the energy but also the charge distribution (including neutrons) of energetic particles that affect human (and robotic) health in a way not presently possible with current dosimeters. For heavy ions and protons, DoSEN provides a direct measurement of the lineal energy transfer (LET) spectra behind shielding material. For LET measurements, DoSEN contains stacks of thin-thick Si detectors similar in design to those used for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation. With LET spectra, we can now directly break down the observed spectrum of radiation into its constituent heavy-ion components and through biologically based quality factors that provide not only doses and dose rates but also dose equivalents, associated rates, and even organ doses. DoSEN also measures neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV, which requires enough sensitive mass to fully absorb recoil particles that the neutrons produce. DoSEN develops the new concept of combining these independent measurements and using the coincidence of LET measurements and neutron detection to significantly reduce backgrounds in each measurement. The background suppression through the use of coincidence allows for significant reductions in size, mass, and power needed to provide measurements of dose, neutron dose, dose equivalents, LET spectra, and organ doses. Thus, we introduce the DoSEN concept: a promising low-mass instrument that detects the full spectrum of energetic particles, heavy ions, and neutrons to determine biological impact of radiation in space.

Schwadron, Nathan; Bancroft, Chris; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James; Smith, Sonya; Spence, Harlan; Mazur, Joe; Zeitlin, Cary

2013-10-01

394

45 CFR 2522.245 - How are living allowances disbursed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are living allowances disbursed? 2522.245 Section...Requirements, and Benefits § 2522.245 How are living allowances disbursed? A living allowance is not a wage and programs may not...

2010-10-01

395

26 CFR 1.42-10 - Utility allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...utility rates, property type, climate and degree-day variables...units is located. (c) Changes in applicable utility allowance...utility allowance for units changes, the new utility allowance...units due 90 days after the change (the 90-day...

2013-04-01

396

26 CFR 1.42-10 - Utility allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...utility rates, property type, climate and degree-day variables...units is located. (c) Changes in applicable utility allowance...utility allowance for units changes, the new utility allowance...units due 90 days after the change (the 90-day...

2012-04-01

397

26 CFR 1.42-10 - Utility allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...utility rates, property type, climate and degree-day variables...units is located. (c) Changes in applicable utility allowance...utility allowance for units changes, the new utility allowance...units due 90 days after the change (the 90-day...

2011-04-01

398

26 CFR 1.42-10 - Utility allowances.  

...utility rates, property type, climate and degree-day variables...units is located. (c) Changes in applicable utility allowance...utility allowance for units changes, the new utility allowance...units due 90 days after the change (the 90-day...

2014-04-01

399

30 CFR 206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...estimates of the allowable coal washing costs for the...recently available operations data for the washing system...lessee shall submit all data used to prepare the allowance deduction. The data shall be provided within... (1) If the actual coal washing allowance...

2010-07-01

400

How Institutions Affect Outcomes in Laboratory Tradable Fishing Allowance Systems  

E-print Network

How Institutions Affect Outcomes in Laboratory Tradable Fishing Allowance Systems Christopher M. In a laboratory tradable fishing allowance system, when trade takes place through a double auction, which, which yield materially different outcomes. In a laboratory tradable fishing allowance system, when trade

401

5 CFR 591.307 - Payment of allowance rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...expense part of the allowance rate when the employee is otherwise...a)(2), the allowance rate is paid for each full day...officially required to remain overnight at the remote duty post, for...for payment of the allowance rate taking into consideration...

2010-01-01

402

26 CFR 1.42-10 - Utility allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...utility rates, property type, climate and degree-day variables...units is located. (c) Changes in applicable utility allowance...utility allowance for units changes, the new utility allowance...units due 90 days after the change (the 90-day...

2010-04-01

403

Exenatide dosing in alpacas.  

PubMed

In order to investigate whether exenatide could be used to stimulate glucose clearance and insulin secretion in alpacas without causing colic signs, six healthy adult alpacas were injected once a day with increasing subcutaneous doses. A follow-up intravenous glucose injection was given to induce hyperglycemia, and serial blood samples were collected to measure plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids. The exenatide doses used were saline control (no drug), and 0.02, 0.05, or 0.1 mcg/kg injected subcutaneously. Alpacas had significantly lower plasma glucose concentrations and higher insulin concentrations on all treatment days compared with the control day, but the increase in insulin was significantly greater and lasted significantly longer when the alpacas received the two higher dosages. Two of the alpacas developed mild colic signs at the 0.05 mcg/kg dose and were not evaluated at the highest dose. Based on these findings, the 0.05 mcg/kg dose appears to offer the greatest stimulation of insulin secretion and glucose clearance without excessive risk or severity of complications. PMID:24479825

Cebra, C K; Smith, C C; Stang, B V; Tornquist, S J

2014-08-01

404

Cord Dose Specification and Validation for Stereotactic Body Radiosurgery of Spine  

SciTech Connect

Effective dose to a portion of the spinal cord in treatment segment, rather than the maximum point dose in the cord surface, was set as the dose limit in stereotactic-body radiosurgery (SBRS) of spine. Such a cord dose specification is sensitive to the volume size and position errors. Thus, we used stereotactic image guidance to minimize phantom positioning errors and compared the results of a 0.6-cm{sup 3} Farmer ionization chamber and a 0.01-cm{sup 3} compact ionization chamber to determine the detector size effect on 9 SBRS cases. The experimental errors ranging from 2% to 7% were estimated by the deviation of the mean dose in plans to the chamber with spatial displacements of 0.5 mm. The mean and measured doses for the large chamber to individual cases were significantly ({approx}17%) higher than the doses with the compact chamber placed at the same point. Our experimental results shown that the mean doses to the volume of interest could represent the measured cord doses. For the 9 patients, the mean doses to 10% of the cord were about 10 Gy, while the maximum cord doses varied from 11.6 to 17.6 Gy. The mean dose, possibly correlated with the cord complication, provided us an alternative and reliable cord dose specification in SBRS of spine.

Li Shidong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: Shidong.Li@thus.temple.edu; Liu Yan; Chen Qing; Jin Jianyue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States) Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2009-01-01

405

Improved maximum likelihood reconstruction of complex multi-generational pedigrees.  

PubMed

The reconstruction of pedigrees from genetic marker data is relevant to a wide range of applications. Likelihood-based approaches aim to find the pedigree structure that gives the highest probability to the observed data. Existing methods either entail an exhaustive search and are hence restricted to small numbers of individuals, or they take a more heuristic approach and deliver a solution that will probably have high likelihood but is not guaranteed to be optimal. By encoding the pedigree learning problem as an integer linear program we can exploit efficient optimisation algorithms to construct pedigrees guaranteed to have maximal likelihood for the standard situation where we have complete marker data at unlinked loci and segregation of genes from parents to offspring is Mendelian. Previous work demonstrated efficient reconstruction of pedigrees of up to about 100 individuals. The modified method that we present here is not so restricted: we demonstrate its applicability with simulated data on a real human pedigree structure of over 1600 individuals. It also compares well with a very competitive approximate approach in terms of solving time and accuracy. In addition to identifying a maximum likelihood pedigree, we can obtain any number of pedigrees in decreasing order of likelihood. This is useful for assessing the uncertainty of a maximum likelihood solution and permits model averaging over high likelihood pedigrees when this would be appropriate. More importantly, when the solution is not unique, as will often be the case for large pedigrees, it enables investigation into the properties of maximum likelihood pedigree estimates which has not been possible up to now. Crucially, we also have a means of assessing the behaviour of other approximate approaches which all aim to find a maximum likelihood solution. Our approach hence allows us to properly address the question of whether a reasonably high likelihood solution that is easy to obtain is practically as useful as a guaranteed maximum likelihood solution. The efficiency of our method on such large problems bodes well for extensions beyond the standard setting where some pedigree members may be latent, genotypes may be measured with error and markers may be linked. PMID:25107832

Sheehan, Nuala A; Bartlett, Mark; Cussens, James

2014-11-01

406

Allowable Trajectory Variations for Space Shuttle Orbiter Entry-Aeroheating CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-number criteria are developed for acceptable variations in Space Shuttle Orbiter entry trajectories for use in computational aeroheating analyses. The criteria determine if an existing computational fluid dynamics solution for a particular trajectory can be extrapolated to a different trajectory. The criteria development considers twelve types of computational aeroheating data, such as boundary layer thickness. For each type of datum, the allowable uncertainty contribution due to trajectory variation has been set by the Entry Aeroheating Subsystem team. Then Reynolds-number relations between trajectory variation and output uncertainty are determined. From these relations the criteria are established for the maximum allowable trajectory variations. The most restrictive criterion allows a 25% variation in Reynolds number at constant Mach number between trajectories.

Wood, William A.; Alter, Stephen J.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.

2008-01-01

407

Allowable Trajectory Variations for Space Shuttle Orbiter Entry-Aeroheating CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-number criteria are developed for acceptable variations in Space Shuttle Orbiter entry trajectories for use in computational aeroheating analyses. The criteria determine if an existing computational fluid dynamics solution for a particular trajectory can be extrapolated to a different trajectory. The criteria development begins by estimating uncertainties for seventeen types of computational aeroheating data, such as boundary layer thickness, at exact trajectory conditions. For each type of datum, the allowable uncertainty contribution due to trajectory variation is set to be half of the value of the estimated exact-trajectory uncertainty. Then, for the twelve highest-priority datum types, Reynolds-number relations between trajectory variation and output uncertainty are determined. From these relations the criteria are established for the maximum allowable trajectory variations. The most restrictive criterion allows a 25% variation in Reynolds number at constant Mach number between trajectories.

Wood, William A.; Alter, Stephen J.

2008-01-01

408

Weiss lecture. The dose-rate factor in radiation biology.  

PubMed

The dose-rate effect has been the topic of extensive radiobiological studies and has important implications in radiation therapy and in the field of radiation protection. Three examples will be discussed: two in radiation therapy and one in protection. First, continuous low dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy may be replaced by pulsed brachytherapy, using a single source moving through the catheters of the implant. This strategy, using a modern computer-controlled afterloading device, would allow better dose optimization and result in a considerable cost saving. Radiobiological data have proved useful in defining the pulse length and pulse frequency that is equivalent to continuous low dose-rate. Second, in the intracavitary treatment of carcinoma of the cervix, a few high dose-rate (HDR) fractions on an outpatients basis can replace the low dose-rate (LDR) treatment that requires the patient to be hospitalized for several days. Radiobiological data can be used to estimate the dose levels at HDR that are equivalent to conventional LDR protocols. Third, it is usually assumed in radiation protection that doses accumulated over a period of time at low dose-rate are less effective biologically than the same dose delivered in a single acute exposure. While this may be true for X- or gamma-rays, radiobiological data indicate that neutrons delivered at low dose or in a series of fractions spread out over a period of time may produce more oncogenic transformation than a single acute exposure. This has important implications in radiation protection. PMID:1672350

Hall, E J

1991-03-01

409

Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with tomotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase i, docetaxel dose-escalation study, with hypofractionated radiation regimen  

PubMed Central

Background Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy is demonstrately superior to sequential chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer not suitable for surgery. Docetaxel is considered to enhance the cytotoxic effect of radiotherapy on the tumour cells. Tomotherapy (HT) is a novel radiotherapeutic technique, which allows the delivery of Image Guided-IMRT (IG-IMRT), with a highly conformal radiation dose distribution. The goal of the study was to estimate tolerability of Docetaxel concurrent with IMRT and to find the maximum tolerated dose of weekly Docetaxel concurrent with IMRT delivered with HT Tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy with Cisplatin and Docetaxel in patients affected with stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Methods We designed a phase I, dose-finding study to determine the dose of weekly Docetaxel concurrent with Tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy, in patients affected by Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Stage III disease, not suitable for surgery. Results Concurrent weekly Docetaxel and Tomotherapy are feasible; we did not reach a maximum tolerated dose, because no life-threatening toxicity was observed, stopping the accrual at a level of weekly docetaxel 38 mg/m2, a greater dose than in previous assessments, from both phase-I studies with weekly docetaxel alone and with Docetaxel concomitant with standard radiotherapy. Conclusions Concurrent weekly Docetaxel and Tomotherapy are feasible, and even with Docetaxel at 38 mg/m2/week we did not observe any limiting toxicity. For those patients who completed the combined chemo-radio treatment, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 20 months and median overall survival (OS) was 24 months. PMID:24176164

2013-01-01

410

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2010-07-01

411

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2013-07-01

412

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2011-07-01

413

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2014-07-01

414

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2012-07-01

415

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2013-07-01

416

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2012-07-01

417

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2014-07-01

418

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2010-07-01

419

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2011-07-01

420

14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505 Section 25.1505 Aeronautics...Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO /M MO airspeed or Mach...

2010-01-01

421

14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505 Section 25.1505 Aeronautics...Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO /M MO airspeed or Mach...

2011-01-01

422

49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

2011-10-01

423

49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

2012-10-01

424

49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

2013-10-01

425

Digital tomosynthesis mammography using a parallel maximum-likelihood reconstruction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parallel reconstruction method, based on an iterative maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm, is developed to provide fast reconstruction for digital tomosynthesis mammography. Tomosynthesis mammography acquires 11 low-dose projections of a breast by moving an x-ray tube over a 50° angular range. In parallel reconstruction, each projection is divided into multiple segments along the chest-to-nipple direction. Using the 11 projections, segments

Tao Wu; Juemin Zhang; Richard Moore; Elizabeth Rafferty; Daniel Kopans; Waleed Meleis; David Kaeli

2004-01-01

426

Comparison of 2D and 3D Imaging and Treatment Planning for Postoperative Vaginal Apex High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate bladder and rectal doses using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D treatment planning for vaginal cuff high-dose rate (HDR) in endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2007 were evaluated. Seventy-one and 20 patients underwent 2D and 3D planning, respectively. Each patient received six fractions prescribed at 0.5 cm to the superior 3 cm of the vagina. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) doses were calculated for 2D patients. Maximum and 2-cc doses were calculated for 3D patients. Organ doses were normalized to prescription dose. Results: Bladder maximum doses were 178% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were no different than ICRU doses (p = 0.22). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 59% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Rectal maximum doses were 137% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 87% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 64% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final bladder dose to within 10% for 44%, 59%, 83%, 82%, and 89% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 45%, 55%, 80%, 85%, and 85% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 37%, 68%, 79%, 79%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final rectal dose to within 10% for 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 75% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 68%, 95%, 84%, 84%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Conclusions: Doses to organs at risk vary depending on the calculation method. In some cases, final dose accuracy appears to plateau after the third fraction, indicating that simulation and planning may not be necessary in all fractions. A clinically relevant level of accuracy should be determined and further research conducted to address this issue.

Russo, James K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Armeson, Kent E. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Richardson, Susan, E-mail: srichardson@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

2012-05-01

427

40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...  

...consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.10 Section 82.10 Protection...consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. (a) Until January 1, 1996 for all class I controlled substances, except Group VI, and until...

2014-07-01

428

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: A Case for Dose Escalation and Organ at Risk Toxicity Reduction  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Radiation therapy for retroperitoneal sarcoma remains challenging because of proximity to surrounding organs at risk (OAR). We report the use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of retroperitoneal sarcomas to minimize dose to OAR while concurrently optimizing tumor dose coverage. Patients and methods: From January 2000 to October 2002, 10 patients (average age 56 years) with retroperitoneal sarcoma and one with inguinal sarcoma were treated with radiation at Emory University. Prescription dose to the planning treatment volume (PTV) was commonly 50.4 at 1.8 Gy/fraction. CT simulation was used in each patient, three patients were treated with 3D-conformal treatment (3D-CRT), and the remaining eight received multi-leaf collimator-based (MLC) IMRT. IMRT treatment fields ranged from eight to 11 and average volume treated was 3498 cc. Optimal 3D-CRT plans were generated and compared with IMRT with respect to tumor coverage and OAR dose toxicity. Dose volume histograms were compared for both the 3D-CRT and IMRT plans. Results: Mean dose to small bowel decreased from 36 Gy with 3D-CRT to 27 Gy using IMRT, and tumor coverage (V95) increased from 95.3% with 3D-CRT to 98.6% using IMRT. Maximum and minimum doses delivered to the PTV were significantly increased by 6 and 22%, respectively (P = 0.011, P = 0.055). Volume of small bowel receiving > 30Gy was significantly decreased from 63.5 to 43.1% with IMRT compared with conventional treatment (P = 0.043). Seven patients developed grade 2 nausea, three developed grade 2 diarrhea, one had grade 2 skin toxicity, and one patient developed grade 3 liver toxicity (RTOG toxicity scale). No other delayed toxicities related to radiation were observed. At a median follow-up of 58 weeks, there were no local recurrences and only one patient developed disease progression with distant metastasis in the liver. Conclusions: IMRT for retroperitoneal sarcoma allowed enhanced tumor coverage and better sparing of dose to critical normal structures such as small bowel, liver, and kidney. Escalation of dose has a positive impact on local control for retroperitoneal sarcoma; IMRT may be an effective method to achieve this goal. We are evaluating preoperative dose escalation to 59.4 Gy. PMID:18521378

Koshy, Mary; Lawson, Joshua D.; Staley, Charles A.; Esiashvili, Natia; Howell, Rebecca; Ghavidel, Shahram; Davis, Lawrence W.

2003-01-01

429

Low Dose Radiation Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Energy's Low Dose Radiation Research Program supports research that investigates the health risks from exposure to radiation at low levels. This Web site provides an overview of radiation biology, up-to-date information and archived results from program-related research, and other resources for the benefit of researchers and the general public alike. Some research projects include comparing low dose radiation to endogenous oxidative damage, determining thresholds for radiation exposure, determining genetics factors that make some individuals more susceptible to radiation-induced damage, and more.

430

Solar modulation of dose rate onboard the Mir station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of the radiation belts that are currently used to estimate exposure for astronauts describe the environment at times of either solar minimum or solar maximum. Static models, constructed using data acquired prior to 1970 during a solar cycle with relatively low solar radio flux, have flux uncertainties of a factor of two to five and dose-rate uncertainties of a

G. D. Badhwar; V. A. Shurshakov; V. V. Tstelin

1997-01-01

431

High dose uranium ion implantation into silicon  

SciTech Connect

Implantation of uranium ions into silicon to a maximum dose of 6 x 10/sup 16/ atoms/cm/sup 2/, with a maximum concentration of 6 x 10/sup 21/ atoms/cm/sup 3/, has been carried out. This concentration corresponds to 12 at. % of uranium in the silicon host material. The implanted uranium content was measured by Rutherford backscattering and confirmed by a measurement of the alpha-particle activity of the buried uranium layer. The range and straggling of the uranium, and sputtering of the silicon target by uranium, were measured and are compared with theoretical estimates. The implantation was performed at an ion mean energy of 157 keV using a new kind of high current metal ion source.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; Yu, K.M.

1987-05-01

432

Maximum acceptable weights and maximum voluntary isometric strengths for asymmetric lifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of asymmetric lifting on psychophysically determined maximum acceptable weights and maximum voluntary isometric strengths. Thirteen male college students lifted three different boxes in the sagittal plane and at three different angles of asymmetry (30,60 and 90°) from floor to an 81-cm high table using a free-style lifting technique. For each lifting

A. GARG; DON BADGER

1986-01-01

433

CELL PHONE ALLOWANCE POLICY All Cell Phone Allowance Policies and Procedures must be conducted in accordance with all  

E-print Network

CELL PHONE ALLOWANCE POLICY All Cell Phone Allowance Policies and Procedures must be conducted%2029%2013.pdf Option 2 of University Policy 4-009.2 http://www.fa.ucf.edu/Forms/PCard/41-980.pdf Cell Phone Payroll FAQs (for Policy 4-900.2) http://hr.ucf.edu/files/CellPhonePayrollFAQ.pdf Cell Phone Allowance

Wu, Shin-Tson

434

40 CFR 82.9 - Availability of production allowances in addition to baseline production allowances for class I...  

...production allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.9 Section 82.9 Protection...production allowances for class I controlled substances. (a) Every person apportioned...production allowances for class I controlled substances under § 82.5 (a) through...

2014-07-01

435

3D Dose Verification Using Tomotherapy CT Detector Array  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate a three-dimensional dose verification method based on the exit dose using the onboard detector of tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study included 347 treatment fractions from 24 patients, including 10 prostate, 5 head and neck (HN), and 9 spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) cases. Detector sonograms were retrieved and back-projected to calculate entrance fluence, which was then forward-projected on the CT images to calculate the verification dose, which was compared with ion chamber and film measurement in the QA plans and with the planning dose in patient plans. Results: Root mean square (RMS) errors of 2.0%, 2.2%, and 2.0% were observed comparing the dose verification (DV) and the ion chamber measured point dose in the phantom plans for HN, prostate, and spinal SBRT patients, respectively. When cumulative dose in the entire treatment is considered, for HN patients, the error of the mean dose to the planning target volume (PTV) varied from 1.47% to 5.62% with a RMS error of 3.55%. For prostate patients, the error of the mean dose to the prostate target volume varied from -5.11% to 3.29%, with a RMS error of 2.49%. The RMS error of maximum doses to the bladder and the rectum were 2.34% (-4.17% to 2.61%) and 2.64% (-4.54% to 3.94%), respectively. For the nine spinal SBRT patients, the RMS error of the minimum dose to the PTV was 2.43% (-5.39% to 2.48%). The RMS error of maximum dose to the spinal cord was 1.05% (-2.86% to 0.89%). Conclusions: An excellent agreement was observed between the measurement and the verification dose. In the patient treatments, the agreement in doses to the majority of PTVs and organs at risk is within 5% for the cumulative treatment course doses. The dosimetric error strongly depends on the error in multileaf collimator leaf opening time with a sensitivity correlating to the gantry rotation period.

Sheng Ke, E-mail: ks2mc@virginia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Jones, Ryan; Yang Wensha; Saraiya, Siddharth; Schneider, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Chen Quan; Sobering, Geoff; Olivera, Gustavo [TomoTherapy, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Read, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

2012-02-01

436

41 CFR 302-7.2 - What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored... § 302-7.2 What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense? (a) The maximum weight allowance of HHG that may be...

2013-07-01

437

41 CFR 302-7.2 - What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored... § 302-7.2 What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense? The maximum weight allowance of HHG that may be...

2011-07-01

438

41 CFR 302-7.2 - What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored... § 302-7.2 What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense? (a) The maximum weight allowance of HHG that may be...

2012-07-01

439

41 CFR 302-7.2 - What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense?  

...2014-07-01 false What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored... § 302-7.2 What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense? (a) The maximum weight allowance of HHG that may be...

2014-07-01

440

Conversion of dose-volume constraints to dose limits.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to introduce two techniques for converting dose-volume constraints to dose limits for treatment planning optimization, and to evaluate their performance. The first technique, called dose-sorting, is based on the assumption that higher dose limits should be assigned to the constraint points receiving higher doses, and vice versa. The second technique, the hybrid technique, is a hybrid of the dose-sorting technique and the mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique. Among all constraint points in an organ at risk, the dose limits for the points far from a dose-volume constraint are determined by dose-sorting, while the dose limits for the points close to a dose-volume constraint are determined by MILP. We evaluated the performance of the two new techniques for one treatment geometry by comparing them with the MILP technique. The dose-sorting technique had a high probability of finding the global optimum when no more than three organs at risk have dose-volume constraints. It was much faster than the MILP technique. The hybrid technique always found the global optimum when the MILP percentage (the percentage of constraint points for which the dose limits are determined by the MILP technique) was large enough, but its computation time increased dramatically with the MILP percentage. In conclusion, the dose-sorting technique and the hybrid technique with a low MILP percentage are clinically feasible. PMID:14703167

Dai, Jianrong; Zhu, Yunping

2003-12-01

441

The use of EPID-measured leaf sequence files for IMRT dose reconstruction in adaptive radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

For intensity modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) dose reconstruction, multileaf collimator (MLC) log files have been shown applicable for deriving delivered fluence maps. However, MLC log files are dependent on the accuracy of leaf calibration and only available from one linear accelerator manufacturer. This paper presents a proof of feasibility and principles in (1) using an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (aSi-EPID) to capture the MLC segments during an IMRT delivery and (2) reconstituting a leaf sequence (LS) file based on the leaf end positions calculated from the MLC segments and their associated fractional monitor units. These EPID-measured LS files are then used to derive delivered fluence maps for dose reconstruction. The developed approach was tested on a pelvic phantom treated with a typical prostate IMRT plan. The delivered fluence maps, which were derived from the EPID-measured LS files, showed slight differences in the intensity levels compared with the corresponding planned ones. The dose distribution calculated with the delivered fluence maps showed a discernible difference in the high dose region when compared to that calculated with the planned fluence maps. The maximum dose in the former distribution was also 2.5% less than that in the latter one. The EPID-measured LS file can serve the same purpose as a MLC log files does for the derivation of the delivered fluence map and yet is independent of the leaf calibration. The approach also allows users who do not have access to MLC log files to probe the actual IMRT delivery and translate the information gained for dose reconstruction in adaptive radiation therapy. PMID:19070236

Lee, Louis; Mao, Weihua; Xing, Lei

2008-01-01

442

Low-Dose Carcinogenicity Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the major deficiencies of cancer risk assessments is the lack of low-dose carcinogenicity data. Most assessments require extrapolation from high to low doses, which is subject to various uncertainties. Only 4 low-dose carcinogenicity studies and 5 low-dose biomarker/pre-n...

443

Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

1991-01-01

444

Maximum likelihood identification for large space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the use of on-orbit identification based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) to provide these high-order, high-accuracy control design models for large space structures (LSS's). First, it outlines a general MLE identification algorithm, together with a covariance-analysis procedure to assess algorithm performance in terms of systematic and stochastic errors. Next, it examines various simplifications appropriate for the LSS identification application. Simplified analytical performance results are presented, as are numerical results to support these analyses. Finally, a graphical interpretation of these results is given.

Barrett, Michael F.; Enns, Dale F.

1988-01-01

445

Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

2014-04-01

446

Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking.  

PubMed

We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter. PMID:24827278

Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M

2014-04-01

447

Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

Bastea, S

2009-01-27

448

The Maximum Size of Dynamic Data Structures  

E-print Network

SIAM J. COMPUT.Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 807-823, October 1991 1991 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics001 THE MAXIMUM SIZE OF DYNAMIC DATA STRUCTURES* CLAIRE M. KENYON-MATHIEU’ AND JEFFREY SCOTT VITTER$ Abstract. This paper develops two... Science Foundation grant andby a National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award with matching funds from IBM. 807 808 C. M. KENYON-MATHIEU AND J. S. VITTER Data structures process a sequence ofitems over time; at time the data structure...

Kenyon-Mathieu, Claire M.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

1991-10-01

449

The 2009 Perseid Maximum - Photographic Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An astronomical camp was organized by Comet and Meteors Workshop during the 2009 Perseids maximum. 69 meteors were photographed during four consecutive nights. We found that photographic Perseid radiant was very compact and located at alpha=48.7 deg, delta=58.6 deg. Our main goal was the determination of the radiant from single station photographic observations, however we also calculated two double station trajectories using additional data which were send to us by casual photographic observer from other parts of Poland. Dozens of radio reflections were observed with simple radio receiver, some of them were identified with photographic images.

Zolcadek, P.; Wisniewski, M.; Polakowski, K.; Wala, E.; Walczak, K.; Poleski, R.

2010-01-01

450

Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

451

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the co-evolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand `dune-building' species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the time scale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches: higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species which shifts foredune formation landwards and thus leads to larger foredunes.

Duran Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2014-05-01

452

A maximum entropy model for opinions in social groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the opinions of a group of individuals determine their spatial distribution and connectivity, through an agent-based model. The interaction between agents is described by a Hamiltonian in which agents are allowed to move freely without an underlying lattice (the average network topology connecting them is determined from the parameters). This kind of model was derived using maximum entropy statistical inference under fixed expectation values of certain probabilities that (we propose) are relevant to social organization. Control parameters emerge as Lagrange multipliers of the maximum entropy problem, and they can be associated with the level of consequence between the personal beliefs and external opinions, and the tendency to socialize with peers of similar or opposing views. These parameters define a phase diagram for the social system, which we studied using Monte Carlo Metropolis simulations. Our model presents both first and second-order phase transitions, depending on the ratio between the internal consequence and the interaction with others. We have found a critical value for the level of internal consequence, below which the personal beliefs of the agents seem to be irrelevant.

Davis, Sergio; Navarrete, Yasmín; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

2014-04-01

453

Evaluation of clinical IMRT treatment planning using the GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform for absolute and relative dose calculations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate and validate the use of the Geant4 application for emission tomography (GATE) Monte Carlo simulation platform for clinical intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dosimetry studies. Methods: The first step consisted of modeling a 6 MV photon beam linear accelerator (LINAC), with its corresponding validation carried out using percent depth dose evaluation, transverse profiles, tissue phantom ratio, and output factor on water phantom. The IMRT evaluation was performed by comparing simulation and measurements in terms of absolute and relative doses using IMRT dedicated quality assurance phantoms considering seven different patient datasets. Results: Concerning the LINAC simulated model validation tissue phantom ratios at 20 and 10 cm in water TPR{sub 10}{sup 20} obtained from GATE and measurements were 0.672 {+-} 0.063 and 0.675, respectively. In terms of percent depth dose and transverse profiles, error ranges were, respectively: 1.472%{+-} 0.285% and 4.827%{+-} 1.323% for field size of 4 Multiplication-Sign 4, 5 Multiplication-Sign 5, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10, 15 Multiplication-Sign 15, 20 Multiplication-Sign 20, 25 Multiplication-Sign 25, 30 Multiplication-Sign 30, and 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2}. Most errors were observed at the edge of radiation fields because of higher dose gradient in these areas. Output factors showed good agreement between simulation and measurements with a maximum error of 1.22%. Finally, for IMRT simulations considering seven patient datasets, GATE provided good results with a relative error of 0.43%{+-} 0.25% on absolute dose between simulated and measured beams (measurements at the isocenter, volume 0.125 cm{sup 3}). Planar dose comparisons were also performed using gamma-index analysis. For the whole set of beams considered the mean gamma-index value was 0.497 {+-} 0.152 and 90.8%{+-} 3.6% of the evaluated dose points satisfied the 5%/ 4 mm criterion. Conclusions: These results show that GATE allows reliable simulation of complex beams in radiotherapy after an accurate LINAC modeling is validated. A simple cross-calibration procedure proposed in this work allows obtaining absolute dose values even in complex fields.

Benhalouche, S.; Le Maitre, A. [INSERM UMR 1101 LaTIM, CHRU Morvan, 29609 Brest (France); Visvikis, D.; Pradier, O.; Boussion, N. [INSERM UMR 1101 LaTIM, CHRU Morvan, 29609 Brest, France and Department of Radiotherapy, CHRU Morvan, 29609 Brest (France)

2013-02-15

454

Prescribed dose versus calculated dose of spinal cord in standard head and neck irradiation assessed by 3-D plan  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Spinal cord toxicity can be dreaded complication while treating head and neck cancer by conventional radiotherapy. Cord sparing approach is applied by two phase planning in conventional head neck radiotherapy. In spite of cord sparing approach spinal cord still receives considerable scatter dose. Our study aims to do the volumetric analysis of spinal cord dosimetry and to correlate with the clinical findings. Materials and Methods: Treatment planning was done in two phases. First phase treatment fields include gross disease- both tumor and involved nodes. in the second phase, treatment field shrinkage was done to cover the gross disease sparing the spinal cord. These fields are termed as off-cord fields. 42 patients with histological proven squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region were analysed with two groups. In Group A, 46 Gy was given in 23 fractions, and then tumor-boost with off-cord field received 24 Gy in 12 fractions. In Group B 50 Gy was prescribed in 25 fractions initially, then off-cord field given 20 Gy in 10 fractions to analyze theoutcome. Planning Computed tomography (CT) scan was done Philips Brilliance 16 slice CT scan machine, and contouring and dose calculation were done at ASHA treatment planning software. Results: Maximum dose and dose at 1 cm3, 2 cm3, and 5 cm3 were calculated. Maximum dose to cord was 52.6 Gy (range 48.1-49.7 Gy) in Group A and 54.3 Gy (range 51.48-52.33 Gy) in Group B initially. Off-cord fields received mean dose 8.07 Gy (85.85% of maximum) in Group A and 5.47 Gy (86.84% of maximum) in Group B. At the end of 6 months from the last date of radiotherapy, grade 1 spinal cord toxicity found in two patients in Group A and one patient in Group B respectively (P = 0.55). Both groups received additional dose, which are higher than the prescribed dose, but no patients show significant spinal cord toxicity after 6 month of follow-up. Conclusion: Spinal cord received scatter dose which much higher than the predicted dose in conventional radiotherapy of head neck cancer. Short term follow up failed to establish clinical correlation with volumetric dose of spinal cord. Two phase cord sparing head neck radiation planning if practiced should be used with caution. PMID:24665442

Majumder, Dipanjan; Patra, Niladri Bihari; Chatterjee, Debashis; Mallick, Swapan Kumar; Kabasi, Apurba Kumar; Majumder, Anjali

2014-01-01

455

External Dose Estimates from  

E-print Network

residents of counties in the eastern and Midwestern U.S. that received above average rainfall were impacted to the Population of the Continental U.S. from High Yield Weapons Tests Conducted by the U.S., U.K. and U.S exposure and whole body effective dose received by residents of the continental U.S. during the period 1953

456

Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment

William L. Robison; Cynthia L. Conrado; Kenneth T. Bogen

1999-01-01

457

Mars surface radiation exposure for solar maximum conditions and 1989 solar proton events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Langley heavy-ion/nucleon transport code, HZETRN, and the high-energy nucleon transport code, BRYNTRN, are used to predict the propagation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) and solar flare protons through the carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars. Particle fluences and the resulting doses are estimated on the surface of Mars for GCR's during solar maximum conditions and the Aug., Sep., and Oct. 1989 solar proton events. These results extend previously calculated surface estimates for GCR's at solar minimum conditions and the Feb. 1956, Nov. 1960, and Aug. 1972 solar proton events. Surface doses are estimated with both a low-density and a high-density carbon dioxide model of the atmosphere for altitudes of 0, 4, 8, and 12 km above the surface. A solar modulation function is incorporated to estimate the GCR dose variation between solar minimum and maximum conditions over the 11-year solar cycle. By using current Mars mission scenarios, doses to the skin, eye, and blood-forming organs are predicted for short- and long-duration stay times on the Martian surface throughout the solar cycle.

Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

1992-01-01

458

An overview of the solar maximum mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), devoted to the study of active solar phenomena is expected to be launched in February 1980 and operate throughout the peak of the current maximum of solar activity. The SMM observatory consists of two main sections: the instrument module which houses the solar payload instruments and the Fine Pointing Sun Sensor System, and the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) which carries the spacecraft subsystem modules. The entire observatory is 4m long and 2.3m in diameter. The SMM will carry a payload of six instruments specifically selected to study the short wavelength and coronal manifestations of flares. These include: gamma ray spectrometer, hard X-ray burst spectrometer, hard-X-ray imaging spectrometer, soft X-ray polychromator, UV spectrometer and polarimeter, coronagraph/polarimeter and solar constant monitoring package which will measure the total solar irradiance to an accuracy of 0.1 percent. Specific scientific objectives will include: chromospheric evaporation, thermalization, electron acceleration and flare build-up. Complementary studies will be made as part of an SMM Guest Investigator Program. The SMM observation program will be operated on a 24 hour cycle.

Chipman, E. C.; Frost, K. J.

1980-01-01

459

Dose reduction methods for CT colonography.  

PubMed

Patients, referring physicians, the media, and government agencies have all expressed concern over the risks of medical radiation, particularly as it relates to CT. This concern is particularly paramount when associated with a screening examination such as CT colonography. These theoretical risks must be weighed realistically against the substantial benefits of colon cancer screening as well as against the risks inherent in the major alternative screening option, optical colonoscopy. When put into perspective, the risk-benefit ratio is highly in favor of the performance of CT colonography. Nevertheless, in following the ALARA principle, there is an ever increasing armamentarium of options that can be employed in the pursuit of CT radiation dose reduction, all of which can be used in many synergistic combinations allowing for dose reduction while simultaneously preserving image quality and minimizing image noise. After a brief tutorial on estimating radiation dose, various strategies will be discussed including reductions in tube current and tube voltage as well as the use of automatic dose modulation and iterative reconstruction. Other practical considerations will also be reviewed including proper patient isocentering, optimization of colonic insufflation to minimize additional decubitus scans, proper choice of scan volumes to avoid overranging, and variation of slice thickness and window width to minimize perceived image noise. Finally, a strategy for how to incrementally introduce these methods as well as a way to compare dose reduction efforts across institutions throughout the country will be offered. PMID:23229777

Chang, Kevin J; Yee, Judy

2013-04-01

460

Dose-Response--A Challenge for Allelopathy?  

PubMed Central

The response of an organism to a chemical depends, among other things, on the dose. Nonlinear dose-response relationships occur across a broad range of research fields, and are a well established tool to describe the basic mechanisms of phytotoxicity. The responses of plants to allelochemicals as biosynthesized phytotoxins, relate as well to nonlinearity and, thus, allelopathic effects can be adequately quantified by nonlinear mathematical modeling. The current paper applies the concept of nonlinearity to assorted aspects of allelopathy within several bioassays and reveals their analysis by nonlinear regression models. Procedures for a valid comparison of effective doses between different allelopathic interactions are presented for both, inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The dose-response applications measure and compare the responses produced by pure allelochemicals [scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one); DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxaxin-3(4H)-one); BOA (benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one); MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one)], involved in allelopathy of grain crops, to demonstrate how some general principles of dose responses also relate to allelopathy. Hereupon, dose-response applications with living donor plants demonstrate the validity of these principles for density-dependent phytotoxicity of allelochemicals produced and released by living plants (Avena sativa L., Secale cereale L., Triticum L. spp.), and reveal the use of such experiments for initial considerations about basic principles of allelopathy. Results confirm that nonlinearity applies to allelopathy, and the study of allelopathic effects in dose-response experiments allows for new and challenging insights into allelopathic interactions. PMID:19330161

Belz, Regina G.; Hurle, Karl; Duke, Stephen O.

2005-01-01

461

Implementation of radiochromic film dosimetry protocol for volumetric dose assessments to various organs during diagnostic CT procedures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The authors present a means to measure high-resolution, two-dimensional organ dose distributions in an anthropomorphic phantom of heterogeneous tissue composition using XRQA radiochromic film. Dose distributions are presented for the lungs, liver, and kidneys to demonstrate the organ volume dosimetry technique. XRQA film response accuracy was validated using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Methods: XRQA film and TLDs were first exposed at the center of two CTDI head phantoms placed end-to-end, allowing for a simple cylindrical phantom of uniform scatter material for verification of film response accuracy and sensitivity in a computed tomography (CT) exposure geometry; the TLD and film dosimeters were exposed separately. In a similar manner, TLDs and films were placed between cross-sectional slabs of a 5 yr old anthropomorphic phantom's thorax and abdomen regions. The anthropomorphic phantom was used to emulate real pediatric patient geometry and scatter conditions. The phantom consisted of five different tissue types manufactured to attenuate the x-ray beam within 1%-3% of normal tissues at CT beam energies. Software was written to individually calibrate TLD and film dosimeter responses for different tissue attenuation factors, to spatially register dosimeters, and to extract dose responses from film for TLD comparison. TLDs were compared to film regions of interest extracted at spatial locations corresponding to the TLD locations. Results: For the CTDI phantom exposure, the film and TLDs measured an average difference in dose response of 45%(SD{+-}2%). Similar comparisons within the anthropomorphic phantom also indicated a consistent difference, tracking along the low and high dose regions, for the lung (28%) (SD{+-}8%) and liver and kidneys (15%) (SD{+-}4%). The difference between the measured film and TLD dose values was due to the lower response sensitivity of the film that arose when the film was oriented with its large surface area parallel to the main axis of the CT beam. The consistency in dose response difference allowed for a tissue specific correction to be applied. Once corrected, the average film response agreed to better than 3%(SD{+-}2%) for the CTDI scans, and for the anthropomorphic phantom scans: 3%(SD{+-}3%) for the lungs, 5%(SD{+-}3%) for the liver, and 4%(SD{+-}3%) for the kidneys. Additionally, XRQA film measured a heterogeneous dose distribution within the organ volumes. The extent of the dose distribution heterogeneity was not measurable with the TLDs due to the limitation on the number of TLDs loadable in the regions of the phantom organs. In this regard, XRQA film demonstrated an advantage over the TLD method by discovering a 15% greater maximum dose to lung in a region unmeasured by TLDs. Conclusions: The films demonstrated a lower sensitivity to absorbed dose measurements due to the geometric inefficiency of measuring dose from a beam situated end-on to the film. Once corrected, the film demonstrated equivalent dose measurement accuracy as TLD detectors with the added advantage of relatively simple measurement of high-resolution dose distributions throughout organ volumes.

Brady, Samuel; Yoshizumi, Terry; Toncheva, Greta; Frush, Donald [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); and others

2010-09-15

462

Direct measurement of a patient's entrance skin dose during pediatric cardiac catheterization.  

PubMed

Children with complex congenital heart diseases often require repeated cardiac catheterization; however, children are more radiosensitive than adults. Therefore, radiation-induced carcinogenesis is an important consideration for children who undergo those procedures. We measured entrance skin doses (ESDs) using radio-photoluminescence dosimeter (RPLD) chips during cardiac catheterization for 15 pediatric patients (median age, 1.92 years; males, n = 9; females, n = 6) with cardiac diseases. Four RPLD chips were placed on the patient's posterior and right side of the chest. Correlations between maximum ESD and dose-area products (DAP), total number of frames, total fluoroscopic time, number of cine runs, cumulative dose at the interventional reference point (IRP), body weight, chest thickness, and height were analyzed. The maximum ESD was 80 ± 59 (mean ± standard deviation) mGy. Maximum ESD closely correlated with both DAP (r = 0.78) and cumulative dose at the IRP (r = 0.82). Maximum ESD for coiling and ballooning tended to be higher than that for ablation, balloon atrial septostomy, and diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, we directly measured ESD using RPLD chips and found that maximum ESD could be estimated in real-time using angiographic parameters, such as DAP and cumulative dose at the IRP. Children requiring repeated catheterizations would be exposed to high radiation levels throughout their lives, although treatment influences radiation dose. Therefore, the radiation dose associated with individual cardiac catheterizations should be analyzed, and the effects of radiation throughout the lives of such patients should be followed. PMID:24968708

Sun, Lue; Mizuno, Yusuke; Iwamoto, Mari; Goto, Takahisa; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Yuka; Tsuboi, Koji; Chida, Koichi; Moritake, Takashi

2014-11-01

463

Direct measurement of a patient's entrance skin dose during pediatric cardiac catheterization  

PubMed Central

Children with complex congenital heart diseases often require repeated cardiac catheterization; however, children are more radiosensitive than adults. Therefore, radiation-induced carcinogenesis is an important consideration for children who undergo those procedures. We measured entrance skin doses (ESDs) using radio-photoluminescence dosimeter (RPLD) chips during cardiac catheterization for 15 pediatric patients (median age, 1.92 years; males, n = 9; females, n = 6) with cardiac diseases. Four RPLD chips were placed on the patient's posterior and right side of the chest. Correlations between maximum ESD and dose–area products (DAP), total number of frames, total fluoroscopic time, number of cine runs, cumulative dose at the interventional reference point (IRP), body weight, chest thickness, and height were analyzed. The maximum ESD was 80 ± 59 (mean ± standard deviation) mGy. Maximum ESD closely correlated with both DAP (r = 0.78) and cumulative dose at the IRP (r = 0.82). Maximum ESD for coiling and ballooning tended to be higher than that for ablation, balloon atrial septostomy, and diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, we directly measured ESD using RPLD chips and found that maximum ESD could be estimated in real-time using angiographic parameters, such as DAP and cumulative dose at the IRP. Children requiring repeated catheterizations would be exposed to high radiation levels throughout their lives, although treatment influences radiation dose. Therefore, the radiation dose associated with individual cardiac catheterizations should be analyzed, and the effects of radiation throughout the lives of such patients should be followed. PMID:24968708

Sun, Lue; Mizuno, Yusuke; Iwamoto, Mari; Goto, Takahisa; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Yuka; Tsuboi, Koji; Chida, Koichi; Moritake, Takashi

2014-01-01

464

Essays on the United States sulfur dioxide allowance market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, I study the U.S. SO2 allowance market. The first chapter conducts an empirical study of electric utility behavior under the SO2 allowance market. The probit models find that the uncertainty of PUC regulations may have caused them to shun the SO2 allowance market in favor of a strategy of fuel blending/switching while utilities responded to the allowance market efficiently. This implies that the allowance price would have been higher without PUC regulations. Local environmental regulations are also found to be responsible for the unexpectedly low allowance price. However, there is no evidence that the rate of return regulation has affected the fuel switching decision. In chapter 2, a competitive dynamic equilibrium of the SO2 allowance market is characterized and is numerically solved for several policy experiments. First, the competitive dynamic equilibrium with banking is solved. The allowance price is expected to go up to 302.60 dollars at the end of Phase II when the emission decreases to the Phase II target level. Cost savings from direct control is estimated to be 78% (18.1 billion dollars). Next, a competitive dynamic equilibrium of the allowance market without banking is examined. The cost saving from the banking is found to be 780.0 million dollars (13.34% cost saving). Another finding is that the investment behavior in the markets with and without banking are quite different despite the same SO2 emission reduction in the long run.

Arimura, Toshihide

465

A multi-compartment cell repopulation model allowing for inter-compartmental migration following radiation exposure, applied to leukaemia.  

PubMed

There is much uncertainty about cancer risks at the high radiation doses used in radiotherapy (RT). It has generally been assumed that cancer induction decreases rapidly at high doses due to cell killing. However, this is not seen in all RT groups, and a model recently developed by Sachs and Brenner [2005. Solid tumor risks after high doses of ionizing radiation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13040-13045] proposed a mechanism for repopulation of cells after radiation exposure that explained why this might happen, at least for solid tumours. In this paper, this model is generalized to allow for heterogeneity in the dose received, and various alternate patterns of repopulation are also considered. The model is fitted to the Japanese atomic bomb survivor leukaemia incidence data, and data for various therapeutically irradiated groups. Two sets of parameters from these model fits are used to assess the sensitivity of model predictions. It is shown that in general allowing for heterogeneity in dose distribution and haematopoietic stem cell migration results in lower risks than the same average dose administered uniformly and without such migration, although this does not hold in the limiting case of complete stem cell repopulation between radiation dose fractions. We also investigate the difference made by assuming a compartmental repopulation signal, and a global repopulation signal. In general we show that in the absence of stochastic extinction, compartmental repopulation always predicts a larger number of mutated cells than global repopulation. However, in certain dose regimes stochastic extinction cannot be ignored, and in these cases the numbers of mutated cells predicted with global repopulation can exceed that for compartmental repopulation. In general, mutant cell numbers are highly overdispersed, with variance much greater than the mean. PMID:17092522

Little, Mark P

2007-03-01

466

DEVELOPMENT OF PREDICTIVE BAYESIAN DOSE-RESPONSE MODEL FOR CCL PATHOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

A Bayesian approach allows for dose-response assessment even when human and animal dose-response data are inadequate in themselves. The project will consist of the development of a mathematical beta-Poisson dose-response model that will formally incorporate empirical and subjecti...

467

Improving dose calculations on tomotherapy MVCT images.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was the creation of a new protocol allowing more precise dose calculations on megavoltage CT (MVCT) images for tomotherapy, both for adaptive and StatRT planning. Daily MVCT images offer, next to positioning purposes, the possibility for daily dose check and adaptive planning. Dose calculations use the image value to density table (IVDT) to calculate physical densities from Hounsfield Units (HUs). These measured HUs change over time, leading to a dose calculation error. We noticed dose calculation variations due to IVDT changes of: 0.2% dose during a day, up to 1.6% dose from long-term variations, and up to 1.5% dose due to technical interventions. An analysis was performed applying the general methodology of a calibration problem. A model HU = b?c - 1020 was obtained using a weighted least squares inverse prediction method (HU as function of density) taking into account the heteroscedasticity. The b parameter is the major variable and depends also on the dose rate (DR). We demonstrate the correction for DR variations and the constance of the c parameter. Instead of scanning the whole tissue characterization phantom daily, we propose a simplified daily protocol: (a) morning airscan-like procedure with only two inserts on the table (defining b and thus the IVDT curve), (b) DR variations throughout the day can be corrected for using the DR model. A patient-specific protocol for which two inserts next to the patient are scanned could also be used, but results in equal uncertainties and is less practical. Therefore we recommend the morning procedure with dose rate variation correction. Applying the proposed transformations and the model, the correct IVDT of the moment can be reconstructed, with a simple measurement in the morning, and corrected with DR changes during the day. This corresponds with a linear mapping in time of the proposed IVDT function. The dosimetric variation is hereby reduced from up to 3% to 0.4 % for the tested pelvic and head-and-neck cases. In practice, several IVDT curves corresponding to "b" values can be entered. The correct IVDT curve of that moment can then be chosen from the list. Instead of the two high-density inserts on table, any calibrated single density phantom could be used in order to create the IVDT curve of the day, but it should have a larger size than the current inserts. PMID:23149791

Crop, Frederik; Bernard, Antoine; Reynaert, Nick

2012-01-01

468

Single-machine scheduling with periodic and flexible periodic maintenance to minimize maximum tardiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a single-machine scheduling problem with several maintenances periods. Specifically, two situations are investigated. In the first one, maintenance periods are periodically fixed: maintenance is required after a periodic time interval. In the second one, the maintenance is not fixed but the maximum continuous working time of the machine which is allowed is determined. The objective is to

Mohammed Sbihi; Christophe Varnier

2008-01-01

469

Maximum intensity projection by 3-dimensional seed filling in view lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we evaluate the performance of a seed filling algorithm operating in viewlattice when rendering maximum intensity projections (MIP). We evaluate the combinationof the seed filling algorithm and the template algorithm. We show that the templatealgorithm is a particularly attractive companion to the seed filling algorithm, becausethe template algorithm allows stepping in all six directions within the resampled

Jarkko T Oikarinen; Lasse J. Jyrkinen

1998-01-01

470

Broadband single cell impedance spectroscopy using maximum length sequences: theoretical analysis and practical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the dielectric (or impedance) properties of cells can be used as a general characterization and diagnostic tool. In this paper, we describe a novel impedance spectroscopy technique for the analysis of single biological cells in suspension. The technique uses maximum length sequences (MLS) for periodic excitation signal in a microfluidic impedance cytometer. The method allows multi-frequency single cell

Tao Sun; Shady Gawad; Catia Bernabini; Nicolas G. Green; Hywel Morgan

2007-01-01

471

Estimation of Pathogen Prevalence in Pooled Samples Using Maximum Likelihood Methods and Open-Source Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide the computer program code to estimate pathogen prevalence and calculate confidence intervals for estimates based on maximum likelihood methods for the open-source statistical and graphics package R and a commercially licensed statistical package, the Statistical Analysis System (SAS). We correct a previously published SAS program to allow use of newer versions of the SAS software and provide a

Christopher J. Williams; Christine M. Moffitt

2005-01-01

472

The Development of a Korean Drug Dosing Database  

PubMed Central

Objectives This report describes the development process of a drug dosing database for ethical drugs approved by the Korea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA). The goal of this study was to develop a computerized system that supports physicians' prescribing decisions, particularly in regards to medication dosing. Methods The advisory committee, comprised of doctors, pharmacists, and nurses from the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, pharmacists familiar with drug databases, KFDA officials, and software developers from the BIT Computer Co. Ltd. analyzed approved KFDA drug dosing information, defined the fields and properties of the information structure, and designed a management program used to enter dosing information. The management program was developed using a web based system that allows multiple researchers to input drug dosing information in an organized manner. The whole process was improved by adding additional input fields and eliminating the unnecessary existing fields used when the dosing information was entered, resulting in an improved field structure. Results A total of 16,994 drugs sold in the Korean market in July 2009, excluding the exclusion criteria (e.g., radioactivity drugs, X-ray contrast medium), usage and dosing information were made into a database. Conclusions The drug dosing database was successfully developed and the dosing information for new drugs can be continually maintained through the management mode. This database will be used to develop the drug utilization review standards and to provide appropriate dosing information. PMID:22259729

Kim, Sun Ah; Kim, Jung Hoon; Jang, Yoo Jin; Jeon, Man Ho; Hwang, Joong Un; Jeong, Young Mi; Choi, Kyung Suk; Lee, Iyn Hyang; Jeon, Jin Ok; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Eun Kyung; Kim, Hong Bin; Chin, Ho Jun; Ha, Ji Hye; Kim, Young Hoon

2011-01-01

473

[Radiation doses from patients undergoing yttrium-90 silicate knee radiosynovectomy].  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken because we could not find references related to the minimal radiation doses emitted from patients treated with (90)Y-silicate colloid ((90)Y-SC) for radiosynectomy (RS). Radiation doses from 16 patients treated with about 181+/-13 MBq (90)Y-SC for RS of knee synovitis were estimated by dose rate measurements performed within 10 min after the (90)Y-SC injection with a calibrated survey dose ratemeter at 0.5 m, 1 m and 2 m distances from the treated joint. The mean dose rate values from the patients after bg subtraction were 0.6+/-0.4 microSv/h at 0.5 m, 0.1+/-0.1 microSv/h at 1 m and 0.1 +/- 0.0 microSv/h at 2 m distance. Dose rates at a distance of 0.5 m were significantly correlated (P<0.02) with the patient's weight but not with the height or the injected activity. The assumed estimated maximum whole body doses from a treated patient were 55 microSv for persons living with the patient, 2.9-3.4 microSv for the nursing staff, 0.2-1.8 microSv for the therapist physician and 0.3-0.6 microSv for the technologist, involved in the whole procedure. The above values were lower than those published with the same methodology for alternative RS radiopharmaceuticals for knee synovitis like dysprosium-165 ferric hydroxide macroaggregate ((165)Dy-FHMA) or holmium-166 ((166)Ho-FHMA), as estimated with their typical injected activities. In conclusion our results demonstrate that in (90)Y-SC knee synovectomy, the whole body radiation doses to medical and non medical personnel were as expected well below the maximum annual dose limits for the public and professionals exposed to radiation. PMID:16617401

Badiavas, Kosmas; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Markou, Pavlos

2006-01-01

474

A review of source term and dose estimation for the TMI-2 reactor accident  

SciTech Connect

The TMI-2 nuclear reactor accident, which occurred on March 28, 1979 in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, produced environmental releases of noble gases and small quantities of radioiodine. The releases occurred over a roughly two week period with almost 90% of the noble gases being released during the first three days after the initiation of the accident. Meteorological conditions during the prolonged release period varied from strong synoptic driven flows that rapidly transported the radioactive gases out of the Harrisburg area to calm situations that allowed the radioactivity to accumulate within the low lying river area and to subsequently slowly disperse within the immediate vicinity of the reactor. The results reported by various analysts, revealed that approximately 2.4--10 million curies of noble gases (mainly Xe-133), and about 14 curies of I-131 were released. During the first two days, when most of the noble gas release occurred, the plume was transported in a northerly direction causing the most exposed area to lie within a northwesterly to northeasterly direction from TMI. Changing surface winds caused the plume to be subsequently transported in a southerly direction, followed by an easterly direction. The calculated maximum whole body dose due to plume passage exceeded 100 mrem over an area extending several kilometers north of the plant, although the highest measured dose was 75 mrem. The collective dose equivalent (within a radius of 80 km) due to the noble gas exposure ranged over several orders of magnitude with a central estimate of 3300 person-rem. The small I-131 release produced barely detectable levels of activity in air and milk samples. This may have produced thyroid doses of a few milirem to a small segment of the population. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Gudiksen, P.H.; Dickerson, M.H.

1990-09-01

475

Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications  

SciTech Connect

Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a /sup 3/He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose.

Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.; Endres, G.W.R.; Durham, J.S.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Tomeraasen, P.L.; Stroud, C.M.; Faust, L.G.; Vallario, E.J.

1988-07-01

476

Allowable shipment frequencies for the transport of toxic gases near nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

One part of the safety analysis of offsite hazards for a nuclear power plant is consideration of accidents which could release toxic gases or vapors and thus jeopardize plant safety through incapacitation of the control room operators. The purpose of this work is to provide generic, bounding estimates of the maximum allowable shipping frequencies for the transport of a chemical near the plant, such that the regulatory criteria for the protection of the operators are met. A probabilistic methodology was developed and then applied to the truck and rail transport of an example chemical, chlorine. The current regulatory criteria are discussed in detail. For this study, a maximum allowable probability of occurrence of operator incapacitation of 10/sup -5/ per year was used in the example calculation for each mode of transport. Comprehensive tables of conditional probabilities are presented. Maximum allowable ahipping frequencies are then derived. These frequencies could be used as part of a generic, bounding criterion for the screening of toxic hazards safety analyses. Unless a transport survey assures shipping frequencies within 8 km of the plant on the order of or lower than 4/week for rail or 35/week for truck, the contol room should be isolatable and the shipping frequency then determines the degree of isolation needed. The need for isolation implies the need for toxic chemical detection at the air intake.For a self-detection case in which the smell threshold is significantly lower than the incapacitation threshold and the control room is isolatable, the corresponding trequencies are 11/week for rail or 115/week for truck. Self-contained breathing equipment is assumed to be used after 5 minutes.

Bennett, D.E.; Heath, D.C.

1982-10-01

477

Significance of including field non-uniformities such as the heel effect and beam scatter in the determination of the skin dose distribution during interventional fluoroscopic procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current version of the real-time skin-dose-tracking system (DTS) we have developed assumes the exposure is contained within the collimated beam and is uniform except for inverse-square variation. This study investigates the significance of factors that contribute to beam non-uniformity such as the heel effect and backscatter from the patient to areas of the skin inside and outside the collimated beam. Dose-calibrated Gafchromic film (XR-RV3, ISP) was placed in the beam in the plane of the patient table at a position 15 cm tube-side of isocenter on a Toshiba Infinix C-Arm system. Separate exposures were made with the film in contact with a block of 20-cm solid water providing backscatter and with the film suspended in air without backscatter, both with and without the table in the beam. The film was scanned to obtain dose profiles and comparison of the profiles for the various conditions allowed a determination of field non-uniformity and backscatter contribution. With the solid-water phantom and with the collimator opened completely for the 20-cm mode, the dose profile decreased by about 40% on the anode side of the field. Backscatter falloff at the beam edge was about 10% from the center and extra-beam backscatter decreased slowly with distance from the field, being about 3% of the beam maximum at 6 cm from the edge. Determination of the magnitude of these factors will allow them to be included in the skin-dose-distribution calculation and should provide a more accurate determination of peak-skin dose for the DTS.

Rana, Vijay; Gill, Kamaljit; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

2012-03-01

478

Site-specific parameter values for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's food pathway dose model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Western South Carolina result in radionuclide releases to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiation doses to the off-site maximum individual and the off-site population within 80 km of the SRS are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are currently generated using dose models prescribed for the

D. M. Hamby

1992-01-01

479

ISSO Information Alert Mozilla Vulnerabilities Could Allow Remote Code Execution  

E-print Network

MULTI-STATE INFORMATION SHARING AND ANALYSIS CENTER CYBER SECURITY ADVISORY MS-ISAC ADVISORY NUMBERISSO Information Alert 2/1/2012 Mozilla Vulnerabilities Could Allow Remote Code ExecutionRequest object to read these error messages, allowing user privacy to be eroded. Cross Domain Security Bypass

Dyer, Bill

480

45 CFR 1217.5 - Allowances and benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Allowances and benefits. The VISTA volunteer leader shall be entitled...allowances and benefits of a VISTA volunteer at the level which...all volunteers on his/her project, except that: (a) The...the date of selection of the VISTA volunteer leader....

2010-10-01

481

Creating a Bigger Bath Using the Deferred Tax Valuation Allowance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:?The provisions of SFAS No. 109 allow US companies to make an earnings big bath even bigger through the establishment of a deferred tax valuation allowance. At the time a firm recognizes a non-cash charge, it also recognizes a deferred tax asset to represent the future tax benefits of the charge. Recognition of the deferred tax asset partially mitigates the

Theodore E. Christensen; Gyung H. Paik; Earl K. Stice

2008-01-01

482

Ragnar Norberg Credibility PremiumPlanswhich Make Allowance  

E-print Network

Ragnar Norberg Credibility PremiumPlanswhich Make Allowance for Bonus Hunger Reprintedfrom-Allowance for BonusHunger Abstxact By "bonus-hunger" is meant the tendency of an experience rated policy holder the policy-holders hunger for bonus. In the first three sections some basic concepts of credibility theory

Maume-Deschamps, Véronique

483

Hospitality, Alcohol, and Other Special Expenses Allowability Grid  

E-print Network

Hospitality, Alcohol, and Other Special Expenses Allowability Grid 1/20/2012 Expense Type Purpose") Event must have a clear mission, outreach, or business-related purpose. No Yes No No Alcoholic beverages or Payroll Services. #12;Hospitality, Alcohol, and Other Special Expenses Allowability Grid Expense Type

Minnesota, University of

484

Auctioning of EU ETS Phase II allowances: how and why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Directive on the EU ETS allows governments to auction up to 10% of the allowances issued in Phase II 2008-2012, without constraints specified thereafter. This paper reviews and extends the long-standing debate about auctioning, in which economists have generally supported and industries opposed greater use of auctioning. The paper clarifies the key issues by reviewing six ‘traditional’ considerations,

Cameron Hepburn; Michael Grubb; Karsten Neuhoff; Felix Matthes; Maximilien Tse

2006-01-01

485

Allowance trading: Correcting the past and looking to the future  

SciTech Connect

Allowance trading is basic to the Title IV acid rain provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) in the United States; the provisions seek to achieve a 10-million-ton reduction in annual sulfur dioxide emissions from the electric power utility industry. Allowance trading, a market-based approach, is conceptually similar to the emissions trading policy of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). An allowance is defined as the authorization to emit, during or after a specified calendar year, one ton of sulfur dioxide. This paper provides an overview of the allowance trading program by summarizing some important features, particularly as they are responsive to limitations and concern as related to the precursor emissions trading program in the early to mid-1980s. Such features include a simple definition of baseline emission levels, encouragements for nationwide trading, disincentives for accumulation of excess allowance,s opportunities for leasing other short-term allowance transfer arrangements, enforcement provisions, and benefits of bonus allowances and early emission reductions. Adherence to implementation protocols for the acid rain provisions of Title IV of the CAAA will provide a good opportunity to evaluate this market-based approach for environmental quality management.

Shah, A.Y.; Canter, L.W. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Environmental and Ground Water Institute

1995-09-01

486

38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An eligible...eligible to receive a work-study allowance when- (i) The...c) Utilization. Work-study services may be utilized in...Hospital and domiciliary care and medical treatment at VA...

2012-07-01

487

38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An eligible...eligible to receive a work-study allowance when- (i) The...c) Utilization. Work-study services may be utilized in...Hospital and domiciliary care and medical treatment at VA...

2011-07-01

488

38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An eligible...eligible to receive a work-study allowance when- (i) The...c) Utilization. Work-study services may be utilized in...Hospital and domiciliary care and medical treatment at VA...

2013-07-01

489

42 CFR 489.31 - Allowable charges: Blood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Allowable charges: Blood. 489.31 Section 489.31 Public...Charges § 489.31 Allowable charges: Blood. (a) Limitations on charges. ...behalf) only for the first three pints of blood or units of packed red cells...

2010-10-01

490

Should the US allow prescription drug reimports from Canada?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of public outrage over lower prescription drug prices in Canada, Congress passed legislation that would allow these drugs to be imported into the US. The lower Canadian prices reflect price regulation. Opponents of allowing these imports have argued that the US will import Canadian price controls and that profits of pharmaceutical companies will be hurt. In this

Paul Pecorino

2002-01-01

491

Recommended DietaryAllowances and Third World Populations1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent publication in the United States of amended Recommended Dietary Allow- ances (RDA) (1), and in United Kingdom of corresponding data (2), make absorbing read- ing to those of us living in juxtaposition with different ethnic groups accustomed to very contrasting intakes of nutrients. It is appre- ciated that these allowances relate primarily to populations in Western contexts, and

A. R. P. Walker; B. F. Walker

492

46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or...

2013-10-01

493

46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or...

2012-10-01

494

46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or...

2011-10-01

495

46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or...

2010-10-01

496

15 CFR 241.7 - Tolerances to be allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...allowed in excess or in deficiency on the dimensions of all barrels of Class 1 shall be as...Length of stave 1/2 (1) If no dimension of a barrel of Class 1 is in error...allowed. (2) If one or more of the dimensions of a barrel of Class 1 is in...

2011-01-01

497

15 CFR 241.7 - Tolerances to be allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...allowed in excess or in deficiency on the dimensions of all barrels of Class 1 shall be as...Length of stave 1/2 (1) If no dimension of a barrel of Class 1 is in error...allowed. (2) If one or more of the dimensions of a barrel of Class 1 is in...

2010-01-01

498

The economics of allowing more U.S. oil drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the likely impact of developing U.S. energy resources on oil prices. In addition, we examine the benefits and costs of allowing drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the areas of the Outer Continental Shelf that were until recently closed to drilling. We find that allowing oil drilling in ANWR and the off-limits OCS would be

Robert Hahn; Peter Passell

2010-01-01

499

Estimation of the Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current models to estimate radiation risk use the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort that received high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Transferring risks from these high dose rates to the low doses and dose rates received by astronauts in space is a source of uncertainty in our risk calculations. The solid cancer models recommended by BEIR VII [1], UNSCEAR [2], and Preston et al [3] is fitted adequately by a linear dose response model, which implies that low doses and