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1

Maximum Tolerated Dose Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-stage maximum repeatable dose (MRD) protocol is described in which the MRD is established by dose incrementation, followed by administration of this dose for at least seven days, with the final stage being single dose administration of the doses anticipated for the one-month studies. The toxicokinetic measurements which are made in support of this protocol are illustrated with data

P. F. Carey; N. W. Spurling

1994-01-01

2

40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

2012-07-01

3

40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.  

...2014-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

2014-07-01

4

40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

2013-07-01

5

40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

2010-07-01

6

40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

2011-07-01

7

An Innovative Phase I Trial Design Allowing for the Identification of Multiple Potential Maximum Tolerated Doses with Combination Therapy of Targeted Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment for cancer often involves combination therapies used both in medical practice and clinical trials. Korn and Simon listed three reasons for the utility of combinations: 1) biochemical synergism, 2) differential susceptibility of tumor cells to different agents, and 3) higher achievable dose intensity by exploiting non-overlapping toxicities to the host. Even if the toxicity profile of each agent of

Sarina A Piha-Paul

2010-01-01

8

30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. 36.44...FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION...44 Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. (a...delivered to MSHA with the fuel-injection system adjusted by the...

2010-07-01

9

42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable and nominal charges. 447.54 Section 447.54 Public...Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal charges. Except as provided at §§...

2012-10-01

10

42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable and nominal charges. 447.54 Section 447.54 Public...Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal charges. Except as provided at §§...

2013-10-01

11

30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ...MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.44 Maximum...allowable fuel rate for operating the equipment at elevations not exceeding 1,000...

2011-07-01

12

30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ...MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.44 Maximum...allowable fuel rate for operating the equipment at elevations not exceeding 1,000...

2012-07-01

13

30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ...MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.44 Maximum...allowable fuel rate for operating the equipment at elevations not exceeding 1,000...

2013-07-01

14

Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle  

SciTech Connect

For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the so called maximum allowable (or critical) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. This is the condition at which vapor blanketing is expected to be initiated. Phenomenological considerations demonstrate why the maximum allowable heat flux would be expected to be less than for single tubes. Hydrodynamic theory is applied to extend the results of Lienhard and Dhir to large submerged bundles and the consequent correlation is compared to the correlation of Palen and Small and the limited data available for saturated conditions. To date the main conclusion is that estimates of q{double_prime}{sub chf} are highly uncertain for this configuration.

McEligot, D.M. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1996-12-31

15

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. 192...192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a...segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds a maximum allowable...

2012-10-01

16

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52.01-55... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an...

2010-10-01

17

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52.01-55... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an...

2013-10-01

18

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. 192...192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a...segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds a maximum allowable...

2013-10-01

19

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52.01-55... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an...

2011-10-01

20

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. 192...192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a...segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds a maximum allowable...

2011-10-01

21

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. 192...192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a...segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds a maximum allowable...

2010-10-01

22

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52.01-55... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an...

2012-10-01

23

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

...not be offset later by increased efficiencies and may severely affect the District's water users by imposing an added “drought” on top of a real one. Therefore, the maximum efficiency debit cushion is set at 26,000 acre-feet. However,...

2014-10-01

24

42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Provisions Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge... (3)(i) For Federal FY 2009, any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service...the maximum deductible, coinsurance or co-payment charge for each admission...

2010-10-01

25

42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Provisions Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge... (3)(i) For Federal FY 2009, any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service...the maximum deductible, coinsurance or co-payment charge for each admission...

2011-10-01

26

77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...transmission pipelines that if the pipeline pressure exceeds maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus the build-up allowed...

2012-12-21

27

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54.10-5...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and...10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a)...

2011-10-01

28

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2013-10-01

29

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2010-10-01

30

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54.10-5...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and...10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a)...

2012-10-01

31

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2011-10-01

32

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2012-10-01

33

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2013-10-01

34

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54.10-5...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and...10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a)...

2010-10-01

35

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54.10-5...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and...10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a)...

2013-10-01

36

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2012-10-01

37

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2010-10-01

38

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2011-10-01

39

Maximum tolerated dose: clinical endpoint for a bygone era?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has been the classically recommended phase II dose for cytotoxic chemotherapy anticancer\\u000a agents. However, the development of molecular targeted therapies with highly specific mechanisms of action has raised questions\\u000a about the paradigm of dosing at the MTD. Inhibition of the molecular target may occur at dose levels substantially below those\\u000a producing dose limiting toxicities. The

Chris H. Takimoto

2009-01-01

40

A bayesian nonparametric approach to determining a maximum tolerated dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Bayesian nonparametric approach to determining a maximum tolerated dose. Typically, this would be carried out in a phase 1 trial. We describe a design and analysis which makes use of the Polya tree prior distributions.

Pietro Muliere; Stephen Walker

1997-01-01

41

An application of reinforced urn processes to determining maximum tolerated dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on reinforced urn process introduced by Muliere et al. [2000. Urn schemes and reinforced random walks. Stochastic Process. Appl. 88(1), 59–78] we propose a Bayesian nonparametric approach to analyse a design determining the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in Phase I clinical trials for new drug development when intrapatient dose escalation is allowed. A predictive distribution of MTD is obtained

Maura Mezzetti; Pietro Muliere; Paolo Bulla

2007-01-01

42

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.611 Section 192.611 Transportation...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding...established maximum allowable operating pressure of a segment of pipeline is not...

2013-10-01

43

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.611 Section 192.611 Transportation...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding...established maximum allowable operating pressure of a segment of pipeline is not...

2010-10-01

44

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.611 Section 192.611 Transportation...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding...established maximum allowable operating pressure of a segment of pipeline is not...

2011-10-01

45

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.611 Section 192.611 Transportation...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding...established maximum allowable operating pressure of a segment of pipeline is not...

2012-10-01

46

30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel:air ratio.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ...MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.44 Maximum...allowable fuel rate for operating the equipment at elevations not exceeding 1,000...

2014-07-01

47

Preliminary estimates of the virtually safe dose for tumors obtained from the maximum tolerated dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to examine the correlation between the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the low-dose estimate of the virtually safe dose (VSD) for animal carcinogens. Chronic bioassay results from the National Cancer Institute\\/National Toxicology Program carcinogenesis screening program were used. Estimates of the VSD were obtained by linear low-dose extrapolation for which an adequate dose-response relationship

D GAYLOR

1989-01-01

48

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion chamber stays shall be 7,500 psi. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of...

2010-10-01

49

41 CFR 302-6.101 - May my agency reduce my TQSE allowance below the “maximum allowable amount”?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... PERMANENT CHANGE OF STATION (PCS) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 6-ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE EXPENSES Actual TQSE Method of Reimbursement § 302-6.101 May my agency reduce my TQSE allowance below...

2010-07-01

50

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

Langford, Shannon D.

2007-01-01

51

Pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled particles and the maximum tolerated dose.  

PubMed Central

Chronic inhalation bioassays in rodents are used to assess pulmonary carcinogenicity for purposes of hazard identification and potentially for risk characterization. The influence of high experimental doses on tumor development has been recognized for some time and has led to the concept of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for dose selection, with the highest dose being at the MTD. Exposure at the MTD should ensure that the animals are sufficiently challenged while at the same time the animal's normal longevity is not altered from effects other than carcinogenicity. A characteristic of exposure-dose-response relationships for chronically inhaled particles is that lung tumors are significantly increased only at high exposure levels, and that lung tumors are seen in rats only but not in mice or hamsters. This lung tumor response in rats is thought to be secondary to persistent alveolar inflammation, indicating that the MTD may have been exceeded. Thus, mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity may be dose dependent and may not operate at lower doses that humans normally experience. Despite awareness of this problem, carcinogenicity bioassays that evaluate particulate compounds in rodents have not always been designed with the MTD concept in mind. This is due to several problems associated with determining an appropriate MTD for particle inhalation studies. One requirement for the MTD is that some toxicity should be observed. However, it is difficult to define what degree of toxic response is indicative of the MTD. For particle inhalation studies, various noncancer end points in addition to mortality and body weight gain have been considered as indicators of the MTD, i.e., pulmonary inflammation, increased epithelial cell proliferation, increased lung weight, impairment of particle clearance function, and significant histopathological findings at the end of a subchronic study. However, there is no general agreement about quantification of these end points to define the MTD. To determine whether pulmonary responses are indicative of the MTD, we suggest defining an MTD based on results of a multidose subchronic and chronic inhalation study with a known human particulate carcinogen, e.g., asbestos or crystalline silica. Quantification of effects in such a study using the noncancer end points listed above would identify a dose level without significant signs of toxicity at the end of the subchronic study. If this dose level still results in significant lung tumor incidence at the end of the chronic study. We will have a sound basis for characterizing the MTD and justifying its use in future particle inhalation studies. Also, a better understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of particle-induced lung tumors is needed to support the MTD concept. PMID:9400749

Oberdörster, G

1997-01-01

52

A nomogram for calculating the maximum dose of local anaesthetic.  

PubMed

Toxic dose limits (mg.kg(-1)) for local anaesthetics based on body weight are well-established, but calculation of the maximum safe volume (ml) of a given agent and formulation is complex, and frequently results in errors. We therefore developed a nomogram to perform this calculation. We compared the performance of the nomogram with a spreadsheet and a general purpose calculator using simulated clinical data. Bland-Altman analysis showed close agreement between the nomogram and spreadsheet, with bias of -0.07 ml and limits of agreement of -0.38 to +0.24 ml (correlation coefficient r(2) = 0.9980; p < 0.001). The nomogram produced fewer and smaller errors compared with the calculator. Our nomogram calculates the maximum safe volume (ml) of local anaesthetic to a clinically acceptable degree of accuracy. It facilitates rapid cross-checking of dosage calculations performed by electronic or other means at negligible cost, and can potentially reduce the incidence of local anaesthetic toxicity. PMID:24820093

Williams, D J; Walker, J D

2014-08-01

53

Maximum tolerable dose (MTD): a new index for ultraviolet radiation toxicity in the lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum tolerable dose (MTD2.3:16) for avoidance of cataract on exposure to UVR-300 nm in the rat was currently estimated to 3.65 kJ\\/m2. For this, Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally exposed to UVR in the 300 nm wavelength region, generated with a high pressure mercury arc source. The intensity of forward light scattering was measured one week after exposure. MTD allows

Per G. Soederberg; Stefan Loefgren; Marcelo Ayala; M. Kakar

2001-01-01

54

Preliminary estimates of the virtually safe dose for tumors obtained from the maximum tolerated dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper was to examine the correlation between the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the low-dose estimate of the virtually safe dose (VSD) for animal carcinogens. Chronic bioassay results from the National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program carcinogenesis screening program were used. Estimates of the VSD were obtained by linear low-dose extrapolation for which an adequate dose-response relationship existed at the same tumor site in the same sex for both rats and mice. Estimates of the VSD were compared with the MTD for 69 tumor sites from 38 chemicals for rats and mice. The MTDs ranged from high to low toxicity (1 ppb to 4.4% in the diet). The overall geometric mean of the ratio of the MTD to the VSD corresponding to a maximum estimated risk of 10(-6) was 3.8 x 10(5). Of the 138 cases, only 3 cases were more than a factor of 10 from the mean ratio. This suggested that a quick estimate of the VSD could be obtained by dividing the MTD, obtained from a subchronic study, by 400,000. Further, if the human exposure is less than 10(-7) X MTD, the estimated risk is likely to be negligible even if the chemical is a carcinogen. It may not be worthwhile to conduct a chronic bioassay for the purpose of demonstrating a negligible risk, if the chemical is likely to be carcinogenic, unless the human exposure is extremely low.

Gaylor, D.W.

1989-04-01

55

The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

2009-01-01

56

Toxicological approach to setting spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for carbon monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are exposure limits for airborne chemicals used by NASA in spacecraft. The aim of these SMACs is to protect the spacecrew against adverse health effects and performance decrements that would interfere with mission objectives. Because of the 1 and 24 hr SMACs are set for contingencies, minor reversible toxic effects that do not affect mission objectives are acceptable. The 7, 30, or 180 day SMACs are aimed at nominal operations, so they are established at levels that would not cause noncarcinogenic toxic effects and more than one case of tumor per 1000 exposed individuals over the background. The process used to set the SMACs for carbon monoxide (CO) is described to illustrate the approach used by NASA. After the toxicological literature on CO was reviewed, the data were summarized and separated into acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity data. CO's toxicity depends on the formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood, reducing the blood's oxygen carrying capacity. The initial task was to estimate the COHb levels that would not produce toxic effects in the brain and heart.

Wong, K. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

1992-01-01

57

5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS...uniform allowance rate applicable to the initial year a new style or type of minimum basic uniform is required for a...

2010-01-01

58

47 CFR 65.700 - Determining the maximum allowable rate of return.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of one percent of the exchange carrier prescribed rate of return. (b) The...of one percent to the exchange carrier prescribed rate of return. (c) The...allowable rate of return for rates filed by local exchange carrier subject...

2010-10-01

59

The Expected Toxicity Rate at the Maximum Tolerated Dose in Bridging Studies in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bridging study has been recommended to determine the maximum tolerated dose in Alzheimer's disease patients, because the maximum tolerated dose in the Alzheimer's disease patient population versus the normal population can vary greatly. Although bridging studies in Alzheimer's disease have often been conducted, it is surprising to note that very little is known about the statistical properties of the

Seung-Ho Kang; Chul Ahn

2005-01-01

60

Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose  

E-print Network

Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose This paper addresses the problem of power and sample size calculation for a stepwise multiple test procedure functions, respectively. The sample sizes necessary on the zero dose control and each of the positive doses

Tamhane, Ajit C.

61

Maximum entropy production allows a simple representation of heterogeneity in semiarid ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Feedbacks between water use, biomass and infiltration capacity in semiarid ecosystems have been shown to lead to the spontaneous formation of vegetation patterns in a simple model. The formation of patterns permits the maintenance of larger overall biomass at low rainfall rates compared with homogeneous vegetation. This results in a bias of models run at larger scales neglecting subgrid-scale variability. In the present study, we investigate the question whether subgrid-scale heterogeneity can be parameterized as the outcome of optimal partitioning between bare soil and vegetated area. We find that a two-box model reproduces the time-averaged biomass of the patterns emerging in a 100 × 100 grid model if the vegetated fraction is optimized for maximum entropy production (MEP). This suggests that the proposed optimality-based representation of subgrid-scale heterogeneity may be generally applicable to different systems and at different scales. The implications for our understanding of self-organized behaviour and its modelling are discussed. PMID:20368263

Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Kleidon, Axel; Stieglitz, Marc; Narula, Jatin

2010-01-01

62

Dose Escalation Study for Defining the Maximum Tolerated Dose of Continuous Oral Trofosfamide in Pretreated Patients with Metastatic Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Trofosfamide is increasingly used in the treatment of patients with several types of malignancies. However, the optimal dose of trofosfamide for patients with advanced cancer has not been systematically investigated yet. The aim of this study was to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of continuous oral trofosfamide. Patients and Methods: 16 patients with advanced lung cancer (14 nonsmall

S.-E. Al-Batran; A. Atmaca; F. Bert; C. Frisch; A. Neumann; J. Orth; A. Knuth

2004-01-01

63

The effect of maximum-allowable payload temperature on the mass of a multimegawatt space-based platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations were performed to determine the mass of a space-based platform as a function of the maximum-allowed operating temperature of the electrical equipment within the platform payload. Two computer programs were used in conjunction to perform these calculations. The first program was used to determine the mass of the platform reactor, shield, and power conversion system. The second program was

Dobranich

1987-01-01

64

A Bayesian evaluation of enrolling additional patients at the maximum tolerated dose in Phase I trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of the dose escalation stage of Phase I trials, investigators occasionally enroll additional patients at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) to further explore the tolerability of the regimen. There is no explicit statistical justification for doing so; neither are there any guidelines regarding the use of toxicity information from this additional cohort with respect to the modification

Mithat Gönen

2005-01-01

65

Estimating the Maximum Effective Dose in a Quantitative Dose-Response Experiment1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation study was conducted to compare several procedures for estimating the maxi- mum effective dose in a quantitative dose-response experiment. Using four equally spaced dose levels, data were generated from four different model types: the quadratic growth curve, the Mitcherlich growth curve, the linear-linear plateau spline model, and the quadratic-linear plateau spline model. Each model type was parameterized to

Marta D. Remmenga; George A. Milliken; Dal Kratzer; James R. Schwenke; Henry R. Rolka

66

Estimation of maximum tolerated dose for long-term bioassays from acute lethal dose and structure by QSAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model has been developed to estimate maximum tolerated doses (MTD) from structural features of chemicals and the corresponding oral acute lethal doses (LD50) as determined in male rats. The model is based on a set of 269 diverse chemicals which have been tested under the National Cancer Institute\\/National Toxicology Program (NCI\\/NTP) protocols. The rat oral

Viay K. Gombar; Kurt Enslein; Jeffrey B. Hart; Benjamin W. Blake; Harold H. Borgstedt

1991-01-01

67

Quick Estimate of the Regulatory Virtually Safe Dose Based on the Maximum Tolerated Dose for Rodent Bioassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a limited subset of National Cancer Institute\\/National Toxicology Program (NCI\\/NTP) bioassays, Gaylor (Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 9, 101-108, 1989) showed that the regulatory virtually safe dose (VSD), corresponding to an estimated lifetime cancer risk of less than 10?6, could be estimated within a factor of 10 simply by dividing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), estimated from the results of a

D. W. Gaylor; L. S. Gold

1995-01-01

68

The effect of maximum-allowable payload temperature on the mass of a multimegawatt space-based platform  

SciTech Connect

Calculations were performed to determine the mass of a space-based platform as a function of the maximum-allowed operating temperature of the electrical equipment within the platform payload. Two computer programs were used in conjunction to perform these calculations. The first program was used to determine the mass of the platform reactor, shield, and power conversion system. The second program was used to determine the mass of the main and secondary radiators of the platform. The main radiator removes the waste heat associated with the power conversion system and the secondary radiator removes the waste heat associated with the platform payload. These calculations were performed for both Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with two different types of payload cooling systems: a pumped-loop system (a heat exchanger with a liquid coolant) and a refrigerator system. The results indicate that increases in the maximum-allowed payload temperature offer significant platform mass savings for both the Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with either the pumped-loop or refrigerator payload cooling systems. Therefore, with respect to platform mass, the development of high temperature electrical equipment would be advantageous. 3 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

Dobranich, D.

1987-08-01

69

Bayesian designs of phase II oncology trials to select maximum effective dose assuming monotonic dose-response relationship  

PubMed Central

Background For many molecularly targeted agents, the probability of response may be assumed to either increase or increase and then plateau in the tested dose range. Therefore, identifying the maximum effective dose, defined as the lowest dose that achieves a pre-specified target response and beyond which improvement in the response is unlikely, becomes increasingly important. Recently, a class of Bayesian designs for single-arm phase II clinical trials based on hypothesis tests and nonlocal alternative prior densities has been proposed and shown to outperform common Bayesian designs based on posterior credible intervals and common frequentist designs. We extend this and related approaches to the design of phase II oncology trials, with the goal of identifying the maximum effective dose among a small number of pre-specified doses. Methods We propose two new Bayesian designs with continuous monitoring of response rates across doses to identify the maximum effective dose, assuming monotonicity of the response rate across doses. The first design is based on Bayesian hypothesis tests. To determine whether each dose level achieves a pre-specified target response rate and whether the response rates between doses are equal, multiple statistical hypotheses are defined using nonlocal alternative prior densities. The second design is based on Bayesian model averaging and also uses nonlocal alternative priors. We conduct simulation studies to evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed designs, and compare them with three alternative designs. Results In terms of the likelihood of drawing a correct conclusion using similar between-design average sample sizes, the performance of our proposed design based on Bayesian hypothesis tests and nonlocal alternative priors is more robust than that of the other designs. Specifically, the proposed Bayesian hypothesis test-based design has the largest probability of being the best design among all designs under comparison and the smallest probability of being an inadequate design, under sensible definitions of the best design and an inadequate design, respectively. Conclusions The use of Bayesian hypothesis tests and nonlocal alternative priors under ordering constraints between dose groups results in a robust performance of the design, which is thus superior to other common designs. PMID:25074481

2014-01-01

70

Biological standardization and maximum tolerated dose estimation of an Alternaria alternata allergenic extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The manufacture of allergenic extracts from the mold Alternaria alternata is influenced by factors such as strain variability, allergenic origin, culturing conditions and extraction process, which affect the reproducibility of the preparations intended for diagnostic and therapeutic use. Objectives: To select the most adequate antigenic source of A. alternata extracts and determine its maximum tolerated dose (MTD) to be

M. T. Lizaso; A. Martínez; J. A. Asturias; J. Algorta; B. Madariaga; N. Labarta; A. I. Tabar

71

Fludarabine Allows Dose Reduction for Total Body Irradiation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine, in the setting of total body irradiation (TBI) for the preparation of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), whether TBI dose can be reduced without compromising the efficacy of a regimen consisting of fludarabine and radiotherapy; and whether there is any increased risk of pulmonary toxicity due to the radiosensitizing effect of fludarabine. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies received TBI-based conditioning regimens in preparation for allogeneic HSCT. Twenty-three patients received 12 Gy in 4 daily fractions in combination with cyclophosphamide, either alone or with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Twenty-nine patients received 9 Gy in 3 fractions in conjunction with fludarabine and melphalan. Clinical and radiation records were reviewed to determine engraftment, pulmonary toxicity (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria), transplant-related mortality, recurrence of primary disease, and overall survival. Results: The two groups of patients had comparable pretransplant clinical characteristics. For the 12-Gy and 9-Gy regimens, the engraftment (89% and 93%; p = 0.82), freedom from life-threatening pulmonary events (65% and 79%; p = 0.33), freedom from relapse (60% and 73%; p = 0.24), and overall survival (26% and 47%; p = 0.09) were not statistically different. Conclusions: The addition of fludarabine and melphalan seems to allow the dose of TBI to be lowered to 9 Gy without loss of engraftment or antitumor efficacy.

Kornguth, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States)]. E-mail: dkorngut@mdanderson.org; Mahajan, Anita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Woo, Shiao [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Chan, Ka Wah [Division of Pediatrics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Antolak, John [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Ha, Chul S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States)

2007-07-15

72

High-dose ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide: maximum tolerable doses, toxicities, and hematopoietic recovery after autologous stem cell reinfusion.  

PubMed

We treated 115 patients in a phase I/II dose-escalation study of ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide (ICE) followed by autologous stem cell rescue. Patients treated had a variety of diagnoses, including breast cancer (high-risk stage II disease with eight or more positive nodes, stage III disease, and responsive metastatic disease), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, acute leukemia in first remission, and various solid tumors that were responsive to induction therapy. Patients received autologous bone marrow stem cells or peripheral blood stem cells primed by one of several methods. The maximum tolerated dose of ICE was determined to be ifosfamide 20,100 mg/m2, carboplatin 1,800 mg/m2, and etoposide 3,000 mg/m2 when administered as a 6-day regimen. The dose-limiting toxicities included acute renal failure, severe central nervous system toxicity, and "leaky capillary syndrome" with hypoalbuminemia, profound fluid overload, and pulmonary insufficiency. Analysis of hematologic recovery based on stem cell source and influence of hematopoietic growth factor administration was undertaken. Hematopoietic growth factor use significantly reduced neutrophil engraftment time for patients receiving bone marrow stem cells, with evidence of earlier recovery times for patients receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Neutrophil recovery times varied based on the source of stem cells used, with the earliest engraftment times seen for patients receiving peripheral blood stem cells primed with cyclophosphamide and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Platelet recovery times were not statistically different for any of the subsets. In conclusion, the maximum tolerated dose of ICE has been defined, and the source of stem cells and the use of hematopoietic growth factors influence hematopoietic recovery. PMID:7527592

Fields, K K; Elfenbein, G J; Perkins, J B; Janssen, W E; Ballester, O F; Hiemenz, J W; Zorsky, P E; Kronish, L E; Foody, M C

1994-10-01

73

A novel iterative reconstruction algorithm allows reduced dose multidetector-row CT imaging of mechanical prosthetic heart valves.  

PubMed

Multidetector-row CT is promising for prosthetic heart valve (PHV) assessment but retrospectively ECG-gated scanning has a considerable radiation dose. Recently introduced iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms may enable radiation dose reduction with retained image quality. Furthermore, PHV image quality on the CT scan mainly depends on extent of PHV artifacts. IR may decrease streak artifacts. We compared image noise and artifact volumes in scans of mechanical PHVs reconstructed with conventional filtered back projection (FBP) to lower dose scans reconstructed with IR. Four different PHVs (St. Jude, Carbomedics, ON-X and Medtronic Hall) were scanned in a pulsatile in vitro model. Ten retrospectively ECG-gated CT scans were performed of each PHV at 120 kV, 600 mAs (high-dose CTDI(vol) 35.3 mGy) and 120 kV, 300 mAs (low-dose CTDI(vol) 17.7 mGy) on a 64 detector-row scanner. Diastolic and systolic images were reconstructed with FBP (high and low-dose) and the IR algorithm (low-dose only). Hypo- and hyperdense artifact volumes were determined using two threshold filters. Image noise was measured. Mean hypo- and hyperdense artifact volumes (mm(3)) were 1,235/5,346 (high-dose FBP); 2,405/6,877 (low-dose FBP) and 1,218/5,333 (low-dose IR). Low-dose IR reconstructions had similar image noise compared to high-dose FBP (16.5 ± 1.7 vs. 16.3 ± 1.6, mean ± SD, respectively, P = 1.0). IR allows ECG-gated PHV imaging with similar image noise and PHV artifacts at 50% less dose compared to conventional FBP in an pulsatile in vitro model. PMID:22002686

Habets, Jesse; Symersky, Petr; de Mol, Bas A J M; Mali, Willem P Th M; Leiner, Tim; Budde, Ricardo P J

2012-08-01

74

A constrained maximum likelihood approach to evaluate the impact of dose metric on cancer risk assessment: application to ?-chloroprene.  

PubMed

?-Chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, CD) is used in the manufacture of polychloroprene rubber. Chronic inhalation studies have demonstrated that CD is carcinogenic in B6C3F1 mice and Fischer 344 rats. However, epidemiological studies do not provide compelling evidence for an increased risk of mortality from total cancers of the lung. Differences between the responses observed in animals and humans may be related to differences in toxicokinetics, the metabolism and detoxification of potentially active metabolites, as well as species differences in sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a novel method that combines the results from available physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models for chloroprene with a statistical maximum likelihood approach to test commonality of low-dose risk across species. This method allows for the combined evaluation of human and animal cancer study results to evaluate the difference between predicted risks using both external and internal dose metrics. The method applied to mouse and human CD data supports the hypothesis that a PBK-based metric reconciles the differences in mouse and human low-dose risk estimates and further suggests that, after PBK metric exposure adjustment, humans are equally or less sensitive than mice to low levels of CD exposure. PMID:25010378

Allen, B C; Van Landingham, C; Yang, Y; Youk, A O; Marsh, G M; Esmen, N; Gentry, P R; Clewell, H J; Himmelstein, M W

2014-10-01

75

41 CFR 304-5.4 - May we authorize an employee to exceed the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...authorized acceptance of payment from a non-Federal source for such allowances...System PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE AGENCY REQUIREMENTS...authorized acceptance of payment from a non-Federal source for such...

2011-07-01

76

41 CFR 304-5.4 - May we authorize an employee to exceed the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...authorized acceptance of payment from a non-Federal source for such allowances...System PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE AGENCY REQUIREMENTS...authorized acceptance of payment from a non-Federal source for such...

2010-07-01

77

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apparatus. The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...section, the concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas at...inhalation portion of the breathing cycle shall not exceed the following...allowable average concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired air...

2013-10-01

78

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

...apparatus. The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...section, the concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas at...inhalation portion of the breathing cycle shall not exceed the following...allowable average concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired air...

2014-10-01

79

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apparatus. The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...section, the concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas at...inhalation portion of the breathing cycle shall not exceed the following...allowable average concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired air...

2010-10-01

80

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...apparatus. The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...section, the concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas at...inhalation portion of the breathing cycle shall not exceed the following...allowable average concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired air...

2012-10-01

81

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...apparatus. The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...section, the concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas at...inhalation portion of the breathing cycle shall not exceed the following...allowable average concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired air...

2011-10-01

82

Pilot Study of Low-Dose, Divided Maximum Tolerated Dose of CPT11 in 21 Consecutive Patients with Metastatic Colorectal or Gastric Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose We devised a new treatment regimen, delivering a frequent low dose of CPT-11, calculated by dividing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) to reduce its toxicity without impairing its efficacy. Methods CPI-11, 25?mg\\/m 2, determined by dividing the MTD dose per month by 12, was given on days 1, 2, and 3 of every week, to 21 consecutive patients; 12

Yutaka Takahashi; Hidekazu Kitakata; Kaname Yamashita; Kazuo Yasumoto; Kazuhiko Omote; Toshinari Minamoto; Masayoshi Mai

2004-01-01

83

Comparison of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) dermal response in three strains of mice following repeated exposure to acrylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dermal response of three strains of mice (ICR, C3H and B6C3F,) exposed to repeated doses of 0, l or 4% acrylic acid was examined over 13 wk. Microscopic and gross changes to the skin were classified as being indicative of exceeding the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), reaching the MTD, or tolerating the dose based on proposed MTD guidelines established

J. E. McLaughlin; J. Parno; F. M. Garner; J. J. Clary; W. C. Thomas; S. R. Murphy

1995-01-01

84

An overview of the report: Correlation between carcinogenic potency and the maximum tolerated dose: Implications for risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current practice in carcinogen bioassay calls for exposure of experimental animals at doses up to and including the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Such studies have been used to compute measures of carcinogenic potency such as the TD[sub 50] as well as unit risk factors such as q[sub 1] for predicting low-dose risks. Recent studies have indicated that these measures of

D. Krewski; D. W. Gaylor; A. P. Soms; M. Szyszkowicz

1993-01-01

85

Regulatory Cancer Risk Assessment Based on a Quick Estimate of a Benchmark Dose Derived from the Maximum Tolerated Dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency carcinogen risk assessment guidelines employ a benchmark dose as a point of departure (POD) for low-dose risk assessment. If information on the carcinogenic mode of action for a chemical supports a nonlinear dose–response curve below the POD, a margin-of-exposure ratio between the POD and anticipated human exposure would be considered. The POD would be

David W. Gaylor; Lois Swirsky Gold

1998-01-01

86

Maximum Tolerable Dose and Low-Dose Metronomic Chemotherapy Have Opposite Effects on the Mobilization and Viability of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that vasculogenesis (progenitor cell-derived generation of new blood vessels) is required for the growth of some neoplastic diseases. Here we show that the administration of cyclophos- phamide (CTX) at the maximum tolerable dose with 21-day breaks or at more frequent low-dose (metronomic) schedules have opposite effects on the mobilization and viability of circulating endothelial progenitors (CEPs)

Francesco Bertolini; Saki Paul; Patrizia Mancuso; Silvia Monestiroli; Alberto Gobbi; Yuval Shaked; Robert S. Kerbel

2003-01-01

87

A Systemic Exposure-Based Alternative to the Maximum Tolerated Dose for Carcinogenicity Studies of Human Therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systemic exposure-based alternative to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for high-dose selection in carcinogenicity studies for human therapeutics was accepted at the Second International Conference on Harmonization (ICH-2). The systemic exposure-based alternative to the MTD is suitable for nongenotoxic compounds with low rodent toxicity that are metabolized similarly in rodents and humans. This is the first product of an

Joseph F. Contrera; Abigail C. Jacobs; Hullahalli R. Prasanna; Mehul Mehta; Wendelyn J. Schmidt; Joseph De. George

1995-01-01

88

Application of Preclinical Data to Initiate the Modified Continual Reassessment Method for Maximum Tolerated Dose–Finding Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate whether the allometric approach can be used to predict maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in humans from animal data. Twenty-five anticancer drugs were taken from the literature and used in this analysis. The results of the study indicate that MTD can be predicted with reasonable accuracy using interspecies scaling. The predicted MTD can then be

Iftekhar Mahmood

2001-01-01

89

An appreciation of the maximum tolerated dose: an inadequately precise decision point in designing a carcinogenesis bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancers arise in specific tissues. One difficulty with the present definitions of the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), as they pertain to the rodent cancer bioassay, is that they base MTD on relatively crude parameters associated with the well-being of the entire animal rather than with the lack of specific tissue toxicity. Additional factors that could be included in the MTD

David B. Clayson; Frank Iverson; Rudolf Mueller

1991-01-01

90

The Expected Toxicity Rate at the Maximum Tolerated Dose in the Standard Phase I Cancer Clinical Trial Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A main purpose of Phase I cancer clinical trials is to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a new agent for experimentation in Phase II and III studies. The continual reassessment method has been shown to be superior to the standard design. However, in practice, the standard design has still been widely used. Therefore, it is important to investigate

Seung-Ho Kang; Chul Ahn

2001-01-01

91

Dose dependent cataractogenesis and Maximum Tolerable Dose (MTD 2.3:16) for UVR 300 nm-induced cataract in C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the in vivo dose response function for UVR 300nm-induced cataract in the C57BL\\/6J mouse lens and to establish a cataract threshold estimate expressed as Maximum Tolerable Dose (MTD2.3:16) for UVR 300 nm-induced cataract in the C57BL\\/6J mouse lens. Knowledge of the MTD2.3:16 in the C57BL\\/6J mouse will permit quantitative in vivo

Linda M. Meyer; Xiuqin Dong; Alfred Wegener; Per Söderberg

2008-01-01

92

Sustained long-term hematologic efficacy of hydroxyurea at maximum tolerated dose in children with sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyurea improves hematologic pa- rameters for children with sickle cell dis- ease (SCD), but its long-term efficacy at maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been determined. Between 1995 and 2002, hydroxyurea therapy was initiated for 122 pediatric patients with SCD including 106 with homozygous sickle cell anemia (HbSS), 7 with sickle hemoglobin C (HbSC), 7 with sickle\\/-thalassemia (HbS\\/ -thalassemia (6

Sherri A. Zimmerman; William H. Schultz; Jacqueline S. Davis; Chrisley V. Pickens; Nicole A. Mortier; Thad A. Howard; Russell E. Ware

2003-01-01

93

Maximum tolerable dose for avoidance of cataract induced by ultraviolet radiation-B for 18 to 60 week old rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the maximum tolerable dose for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract in rats in the age interval 18–60 weeks and establish the functional relationship between age and sensitivity to UVR-B. Four groups of 20 albino Sprague–Dawley rats each, aged 18, 26, 40 or 60 weeks, were included. Each age group was divided into

Xiuqin Dong; Stefan Löfgren; Marcelo Ayala; Per G. Söderberg

2005-01-01

94

An overview of the report: Correlation between carcinogenic potency and the maximum tolerated dose: Implications for risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Current practice in carcinogen bioassay calls for exposure of experimental animals at doses up to and including the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Such studies have been used to compute measures of carcinogenic potency such as the TD[sub 50] as well as unit risk factors such as q[sub 1] for predicting low-dose risks. Recent studies have indicated that these measures of carcinogenic potency are highly correlated with the MTD. Carcinogenic potency has also been shown to be correlated with indicators of mutagenicity and toxicity. Correlation of the MTDs for rats and mice implies a corresponding correlation in TD[sub 50] values for these two species. The implications of these results for cancer risk assessment are examined in light of the large variation in potency among chemicals known to induce tumors in rodents. 119 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Krewski, D. (Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada) Carleton Univ. Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Gaylor, D.W. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)); Soms, A.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)); Szyszkowicz, M. (Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1993-08-01

95

Maximum tolerable dose of red pepper decreases fat intake independently of spicy sensation in the mouth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary red pepper suppresses energy intake and modifies macronutrient intake. We have investigated whether a stimulus in the mouth and the sensation of spiciness are necessary for red pepper-induced changes in energy and macronutrient intake in human volunteers. In a preliminary test, sixteen Japanese male volunteers tasted samples of a soup with graded doses of red pepper in order to

Mayumi Yoshioka; Makoto Imanaga; Hiromi Ueyama; Miya Yamane; Yoshiko Kubo; André Boivin; Jonny St-Amand; Hiroaki Tanaka; Akira Kiyonaga

2004-01-01

96

A multi-head intradermal electroporation device allows for tailored and increased dose DNA vaccine delivery to the skin.  

PubMed

The identification of an effective and tolerable delivery method is a necessity for the success of DNA vaccines in the clinic. This manuscript describes the development and validation of a multi-headed intradermal electroporation device which would be applicable for delivering multiple DNA vaccine plasmids simultaneously but spatially separated. Reporter gene plasmids expressing green and red fluorescent proteins were used to demonstrate the impact of spatial separation on DNA delivery to increase the number of transfected cells and avoid interference through visible expression patterns. To investigate the impact of plasmid interference on immunogenicity, a disease target was investigated where issues with multi-valent vaccines had been previously described. DNA-based Hantaan and Puumala virus vaccines were delivered separately or as a combination and the effect of multi-valence was determined by appropriate assays. While a negative impact was observed for both antigenic vaccines when delivered together, these effects were mitigated when the vaccine was delivered using the multi-head device. We also demonstrate how the multi-head device facilitates higher dose delivery to the skin resulting in improved immune responses. This new multi-head platform device is an efficient, tolerable and non-invasive method to deliver multiple plasmid DNA constructs simultaneously allowing the tailoring of delivery sites for combination vaccines. Additionally, this device would allow the delivery of multi-plasmid vaccine formulations without risk of impacted immune responses through interference. Such a low-cost, easy to use device platform for the delivery of multi-agent DNA vaccines would have direct applications by the military and healthcare sectors for mass vaccination purposes. PMID:25483486

McCoy, Jay R; Mendoza, Janess M; Spik, Kristin W; Badger, Catherine; Gomez, Alan F; Schmaljohn, Connie S; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Broderick, Kate E

2014-07-01

97

A multi-head intradermal electroporation device allows for tailored and increased dose DNA vaccine delivery to the skin.  

PubMed

The identification of an effective and tolerable delivery method is a necessity for the success of DNA vaccines in the clinic. This manuscript describes the development and validation of a multi-headed intradermal electroporation device which would be applicable for delivering multiple DNA vaccine plasmids simultaneously but spatially separated.   Reporter gene plasmids expressing green and red fluorescent proteins were used to demonstrate the impact of spatial separation on DNA delivery to increase the number of transfected cells and avoid interference through visible expression patterns. To investigate the impact of plasmid interference on immunogenicity, a disease target was investigated where issues with multi-valent vaccines had been previously described. DNA-based Hantaan and Puumala virus vaccines were delivered separately or as a combination and the effect of multi-valence was determined by appropriate assays. While a negative impact was observed for both antigenic vaccines when delivered together, these effects were mitigated when the vaccine was delivered using the multi-head device. We also demonstrate how the multi-head device facilitates higher dose delivery to the skin resulting in improved immune responses. This new multi-head platform device is an efficient, tolerable and non-invasive method to deliver multiple plasmid DNA constructs simultaneously allowing the tailoring of delivery sites for combination vaccines. Additionally, this device would allow the delivery of multi-plasmid vaccine formulations without risk of impacted immune responses through interference. Such a low-cost, easy to use device platform for the delivery of multi-agent DNA vaccines would have direct applications by the military and healthcare sectors for mass vaccination purposes. PMID:25003329

McCoy, Jay B; Mendoza, Janess M; Spik, Kristin W; Badger, Catherine; Gomez, Alan; Schmaljohn, Connie S; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Broderick, Kate E

2014-07-01

98

Maximum tolerable dose for avoidance of cataract after repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of inter-exposure interval between repeated equivalent exposures of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on threshold accumulated dose for cataract development. Female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 inter-exposure interval groups with 20 rats in each group. The inter-exposure intervals were 6h, 1, 3, 9 and 30days respectively. Each inter-exposure interval

Xiuqin Dong; Stefan Löfgren; Marcelo Ayala; Per G. Söderberg

2007-01-01

99

A study to determine the safety profile and maximum tolerated dose of micafungin (FK463) in patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This open-label, dose-escalation study assessed the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the new antifungal micafungin in patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Participants received 3, 4, 6 or 8 mg\\/kg\\/day micafungin intravenously from 7 days to a maximum of 28 days or until neutropaenia resolved. The MTD was defined as the highest dose not causing the same Grade 3

B Sirohi; R L Powles; R Chopra; N Russell; J L Byrne; H G Prentice; M Potter; S Koblinger

2006-01-01

100

A Comparative Analysis of Low-Dose Metronomic Cyclophosphamide Reveals Absent or Low-Grade Toxicity on Tissues Highly Sensitive to the Toxic Effects of Maximum Tolerated Dose Regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival benefits of traditional maximum tolerated dose (MTD) cytotoxic therapy have been modest for the treatment of most types of metastatic malignancy and, moreover, often come with increased acute and chronic toxicity. Recent studies have demonstrated that the frequent administration of comparatively low doses of cytotoxic agents, with no extended breaks (low-dose metronomic (LDM) chemotherapy), may not only be

Urban Emmenegger; Shan Man; Yuval Shaked; Giulio Francia; John W. Wong; Daniel J. Hicklin; Robert S. Kerbel

2004-01-01

101

A gradient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for computing multivariate maximum likelihood estimates and posterior distributions: mixture dose-response assessment.  

PubMed

Multivariate probability distributions, such as may be used for mixture dose-response assessment, are typically highly parameterized and difficult to fit to available data. However, such distributions may be useful in analyzing the large electronic data sets becoming available, such as dose-response biomarker and genetic information. In this article, a new two-stage computational approach is introduced for estimating multivariate distributions and addressing parameter uncertainty. The proposed first stage comprises a?gradient Markov chain Monte Carlo?(GMCMC) technique to find Bayesian posterior mode estimates (PMEs) of parameters, equivalent to maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) in the absence of subjective information. In the second stage, these estimates are used to initialize a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, replacing the conventional burn-in period to allow convergent simulation of the full joint Bayesian posterior distribution and the corresponding unconditional multivariate distribution (not conditional on uncertain parameter values). When the distribution of parameter uncertainty is such a Bayesian posterior, the unconditional distribution is termed?predictive. The method is demonstrated by finding conditional and unconditional versions of the recently proposed emergent dose-response function (DRF). Results are shown for the five-parameter common-mode and seven-parameter dissimilar-mode models, based on published data for eight benzene-toluene dose pairs. The common mode conditional DRF is obtained with a 21-fold reduction in data requirement versus MCMC. Example common-mode unconditional DRFs are then found using synthetic data, showing a 71% reduction in required data. The approach is further demonstrated for a PCB 126-PCB 153 mixture. Applicability is analyzed and discussed. Matlab(®) computer programs are provided. PMID:21906114

Li, Ruochen; Englehardt, James D; Li, Xiaoguang

2012-02-01

102

Assessment of maximum tolerated dose of a new herbal drug, Semelil (ANGIPARSTM) in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: A Phase I clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and the purpose of the study: In many cases of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) management, wound healing is incomplete, and wound closure and epithelial junctional integrity are rarely achieved. Our aim was to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of Semelil (ANGIPARSTM), a new herbal compound for wound treatment in a Phase I clinical trial.

Heshmat R; Mohammad K; Mohajeri Tehrani

103

Phase-I\\/II study to evaluate dose limiting toxicity, maximum tolerated dose, and tolerability of bendamustine HCl in pre-treated patients with B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (Binet stages B and C) requiring therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Bendamustine hydrochloride, an anti-neoplastic agent with unique mechanism of action, is known to cause impressive remissions\\u000a in relapsed nonHodgkin’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Optimal bendamustine dosing for CLL patients had\\u000a not been finally established and a phase I\\/II study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose limiting\\u000a toxicity (DLT) of bendamustine. Methods: The

T. Lissitchkov; G. Arnaudov; D. Peytchev; Kh. Merkle

2006-01-01

104

Silica nanoparticles administered at the maximum tolerated dose induce genotoxic effects through an inflammatory reaction while gold nanoparticles do not.  

PubMed

While the collection of genotoxicity data and insights into potential mechanisms of action for nano-sized particulate materials (NPs) are steadily increasing, there is great uncertainty whether current standard assays are suitable to appropriately characterize potential risks. We investigated the effects of NPs in an in vivo Comet/micronucleus (MN) combination assay and in an in vitro MN assay performed with human blood. We also incorporated additional endpoints into the in vivo study in an effort to delineate primary from secondary mechanisms. Amorphous silica NPs (15 and 55 nm) were chosen for their known reactivity, while gold nano/microparticles (2, 20, and 200 nm) were selected for their wide size range and lower reactivity. DNA damage in liver, lung and blood cells and micronuclei in circulating reticulocytes were measured after 3 consecutive intravenous injections to male Wistar rats at 48, 24 and 4h before sacrifice. Gold nano/microparticles were negative for MN induction in vitro and in vivo, and for the induction of DNA damage in all tissues. Silica particles, however, caused a small but reproducible increase in DNA damage and micronucleated reticulocytes when tested at their maximum tolerated dose (MTD). No genotoxic effects were observed at lower doses, and the in vitro MN assay was also negative. We hypothesize that silica NPs initiate secondary genotoxic effects through release of inflammatory cell-derived oxidants, similar to that described for crystalline silica (quartz). Such a mechanism is supported by the occurrence of increased neutrophilic infiltration, necrosis, and apoptotic cells in the liver, and induction of inflammatory markers TNF-? and IL-6 in plasma at the MTDs. These results were fairly consistent between silica NPs and the quartz control, thereby strengthening the argument that silica NPs may act in a similar, thresholded manner. The observed profile is supportive of a secondary genotoxicity mechanism that is driven by inflammation. PMID:22504169

Downs, Thomas R; Crosby, Meredith E; Hu, Ting; Kumar, Shyam; Sullivan, Ashley; Sarlo, Katherine; Reeder, Bob; Lynch, Matt; Wagner, Matthew; Mills, Tim; Pfuhler, Stefan

2012-06-14

105

Hepatic intraarterial chemotherapy with gemcitabine in patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinomas and liver metastases of pancreatic cancer: a clinical study on maximum tolerable dose and treatment efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of hepatic intraarterial chemotherapy with gemcitabine, administered with and without starch microspheres, in patients with inoperable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and liver metastases of pancreatic carcinomas.Methods  Gemcitabine was administered on days 1 and 8 with intervals of 2 weeks between the cycles. In group A the initial gemcitabine dose of 1,000 mg\\/m2 (without microspheres) was increased in 200-mg\\/m2

Thomas J. Vogl; Wolfram Schwarz; Katrin Eichler; Kathrin Hochmuth; Renate Hammerstingl; Ursula Jacob; Albert Scheller; Stephan Zangos; Matthias Heller

2006-01-01

106

Temporal relationship of the induction of tolerance and physical dependence after continuous intoxication with maximum tolerable doses of ethanol in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats were treated by intragastric intubation of a 20% ethanol solution in doses of 9–15 g\\/kg in 3–5 fractions for 1–7 days. Both tolerance and physical dependence were demonstrated after this treatment with the maximum tolerable doses to only a few days. Tolerance was assessed by signs of severity of intoxication: coma, loss of righting reflex, ataxia-3, ataxia-2, ataxia-1, sedation,

Edward Majchrowicz; Walter A. Hunt

1976-01-01

107

Hepatic intraarterial chemotherapy with gemcitabine in patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinomas and liver metastases of pancreatic cancer: a clinical study on maximum tolerable dose and treatment eYcacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To deWne the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of hepatic intraarterial chemotherapy with gemcitabine, administered with and without starch microspheres, in patients with inoperable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and liver metastases of pancre- atic carcinomas. Methods Gemcitabine was administered on days 1 and 8 with intervals of 2 weeks between the cycles. In group A the initial gemcitabine dose of 1,000 mg\\/m2

Thomas J. Vogl; Wolfram Schwarz; Katrin Eichler; Kathrin Hochmuth; Renate Hammerstingl; Ursula Jacob; Albert Scheller; Stephan Zangos; Matthias Heller

108

Maximum Tolerated Dose and Early Response — Results of a Phase I Trial of Paclitaxel and Cisplatin with Radiation Therapy in Carcinoma of the Cervix 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsCisplatin-based chemotherapy with radiotherapy is currently the standard treatment for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Recent studies have shown a better response with the addition of newer chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of this phase I study was to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of paclitaxel in combination with cisplatin as a radiosensitiser along with radiation therapy in the

E. Prasad; P. N. Viswanathan; V. F. Rangad; S. Pavamani; T. S. Ram

2009-01-01

109

Methodology used to compute maximum potential doses from ingestion of edible plants and wildlife found on the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the assumptions, dose factors, consumption rates, and methodology used to evaluate potential radiation doses to persons who may eat contaminated wildlife or contaminated plants collected from the Hanford Site. This report includes a description of the number and variety of wildlife and edible plants on the Hanford Site, methods for estimation of the quantities of these items consumed and conversion of intake of radionuclides to radiation doses, and example calculations of radiation doses from consumption of plants and wildlife. Edible plants on the publicly accessible margins of the shoreline of the Hanford Site and Wildlife that move offsite are potential sources of contaminated food for the general public. Calculations of potential radiation doses from consumption of agricultural plants and farm animal products are made routinely and reported annually for those produced offsite, using information about concentrations of radionuclides, consumption rates, and factors for converting radionuclide intake into dose. Dose calculations for onsite plants and wildlife are made intermittently when appropriate samples become available for analysis or when special studies are conducted. Consumption rates are inferred from the normal intake rates of similar food types raised offsite and from the edible weight of the onsite product that is actually available for harvest. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

1990-10-01

110

MEASUREMENT OF MAXIMUM SKIN DOSE IN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY AND CARDIOLOGY AND CHALLENGES IN THE SET-UP OF EUROPEAN ALERT THRESHOLDS.  

PubMed

To help operators acknowledge patient dose during interventional procedures, EURADOS WG-12 focused on measuring patient skin dose using XR-RV3 gafchromic films, thermoluminescent detector (TLD) pellets or 2D TL foils and on investigating possible correlation to the on-line dose indicators such as fluoroscopy time, Kerma-area product (KAP) and cumulative air Kerma at reference point (CK). The study aims at defining non-centre-specific European alert thresholds for skin dose in three interventional procedures: chemoembolization of the liver (CE), neuroembolization (NE) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Skin dose values of >3 Gy (ICRP threshold for skin injuries) were indeed measured in these procedures confirming the need for dose indicators that correlate with maximum skin dose (MSD). However, although MSD showed fairly good correlation with KAP and CK, several limitations were identified challenging the set-up of non-centre-specific European alert thresholds. This paper presents preliminary results of this wide European measurement campaign and focuses on the main challenges in the definition of European alert thresholds. PMID:25316909

Farah, J; Trianni, A; Carinou, E; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Clairand, I; Dabin, J; De Angelis, C; Domienik, J; Jarvinen, H; Kopec, R; Majer, M; Malchair, F; Negri, A; Novák, L; Siiskonen, T; Vanhavere, F; Kneževi?, Z

2014-10-14

111

Maximum tolerated doses of methotrexate and 7-hydroxy-methotrexate in a model of acute toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: After more than 50?years of methotrexate (MTX) treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), it is currently believed\\u000a that as long as dose escalations are followed by adequate leucovorin rescue guided by monitoring MTX serum concentrations,\\u000a hydration and urinary alkalinization, high-dose MTX (HD-MTX) can be tolerated without life-threatening toxicity. However,\\u000a our recent experimental animal studies of the major metabolite of

Ole-Martin Fuskevåg; Christel Kristiansen; Sigurd Lindal; Jarle Aarbakke

2000-01-01

112

1023. Determination of the Maximum Tolerated Dose of the Replication-Competent Adenovirus Vector VRX-007 Following Intravenous Administration in Syrian Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed the Syrian hamster as a permissive immunocompetent model to evaluate the safety and efficacy of replication-competent adenovirus (Ad) vectors for cancer gene therapy. One of our vectors is named VRX-007; VRX-007 overexpresses ADP, an Ad protein that mediates virus release and cell-to-cell spread. In order to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of VRX-007 in hamsters, we

Maria A. Thomas; Jacqueline F. Spencer; Jennifer M. Meyer; Marie C. LaRegina; Karoly Toth; Drew L. Lichtenstein; Ann E. Tollefson; Mohan Kuppuswamy; Baoling Ying; Louis A. Zumstein; William S. M. Wold

2005-01-01

113

Use of Lung Toxicity and Lung Particle Clearance to Estimate the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) for a Fiber Glass Chronic Inhalation Study in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term toxicity and lung clearance were assessed in rats exposed by inhalation to size-selected fibrous glass (FG) for 13 weeks. Results from this study and from a recent FG chronic inhalation study are presented here as guidelines for the selection of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for chronic inhalation studies of fibers. Fischer 344 rats were exposed using nose-only inhalation

T. W. Hesterberg; E. E. McConnell; W. C. Miiller; J. Chevalier; J. Everitt; P. Thevenaz; H. Fleissner; G. Oberdörster

1996-01-01

114

Phase I clinical trial to determine maximum tolerated dose of oral albendazole in patients with advanced cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Albendazole is a potential anticancer agent that is currently under development for the treatment of cancer. We carried out\\u000a a dose-finding phase I study of oral albendazole in patients with advanced malignancies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Thirty-six patients with refractory solid tumors were enrolled. Albendazole was given orally on a day 1–14 of a 3 weekly cycle,\\u000a starting at 400 mg BD with dose

Mohammad H. Pourgholami; Michael Szwajcer; Melvin Chin; Winston Liauw; Jonathan Seef; Peter Galettis; David L. Morris; Matthew Links

2010-01-01

115

Réévaluation of the Maximum Tolerated Dose of Continuous Venous Infusion of 5Fluorouracil with Pharmacokinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorouracil (5-FU) was administered as a continuous ambulatory venous infusion to 25 patients in a Phase I trial. The principal dose limiting toxic effect observed was mucositis. Skin rash and diarrhea occurred less frequently. Hematological toxicity was modest, and no hepatic toxicity was seen. One partial remission of 138 days duration was seen in a patient with metastatic breast carcinoma

Darcy V. Spicer; Bach Ardalan; John R. Daniels; Howard Silberman; Kay Johnson

116

Effect of maximum-tolerated doses and low-dose metronomic chemotherapy on serum vascular endothelial growth factor and thrombospondin-1 levels in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Angiogenesis is regulated by a balance of both angiogenic inducers and inhibitors. This study was designed to evaluate the\\u000a effect of both maximum-tolerated doses (MTD) and low-dose metronomic chemotherapy (LDM) on serum vascular endothelial growth\\u000a factor (VEGF), thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) and VEGFR1 concentrations in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Forty consecutive patients with advanced stage nonsmall cell

Faruk Tas; Derya Duranyildiz; Hilal O. Soydinc; Irfan Cicin; Meltem Selam; Kazim Uygun; Rian Disci; Vildan Yasasever; Erkan Topuz

2008-01-01

117

Safety and tolerability of metrifonate in patients with alzheimer's disease: Results of a maximum tolerated dose study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metrifonate, a pro-drug that is transformed non-enzymatically into a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), has been used in the tropics for over 30 years for the treatment of schistosomiasis. A pilot study, and Phase I and Phase II studies of metrifonate in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients conducted prior to the current study showed benign, dose-dependent adverse event profiles consisting primarily

Neal R Cutler; Stanford S Jhee; Pamela Cyrus; Florian Bieber; Paul TanPiengco; John J Sramek; Barbara Gulanski

1998-01-01

118

On dose distribution comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In radiotherapy practice, one often needs to compare two dose distributions. Especially with the wide clinical implementation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, software tools for quantitative dose (or fluence) distribution comparison are required for patient-specific quality assurance. Dose distribution comparison is not a trivial task since it has to be performed in both dose and spatial domains in order to be clinically relevant. Each of the existing comparison methods has its own strengths and weaknesses and there is room for improvement. In this work, we developed a general framework for comparing dose distributions. Using a new concept called maximum allowed dose difference (MADD), the comparison in both dose and spatial domains can be performed entirely in the dose domain. Formulae for calculating MADD values for various comparison methods, such as composite analysis and gamma index, have been derived. For convenience in clinical practice, a new measure called normalized dose difference (NDD) has also been proposed, which is the dose difference at a point scaled by the ratio of MADD to the predetermined dose acceptance tolerance. Unlike the simple dose difference test, NDD works in both low and high dose gradient regions because it considers both dose and spatial acceptance tolerances through MADD. The new method has been applied to a test case and a clinical example. It was found that the new method combines the merits of the existing methods (accurate, simple, clinically intuitive and insensitive to dose grid size) and can easily be implemented into any dose/intensity comparison tool.

Jiang, Steve B.; Sharp, Greg C.; Neicu, Toni; Berbeco, Ross I.; Flampouri, Stella; Bortfeld, Thomas

2006-02-01

119

Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function  

SciTech Connect

Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references.

Shipley, W.U.; Kaufman, S.D.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

1987-10-01

120

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) allows acceleration and dose intensity increase of CEF chemotherapy: a randomised study in patients with advanced breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

A randomised study was conducted in 62 patients with advanced breast cancer to assess whether granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) would yield an increase in the dose intensity of a standard-dose CEF regimen through an acceleration of chemotherapy administration. Patients received CEF (cyclophosphamide 600 mg m-2, epidoxorubicin 60 mg m-2 and fluorouracil 600 mg m-2) i.v. on day 1 or the same chemotherapy, plus GM-CSF 10 micrograms kg-1 s.c. starting from day 4, repeated as soon as haematopoietic recovery from nadir occurred. Patients in the CEF + GM-CSF group received chemotherapy at a median interval of 16 days compared with 20 days in the control group. This led to a significant increase (P = 0.02) in the dose intensity actually administered in the third, fourth and sixth cycles: +28%, +25%, +20% respectively. Non-haematological toxicity was mild. GM-CSF had to be reduced or suspended in 50% of patients because of toxicity. Haematological toxicity, mainly cumulative anaemia and thrombocytopenia, was manageable. An increase in response rate for patients with measurable disease, of borderline statistical significance (P = 0.088, P for trend = 0.018), from 42% in the CEF group to 69% in the CEF + GM-CSF group, was observed. This randomised trial indicates that GM-CSF is useful for chemotherapy acceleration. Accelerated CEF + GM-CSF is a moderately dose-intensive regimen that can be administered in an outpatient clinic and is associated with a high objective response. PMID:8297739

Ardizzoni, A.; Venturini, M.; Sertoli, M. R.; Giannessi, P. G.; Brema, F.; Danova, M.; Testore, F.; Mariani, G. L.; Pennucci, M. C.; Queirolo, P.

1994-01-01

121

Pharmacokinetic and Maximum Tolerated Dose Study of Micafungin in Combination with Fluconazole versus Fluconazole Alone for Prophylaxis of Fungal Infections in Adult Patients Undergoing a Bone Marrow or Peripheral Stem Cell Transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dose escalation study, 74 adult cancer patients undergoing bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation received fluconazole (400 mg\\/day) and either normal saline (control) (12 subjects) or mica- fungin (12.5 to 200 mg\\/day) (62 subjects) for up to 4 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of micafungin was not reached, based on the development of Southwest Oncology

J. Hiemenz; P. Cagnoni; D. Simpson; S. Devine; N. Chao; J. Keirns; W. Lau; D. Facklam; D. Buell

2005-01-01

122

Predicting the maximum-tolerated dose of PNU-159548 (4-demethoxy-3?-deamino-3?-aziridinyl-4?-methylsulphonyl-daunorubicin) in humans using CFU-GM clonogenic assays and prospective validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A haematotoxicity model was proposed by Parchment in 1998 to predict the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) in humans of myelosuppressive antitumour agents by combining data from in vitro clonogenic assays on haematopoietic progenitors and in vivo systemic exposure data in animals. A prospective validation of this model in humans was performed with PNU-159548, a novel agent showing selective dose-limiting myelosuppression in

D Moneta; C Geroni; O Valota; P Grossi; M. J. A de Jonge; M Brughera; E Colajori; M Ghielmini; C Sessa

2003-01-01

123

Etoposide (VP-16) and cisplatin at maximum tolerated dose in non-small cell lung carcinoma: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-institutional cooperative group trial was undertaken by the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of cisplatin and intravenous etoposide for the treatment of metastatic or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The doses used were those previously determined to be the maximally tolerated dose of this drug combination. Forty patients were entered

Joseph J. Muscato; Constance Cirrincione; Gerald Clamon; Michael C. Perry; George Omura; Irving Berkowitz; Thomas Reid; James E. Herndon; Mark R. Green

1995-01-01

124

42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount...acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1) The maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any,...

2013-10-01

125

42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount...acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1) The maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any,...

2011-10-01

126

42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount...acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1) The maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any,...

2010-10-01

127

42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount...acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1) The maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any,...

2012-10-01

128

42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.  

...GENERAL APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount...acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1) The maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any,...

2014-10-01

129

Inhibitory effects of fluorinated pyrimidines, 5¢-DFUR, UFT and T-506, in a model of hepatic metastasis of mouse colon 26 adenocarcinoma - assessment of inhibitory activity and adverse reactions at the maximum tolerated dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fluorinated pyrimidines, 5¢-DFUR, UFT and T-506, on a mouse model of hepatic metastasis were assessed in regard to inhibitory activity and adverse reactions at the maximum tolerated dose. The model was prepared by injecting the mouse colonic cancer cell line, colon 26, into the portal vein of CDF1 mice. At the treatment regimens employed for 5¢-DFUR (1.0mmol\\/kg\\/day,

Kenji Tazawa; Takashi Sakamoto; Yoshito Kuroki; Iwao Yamashita; Masahiro Okamoto; Shinnya Katuyama; Masao Fujimaki

1997-01-01

130

The maximum tolerated dose and biologic effects of 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) in combination with irinotecan for patients with refractory solid tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose 3-AP is a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor and has been postulated to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic agents. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and antitumor activity of 3-AP with irinotecan. Correlative studies included pharmacokinetics and the effects of ABCB1 and UGT1A1 polymorphisms. Methods The treatment plan consisted of irinotecan on day 1 with 3-AP on days 1-3 of a 21-day cycle. Starting dose was irinotecan 150 mg/m2 and 3-AP 85 mg/m2/d. Polymorphisms of ABCB1 were evaluated by pyrosequencing. Drug concentrations were determined by HPLC. Results Twenty-three patients were enrolled, 10 men and 13 women. Tumor types included 7 patients with pancreatic cancer, 4 with lung cancer, 2 with cholangiocarcinoma, 2 with mesothelioma, 2 with ovarian cancer, and 6 with other malignancies. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) at dose level 1, requiring amendment of the dose escalation scheme. Maximal tolerated dose (MTD) was determined to be 3-AP 60 mg/m2/d and irinotecan 200 mg/m2. DLTs consisted of hypoxia, leukopenia, fatigue, infection, thrombocytopenia, dehydration and ALT elevation. One partial response in a patient with refractory non-small cell lung cancer was seen. Genotyping suggests that patients with wild-type ABCB1 have a higher rate of grade 3 or 4 toxicity than those with ABCB1 mutations. Conclusions The MTD for this combination was 3-AP 60 mg/m2/d on days 1-3 and irinotecan 200 mg/m2 on day 1 every 21 days. Antitumor activity in a patient with refractory non-small cell lung cancer was noted at level 1. PMID:20127092

Choi, Brian S.; Alberti, Dona B.; Schelman, William R.; Kolesar, Jill M.; Thomas, James P.; Marnocha, Rebecca; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Ivy, S. Percy; Wilding, George; Holen, Kyle D.

2010-01-01

131

Metronomic chemotherapy: An attractive alternative to maximum tolerated dose therapy that can activate anti-tumor immunity and minimize therapeutic resistance.  

PubMed

The administration of chemotherapy at reduced doses given at regular, frequent time intervals, termed 'metronomic' chemotherapy, presents an alternative to standard maximal tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy. The primary target of metronomic chemotherapy was originally identified as endothelial cells supporting the tumor vasculature, and not the tumor cells themselves, consistent with the emerging concept of cancer as a systemic disease involving both tumor cells and their microenvironment. While anti-angiogenesis is an important mechanism of action of metronomic chemotherapy, other mechanisms, including activation of anti-tumor immunity and a decrease in acquired therapeutic resistance, have also been identified. Here we present evidence supporting a mechanistic explanation for the improved activity of cancer chemotherapy when administered on a metronomic, rather than an MTD schedule and discuss the implications of these findings for further translation into the clinic. PMID:25541061

Kareva, Irina; Waxman, David J; Lakka Klement, Giannoula

2015-03-28

132

Assessment of the health effects of chemicals in humans: I. QSAR estimation of the maximum recommended therapeutic dose (MRTD) and no effect level (NOEL) of organic chemicals based on clinical trial data.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this investigation was to develop a QSAR model to estimate the no effect level (NOEL) of chemicals in humans using data derived from pharmaceutical clinical trials and the MCASE software program. We believe that a NOEL model derived from human data provides a more specific estimate of the toxic dose threshold of chemicals in humans compared to current risk assessment models which extrapolate from animals to humans employing multiple uncertainty safety factors. A database of the maximum recommended therapeutic dose (MRTD) of marketed pharmaceuticals was compiled. Chemicals with low MRTDs were classified as high-toxicity compounds; chemicals with high MRTDs were classified as low-toxicity compounds. Two separate training data sets were constructed to identify specific structural alerts associated with high and low toxicity chemicals. A total of 134 decision alerts correlated with toxicity in humans were identified from 1309 training data set chemicals. An internal validation experiment showed that predictions for high- and low-toxicity chemicals were good (positive predictivity >92%) and differences between experimental and predicted MRTDs were small (0.27-0.70 log-fold). Furthermore, the model exhibited good coverage (89.9-93.6%) for three classes of chemicals (pharmaceuticals, direct food additives, and food contact substances). An additional investigation demonstrated that the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of chemicals in rodents was poorly correlated with MRTD values in humans (R2 = 0.2005, n = 326). Finally, this report discusses experimental factors which influence the accuracy of test chemical predictions, potential applications of the model, and the advantages of this model over those that rely only on results of animal toxicology studies. PMID:16472220

Matthews, Edwin J; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Benz, R Daniel; Contrera, Joseph F

2004-01-01

133

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED  

E-print Network

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED Batteries, toner, ink cartridges & cell phones Aerosol cans Window glass The University of Miami strives to create a more sustainable campus environment and recycling is an important part of that effort. Below is a guide to on-campus recycling at RSMAS: Visit http

Miami, University of

134

Maximum Likelihood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This material introduces the basic theory of maximum likelihood estimation by discussing the likelihood function, the log likelihood function, and maximizing these functions using calculus. Several exercises ask students to derive certain estimators, while others have students compare the behavior of those estimators with other possibilities through the use of various JAVA applets. The applets use the same control features: the sliders set the parameter values, the Â?Stop #Â? drop down menu sets the number of samples taken, the Â?Update #Â? drop down menu sets how often the graph and tables update during the experiment, the single arrow takes one sample, the double arrow runs the full experiment, the square stops the experiment, and the back arrow resets the applet. This page is one lesson from the Virtual Laboratories in Statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

135

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

2013-07-01

136

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

2012-07-01

137

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

2014-07-01

138

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

2011-07-01

139

Multiple-dose, linear, dose-proportional pharmacokinetics of retigabine in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Retigabine, a first-in-class selective M-current potassium channel opener, is a novel antiepileptic compound currently in clinical development. The purpose of this randomized placebo-controlled study was to assess retigabine oral safety and pharmacokinetics in healthy male volunteers (N = 45). Subjects received one dose on day 1 and doses every 12 hours for the next 14 days. Fixed doses were given to the first four groups (200, 400, 500, and 600 mg per day). Titrated doses were given to group 5 in 100 mg increases every 4 days, achieving 700 mg per day on day 15. Serial blood samples were collected on days 1 and 15. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between days and among dose groups. After administration of a single dose, retigabine was rapidly absorbed, with maximum concentrations of 387 ng/ml (normalized to a 100 mg dose) occurring within 1.5 hours. Retigabine was eliminated with a mean terminal half-life of 8.0 hours and an apparent oral clearance of 0.70 L/h/kg in white subjects. In black subjects, retigabine clearance and volume of distribution were 25% and 30% lower, respectively, after normalizing by body weight, leading to higher exposure in this population. Retigabine's pharmocokinetics was linearly dose proportional. Steady-state pharmacokinetics was in agreement with single-dose pharmacokinetics, and the accumulation ratio was about 1.5. Retigabine and AWD21-360 trough evening concentrations were significantly lower (about 30% to 35%) than morning values. The titration regimen allowed for higher doses to be tolerated compared to the fixed-dose regimen. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics of retigabine is linearly dose proportional for daily doses of 100 to 700 mg and is not modified on multiple administrations. PMID:11831540

Ferron, Geraldine M; Paul, Jeffrey; Fruncillo, Richard; Richards, Lyette; Knebel, Norbert; Getsy, John; Troy, Steven

2002-02-01

140

Dose-Limiting Toxicity After Hypofractionated Dose-Escalated Radiotherapy in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Local failure rates after radiation therapy (RT) for locally advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain high. Consequently, RT dose intensification strategies continue to be explored, including hypofractionation, which allows for RT acceleration that could potentially improve outcomes. The maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) with dose-escalated hypofractionation has not been adequately defined. Patients and Methods Seventy-nine patients with NSCLC were enrolled on a prospective single-institution phase I trial of dose-escalated hypofractionated RT without concurrent chemotherapy. Escalation of dose per fraction was performed according to patients' stratified risk for radiation pneumonitis with total RT doses ranging from 57 to 85.5 Gy in 25 daily fractions over 5 weeks using intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The MTD was defined as the maximum dose with ? 20% risk of severe toxicity. Results No grade 3 pneumonitis was observed and an MTD for acute toxicity was not identified during patient accrual. However, with a longer follow-up period, grade 4 to 5 toxicity occurred in six patients and was correlated with total dose (P = .004). An MTD was identified at 63.25 Gy in 25 fractions. Late grade 4 to 5 toxicities were attributable to damage to central and perihilar structures and correlated with dose to the proximal bronchial tree. Conclusion Although this dose-escalation model limited the rates of clinically significant pneumonitis, dose-limiting toxicity occurred and was dominated by late radiation toxicity involving central and perihilar structures. The identified dose-response for damage to the proximal bronchial tree warrants caution in future dose-intensification protocols, especially when using hypofractionation. PMID:24145340

Cannon, Donald M.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Adkison, Jarrod B.; Khuntia, Deepak; Traynor, Anne M.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Chappell, Richard J.; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Mohindra, Pranshu; Bentzen, Søren M.; Cannon, George M.

2013-01-01

141

Cervix cancer brachytherapy: high dose rate.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer, although less common in industrialized countries, is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer death. In developing countries, these cancers are often discovered at a later stage in the form of locally advanced tumour with a poor prognosis. Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment is mainly based on a chemoradiotherapy followed by uterovaginal brachytherapy ending by a potential remaining tumour surgery or in principle for some teams. The role of irradiation is crucial to ensure a better local control. It has been shown that the more the delivered dose is important, the better the local results are. In order to preserve the maximum of organs at risk and to allow this dose escalation, brachytherapy (intracavitary and/or interstitial) has been progressively introduced. Its evolution and its progressive improvement have led to the development of high dose rate brachytherapy, the advantages of which are especially based on the possibility of outpatient treatment while maintaining the effectiveness of other brachytherapy forms (i.e., low dose rate or pulsed dose rate). Numerous innovations have also been completed in the field of imaging, leading to a progress in treatment planning systems by switching from two-dimensional form to a three-dimensional one. Image-guided brachytherapy allows more precise target volume delineation as well as an optimized dosimetry permitting a better coverage of target volumes. PMID:25151650

Miglierini, P; Malhaire, J-P; Goasduff, G; Miranda, O; Pradier, O

2014-10-01

142

Total Maximum Daily Load Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.

143

40 CFR 14.11 - Principal types of allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... GENERAL EMPLOYEE PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS ...allowed for tangible personal property of...to provide adequate protection against the loss...hurricane; (3) When the personal property was subjected...award by EPA will be reduced by the maximum...

2010-07-01

144

Maximum life spur gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

Savage, M.; Mackulin, B. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

1991-01-01

145

Calculate Your Radiation Dose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This calculator by the Environmental Protection Agency allows you to estimate your annual radiation dose. The calculator is easy to use and the bottom of the page includes links to more information about radiation dosage.

2011-05-12

146

Health Insurance Definitions Allowable Charge  

E-print Network

Health Insurance Definitions Allowable Charge: Also referred to as the Allowed Amount, Approved considered payment-in-full by an insurance company and an associated network of healthcare providers. If the doctor is a member of your health insurance company's network of providers, he or she may be required

Buehrer, R. Michael

147

76 FR 5733 - Clothing Allowance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rejected a claim for a second clothing allowance...garment may wear out faster than if affected...was entitled to a second clothing allowance...clothing to wear out faster, requiring replacement...outergarment at a faster rate, requiring...damage caused by the second appliance...

2011-02-02

148

Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

2010-01-01

149

Last Glacial Maximum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short lecture on CLIMAP project (see PowerPoint) 20 minutes Powerpoint (PowerPoint 444kB Nov7 10) Group activity - Reading for CLIMAP study assumptions, 20 minutes to read, 20 minutes for discussion Student Handout (Microsoft Word 50kB Nov7 10) Students break into groups (4 per group is good division of work) with 2 students per paper. Split the assumptions between students. Each group skims the CLIMAP papers for the assumptions (modern and/or LGM) used in the CLIMAP model-based reconstruction of the LGM. In the groups, students compare the assumptions between papers. Resources: CLIMAP (1976), The surface of the ice-age earth, Science, 191(4232), 1131-1137 and CLIMAP (1984), The last interglacial ocean, Quaternary Research, 21(2), 123. Class Discussion - Summarize assumptions used in CLIMAP studies. Group activity Exploring CLIMAP LGM Reconstructions, 40 minutes for model data, 20 minutes for discussion (Could be modified with as a "jigsaw" activity with a larger class). Learn more about the jigsaw teaching method. Students work on this activity in pairs; one person will create LGM maps, the other modern. Students should sit together with their computer monitors close together to compare. The students will use the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library to access the CLIMAP reconstruction and produce maps using the tools available on this web site. In a web browser, go to http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/ This is the main page for the CLIMAP Model output for the LGM 18,000 BP. In the middle of the page is the label "Datasets and variables" with two data sets below http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.LGM/ and http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.MOD/. Each student clicks on the link they are assigned to. There are several data sets listed for each period and the students will examine each data set and compare the LGM and Modern. As a class, go through each data set allowing pairs to compare the maps then summarize the results as a class. The worksheet has a table for the students and the PowerPoint has table for summarizing. Class Discussion - Summarize differences between modern and LGM in the CLIMAP model output. Discuss how the assumptions of the CLIMAP model studies may have influenced the results. Extra activities The students can explore the data further using the data selection and filters in the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library. For the two SST data sets, click on "Data Selection" and narrow the data to the just the tropics (23.5º N-S). Click on "Filters" then select XY next to "Average over." The next window gives you the average over the tropics close to the top of the page. In the next class, the students repeat the Readings exercise by reading the COHMAP and MARGO papers to see how the scientific knowledge has progressed since the original CLIMAP studies. COHMAP Members, (1988), Climatic Changes of the Last 18,000 Years: Observations and Model Simulations, Science, 241(4869), 1043-1052. MARGO (2009), Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum, Nature Geoscience, 2(2), 127-132.

Kristine DeLong

150

Maximum Power Point  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to find the maximum power point (MPP) of a photovoltaic (PV) panel in order to optimize its efficiency at creating solar power. They also learn about real-world applications and technologies that use this technique, as well as Ohm's law and the power equation, which govern a PV panel's ability to produce power.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

151

Minimum-Time Thermal Dose Control of Thermal Therapies  

PubMed Central

The problem of controlling noninvasive thermal therapies is formulated as the problem of directly controlling thermal dose of the target. To limit the damage to the surrounding normal tissue, the constraints on the peak allowable temperatures in the selected spacial locations are imposed. The developed controller has a cascade structure with a linear, constrained, model predictive temperature controller in the secondary loop. The temperature controller manipulates the intensity of the ultrasound transducer with saturation constraints, which noninvasively heats the spatially distributed target. The main nonlinear thermal dose controller dynamically generates the reference temperature trajectories for the temperature controller. The thermal dose controller is designed to force the treatment progression at either the actuation or temperature constraints, which is required to minimize the treatment time. The developed controller is applicable to high and low-intensity treatments, such as thermal ablation and thermoradiotherapy. The developed approach is tested using computer simulations for a one-dimensional model of a tumor with constraints on the maximum allowable temperature in the normal tissue and a constrained power output of the ultrasound transducer. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach is effective at delivering the desired thermal dose in a near minimum time without violating constraints on the maximum allowable temperature in healthy tissue, despite significant plant-model mismatch introduced during numerical simulation. The results of in vitro and in vivo validation are reported elsewhere. PMID:15709656

Arora, Dhiraj; Roemer, Robert B.

2013-01-01

152

77 FR 56591 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Maximum Allowable Emission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Particulate Matter From Fuel Burning Equipment Used for Indirect Heating AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...PM) Emissions from Fuel Burning Equipment Used for Indirect Heating. The new rule consolidates four pre-existing rules...

2012-09-13

153

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...single test on each heat of steel; and (B) The results of...60 percent shear area for any steel test samples. The test results...mills involved in producing steel, plate, coil, skelp, and...of this section. (2) If research, testing and field...

2011-10-01

154

49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.  

...activities. (5) Controlling internal corrosion (i) Develop and implement a program...interference that can impact external corrosion (i) Prior to operating an existing...electrical current that could impact external corrosion where interference is suspected;...

2014-10-01

155

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...quality assurance program for pipe seam welds to assure tensile strength provided in API...following: (i) A cross section of the weld seam of one pipe from each heat plus one...each heat affected zone, three in the weld metal, and two in each section of...

2013-10-01

156

49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating...testing field applied coating to girth welds must be: (i) Equivalent to that required...effective coating application. (b) Girth welds (1) All girth welds on a new...

2013-10-01

157

76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...replace the phrase ``at a faster rate than if affected by one...clothing or outergarment due to a second appliance or medication...language will clarify that a second clothing allowance may be paid when a second appliance and/or...

2011-11-16

158

NSF to allow Smithsonian funding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. National Science Board approved a resolution to allow all full-time and postdoctoral scientists from the Smithsonian Institution to apply for National Science Foundation grants through the agency's normal merit review process.The resolution modifies NSF's policy on funding other federal agencies, and it acknowledges ``the unique status of [the] Smithsonian Institution and its special contributions to science research and

Randy Showstack

2004-01-01

159

Benefits of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) concept in aquatic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not

Thomas H. Hutchinson; Christian Bögi; Matthew J. Winter; J. Willie Owens

2009-01-01

160

Allowable number of plasmons in nanoparticle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address thermal and strength phenomena occurring in metal nanoparticles due to excitation of surface plasmons. The temperature of the nanoparticle is found as a function of the plasmon population, allowing for the Kapitza heat boundary resistance and temperature dependencies of the host dielectric heat conductivity and the metal electrical conductivity. The latter is shown to result in the positive thermal feedback which leads to appearance of the maximum possible number of plasmon quanta in the steady-state regime. In the pulsed regime the number of plasmon quanta is shown to be restricted from above also by the ponderomotive forces, which tend to deform the nanoparticle. Obtained results provide instruments for the heat and strength management in the plasmonic engineering.

Fedorov, I. A.; Parfenyev, V. M.; Vergeles, S. S.; Tartakovsky, G. T.; Sarychev, A. K.

2014-12-01

161

Maximum gravitational recoil.  

PubMed

Recent calculations of gravitational radiation recoil generated during black-hole binary mergers have reopened the possibility that a merged binary can be ejected even from the nucleus of a massive host galaxy. Here we report the first systematic study of gravitational recoil of equal-mass binaries with equal, but counteraligned, spins parallel to the orbital plane. Such an orientation of the spins is expected to maximize the recoil. We find that recoil velocity (which is perpendicular to the orbital plane) varies sinusoidally with the angle that the initial spin directions make with the initial linear momenta of each hole and scales up to a maximum of approximately 4000 km s-1 for maximally rotating holes. Our results show that the amplitude of the recoil velocity can depend sensitively on spin orientations of the black holes prior to merger. PMID:17677894

Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O; Zlochower, Yosef; Merritt, David

2007-06-01

162

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06

163

Clinical Trials of a Urethral Dose Measurement System in Brachytherapy Using Scintillation Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on the clinical feasibility of a novel scintillation detector system with fiberoptic readout that measures the urethral dose during high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of the prostate. Methods and Materials: The clinical trial enrolled 24 patients receiving high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment to the prostate. After the first 14 patients, three improvements were made to the dosimeter system design to improve clinical reliability: a dosimeter self-checking facility; a radiopaque marker to determine the position of the dosimeter, and a more robust optical extension fiber. Results: Improvements to the system design allowed for accurate dose measurements to be made in vivo. A maximum measured dose departure of 9% from the calculated dose was observed after dosimeter design improvements. Conclusions: Departures of the measured from the calculated dose, after improvements to the dosimetry system, arise primarily from small changes in patient anatomy. Therefore, we recommend that patient response be correlated with the measured in vivo dose rather than with the calculated dose.

Suchowerska, Natalka, E-mail: natalka@email.cs.nsw.gov.a [Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Jackson, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Lambert, Jamil; Yin, Yong Bai [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hruby, George [Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); McKenzie, David R. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

2011-02-01

164

RESEARCH Open Access Therapeutic efficacy of fixed dose artesunate-  

E-print Network

blister). There were five age-weight dosing categories and the maximum MQ dose was capped at 1,500 mg because of its poor tolerability [5]. When dosed by age rather than weight, a substantial minorityRESEARCH Open Access Therapeutic efficacy of fixed dose artesunate- mefloquine for the treatment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2007 Site environmental report8-  

E-print Network

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2007 Site environmental report8- DRAFT Brookhaven National that the overall radiological dose impact to members of the public, workers, visitors, and the environment is "As radiological dose to the public is calculated at the site boundary as the "maximum" dose that could be received

166

Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

2011-08-01

167

PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

2012-06-05

168

Adaptive Randomization to Improve Utility-Based Dose-Finding with Bivariate Ordinal Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Summary A sequentially outcome-adaptive Bayesian design is proposed for choosing the dose of an experimental therapy based on elicited utilities of a bivariate ordinal (toxicity, efficacy) outcome. Subject to posterior acceptability criteria to control the risk of severe toxicity and exclude unpromising doses, patients are randomized adaptively among the doses having posterior mean utilities near the maximum. The utility increment used to define near-optimality is non-increasing with sample size. The adaptive randomization uses each dose’s posterior probability of a set of good outcomes, defined by a lower utility cut-off. Saturated parametric models are assumed for the marginal dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy distributions, allowing the possible requirement of monotonicity in dose, and a copula is used to obtain a joint distribution. Prior means are computed by simulation using elicited outcome probabilities, and prior variances are calibrated to control prior effective sample size and obtain a design with good operating characteristics. The method is illustrated by a phase I/II trial of radiation therapy for children with brain stem gliomas. PMID:22651115

Nguyen, Hoang Q.

2012-01-01

169

20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are those listed...

2011-04-01

170

20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are those listed...

2012-04-01

171

20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are those listed...

2010-04-01

172

Child allowances, fertility, and chaotic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the dynamics in an overlapping generations model with the provision of child allowances. Fertility is an increasing function of child allowances and there exists a threshold effect of the marginal effect of child allowances on fertility. We show that if the effectiveness of child allowances is sufficiently high, an intermediate-sized tax rate will be enough to generate chaotic dynamics. Besides, a decrease in the inter-temporal elasticity of substitution will prevent the occurrence of irregular cycles.

Chen, Hung-Ju; Li, Ming-Chia

2013-06-01

173

Evaluation of Rectal Dose During High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high doses being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the dose delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the dose delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured dose to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference point dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the dose, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated maximum dose and the measured dose was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated maximum dose was typically higher than the measured dose. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal dose for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the dose delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated dose.

Sha, Rajib Lochan [Department of Radiation Physics, Indo-American Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Hyderabad (India); Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India); Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India); Rao, Ramakrishna [Department of Radiation Physics, MNJ Institute of Oncology and Regional Cancer Center, Hyderabad (India); Muralidhar, Kanaparthy R. [Department of Radiation Physics, Indo-American Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Hyderabad (India); Kudchadker, Rajat J., E-mail: rkudchad@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2011-01-01

174

29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property as a direct consequence...be allowed for damage to, or loss, of property when used for...be allowed for damage to, or loss of, clothing and accessories...person, such as eyeglasses, hearing aids, or dentures....

2010-07-01

175

Preliminary liver dose estimation in the new facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor.  

PubMed

As a part of the project concerning the irradiation of a section of the human liver left lobe, a preliminary estimation of the expected dose was performed. To obtain proper input values for the calculation, neutron flux and gamma dose rate characterization were carried out using adequate portions of cow or pig liver covered with demineralized water simulating the preservation solution. Irradiations were done inside a container specially designed to fulfill temperature preservation of the organ and a reproducible irradiation position (which will be of importance for future planification purposes). Implantable rhodium based self-powered neutron detectors were developed to obtain neutron flux profiles both external and internal. Implantation of SPND was done along the central longitudinal axis of the samples, where lowest flux is expected. Gamma dose rate was obtained using a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber moved along external surfaces of the samples. The internal neutron profile resulted uniform enough to allow for a single and static irradiation of the liver. For dose estimation, irradiation condition was set in order to obtain a maximum of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. Additionally, literature reported boron concentrations of 47 ppm in tumor and 8 ppm in healthy tissue and a more conservative relationship (30/10 ppm) were used. To make a conservative estimation of the dose the following considerations were done: i). Minimum measured neutron flux inside the sample (approximately 5 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1) was considered to calculate dose in tumor. (ii). Maximum measured neutron flux (considering both internal as external profiles) was used to calculate dose in healthy tissue (approximately 8.7 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1). (iii). Maximum measured gamma dose rate (approximately 13.5 Gy h-1) was considered for both tumor and healthy tissue. Tumor tissue dose was approximately 69 Gy-eq for 47 ppm of (10)B and approximately 42 Gy-eq for 30 ppm, for a maximum dose of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. As can be seen from these results, even for the most conservative case, minimum tumor dose will be acceptable from the treatment point of view, which shows that the irradiation conditions at this facility have quite good characteristics for the proposed irradiation. PMID:19394239

Gadan, M; Crawley, V; Thorp, S; Miller, M

2009-07-01

176

Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed dose thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as dose thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a dose threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold dose after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body doses for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body doses were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the dose thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a maximum value at zero with increasing doses. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types.

Groer, P. G.; Carnes, B. A.

2003-01-01

177

Incidence of late rectal bleeding in high-dose conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer using equivalent uniform dose-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability models  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accurate modeling of rectal complications based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) data are necessary to allow safe dose escalation in radiotherapy of prostate cancer. We applied different equivalent uniform dose (EUD)-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models to rectal wall DVHs and follow-up data for 319 prostate cancer patients to identify the dosimetric factors most predictive for Grade {>=} 2 rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: Data for 319 patients treated at the William Beaumont Hospital with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) under an adaptive radiotherapy protocol were used for this study. The following models were considered: (1) Lyman model and (2) logit-formula with DVH reduced to generalized EUD (3) serial reconstruction unit (RU) model (4) Poisson-EUD model, and (5) mean dose- and (6) cutoff dose-logistic regression model. The parameters and their confidence intervals were determined using maximum likelihood estimation. Results: Of the patients, 51 (16.0%) showed Grade 2 or higher bleeding. As assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, the Lyman- and Logit-EUD, serial RU, and Poisson-EUD model fitted the data very well. Rectal wall mean dose did not correlate to Grade 2 or higher bleeding. For the cutoff dose model, the volume receiving > 73.7 Gy showed most significant correlation to bleeding. However, this model fitted the data more poorly than the EUD-based models. Conclusions: Our study clearly confirms a volume effect for late rectal bleeding. This can be described very well by the EUD-like models, of which the serial RU- and Poisson-EUD model can describe the data with only two parameters. Dose-volume-based cutoff-dose models performed wor0008.

Soehn, Matthias [Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany)]. E-mail: Matthias.Soehn@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Liang Jian [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Meldolesi, Elisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vargas, Carlos [Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Alber, Markus [Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany)

2007-03-15

178

The maximum rate of mammal evolution.  

PubMed

How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

2012-03-13

179

Optimization of design allowables for composite structures  

SciTech Connect

Determination of optimum design allowables for composites is much more complicated than for metals. Unlike metals, for which the design allowables can be readily obtained from standard sources like MIL-HDBK-5C, extensive testing has to be done to determine and optimize composite design allowables. This paper compared composites with metals and addresses the unique problems encountered in developing optimum composite design allowables. It discusses the effect of various factors on design allowables. These factors include design, materials, characterization/testing, processing, tooling, quality control, fabrication method, and service life degradation. Sources of errors originating from the above factors are discussed and recommendations made to minimize the problems and optimize the various composite design allowables. 26 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Munjal, A.K.

1987-01-01

180

Dose to medium versus dose to water as an estimator of dose to sensitive skeletal tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to determine whether dose to medium, Dm, or dose to water, Dw, provides a better estimate of the dose to the radiosensitive red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSC) in spongiosa, or cancellous bone. This is addressed in the larger context of the ongoing debate over whether Dm or Dw should be specified in Monte Carlo calculated radiotherapy treatment plans. The study uses voxelized, virtual human phantoms, FAX06/MAX06 (female/male), incorporated into an EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations during simulated irradiation by a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta SL25 accelerator. Head and neck, chest and pelvis irradiations are studied. FAX06/MAX06 include precise modelling of spongiosa based on µCT images, allowing dose to RBM and BSC to be resolved from the dose to bone. Modifications to the FAX06/MAX06 user codes are required to score Dw and Dm in spongiosa. Dose uncertainties of ~1% (BSC, RBM) or ~0.5% (Dm, Dw) are obtained after up to 5 days of simulations on 88 CPUs. Clinically significant differences (>5%) between Dm and Dw are found only in cranial spongiosa, where the volume fraction of trabecular bone (TBVF) is high (55%). However, for spongiosa locations where there is any significant difference between Dm and Dw, comparisons of differential dose volume histograms (DVHs) and average doses show that Dw provides a better overall estimate of dose to RBM and BSC. For example, in cranial spongiosa the average Dm underestimates the average dose to sensitive tissue by at least 5%, while average Dw is within ~1% of the average dose to sensitive tissue. Thus, it is better to specify Dw than Dm in Monte Carlo treatment plans, since Dw provides a better estimate of dose to sensitive tissue in bone, the only location where the difference is likely to be clinically significant.

Walters, B. R. B.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I.

2010-08-01

181

Graphs with maximum connectivity index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a graph and dv the degree (=number of first neighbors) of its vertex v. The connectivity index of G is ?=?(dudv)?1\\/2, with the summation ranging over all pairs of adjacent vertices of G. In a previous paper (Comput. Chem. 23 (1999) 469), by applying a heuristic combinatorial optimization algorithm, the structure of chemical trees possessing extremal (maximum

Gilles Caporossi; Ivan Gutman; Pierre Hansen; Ljiljana Pavlovic

2003-01-01

182

Common Sense and Maximum Entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the question of how to draw inferences common sensically from uncertain knowledge. Since the early work of Shore and Johnson, [10], Paris and Vencovsk a, [6], and Csiszár, [1], it has been known that the Maximum Entropy Inference Process is the only inference process which obeys certain common sense principles of uncertain reasoning. In this paper we

Jeff Paris

2000-01-01

183

Maximum throughput of clandestine relay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum throughput of relaying information flows while concealing their presence is studied. The concealment is achieved by embedding transmissions of information flows into truly independent transmission schedules that resemble the normal transmission behaviors without any flow. Such embedding may reduce the throughput for delay-sensitive flows, and the paper provides a quantitative characterization of the level of reduction. Under a

Ting He; Lang Tong; Ananthram Swami

2009-01-01

184

Child allowances, fertility, and chaotic dynamics.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the dynamics in an overlapping generations model with the provision of child allowances. Fertility is an increasing function of child allowances and there exists a threshold effect of the marginal effect of child allowances on fertility. We show that if the effectiveness of child allowances is sufficiently high, an intermediate-sized tax rate will be enough to generate chaotic dynamics. Besides, a decrease in the inter-temporal elasticity of substitution will prevent the occurrence of irregular cycles. PMID:23822471

Chen, Hung-Ju; Li, Ming-Chia

2013-06-01

185

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those...

2014-01-01

186

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those...

2013-01-01

187

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those...

2012-01-01

188

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those...

2011-01-01

189

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those...

2010-01-01

190

Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed.

Choi, A.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

191

Family allowances and fertility: socioeconomic differences.  

PubMed

This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

Schellekens, Jona

2009-08-01

192

Radiation dose to workers due to the inhalation of dust during granite fabrication.  

PubMed

There has been very little research conducted to determine internal radiation doses resulting from worker exposure to ionising radiation in granite fabrication shops. To address this issue, we estimated the effective radiation dose of granite workers in US fabrication shops who were exposed to the maximum respirable dust and silica concentrations allowed under current US regulations, and also to concentrations reported in the literature. Radiation doses were calculated using standard methods developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated internal doses were very low, and below both US occupational standards (50 mSv yr(-1)) and limits applicable to the general public (1 mSv yr(-1)). Workers exposed to respirable granite dust concentrations at the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) respirable dust permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg m(-3) over a full year had an estimated radiation dose of 0.062 mSv yr(-1). Workers exposed to respirable granite dust concentrations at the OSHA silica PEL and at the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value for a full year had expected radiation doses of 0.007 mSv yr(-1) and 0.002 mSv yr(-1), respectively. Using data from studies of respirable granite dust and silica concentrations measured in granite fabrication shops, we calculated median expected radiation doses that ranged from <0.001 to 0.101 mSv yr(-1). PMID:24270240

Zwack, L M; McCarthy, W B; Stewart, J H; McCarthy, J F; Allen, J G

2014-03-01

193

Radiological dose assessment for bounding accident scenarios at the Critical Experiment Facility, TA-18, Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A computer modeling code, CRIT8, was written to allow prediction of the radiological doses to workers and members of the public resulting from these postulated maximum-effect accidents. The code accounts for the relationships of the initial parent radionuclide inventory at the time of the accident to the growth of radioactive daughter products, and considers the atmospheric conditions at time of release. The code then calculates a dose at chosen receptor locations for the sum of radionuclides produced as a result of the accident. Both criticality and non-criticality accidents are examined.

NONE

1991-09-01

194

41 CFR 301-11.7 - What determines my maximum per diem reimbursement rate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determines my maximum per diem reimbursement rate? 301-11.7 Section 301-11.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

195

45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

196

32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-07-01

197

7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-01-01

198

40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-07-01

199

10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-01-01

200

36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-07-01

201

24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-04-01

202

20 CFR 437.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-04-01

203

13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-01-01

204

21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-04-01

205

14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative...Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-01-01

206

45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

207

22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-04-01

208

28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-07-01

209

49 CFR 18.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

210

14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-01-01

211

45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

212

45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

213

45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

214

15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-01-01

215

10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the entity...Circular A-87, “Cost Principles for State and Local...

2010-01-01

216

45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

217

20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs...membership dues or other membership-related costs can involve political or lobbying activities. (1) The cost shall be for a...

2010-04-01

218

21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory allowance....

2011-04-01

219

21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory allowance....

2010-04-01

220

21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory allowance....

2013-04-01

221

21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.  

...1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory allowance....

2014-04-01

222

21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory allowance....

2012-04-01

223

22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 226.27 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE...NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For...

2010-04-01

224

29 CFR 95.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GOVERNMENTS, ORGANIZATIONS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 95.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient,...

2010-07-01

225

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

...of the property was lawful and reasonable under circumstances. (2) Claims for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft, or other serious occurrence may be allowed when the property is located inside: (i) Quarters that have...

2014-10-01

226

Independent calculation-based verification of IMRT plans using a 3D dose-calculation engine  

SciTech Connect

Independent monitor unit verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans requires detailed 3-dimensional (3D) dose verification. The aim of this study was to investigate using a 3D dose engine in a second commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for this task, facilitated by in-house software. Our department has XiO and Pinnacle TPSs, both with IMRT planning capability and modeled for an Elekta-Synergy 6 MV photon beam. These systems allow the transfer of computed tomography (CT) data and RT structures between them but do not allow IMRT plans to be transferred. To provide this connectivity, an in-house computer programme was developed to convert radiation therapy prescription (RTP) files as generated by many planning systems into either XiO or Pinnacle IMRT file formats. Utilization of the technique and software was assessed by transferring 14 IMRT plans from XiO and Pinnacle onto the other system and performing 3D dose verification. The accuracy of the conversion process was checked by comparing the 3D dose matrices and dose volume histograms (DVHs) of structures for the recalculated plan on the same system. The developed software successfully transferred IMRT plans generated by 1 planning system into the other. Comparison of planning target volume (TV) DVHs for the original and recalculated plans showed good agreement; a maximum difference of 2% in mean dose, ? 2.5% in D95, and 2.9% in V95 was observed. Similarly, a DVH comparison of organs at risk showed a maximum difference of +7.7% between the original and recalculated plans for structures in both high- and medium-dose regions. However, for structures in low-dose regions (less than 15% of prescription dose) a difference in mean dose up to +21.1% was observed between XiO and Pinnacle calculations. A dose matrix comparison of original and recalculated plans in XiO and Pinnacle TPSs was performed using gamma analysis with 3%/3 mm criteria. The mean and standard deviation of pixels passing gamma tolerance for XiO-generated IMRT plans was 96.1 ± 1.3, 96.6 ± 1.2, and 96.0 ± 1.5 in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes respectively. Corresponding results for Pinnacle-generated IMRT plans were 97.1 ± 1.5, 96.4 ± 1.2, and 96.5 ± 1.3 in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes respectively.

Arumugam, Sankar, E-mail: Sankar.Arumugam@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, New South Wales (Australia); The Ingham Institute, New South Wales (Australia); Xing, Aitang [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, New South Wales (Australia); The Ingham Institute, New South Wales (Australia); Goozee, Gary [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, New South Wales (Australia); The Ingham Institute, New South Wales (Australia); South West Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Holloway, Lois [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, New South Wales (Australia); The Ingham Institute, New South Wales (Australia); South West Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia)

2013-01-01

227

Independent calculation-based verification of IMRT plans using a 3D dose-calculation engine.  

PubMed

Independent monitor unit verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans requires detailed 3-dimensional (3D) dose verification. The aim of this study was to investigate using a 3D dose engine in a second commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for this task, facilitated by in-house software. Our department has XiO and Pinnacle TPSs, both with IMRT planning capability and modeled for an Elekta-Synergy 6MV photon beam. These systems allow the transfer of computed tomography (CT) data and RT structures between them but do not allow IMRT plans to be transferred. To provide this connectivity, an in-house computer programme was developed to convert radiation therapy prescription (RTP) files as generated by many planning systems into either XiO or Pinnacle IMRT file formats. Utilization of the technique and software was assessed by transferring 14 IMRT plans from XiO and Pinnacle onto the other system and performing 3D dose verification. The accuracy of the conversion process was checked by comparing the 3D dose matrices and dose volume histograms (DVHs) of structures for the recalculated plan on the same system. The developed software successfully transferred IMRT plans generated by 1 planning system into the other. Comparison of planning target volume (TV) DVHs for the original and recalculated plans showed good agreement; a maximum difference of 2% in mean dose, - 2.5% in D95, and 2.9% in V95 was observed. Similarly, a DVH comparison of organs at risk showed a maximum difference of +7.7% between the original and recalculated plans for structures in both high- and medium-dose regions. However, for structures in low-dose regions (less than 15% of prescription dose) a difference in mean dose up to +21.1% was observed between XiO and Pinnacle calculations. A dose matrix comparison of original and recalculated plans in XiO and Pinnacle TPSs was performed using gamma analysis with 3%/3mm criteria. The mean and standard deviation of pixels passing gamma tolerance for XiO-generated IMRT plans was 96.1 ± 1.3, 96.6 ± 1.2, and 96.0 ± 1.5 in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes respectively. Corresponding results for Pinnacle-generated IMRT plans were 97.1 ± 1.5, 96.4 ± 1.2, and 96.5 ± 1.3 in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes respectively. PMID:23790325

Arumugam, Sankar; Xing, Aitang; Goozee, Gary; Holloway, Lois

2013-01-01

228

41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...regulations for travel expenses paid by a non-Federal source? 304-3.11 Section...System PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE EMPLOYEE'S ACCEPTANCE OF PAYMENT FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE FOR TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2011-07-01

229

41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...regulations for travel expenses paid by a non-Federal source? 304-3.11 Section...System PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE EMPLOYEE'S ACCEPTANCE OF PAYMENT FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE FOR TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2010-07-01

230

When is high-dose intravenous iron repletion needed? Assessing new treatment options.  

PubMed

High doses of intravenous iron have a role in the treatment of a number of clinical situations associated with iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and blood loss. In the presence of functioning erythropoiesis, iron supplementation alone may be adequate to replenish iron stores and restore blood loss. Where hormone replacement with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent is required, iron adequacy will optimize treatment. Intravenous iron offers a rapid means of iron repletion and is superior to oral iron in many circumstances, especially in the presence of anemia of chronic disease, where it appears to overcome the block to absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and immobilization of stored iron. The clinical situations where high doses of iron are commonly required are reviewed. These include nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, obstetrics, menorrhagia, and anemia associated with cancer and its treatment. The literature indicates that high doses of iron are required, with levels of 1500 mg in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease and up to 3600 mg in inflammatory bowel disease. New formulations of intravenous iron have recently been introduced that allow clinicians to administer high doses of iron in a single administration. Ferumoxytol is available in the US, has a maximum dose of 510 mg iron in a single administration, but is limited to use in chronic kidney disease. Ferric carboxymaltose can be rapidly administered in doses of 15 mg/kg body weight, up to a ceiling dose of 1000 mg. A test dose is not required, and it can be used more widely across a spectrum of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia indications. The latest introduction is iron isomaltoside 1000. Again, a test dose is not required, and it can be delivered rapidly as an infusion (in an hour), allowing even higher doses of iron to be administered in a single infusion, ie, 20 mg/kg body weight with no ceiling. This will allow clinicians to achieve high-dose repletion more frequently as a single administration. Treatment options for iron repletion have taken a major leap forward in the past two years, especially to meet the demand for high doses given as a single administration. PMID:21340038

Gozzard, David

2011-01-01

231

HADOC: a computer code for calculation of external and inhalation doses from acute radionuclide releases  

SciTech Connect

The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.

Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.

1981-04-01

232

Maximum Diameter of Impacting Liquid Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum diameter a droplet that impacts on a surface will attain is the subject of controversy, notably for high-velocity impacts of low-viscosity liquids such as water or blood. We study the impact of droplets of simple liquids of different viscosities, and a shear-thinning complex fluid (blood), for a wide range of surfaces, impact speeds, and impact angles. We show that the spreading behavior cannot simply be predicted by equating the inertial to either capillary or viscous forces, since, for most situations of practical interest, all three forces are important. We determine the correct scaling behaviors for the viscous and capillary regimes and, by interpolating between the two, allow for a universal rescaling. The results for different impact angles can be rescaled on this universal curve also, by doing a simple geometrical correction for the impact angle. For blood, we show that the shear-thinning properties do not affect the maximum diameter and only the high-shear rate viscosity is relevant. With our study, we solve a long-standing problem within the fluid-dynamics community: We attest that the spreading behavior of droplets is governed by the conversion of kinetic energy into surface energy or dissipated heat. Energy transfer into internal flows marginally hinders droplet spreading upon impact.

Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Bartolo, Denis; Josserand, Christophe; Bonn, Daniel

2014-10-01

233

Dose and Dose Risk Caused by Natural Phenomena - Proposed Powder Metallurgy Core Manufacturing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The offsite radiological effects from high velocity straight winds, tornadoes, and earthquakes have been estimated for a proposed facility for manufacturing enriched uranium fuel cores by powder metallurgy. Projected doses range up to 30 mrem/event to the maximum offsite individual for high winds and up to 85 mrem/event for very severe earthquakes. Even under conservative assumptions on meteorological conditions, the maximum offsite dose would be about 20 per cent of the DOE limit for accidents involving enriched uranium storage facilities. The total dose risk is low and is dominated by the risk from earthquakes. This report discusses this test.

Holmes, W.G.

2001-08-16

234

Localized maximum entropy shape modelling.  

PubMed

A core part of many medical image segmentation techniques is the point distribution model, i.e., the landmark-based statistical shape model which describes the type of shapes under consideration. To build a proper model, that is flexible and generalizes well, one typically needs a large amount of landmarked training data, which can be hard to obtain. This problem becomes worse with increasing shape complexity and dimensionality. This work presents a novel methodology applicable to principal component-based shape model building and similar techniques. The main idea of the method is to make regular PCA shape modelling more flexible by using merely covariances between neighboring landmarks. The remaining unknown second order moments are determined using the maximum entropy principle based on which the full covariance matrix--as employed in the PCA--is determined using matrix completion. The method presented can be applied in a variety of situations and in conjunction with other technique facilitating model building. The experiments on point distributions demonstrate that improved shape models can be obtained using this localized maximum entropy modelling. PMID:17633734

Loog, Marco

2007-01-01

235

Using EPA`s allowance tracking system to assess the allowance market  

SciTech Connect

The development of a credible framework for analyzing private allowance transfers recorded in EPA`s Allowance Tracking System (ATS) is essential for effective assessment of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market. The ATS began recording transfers of allowances in March, 1994, and since then has served as an automated record of allowance holdings and transfers of ownership. Though primarily concerned with determining compliance, the ATS contains details of private allowance transfers representing what is believed to be a significant portion of overall SO{sub 2} allowance market activity. This paper will analyze these private transfers recorded in ATS and will develop relevant categories for classification purposes. The resulting categorization will enable consistent analysis of the SO{sub 2} allowance market and provide substantial insight into the level and type of allowance trading activity under the Acid Rain Program.

Dean, M.; Kruger, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31

236

Integral T-Shaped Phantom-Dosimeter System to Measure Transverse and Longitudinal Dose Distributions Simultaneously for Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry  

PubMed Central

A T-shaped fiber-optic phantom-dosimeter system was developed using square scintillating optical fibers, a lens system, and a CMOS image camera. Images of scintillating light were used to simultaneously measure the transverse and longitudinal distributions of absorbed dose of a 6 MV photon beam with field sizes of 1 × 1 and 3 × 3 cm2. Each optical fiber has a very small sensitive volume and the sensitive material is water equivalent. This allows the measurements of cross-beam profile as well as the percentage depth dose of small field sizes. In the case of transverse dose distribution, the measured beam profiles were gradually become uneven and the beam edge had a gentle slope with increasing depth of the PMMA phantom. In addition, the maximum dose values of longitudinal dose distribution for 6 MV photon beam with field sizes of 1 × 1 and 3 × 3 cm2 were found to be at a depth of approximately 15 mm and the percentage depth dose of both field sizes were nearly in agreement at the skin dose level. Based on the results of this study, it is anticipated that an all-in-one phantom-dosimeter can be developed to accurately measure beam profiles and dose distribution in a small irradiation fields prior to carrying out stereotactic radiosurgery. PMID:22778649

Yoo, Wook Jae; Moon, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyoung Won; Han, Ki-Tek; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeon, Dayeong; Park, Jang-Yeon; Park, Byung Gi; Lee, Bongsoo

2012-01-01

237

Fast range-corrected proton dose approximation method using prior dose distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For robust plan optimization and evaluation purposes, one needs a computationally efficient way to calculate dose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) under various changes in the variables associated with beam delivery and images. In this study, we report an approximate method for rapid calculation of dose when setup errors and anatomical changes occur during proton therapy. This fast dose approximation method calculates new dose distributions under various circumstances based on the prior knowledge of dose distribution from a reference setting. In order to validate the method, we calculated and compared the dose distributions from our approximation method to the dose distributions calculated from a clinically commissioned treatment planning system which was used as the ground truth. The overall accuracy of the proposed method was tested against varying degrees of setup error and anatomical deformation for selected patient cases. The setup error was simulated by rigid shifts of the patient; while the anatomical deformation was introduced using weekly acquired repeat CT data sets. We evaluated the agreement between the dose approximation method and full dose recalculation using a 3D gamma index and the root-mean-square (RMS) and maximum deviation of the cumulative dose volume histograms (cDVHs). The average passing rate of 3D gamma analysis under 3% dose and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criteria were 96% and 89% for setup errors and severe anatomy changes, respectively. The average of RMS and maximum deviation of the cDVHs under the setup error was 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively for all structures considered. Similarly, the average of RMS and maximum deviations under the weekly anatomical change were 0.6% and 2.7%, respectively. Our results show that the fast dose approximation method was able to account for the density variation of the patient due to the setup and anatomical changes with acceptable accuracy while significantly improving the computation time.

Park, Peter C.; Cheung, Joey; Zhu, X. Ronald; Sahoo, Narayan; Court, Laurence; Dong, Lei

2012-06-01

238

Fast range-corrected proton dose approximation method using prior dose distribution.  

PubMed

For robust plan optimization and evaluation purposes, one needs a computationally efficient way to calculate dose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) under various changes in the variables associated with beam delivery and images. In this study, we report an approximate method for rapid calculation of dose when setup errors and anatomical changes occur during proton therapy. This fast dose approximation method calculates new dose distributions under various circumstances based on the prior knowledge of dose distribution from a reference setting. In order to validate the method, we calculated and compared the dose distributions from our approximation method to the dose distributions calculated from a clinically commissioned treatment planning system which was used as the ground truth. The overall accuracy of the proposed method was tested against varying degrees of setup error and anatomical deformation for selected patient cases. The setup error was simulated by rigid shifts of the patient; while the anatomical deformation was introduced using weekly acquired repeat CT data sets. We evaluated the agreement between the dose approximation method and full dose recalculation using a 3D gamma index and the root-mean-square (RMS) and maximum deviation of the cumulative dose volume histograms (cDVHs). The average passing rate of 3D gamma analysis under 3% dose and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criteria were 96% and 89% for setup errors and severe anatomy changes, respectively. The average of RMS and maximum deviation of the cDVHs under the setup error was 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively for all structures considered. Similarly, the average of RMS and maximum deviations under the weekly anatomical change were 0.6% and 2.7%, respectively. Our results show that the fast dose approximation method was able to account for the density variation of the patient due to the setup and anatomical changes with acceptable accuracy while significantly improving the computation time. PMID:22588165

Park, Peter C; Cheung, Joey; Zhu, X Ronald; Sahoo, Narayan; Court, Laurence; Dong, Lei

2012-06-01

239

Discriminative Training and Maximum Entropy Models for Statistical Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for statistical machine translation of natural languages based on direct maximum entropy mod- els, which contains the widely used sour- ce-channel approach as a special case. All knowledge sources are treated as feature functions, which depend on the source language sentence, the target language sentence and possible hidden variables. This approach allows a baseline machine translation

Franz Josef Och; Hermann Ney

2002-01-01

240

Can digoxin dose requirements be predicted?  

PubMed Central

A search for patient variables relevant to digoxin dose requirements was made in fourty-three patients with a wide range of renal and hepatic function. The daily dose of digoxin to achieve a mean serum concentration of 1.5 ng/ml, the standardized dose, was calculated for each patient. The standardized dose correlated significantly with the following variables, in descending order of correlation coefficient; creatinine clearance, serum creatinine concentration, body weight and serum albumin concentration. An equation containing the two independent variables, creatinine clearance and serum albumin concentration, had a significantly stronger correlation with standardized dose than creatinine clearance alone. Attempts were made in each patient to predict the standardized dose using both empirical prescribing methods and the published nomograms. Although a maximum of 70% of the variance of the standardized dose was explained, this corresponded approximately to one patient in three having a predicted dose outside the 95% confidnece limits for the standardized dose. There remain important sources of individual variation in digoxin dose requirements yet to be identified. Future application of empirical prescribing methods, such as multiple linear regression and Bayes' theorem, to prescription for large, defined patient groups may improve dose prediction for individual patients. PMID:973957

Dobbs, S M; Mawer, G E; Rodgers, M; Woodcock, B G; Lucas, S B

1976-01-01

241

42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...direct graduate medical education costs are those costs...activities associated with patient care services of an...direct graduate medical education. (ii) The following...allowable graduate medical education costs— (A) Costs...but not related to patient care services....

2010-10-01

242

10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.  

...this section. (b) The expenditure of financial assistance...equipment. (d) Allowable expenditures under this part include only...The cost of eliminating health and safety hazards elimination...compliance with the per-home expenditure limit in § 440.18....

2014-01-01

243

10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...this section. (b) The expenditure of financial assistance...equipment. (d) Allowable expenditures under this part include only...The cost of eliminating health and safety hazards elimination...compliance with the per-home expenditure limit in § 440.18....

2010-01-01

244

10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...this section. (b) The expenditure of financial assistance...equipment. (d) Allowable expenditures under this part include only...The cost of eliminating health and safety hazards elimination...compliance with the per-home expenditure limit in § 440.18....

2012-01-01

245

10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...this section. (b) The expenditure of financial assistance...equipment. (d) Allowable expenditures under this part include only...The cost of eliminating health and safety hazards elimination...compliance with the per-home expenditure limit in § 440.18....

2011-01-01

246

10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...this section. (b) The expenditure of financial assistance...equipment. (d) Allowable expenditures under this part include only...The cost of eliminating health and safety hazards elimination...compliance with the per-home expenditure limit in § 440.18....

2013-01-01

247

Furman University Cell Phone Allowance Request Form  

E-print Network

minutes $45 $0 Over 450 minutes $75 $0 Smartphone/PDA $60 $200! *The One-time equipment purchase is based (input by Finance): ____________________ Allowance Amount: $___________________ One-Time Equipment any questions regarding the policy. Plan Monthly Payment One-Time Equipment* 100 minutes $15 $0 450

248

Cell Phone Allowance Responsible Administrative Units  

E-print Network

Cell Phone Allowance Policy Responsible Administrative Units: Office of Finance & Administration 1 of 3 1.0 BACKGROUND It is essential for certain employees in some circumstances to use cell phones of Colorado policy that dictates use of a state-provided cell phone or smartphone. Additionally, the Internal

249

34 CFR 656.30 - What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or operating a comprehensive or undergraduate Center including, but not limited...acquisitions; (3) Teaching and research materials; (4) Curriculum...allowable. (2) Funds for undergraduate travel are allowable only...

2013-07-01

250

34 CFR 656.30 - What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs?  

...or operating a comprehensive or undergraduate Center including, but not limited...acquisitions; (3) Teaching and research materials; (4) Curriculum...allowable. (2) Funds for undergraduate travel are allowable only...

2014-07-01

251

34 CFR 656.30 - What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or operating a comprehensive or undergraduate Center including, but not limited...acquisitions; (3) Teaching and research materials; (4) Curriculum...allowable. (2) Funds for undergraduate travel are allowable only...

2012-07-01

252

34 CFR 656.30 - What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or operating a comprehensive or undergraduate Center including, but not limited...acquisitions; (3) Teaching and research materials; (4) Curriculum...allowable. (2) Funds for undergraduate travel are allowable only...

2011-07-01

253

78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Relocation Allowance--Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables AGENCY: Office...the amount of a transferee's increased tax burden due to his or her official permanent...April 13, 2013. Carolyn Austin-Diggs, Principal Deputy Administrator, Office of...

2013-05-07

254

Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.silva.rodriguez@sergas.es; Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain) [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Sánchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Víctor [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain)] [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Cortés, Julia; Garrido, Miguel [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia, Spain and Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain)] [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia, Spain and Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Pombar, Miguel [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain)] [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Ruibal, Álvaro [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain) [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Fundación Tejerina, 28003, Madrid (Spain)

2014-05-15

255

34 CFR 656.30 - What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable...FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES What Conditions Must Be Met By a Grantee? § 656.30 What are allowable costs and limitations on...

2010-07-01

256

Correlation between Contingency Allowance and Change Orders  

E-print Network

Practice, as to the root reason for contingency allowance included in project contract by which the unpredictable changes can be largely covered, contingency aims to serve three occurrences: [1] 1) Errors and Omissions in construction documents 2... for creative solutions Probably concessions on quality/safety High High probability of cost under run Project is probably less feasible? Negative impact on cost efficiency Cost under run may be used for other purposes Correct Amount Probability...

Li, Lishan

2014-08-05

257

Radiation dose assessment for the biota of terrestrial ecosystems in the shoreline zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant cooling pond.  

PubMed

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature. PMID:21878760

Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Hinton, Thomas G; Coughlin, Daniel; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

2011-10-01

258

RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

SciTech Connect

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

259

NIEL Dose Dependence for Solar Cells Irradiated with Electrons and Protons  

E-print Network

The investigation of solar cells degradation and the prediction of its end-of-life performance is of primary importance in the preparation of a space mission. In the present work, we investigate the reduction of solar-cells' maximum power resulting from irradiations with electrons and protons. Both GaAs single junction and GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells were studied. The results obtained indicate how i) the dominant radiation damaging mechanism is due to atomic displacements, ii) the relative maximum power degradation is almost independent of the type of incoming particle, i.e., iii) to a first approximation, the fitted semi-empirical function expressing the decrease of maximum power depends only on the absorbed NIEL dose, and iv) the actual displacement threshold energy value (Ed=21 eV) accounts for annealing treatments, mostly due to self-annealing induced effects. Thus, for a given type of solar cell, a unique maximum power degradation curve can be determined as a function of the absorbed NIEL dose. The latter expression allows one to predict the performance of those solar cells in space radiation environment.

C. Baur; M. Gervasi; P. Nieminen; S. Pensotti; P. G. Rancoita; M. Tacconi

2014-02-10

260

Multiple Early Eocene Thermal Maximums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodic dissolution horizons signifying abrupt shoaling of the lysocline and CCD are characteristic features of deep-sea sections and often attributed to Milankovitch forcing via their diagnostic frequencies. Prominent dissolution horizons also correspond to abrupt climate events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), as a result of input of significant CH4 - CO2 into the ocean-atmosphere system. The question arises whether other significant dissolution horizons identified in sediments of late Paleocene and early Eocene age similar to the recently identified ELMO (Lourens et al., 2004) were formed as a result of greenhouse gas input, or whether they were related to cumulative effects of periodic changes in ocean chemistry and circulation. Here we report the discovery of a 3rd thermal maximum in early Eocene (about 52 Ma) sediments recovered from the South Atlantic during ODP Leg 208. The prominent clay layer was named the "X" event and was identified within planktonic foraminifer zone P7 and calcareous nannofossil zone CP10 at four Walvis Ridge Transect sites with a water depth range of 2000 m (Sites 1262 to 1267). Benthics assemblages are composed of small individuals, have low diversity and high dominance. Dominant taxa are Nuttallides truempyi and various abyssaminids, resembling the post PETM extinction assemblages. High-resolution bulk carbonate \\delta13C measurements of one of the more shallow Sites 1265 reveal a rapid about 0.6 per mill drop in \\delta13C and \\delta18O followed by an exponential recovery to pre-excursion \\delta13C values well known for the PETM and also observed for the ELMO. The planktonic foraminiferal \\delta13C records of Morozovella subbotina and Acaranina soldadoensis in the deepest Site 1262 show a 0.8 to 0.9 per mill drop, whereas the \\delta13C drop of benthic foraminifera Nuttallides truempyi is slightly larger (about 1 per mill). We are evaluating mechanisms for the widespread change in deep-water chemistry, its connection to the surface-water response, and the relationship of the event, as well as the PETM and ELMO, with current astronomical solutions (Laskar et al., 2004; Varadi et al., 2003). References 1. Lourens, L.J., Sluijs, A., Kroon, D., Zachos, J.C., Thomas, E., Roehl, U., and the ODP Leg 208 Shipboard Scientific Party, 2004. An early Eocene transient warming (~53 Ma): Implications for astronomically-paced early Eocene hyperthermal events.- Abstract, 8th International Conference on Paleoceanography (ICP), 5-10 September 2004, Biarritz, France. 2. F. Varadi, B. Bunnegar, M. Ghil, Astrophysical J. 592, 620-630 (2003). 3. J. Laskar et al., Astronomy and Astrophysics (2004).

Roehl, U.; Zachos, J. C.; Thomas, E.; Kelly, D. C.; Donner, B.; Westerhold, T.

2004-12-01

261

Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference between the dynamic dose and 4D dose as a function of number of deliveries and/or total deliver time was also established.

Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2012-12-15

262

Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a “pulsed beam”; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a “continuous beam.” A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference between the dynamic dose and 4D dose as a function of number of deliveries and/or total deliver time was also established. PMID:23231285

Li, Heng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

2012-01-01

263

The maximum drag reduction asymptote  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addition of a small amount of long chain polymers to a Newtonian solvent can lead to a dramatic drag reduction in turbulent flows. This effect has been extensively studied since its discovery in the late 1940's. The drag reduction at first is proportional to the polymer concentration (Weisenberg number) but then saturates to the maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote. It is commonly believed that drag reduction results from an adjustment of the turbulent flow structure due to the action of the polymers. We here present experimental results of turbulent pipe flows using dilute polyacrylamid solutions at relatively large Weisenberg numbers (˜10). Our results show that for relatively low polymer concentrations transition to turbulence is postponed to higher Reynolds numbers. However when the Weisenberg number is increased further we find that the subcritical transition to turbulence, typical for Newtonian pipe flow disappears. Instead a supercritical instability is found at much lower Reynolds numbers which gives rise to a disordered flow. The observed drag of this disordered flow is identical to the well known MDR asymptote.

Hof, Björn; Samanta, Devranjan; Wagner, Christian

2011-11-01

264

Failure-probability driven dose painting  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed. Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy. Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%. Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity. PMID:23927314

Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Berthelsen, Anne K.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena; Bentzen, Søren M.

2013-01-01

265

Dosing and efficacy in specific immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to treat allergic rhinoconjuctivitis and asthma worldwide. The clinical efficacy of the most common routes, subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) immunotherapy, is documented for respiratory allergy by double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trials (DB PC RCT). However, dose-effect relationships are not available for all extracts. The 1998 WHO Consensus Report on Allergen Immunotherapy found SCIT ineffective at low doses, with high doses more likely to result in an unacceptably high level of systemic reactions. Recent large well-designed DB PC RCTs using SLIT grass pollen tablets have undergone phase II-III studies in adults with allergic rhinitis, yielding proper dose-response studies. These were analysed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Immunotherapy Interest Group task force on dose effect. In general, low doses (5-7 ?g of allergen Phl p 5 per day) are ineffective. Daily doses of 15-25 ?g of the major allergen protein are required for significant clinical improvement measured by symptom scores. A higher dose (33-40 ?g of Phl p 5 per day) was not more effective than 15-25 ?g. Optimization of the allergen/adjuvant ratio may allow for lower allergen doses, increase the safety/efficacy profile and allow for shorter updosing. However, our analysis of the available studies concluded that every product requires its own dose-response relationship study. PMID:21668851

Demoly, P; Calderon, M A

2011-07-01

266

Robust technique allowing manufacturing superoleophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the robust technique allowing manufacturing of superhydrophobic and oleophobic (omniphobic) surfaces with industrial grade low density polyethylene. The reported process includes two stages: (1) hot embossing of polyethylene with micro-scaled steel gauzes; (2) treatment of embossed surfaces with cold radiofrequency plasma of tetrafluoromethane. The reported surfaces demonstrate not only pronounced superhydrophobicity but also superoleophobicity. Superoleophobicity results from the hierarchical nano-scaled topography of fluorinated polyethylene surface. The observed superoleophobicity is strengthened by the hydrophobic recovery. The stability of the Cassie wetting regime was studied.

Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Chaniel, Gilad; Taitelbaum, Haim; Bormashenko, Yelena

2013-04-01

267

Dose to medium versus dose to water as an estimator of dose to sensitive skeletal tissue.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine whether dose to medium, D(m), or dose to water, D(w), provides a better estimate of the dose to the radiosensitive red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSC) in spongiosa, or cancellous bone. This is addressed in the larger context of the ongoing debate over whether D(m) or D(w) should be specified in Monte Carlo calculated radiotherapy treatment plans. The study uses voxelized, virtual human phantoms, FAX06/MAX06 (female/male), incorporated into an EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations during simulated irradiation by a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta SL25 accelerator. Head and neck, chest and pelvis irradiations are studied. FAX06/MAX06 include precise modelling of spongiosa based on microCT images, allowing dose to RBM and BSC to be resolved from the dose to bone. Modifications to the FAX06/MAX06 user codes are required to score D(w) and D(m) in spongiosa. Dose uncertainties of approximately 1% (BSC, RBM) or approximately 0.5% (D(m), D(w)) are obtained after up to 5 days of simulations on 88 CPUs. Clinically significant differences (>5%) between D(m) and D(w) are found only in cranial spongiosa, where the volume fraction of trabecular bone (TBVF) is high (55%). However, for spongiosa locations where there is any significant difference between D(m) and D(w), comparisons of differential dose volume histograms (DVHs) and average doses show that D(w) provides a better overall estimate of dose to RBM and BSC. For example, in cranial spongiosa the average D(m) underestimates the average dose to sensitive tissue by at least 5%, while average D(w) is within approximately 1% of the average dose to sensitive tissue. Thus, it is better to specify D(w) than D(m) in Monte Carlo treatment plans, since D(w) provides a better estimate of dose to sensitive tissue in bone, the only location where the difference is likely to be clinically significant. PMID:20668336

Walters, B R B; Kramer, R; Kawrakow, I

2010-08-21

268

The dose makes the medicine.  

PubMed

Dose and time considerations in the development and use of a drug are important for assessing actions and side effects, as well as predictions of safety and toxicity. This article deals with epistemological aspects of dose selection by probing into the linguistic and cultural roots for the measure of medicine mediated by the medical doctor. Because toxicity is related to dose, historic and recent views suggest that less can be more. At low, medium and high dose levels, effects can differ not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Dose-related target activation and recognition of enantiodromic thresholds between beneficial and toxic effects require elucidation of underlying events. Such studies, including hormesis and microdosing, call for extended ADME procedures with high-resolution methods in addition to the current low-resolution approaches. Improved information of drug logistics and target pharmacokinetics enables effective drug selection, dose determination and prediction. It also allows considerations of systems biology [i.e. integral (gestalt) pharmacology] exemplified by the drug homunculus, as in the case of vitamin D, that might lead to new paradigms and drug design. PMID:16713907

Stumpf, Walter E

2006-06-01

269

Radiation Dose Chart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an illustration of the ionizing radiation dose a person can absorb from various sources. It provides a visual comparison of doses ranging from 0.1 microsieverts (from eating a banana) to a fatal dose of 8 sieverts.

Munroe, Randall

270

The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.

Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.

2011-07-01

271

Interactive Learning During Solar Maximum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project is to develop and distribute e-educational material for space science during times of solar activity that emphasizes underlying basic science principles of solar disturbances and their effects on Earth. This includes materials such as simulations, animations, group projects and other on-line materials to be used by students either in high school or at the introductory college level. The on-line delivery tool originally intended to be used is known as Interactive Multimedia Education at a Distance (IMED), which is a web-based software system used at UCLA for interactive distance learning. IMED is a password controlled system that allows students to access text, images, bulletin boards, chat rooms, animation, simulations and individual student web sites to study science and to collaborate on group projects.

Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Curtis, Steven (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

272

Generalized Relativistic Wave Equations with Intrinsic Maximum Momentum  

E-print Network

We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential are stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied are bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.

Chee Leong Ching; Wei Khim Ng

2013-11-15

273

A Bayesian mixture model relating dose to critical organs and functional complication in 3D conformal radiation therapy.  

PubMed

A goal of cancer radiation therapy is to deliver maximum dose to the target tumor while minimizing complications due to irradiation of critical organs. Technological advances in 3D conformal radiation therapy has allowed great strides in realizing this goal; however, complications may still arise. Critical organs may be adjacent to tumors or in the path of the radiation beam. Several mathematical models have been proposed that describe the relationship between dose and observed functional complication; however, only a few published studies have successfully fit these models to data using modern statistical methods which make efficient use of the data. One complication following radiation therapy of head and neck cancers is the patient's inability to produce saliva. Xerostomia (dry mouth) leads to high susceptibility to oral infection and dental caries and is, in general, unpleasant and an annoyance. We present a dose-damage-injury model that subsumes any of the various mathematical models relating dose to damage. The model is a nonlinear, longitudinal mixed effects model where the outcome (saliva flow rate) is modeled as a mixture of a Dirac measure at zero and a gamma distribution whose mean is a function of time and dose. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the relationship between dose delivered to the parotid glands and the observational outcome-saliva flow rate. A summary measure of the dose-damage relationship is modeled and assessed by a Bayesian chi(2) test for goodness-of-fit. PMID:15917377

Johnson, Timothy D; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Ten Haken, Randall K; Eisbruch, Avraham

2005-10-01

274

A regression model to determine load for maximum power output.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to create a regression model of the relationship between load and muscle power output and to determine an optimal load for maximum power output during a countermovement squat and a bench press. 55 males and 48 females performed power testing at 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% of their individual one-repetition maximum (1-RM) in the countermovement squat and bench press exercises. Values for the maximum dynamic strength and load for each lift were used to develop a regression model in which the ratio of power was predicted from the ratio of the load for each type of lift. By optimizing the regression model, we predicted the optimal load for maximum muscle power. For the bench press and the countermovement squat, the mean optimal loads for maximum muscle output ranged from 50 to 70% of maximum dynamic strength. Optimal load in the acceleration phase of the upward movement of the two exercises appeared to be more important than over the full range of the movement. This model allows for specific determination of the optimal load for a pre-determined power output. PMID:18972885

Jandacka, Daniel; Vaverka, Frantisek

2008-09-01

275

Expansion of guidance for the day 8 initiation dose of paliperidone palmitate to avoid a missed dose  

PubMed Central

Background Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a long-acting injectable formulation of an atypical antipsychotic, paliperidone. Its dose can be expressed in milligram or milligram equivalents (mg eq) of active paliperidone (39, 78, 117, 156, and 234 mg of PP correspond to 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg eq of paliperidone). The recommended initiation dosing regimen for PP is 150 [day 1]/100[day 8] mg eq. Labeling guidance allowed a ± 2 day window for the day 8 injection that provides more flexibility with patient scheduling and avoids missing the day 8 initiation dose. Recently, expansion of the day 8 dosing window from ±2 to ±4 days has been approved in the United States based on results obtained from the model-based simulations and review of safety data presented here. Methods The predicted exposure for the recommended initiation regimen of PP was compared with day 1/day 4, and day 1/day 12 dosing scenarios; each scenario was compared with the highest clinically evaluated initiation regimen (150[day 1]/150[day 8] mg eq) and to the recommended 6 mg/day oral dose of extended-release paliperidone. Results Simulated exposures with PP 150 mg eq on day 1 and 100 mg eq on days 4, 8, or 12 overlap considerably, with ±3 ng/mL variation in median maximum plasma concentrations. Based upon pharmacokinetic bridging/bracketing, the peak concentration with PP 150/100 mg eq [days 1/4] was lower than that with the highest initiation regimen. Exposures for PP 150 mg eq on day 1 and 100 mg eq on days 4, 8, or 12 were maintained close to those of 6 mg of paliperidone extended-release. Conclusion These simulations indicate that using the expanded dosing window of ±4 days has little effect on paliperidone exposure. A review of the overall pattern of treatment-emergent adverse events did not identify any new safety risks associated with the expanded dosing window. PMID:23723704

Samtani, Mahesh N; Nuamah, Isaac; Gopal, Srihari; Remmerie, Bart; Kern Sliwa, Jennifer; Alphs, Larry

2013-01-01

276

Adaptive Urn Designs for Estimating Several Percentiles of a DoseResponse Curve  

E-print Network

), the median lethal dose (denoted LD50) (e.g., Dixon and Mood, 1948), the maximum tolerated dose in phase IAdaptive Urn Designs for Estimating Several Percentiles of a Dose­Response Curve Raymond Mugno 1.S.A. \\Lambda e­mail:mugno@ams.sunysb.edu Summary. Dose response experiments are crucial in biomedical studies

New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

277

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1  

E-print Network

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1 Brookhaven National Laboratory routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any potential radiological dose to the public, BNL workers radiological dose to the public is calculated as the maximum dose to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed

Homes, Christopher C.

278

Evaluation of robustness of maximum likelihood cone-beam CT reconstruction with total variation regularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to evaluate an iterative maximum likelihood (ML) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction with total variation (TV) regularization with respect to the robustness of the algorithm due to data inconsistencies. Three different and (for clinical application) typical classes of errors are considered for simulated phantom and measured projection data: quantum noise, defect detector pixels and projection matrix errors. To quantify those errors we apply error measures like mean square error, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and streak indicator. These measures are derived from linear signal theory and generalized and applied for nonlinear signal reconstruction. For quality check, we focus on resolution and CT-number linearity based on a Catphan phantom. All comparisons are made versus the clinical standard, the filtered backprojection algorithm (FBP). In our results, we confirm and substantially extend previous results on iterative reconstruction such as massive undersampling of the number of projections. Errors of projection matrix parameters of up to 1° projection angle deviations are still in the tolerance level. Single defect pixels exhibit ring artifacts for each method. However using defect pixel compensation, allows up to 40% of defect pixels for passing the standard clinical quality check. Further, the iterative algorithm is extraordinarily robust in the low photon regime (down to 0.05 mAs) when compared to FPB, allowing for extremely low-dose image acquisitions, a substantial issue when considering daily CBCT imaging for position correction in radiotherapy. We conclude that the ML method studied herein is robust under clinical quality assurance conditions. Consequently, low-dose regime imaging, especially for daily patient localization in radiation therapy is possible without change of the current hardware of the imaging system.

Stsepankou, D.; Arns, A.; Ng, S. K.; Zygmanski, P.; Hesser, J.

2012-10-01

279

New generation mooring system allows longer deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional mooring systems in use today are mainly derived from technology that was developed from the 1950s through the 1970s. The subsurface or "intermediate" mooring design that matured in the 1970s allows measurements to be made reliably for up to 2 years. Thousands of these moorings have been deployed throughout the world's oceans and most marginal seas. A partial archive of the data that have been collected is available at http://ortelius.whoi.edu/website/BGTS/viewer.htm. Much of what we have learned about ocean circulation, and the processes governing it, has been provided by the world-wide effort to acquire moored (Eulerian) measurements of temperature, velocity, and other associated time series.

Frye, Dan; Hogg, Nelson; Wunsch, Carl

280

An algorithm for kilovoltage x-ray dose calculations with applications in kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model-based dose calculation algorithm is presented for kilovoltage x-rays and is tested for the cases of calculating the radiation dose from kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT) and 2D planar projected radiographs. This algorithm calculates the radiation dose to water-like media as the sum of primary and scattered dose components. The scatter dose is calculated by convolution of a newly introduced, empirically parameterized scatter dose kernel with the primary photon fluence. Several approximations are introduced to increase the scatter dose calculation efficiency: (1) the photon energy spectrum is approximated as monoenergetic; (2) density inhomogeneities are accounted for by implementing a global distance scaling factor in the scatter kernel; (3) kernel tilting is ignored. These approximations allow for efficient calculation of the scatter dose convolution with the fast Fourier transform. Monte Carlo simulations were used to obtain the model parameters. The accuracy of using this model-based algorithm was validated by comparing with the Monte Carlo method for calculating dose distributions for real patients resulting from radiotherapy image guidance procedures including volumetric kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs. For all patients studied, mean dose-to-water errors for kV-CBCT are within 0.3% with a maximum standard deviation error of 4.1%. Using a medium-dependent correction method to account for the effects of photoabsorption in bone on the dose distribution, mean dose-to-medium errors for kV-CBCT are within 3.6% for bone and 2.4% for soft tissues. This algorithm offers acceptable accuracy and has the potential to extend the applicability of model-based dose calculation algorithms from megavoltage to kilovoltage photon beams.

Pawlowski, Jason M.; Ding, George X.

2014-04-01

281

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL REPORT NO. 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION"  

E-print Network

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL REPORT NO. 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION" IN THE HAWAllAN ISLANDS LOAN COPY (Nos. 6-22 Numbered Retroactively) *No: 1. Maximum possible precipitation over the Ompompanoos~c Basin above Union Villag~, Vt. 1943. *No. 2. Maximum possible precipitation over'the Ohio River-Basin above

282

Parameterized Algorithms for Directed Maximum Leaf Problems  

E-print Network

Parameterized Algorithms for Directed Maximum Leaf Problems Noga Alon 1 , Fedor V. Fomin 2 spanning tree, then D contains one with at least (n/2) 1/5 - 1 leaves. 1 Introduction The Maximum Leaf a digraph D, the Directed Maximum Leaf Out­Branching problem is the problem of finding an out­branching in D

Krivelevich, Michael

283

Comparison of SYBR Green I and TaqMan real-time PCR formats for the analysis of her2 gene dose in human breast tumors.  

PubMed

We compared two technologies of real-time PCR (with the use of fluorescent SYBR Green I dye and specific TaqMan probe) for quantification of the dose of her2 gene in breast tumors. The maximum increase in the gene dose in TaqMan and SYBR Green I analyses was 10- and 5-fold, respectively. In was found that TaqMan and SYBR Green I technologies allow detection of the matrix in amounts corresponding to 1-100 and 2.5-40.0 ng genomic DNA, respectively. Tenfold increase in the gene dose leads to incorrect evaluation of multiplication ratio in the SYBR Green I analysis. These results suggest that TaqMan technology is more preferable for correct evaluation of her2 gene dose. PMID:19023979

Matsenko, N U; Rijikova, V S; Kovalenko, S P

2008-02-01

284

CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.

Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer

2011-12-01

285

CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.

Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.

2002-07-01

286

Penalized maximum likelihood for multivariate Gaussian mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we first consider the parameter estimation of a multivariate random process distribution using multivariate Gaussian mixture law. The labels of the mixture are allowed to have a general probability law which gives the possibility to modelize a temporal structure of the process under study. We generalize the case of univariate Gaussian mixture in [1] to show that the likelihood is unbounded and goes to infinity when one of the covariance matrices approaches the boundary of singularity of the non negative definite matrices set. We characterize the parameter set of these singularities. As a solution to this degeneracy problem, we show that the penalization of the likelihood by an Inverse Wishart prior on covariance matrices results to a penalized or maximum a posteriori criterion which is bounded. Then, the existence of positive definite matrices optimizing this criterion can be guaranteed. We also show that with a modified EM procedure or with a Bayesian sampling scheme, we can constrain covariance matrices to belong to a particular subclass of covariance matrices. Finally, we study degeneracies in the source separation problem where the characterization of parameter singularity set is more complex. We show, however, that Inverse Wishart prior on covariance matrices eliminates the degeneracies in this case too.

Snoussi, Hichem; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

2002-05-01

287

Maximum likelihood inference of reticulate evolutionary histories.  

PubMed

Hybridization plays an important role in the evolution of certain groups of organisms, adaptation to their environments, and diversification of their genomes. The evolutionary histories of such groups are reticulate, and methods for reconstructing them are still in their infancy and have limited applicability. We present a maximum likelihood method for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories while accounting simultaneously for incomplete lineage sorting. Additionally, we propose methods for assessing confidence in the amount of reticulation and the topology of the inferred evolutionary history. Our method obtains accurate estimates of reticulate evolutionary histories on simulated datasets. Furthermore, our method provides support for a hypothesis of a reticulate evolutionary history inferred from a set of house mouse (Mus musculus) genomes. As evidence of hybridization in eukaryotic groups accumulates, it is essential to have methods that infer reticulate evolutionary histories. The work we present here allows for such inference and provides a significant step toward putting phylogenetic networks on par with phylogenetic trees as a model of capturing evolutionary relationships. PMID:25368173

Yu, Yun; Dong, Jianrong; Liu, Kevin J; Nakhleh, Luay

2014-11-18

288

Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56-87.5 Gy; 1.5-2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade {>=}2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4-37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512-67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm{sup 3} of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966-24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267-17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future prospective trials with high-dose radiation therapy for unresectable lung cancer.

Amini, Arya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Yang Jinzhong; Williamson, Ryan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McBurney, Michelle L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Erasmus, Jeremy [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Karhade, Mandar; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-03-01

289

Benchmark Dose Modeling  

EPA Science Inventory

Finite doses are employed in experimental toxicology studies. Under the traditional methodology, the point of departure (POD) value for low dose extrapolation is identified as one of these doses. Dose spacing necessarily precludes a more accurate description of the POD value. ...

290

Maximum entropy deconvolution of low-count nuclear medicine images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum entropy is applied to the problem of deconvolving nuclear medicine images, with special consideration for very low count data. The physics of the formation of scintigraphic images is described, illustrating the phenomena which degrade planar estimates of the tracer distribution. Various techniques which are used to restore these images are reviewed, outlining the relative merits of each. The development and theoretical justification of maximum entropy as an image processing technique is discussed. Maximum entropy is then applied to the problem of planar deconvolution, highlighting the question of the choice of error parameters for low count data. A novel iterative version of the algorithm is suggested which allows the errors to be estimated from the predicted Poisson mean values. This method is shown to produce the exact results predicted by combining Poisson statistics and a Bayesian interpretation of the maximum entropy approach. A facility for total count preservation has also been incorporated, leading to improved quantification. In order to evaluate this iterative maximum entropy technique, two comparable methods, Wiener filtering and a novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique, were implemented. The comparison of results obtained indicated that this maximum entropy approach may produce equivalent or better measures of image quality than the compared methods, depending upon the accuracy of the system model used. The novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique was shown to be preferable over many existing maximum a posteriori methods due to its simplicity of implementation. A single parameter is required to define the Bayesian prior, which suppresses noise in the solution and may reduce the processing time substantially. Finally, maximum entropy deconvolution was applied as a pre-processing-step in single photon emission computed tomography reconstruction of low count data. Higher contrast results were obtained than those achieved by a Wiener pre-filtering approach and a scatter-subtracted attenuation corrected filtered back projection method. Maximum entropy optimised for low counts holds promise for nuclear medicine applications where counts are necessarily low, and may facilitate reduction of the administered activity for other applications. The algorithm was in fact deemed advantageous for the processing of low count Poisson data in general.

McGrath, Deirdre Maria

291

42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...

2011-10-01

292

42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...

2013-10-01

293

42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.  

...61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...

2014-10-01

294

Georgia fishery study: implications for dose calculations. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Fish consumption will contribute a major portion of the estimated individual and population doses from L-Reactor liquid releases and Cs-137 remobilization in Steel Creek. It is therefore important that the values for fish consumption used in dose calculations be as realistic as possible. Since publication of the L-Reactor Environmental Information Document (EID), data have become available on sport fishing in the Savannah River. These data provide SRP with a site-specific sport fish harvest and consumption values for use in dose calculations. The Georgia fishery data support the total population fish consumption and calculated dose reported in the EID. The data indicate, however, that both the EID average and maximum individual fish consumption have been underestimated, although each to a different degree. The average fish consumption value used in the EID is approximately 3% below the lower limit of the fish consumption range calculated using the Georgia data. Maximum fish consumption in the EID has been underestimated by approximately 60%, and doses to the maximum individual should also be recalculated. Future dose calculations should utilize an average adult fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr, and a maximum adult fish consumption value of 34 kg/yr. Consumption values for the teen and child age groups should be increased proportionally: (1) teen average = 8.5; maximum = 25.9 kg/yr; and (2) child average = 3.6; maximum = 11.2 kg/yr. 8 refs.

Turcotte, M.D.S.

1983-08-05

295

41 CFR 301-11.6 - Where do I find maximum per diem and actual expense rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...find maximum per diem and actual expense rates? 301-11.6 Section 301-11.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

296

Signal analysis using the maximum entropy method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of discrete series is explained using the maximum entropy method in order to solve data processing problems in the aeroelastic study of wind turbines. Discrete Fourier spectrum and maximum entropy spectrum are compared. This method searches for an autoregressive model for a series containing a maximum of information about entropy. The autoregressive model is outlined and the notions 'information' and 'entropy' in signal analysis are defined. Energy and phase spectrum construction, starting from an autoregressive model, is described, with examples. The maximum entropy method is valuable where Fourier transformation techniques hardly work or fail.

Kuik, W.

1981-03-01

297

Duality in a maximum generalized entropy model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a possible generalization for the maximum entropy principle. A class of generalized entropy is introduced by that of generator functions, in which the maximum generalized distribution model is explicitly derived including q-Gaussian distributions, Wigner semicircle distributions and Pareto distributions. We define a totally geodesic subspace in the total space of all probability density functions in a framework of information geometry. The model of maximum generalized entropy distributions is shown to be totally geodesic. The duality of the model and the estimation in the maximum generalized principle is elucidated to give intrinsic understandings from the point of information geometry.

Eguchi, Shinto; Komori, Osamu; Ohara, Atsumi

2015-01-01

298

Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution.

Schlaefer, Alexander [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany); Viulet, Tiberiu [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)] [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)

2013-12-15

299

Mobile Communication Device Allowance Authorization Form Revised: April 2011 MOBILE COMMUNICATION DEVICE ALLOWANCE AUTHORIZATION FORM  

E-print Network

Mobile Communication Device Allowance Authorization Form Revised: April 2011 MOBILE COMMUNICATION list your CURRENT PLAN features: Mobile service provider Name: ________ Monthly Charge: $ Device.edu/policy/itc/FINAL%20Policy%20on%20Mobile%20Comm%20Devices.htm I have read the Mobile Communication Devices Policy

Dyer, Bill

300

Calculation of three-dimensional photon primary absorbed dose using forward and backward spread dose-distribution functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of calculating three-dimensional (3-D) photon primary absorbed dose in a homogeneous or heterogeneous medium. The method is based on a technique of convolving a pair of forward and backward spread dose-distribution functions with the primary water collision kerma distribution. Both spread dose-distribution functions can be constructed by analyzing the zero-area tissue-maximum ratio, the primary absorbed

Akira Iwasaki

1990-01-01

301

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2012-10-01

302

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2010-10-01

303

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2011-10-01

304

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...no minimum civil penalty, except for a minimum...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2013-10-01

305

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...no minimum civil penalty, except for a minimum...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2014-10-01

306

Maximum likelihood training of probabilistic neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum likelihood method is presented for training probabilistic neural networks (PNN's) using a Gaussian kernel, or Parzen window. The proposed training algorithm enables general nonlinear discrimination and is a generalization of Fisher's method for linear discrimination. Important features of maximum likelihood training for PNN's are: 1) it economizes the well known Parzen window estimator while preserving feedforward NN architecture,

Roy L. Streit; Tod E. Luginbuhl

1994-01-01

307

DISCRETE MAXIMUM ENTROPY ESTIMATORS FOR SPATIAL INTERPOLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies the maximum entropy principle to develop estimators for spatial interpolation. Rather than continuous probability distributions commonly applied in the literature, this study tries to develop the estimators based on discrete probabilities. The maximum entropy estimators established include those random fields assuming second-order stationary and intrinsic hypothesis. For further comparison, this study also investigates both the random fields

Yuh-Ming Lee

308

Magnetic field generated resistivity maximum in graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In zero magnetic field, B, the electrical resistivity, rho(O,T) of highly oriented pyrolytic (polycrystalline) graphite drops smoothly with decreasing T, becoming constant below 4 K. However, in a fixed applied magnetic field B, the resistivity rho(B,T) goes through a maximum as a function of T, with larger maximum for larger B. The temperature of the maximum increases with B, but saturates to a constant value near 25 K (exact T depends on sample) at high B. In single crystal graphite a maximum in rho(B,T) as a function of T is also present, but has the effects of Landau level quantization superimposed. Several possible explanations for the rho(B,T) maximum are proposed, but a complete explanation awaits detailed calculations involving the energy band structure of graphite, and the particular scattering mechanisms involved.

Wollam, J. A.; Kreps, L. W.; Rojeski, M.; Vold, T.; Devaty, R.

1976-01-01

309

Pharmacokinetics of BILR 355 after Multiple Oral Doses Coadministered with a Low Dose of Ritonavir ?  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics and safety of BILR 355 following oral repeated dosing coadministered with low doses of ritonavir (RTV) were investigated in 12 cohorts of healthy male volunteers with a ratio of 6 to 2 for BILR 355 versus the placebo. BILR 355 was given once a day (QD) coadministered with 100 mg RTV (BILR 355/r) at 5 to 50 mg in a polyethylene glycol solution or at 50 to 250 mg as tablets. BILR 355 tablets were also dosed at 150 mg twice a day (BID) coadministered with 100 mg RTV QD or BID. Following oral dosing, BILR 355 was rapidly absorbed, with the mean time to maximum concentration of drug in serum reached within 1.3 to 5 h and a mean half-life of 16 to 20 h. BILR 355 exhibited an approximately linear pharmacokinetics for doses of 5 to 50 mg when given as a solution; in contrast, when given as tablets, BILR 355 displayed a dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, with a dose range of 50 to 100 mg; from 100 to 150 mg, a slightly downward nonlinear pharmacokinetics occurred. The exposure to BILR 355 was maximized at 150 mg and higher due to a saturated dissolution/absorption process. After oral dosing of BILR 355/r, 150/100 mg BID, the values for the maximum concentration of drug in plasma at steady state, the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to the dose interval at steady state, and the minimum concentration of drug in serum at steady state were 1,500 ng/ml, 12,500 h·ng/ml, and 570 ng/ml, respectively, providing sufficient suppressive concentration toward human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Based on pharmacokinetic modeling along with the in vitro virologic data, several BILR 355 doses were selected for phase II trials using Monte Carlo simulations. Throughout the study, BILR 355 was safe and well tolerated. PMID:18955519

Huang, Fenglei; Drda, Kristin; MacGregor, Thomas R.; Scherer, Joseph; Rowland, Lois; Nguyen, Thuy; Ballow, Charles; Castles, Mark; Robinson, Patrick

2009-01-01

310

Maximum-confidence discrimination among symmetric qudit states  

SciTech Connect

We study the maximum-confidence (MC) measurement strategy for discriminating among nonorthogonal symmetric qudit states. Restricting to linearly dependent and equally likely pure states, we find the optimal positive operator valued measure (POVM) that maximizes our confidence in identifying each state in the set and minimizes the probability of obtaining inconclusive results. The physical realization of this POVM is completely determined and it is shown that after an inconclusive outcome, the input states may be mapped into a new set of equiprobable symmetric states, restricted, however, to a subspace of the original qudit Hilbert space. By applying the MC measurement again onto this new set, we can still gain some information about the input states, although with less confidence than before. This leads us to introduce the concept of sequential maximum-confidence (SMC) measurements, where the optimized MC strategy is iterated in as many stages as allowed by the input set, until no further information can be extracted from an inconclusive result. Within each stage of this measurement our confidence in identifying the input states is the highest possible, although it decreases from one stage to the next. In addition, the more stages we accomplish within the maximum allowed, the higher will be the probability of correct identification. We will discuss an explicit example of the optimal SMC measurement applied in the discrimination among four symmetric qutrit states and propose an optical network to implement it.

Jimenez, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Casilla 170, Antofagasta (Chile); Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Delgado, A.; Neves, L. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

2011-12-15

311

Estimating the seasonal maximum light use efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light use efficiency (LUE) is a key parameter in estimating gross primary production (GPP) based on global Earth-observation satellite data and model calculations. In current LUE-based GPP estimation models, the maximum LUE is treated as a constant for each biome type. However, the maximum LUE varies seasonally. In this study, seasonal maximum LUE values were estimated from the maximum incident LUE versus the incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the fraction of absorbed PAR. First, an algorithm to estimate maximum incident LUE was developed to estimate GPP capacity using a light response curve. One of the parameters required for the light response curve was estimated from the linear relationship of the chlorophyll index and the GPP capacity at a high PAR level of 2000 (µmolm-2s-1), and was referred to as" the maximum GPP capacity at 2000". The relationship was determined for six plant functional types: needleleaf deciduous trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needleleaf evergreen trees, broadleaf evergreen trees, C3 grass, and crops. The maximum LUE values estimated in this study displayed seasonal variation, especially those for deciduous broadleaf forest, but also those for evergreen needleleaf forest.

Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Soyama, Noriko; Daigo, Motomasa

2014-11-01

312

An adaptive model switching approach for phase I dose-finding trials.  

PubMed

Model-based phase I dose-finding designs rely on a single model throughout the study for estimating the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Thus, one major concern is about the choice of the most suitable model to be used. This is important because the dose allocation process and the MTD estimation depend on whether or not the model is reliable, or whether or not it gives a better fit to toxicity data. The aim of our work was to propose a method that would remove the need for a model choice prior to the trial onset and then allow it sequentially at each patient's inclusion. In this paper, we described model checking approach based on the posterior predictive check and model comparison approach based on the deviance information criterion, in order to identify a more reliable or better model during the course of a trial and to support clinical decision making. Further, we presented two model switching designs for a phase I cancer trial that were based on the aforementioned approaches, and performed a comparison between designs with or without model switching, through a simulation study. The results showed that the proposed designs had the advantage of decreasing certain risks, such as those of poor dose allocation and failure to find the MTD, which could occur if the model is misspecified. PMID:23801550

Daimon, Takashi; Zohar, Sarah

2013-01-01

313

Experimental Algorithm for the Maximum Independent Set Problem  

E-print Network

We develop an experimental algorithm of exact solving for the maximum independent set problem. The algorithm consecutively finds the maximal independent sets of vertices in an arbitrary undirected graph such that the next such set contains more elements than preceding one. For this purpose, we use a technique, developed by Ford and Fulkerson for the finite partially ordered sets, in particular, their method for partition of a poset into the minimum number of chains with finding the maximum antichain. In the process of solving, a special digraph is constructed, and a conjecture is formulated concerning properties of such digraph. This allows to offer of the solution algorithm. Its theoretical estimation of running time equals to $O(n^{8})$, where $n$ is the number of graph vertices. The offered algorithm was tested by means of an operating program on random graphs. The testing confirms correctness of the algorithm.

Plotnikov, Anatoly D

2007-01-01

314

MaxOcc: a web portal for maximum occurrence analysis.  

PubMed

The MaxOcc web portal is presented for the characterization of the conformational heterogeneity of two-domain proteins, through the calculation of the Maximum Occurrence that each protein conformation can have in agreement with experimental data. Whatever the real ensemble of conformations sampled by a protein, the weight of any conformation cannot exceed the calculated corresponding Maximum Occurrence value. The present portal allows users to compute these values using any combination of restraints like pseudocontact shifts, paramagnetism-based residual dipolar couplings, paramagnetic relaxation enhancements and small angle X-ray scattering profiles, given the 3D structure of the two domains as input. MaxOcc is embedded within the NMR grid services of the WeNMR project and is available via the WeNMR gateway at http://py-enmr.cerm.unifi.it/access/index/maxocc . It can be used freely upon registration to the grid with a digital certificate. PMID:22639196

Bertini, Ivano; Ferella, Lucio; Luchinat, Claudio; Parigi, Giacomo; Petoukhov, Maxim V; Ravera, Enrico; Rosato, Antonio; Svergun, Dmitri I

2012-08-01

315

A rare opportunity: Observing the 2011 Quadrantid maximum from Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After more than ten years of waiting, fine observing conditions in Austria during the 2011 Quadrantid maximum allowed collecting a reasonable amount of data even by a single observer. During 5.45 hours of effective observing time 188 Quadrantids were recorded on January 3/4. Calculations of the population index yielded values varying between r = 1.89 ± 0.21 and 2.48 ± 0.43 (mean r = 2.08 ± 0.14) whereas the activity profile shows a peak ZHR of 88 ± 13 between 02h00m and 03h00m UT, most likely at 02h50m to 02h55m ± 15m UT (Solar Longitude = 283°23 ± 0°01; eq. 2000.0), about 1.7 hour later (difference in solar longitude = +0°07) than predicted. An impression of the maximum night together with a summary of the results is given.

Weiland, Thomas

2012-10-01

316

Maximum work extraction and implementation costs for nonequilibrium Maxwell's demons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the maximum amount of work extractable in finite time by a demon performing continuous measurements on a quadratic Hamiltonian system subjected to thermal fluctuations, in terms of the information extracted from the system. The maximum work demon is found to apply a high-gain continuous feedback involving a Kalman-Bucy estimate of the system state and operates in nonequilibrium. A simple and concrete electrical implementation of the feedback protocol is proposed, which allows for analytic expressions of the flows of energy, entropy, and information inside the demon. This let us show that any implementation of the demon must necessarily include an external power source, which we prove both from classical thermodynamics arguments and from a version of Landauer's memory erasure argument extended to nonequilibrium linear systems.

Sandberg, Henrik; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Newton, Nigel J.; Mitter, Sanjoy K.

2014-10-01

317

Maximum work extraction and implementation costs for nonequilibrium Maxwell's demons.  

PubMed

We determine the maximum amount of work extractable in finite time by a demon performing continuous measurements on a quadratic Hamiltonian system subjected to thermal fluctuations, in terms of the information extracted from the system. The maximum work demon is found to apply a high-gain continuous feedback involving a Kalman-Bucy estimate of the system state and operates in nonequilibrium. A simple and concrete electrical implementation of the feedback protocol is proposed, which allows for analytic expressions of the flows of energy, entropy, and information inside the demon. This let us show that any implementation of the demon must necessarily include an external power source, which we prove both from classical thermodynamics arguments and from a version of Landauer's memory erasure argument extended to nonequilibrium linear systems. PMID:25375450

Sandberg, Henrik; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Newton, Nigel J; Mitter, Sanjoy K

2014-10-01

318

Variations in skin dose using 6MV or 18MV x-ray beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to quantitatively evaluate the differences in percentage dose of maximum for 6MV and 18MV x-ray beams\\u000a within the first 1cm of interactions. Thus provide quantitative information regarding the basal, dermal and subcutaneous dose\\u000a differences achievable with these two types of high-energy x-ray beams. Percentage dose of maximum build up curves are measured\\u000a for most clinical field sizes

P. K. N. Yu; T. Cheung; M. J. Butson

2003-01-01

319

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2011-01-01

320

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2014-01-01

321

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2012-01-01

322

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2013-01-01

323

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2010-01-01

324

Raman self-focusing at maximum coherence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a type of Raman self-focusing and -defocusing that is inherent in operation at maximum coherence. In this regime the two-photon detuning from the Raman resonance controls the refractive index of the medium.

Walker, D. R.; Yavuz, D. D.; Shverdin, M. Y.; Yin, G. Y.; Sokolov, A. V.; Harris, S. E.

2002-12-01

325

Maximum, Minimum, and Current Temperature Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure air (and optionally soil) temperature within one hour of solar noon and the maximum and minimum air temperatures for the previous 24 hours. Intended outcomes are that students will learn to read minimum, maximum, and current temperatures using a U-shaped thermometer, understand diurnal and annual temperature variations, and recognize factors that influence atmospheric temperatures. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

326

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1 Section...940-1 Allowable project costs. Allowable costs include...35.927); (f) Project feasibility and engineering reports; (g) Costs required under the...

2011-07-01

327

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

...2014-07-01 false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1 Section...940-1 Allowable project costs. Allowable costs include...35.927); (f) Project feasibility and engineering reports; (g) Costs required under the...

2014-07-01

328

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1 Section...940-1 Allowable project costs. Allowable costs include...35.927); (f) Project feasibility and engineering reports; (g) Costs required under the...

2010-07-01

329

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1 Section...940-1 Allowable project costs. Allowable costs include...35.927); (f) Project feasibility and engineering reports; (g) Costs required under the...

2012-07-01

330

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1 Section...940-1 Allowable project costs. Allowable costs include...35.927); (f) Project feasibility and engineering reports; (g) Costs required under the...

2013-07-01

331

48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

2010-10-01

332

48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

2011-10-01

333

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

... 2014-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2014-10-01

334

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2011-10-01

335

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2012-10-01

336

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2013-10-01

337

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2010-10-01

338

34 CFR 642.30 - What are allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are allowable costs? 642.30 Section...TRAINING PROGRAM FOR FEDERAL TRIO PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 642.30 What are allowable costs? Allowable...

2011-07-01

339

34 CFR 647.30 - What are allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are allowable costs? 647.30 Section...MCNAIR POSTBACCALAUREATE ACHIEVEMENT PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 647.30 What are allowable costs? Allowable...

2013-07-01

340

34 CFR 642.30 - What are allowable costs?  

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are allowable costs? 642.30 Section...TRAINING PROGRAM FOR FEDERAL TRIO PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 642.30 What are allowable costs? Allowable...

2014-07-01

341

42 CFR 489.30 - Allowable charges: Deductibles and coinsurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable charges: Deductibles and coinsurance. 489.30 Section...PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL Allowable Charges § 489.30 Allowable charges: Deductibles and coinsurance. (a)...

2010-10-01

342

30 CFR 1206.57 - Determination of transportation allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MMS-4110 (and Schedule 1), Oil Transportation Allowance Report...ONRR. The lessee may use the oil transportation allowance determined...ONRR shall then determine the oil transportation allowance based...arm's-length sales contract price, or a posted price,...

2012-07-01

343

30 CFR 1206.57 - Determination of transportation allowances.  

...ONRR-4110 (and Schedule 1), Oil Transportation Allowance Report...ONRR. The lessee may use the oil transportation allowance determined...ONRR shall then determine the oil transportation allowance based...arm's-length sales contract price, or a posted price,...

2014-07-01

344

30 CFR 1206.57 - Determination of transportation allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ONRR-4110 (and Schedule 1), Oil Transportation Allowance Report...ONRR. The lessee may use the oil transportation allowance determined...ONRR shall then determine the oil transportation allowance based...arm's-length sales contract price, or a posted price,...

2013-07-01

345

40 CFR 35.940-5 - Disputes concerning allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Disputes concerning allowable costs. The grantee should seek...any questions relating to cost allowability or allocation at its earliest opportunity (if possible, before...concerning the allowability of costs shall be conclusive...

2010-07-01

346

34 CFR 673.7 - Administrative cost allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Administrative cost allowance. 673.7 Section...FEDERAL SUPPLEMENTAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY GRANT PROGRAM General Provisions... § 673.7 Administrative cost allowance. (a) An institution...entitled to an administrative cost allowance for an award...

2010-07-01

347

3D inpatient dose reconstruction from the PET-CT imaging of {sup 90}Y microspheres for metastatic cancer to the liver: Feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The introduction of radioembolization with microspheres represents a significant step forward in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease to the liver. This technique uses semiempirical formulae based on body surface area or liver and target volumes to calculate the required total activity for a given patient. However, this treatment modality lacks extremely important information, which is the three-dimensional (3D) dose delivered by microspheres to different organs after their administration. The absence of this information dramatically limits the clinical efficacy of this modality, specifically the predictive power of the treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a 3D dose calculation technique that is based on the PET imaging of the infused microspheres.Methods: The Fluka Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the voxel dose kernel for {sup 90}Y source with voxel size equal to that of the PET scan. The measured PET activity distribution was converted to total activity distribution for the subsequent convolution with the voxel dose kernel to obtain the 3D dose distribution. In addition, dose-volume histograms were generated to analyze the dose to the tumor and critical structures.Results: The 3D inpatient dose distribution can be reconstructed from the PET data of a patient scanned after the infusion of microspheres. A total of seven patients have been analyzed so far using the proposed reconstruction method. Four patients underwent treatment with SIR-Spheres for liver metastases from colorectal cancer and three patients were treated with Therasphere for hepatocellular cancer. A total of 14 target tumors were contoured on post-treatment PET-CT scans for dosimetric evaluation. Mean prescription activity was 1.7 GBq (range: 0.58–3.8 GBq). The resulting mean maximum measured dose to targets was 167 Gy (range: 71–311 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 70% of target (D70) was 68 Gy (range: 25–155 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 90% of target (D90) was 53 Gy (range: 13–125 Gy).Conclusions: A three-dimensional inpatient dose reconstruction method has been developed that is based on the PET/CT data of a patient treated with {sup 90}Y microspheres. It allows for a complete description of the absorbed dose by the tumor and critical structures. It represents the first step in building predictive models for treatment outcomes for patients receiving this therapeutic modality as well as it allows for better analysis of patients' dose response and will ultimately improve future treatment administration.

Fourkal, E.; Veltchev, I.; Lin, M.; Meyer, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States); Koren, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York 10011 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York 10011 (United States); Doss, M.; Yu, J. Q. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)] [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)

2013-08-15

348

LOGIT: a program for dose-response analysis.  

PubMed

We describe a FORTRAN computer program for fitting the logistic distribution function: (formula: see text) Where x represents dose or time, to dose-response data. The program determines both weighted least squares and maximum likelihood estimates for the parameters alpha and beta. It also calculates the standard errors of alpha and beta under both estimation methods, as well as the median lethal dose (LD50) and its standard error. Dose--response curves found by both fitting methods can be plotted as well as the 95% confidence bands for these lines. PMID:467012

Koshiver, J; Moore, D

1979-07-01

349

Structural and electrical properties of high dose nitrogen implanted tantalum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High purity tantalum foils were implanted with 20 keV molecular nitrogen ions at dose levels varying from 5 × 1016 to 1 × 1018 N2+ cm-2. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of the implanted layers show the formation of tantalum nitrides of different structures depending on the total ion dose. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies show the formation of Ta2N and TaN0.8 at all doses and TaN at higher doses (5 × 1017 to 1 × 1018 N+2 cm-2). The FTIR, XRD and electrical studies show sputter limited maximum nitride concentrations.

Yadav, A. D.; Dubey, S. K.; Gupta, G. K.; Rao, T. K. Gundu

350

26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...providing for a construction allowance, executed...the preceding sentence, provided the...payment of the construction allowance. ...the preceding sentence, the lessor must treat the construction...

2013-04-01

351

26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...providing for a construction allowance, executed...the preceding sentence, provided the...payment of the construction allowance. ...the preceding sentence, the lessor must treat the construction...

2012-04-01

352

26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.  

...providing for a construction allowance, executed...the preceding sentence, provided the...payment of the construction allowance. ...the preceding sentence, the lessor must treat the construction...

2014-04-01

353

Dose profile variation with voltage in head CT scans using radiochromic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The voltage source used in an X-ray tube is an important part of defining the generated beam spectrum energy profile. The X-ray spectrum energy defines the X-ray beam absorption as well as the characteristics of the energy deposition in an irradiated object. Although CT scanners allow one to choose between four different voltage values, most of them employ a voltage of 120 kV in their scanning protocols, regardless of the patient characteristics. Based on this fact, this work investigated the deposited dose in a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cylindrical head phantom. The entire volume was irradiated twice. Two CT scanning protocols were used with two different voltage values: 100 and 120 kV. The phantom volume was irradiated, and radiochromic films were employed to record dose profiles. Measurements were conducted with a calibrated pencil ionization chamber, which was positioned in the center and in four peripheral bores of the head PMMA phantom, to calibrate the radiochromic films. The central slice was then irradiated. This procedure allowed us to find the conversion factors necessary to obtain dose values recorded in the films. The data obtained allowed us to observe the dose variation profile inside the phantom head as well as in the peripheral and central regions. The peripheral region showed higher dose values than those of the central region for scans using both voltage values: approximately 31% higher for scanning with 120 kV and 25% higher with 100 kV. Doses recorded with the highest voltage are significantly higher, approximately 50% higher in the peripheral region and 40% higher in the central region. A longitudinal variation could be observed, and the maximum dose was recorded at the peripheral region, at the midpoint of the longitudinal axis. The obtained results will most likely contribute to the dissemination of proper procedure as well as to optimize dosimetry and tests of quality control in CT because the choice of protocols with different voltage values can be a way to optimize the CT scans.

Mourão, A. P.; Alonso, T. C.; DaSilva, T. A.

2014-02-01

354

Neural network modelling of dose distribution and dose uniformity in the Tunisian Gamma Irradiator.  

PubMed

In this paper an approach to model dose distributions, isodose curves and dose uniformity in the Tunisian Gamma Irradiation Facility using artificial neural networks (ANNs) are described. For this purpose, measurements were carried out at different points in the irradiation cell using polymethyl methacrylate dosemeters. The calculated and experimental results are compared and good agreement is observed showing that ANNs can be used as an efficient tool for modelling dose distribution in the gamma irradiation facility. Monte Carlo (MC) photon-transport simulation techniques have been used to evaluate the spatial dose distribution for extensive benchmarking. ANN approach appears to be a significant advance over the time-consuming MC or the less accurate regression methods for dose mapping. As a second application, a detailed dose mapping using two different product densities was carried out. The minimum and maximum dose locations and dose uniformity as a function of the irradiated volume for each product density were determined. Good agreement between ANN modelling and experimental results was achieved. PMID:23633649

Manai, K; Trabelsi, A

2013-11-01

355

Application of the maximum entropy method to QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

QCD sum rules have long been used to describe the physical properties of hadrons directly from QCD. While this approach was often quite successful, it also has its limitations, the most important one being the need to introduce some specific ansatz for parametrizing the spectral function. For allowing a more general analysis of the sum rules, a new analysis method based on the maximum entropy method has been introduced [1], and has in the meantime been applied to several channels in various environments. In these proceedings, we will discuss some recent results, which have been obtained with the help of this novel approach.

Gubler, Philipp

2014-12-01

356

Neutron dose equivalent meter  

DOEpatents

A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)

1996-01-01

357

41 CFR 302-6.16 - May I receive a TQSE allowance if I am receiving another subsistence expenses allowance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... PERMANENT CHANGE OF STATION (PCS) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 6-ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE EXPENSES General Rules § 302-6.16 May I receive a TQSE allowance if I am receiving another...

2010-07-01

358

41 CFR 301-11.3 - Must my agency pay an allowance (either a per diem allowance or actual expense)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...either a per diem allowance or actual expense)? 301-11.3 Section 301-11.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

359

Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Reduces the Dose to Normal Tissue Compared With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy or Passive Scattering Proton Therapy and Enables Individualized Radical Radiotherapy for Extensive Stage IIIB Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Virtual Clinical Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare dose volume histograms of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) with those of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) for the treatment of stage IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to explore the possibility of individualized radical radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose volume histograms designed to deliver IMRT at 60 to 63 Gy, PSPT at 74 Gy, and IMPT at the same doses were compared and the use of individualized radical radiotherapy was assessed in patients with extensive stage IIIB NSCLC (n = 10 patients for each approach). These patients were selected based on their extensive disease and were considered to have no or borderline tolerance to IMRT at 60 to 63 Gy, based on the dose to normal tissue volume constraints (lung volume receiving 20 Gy [V20] of <35%, total mean lung dose <20 Gy; spinal cord dose, <45 Gy). The possibility of increasing the total tumor dose with IMPT for each patient without exceeding the dose volume constraints (maximum tolerated dose [MTD]) was also investigated. Results: Compared with IMRT, IMPT spared more lung, heart, spinal cord, and esophagus, even with dose escalation from 63 Gy to 83.5 Gy, with a mean MTD of 74 Gy. Compared with PSPT, IMPT allowed further dose escalation from 74 Gy to a mean MTD of 84.4 Gy (range, 79.4-88.4 Gy) while all parameters of normal tissue sparing were kept at lower or similar levels. In addition, IMPT prevented lower-dose target coverage in patients with complicated tumor anatomies. Conclusions: IMPT reduces the dose to normal tissue and allows individualized radical radiotherapy for extensive stage IIIB NSCLC.

Zhang Xiaodong; Li Yupeng; Pan Xiaoning; Xiaoqiang, Li; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.or [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2010-06-01

360

Variations in skin dose using 6MV or 18MV x-ray beams.  

PubMed

This research aimed to quantitatively evaluate the differences in percentage dose of maximum for 6MV and 18MV x-ray beams within the first 1 cm of interactions. Thus provide quantitative information regarding the basal, dermal and subcutaneous dose differences achievable with these two types of high-energy x-ray beams. Percentage dose of maximum build up curves are measured for most clinical field sizes using 6MV and 18MV x-ray beams. Calculations are performed to produce quantitative results highlighting the percentage dose of maximum differences delivered to various depths within the skin and subcutaneous tissue region by these two beams. Results have shown that basal cell layer doses are not significantly different for 6MV and 18MV x-ray beams. At depths beyond the surface and basal cell layer there is a measurable and significant difference in delivered dose. This variation increases to 20% of maximum and 22% of maximum at 1 mm and 1 cm depths respectively. The percentage variations are larger for smaller field sizes where the photon in phantom component of the delivered dose is the most significant contributor to dose. By producing graphs or tables of % dose differences in the build up region we can provide quantitative information to the oncologist for consideration (if skin and subcutaneous tissue doses are of importance) during the beam energy selection process for treatment. PMID:12956189

Yu, P K N; Cheung, T; Butson, M J

2003-06-01

361

Direct thermal dose control of constrained focused ultrasound treatments: phantom and in vivo evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first treatment control system that explicitly and automatically balances the efficacy and safety goals of noninvasive thermal therapies is described, and its performance is evaluated in phantoms and in vivo using ultrasound heating with a fixed, focused transducer. The treatment efficacy is quantified in terms of thermal dose delivered to the target. The developed feedback thermal dose controller has a cascade structure with the main nonlinear dose controller continuously generating the reference temperature trajectory for the secondary, constrained, model predictive temperature controller. The control system ensures thermal safety of the normal tissue by automatically complying with user-specified constraints on the maximum allowable normal tissue temperatures. To reflect hardware limitations and to prevent cavitation, constraints on the maximum transducer power can also be imposed. It is shown that the developed controller can be used to achieve the minimum-time delivery of the desired thermal dose to the target without violating safety constraints, which is a novel and clinically desirable feature. The developed controller is model based, and requires patient- and site-specific models for its operation. These models were obtained during pre-treatment identification experiments. In our implementation, predictive models, internally used by the automatic treatment controller, are dynamically updated each time new temperature measurements become available. The adaptability of internal models safeguards against adverse effects of modelling errors, and ensures robust performance of the control system in the presence of a priori unknown treatment disturbances. The successful validation with two experimental models of considerably different thermal and ultrasound properties suggests the applicability of the developed treatment control system to different anatomical sites.

Arora, Dhiraj; Cooley, Daniel; Perry, Trent; Skliar, Mikhail; Roemer, Robert B.

2005-04-01

362

24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

2011-04-01

363

24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

2012-04-01

364

24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

2013-04-01

365

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13...DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum...

2010-07-01

366

40 CFR 141.65 - Maximum residual disinfectant levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant levels. 141.65 Section 141...Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.65 Maximum residual disinfectant levels. (a) Maximum residual...

2010-07-01

367

Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

2014-06-01

368

Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information  

E-print Network

Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

2014-04-29

369

Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

McGarr, A.

2014-02-01

370

Maximum First Transfer and Dilution Volumes for 241SY101  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the solution to the following problem: what is the maximum waste transfer and dilution quantities and locations which can be allowed in the first transfer of waste from SY-101 given the following constraints? (1) The crust must float on the submerged waste (waste becomes less dense when diluted, eventually allowing crust to sink); (2) No credit is taken for the top dilution; (3) Addition of water to the bulk slurry through the transfer pump must be able to refloat the crust base to above 295 inches; (4) The margin between refloating to 295 inches and crust sinking must be at least 10,000 gallons; (5) The crust can't be thinned to less than 60 inches thick.

BARTON, W.B.

1999-10-28

371

Effect of jaw size in megavoltage CT on image quality and dose  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Recently, the jaw size for the TomoTherapy Hi-Art II{sup Registered-Sign} (TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI) was reduced from 4 mm (J4) to 1 mm (J1) to improve the longitudinal (IEC-Y) resolution in megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images. This study evaluated the effect of jaw size on the image quality and dose, as well as the dose delivered to the lens of the eye, which is a highly radiosensitive tissue. Methods: MVCT image quality (image noise, uniformity, contrast linearity, high-contrast resolution, and full width at half-maximum) and multiple scan average dose (MSAD) were measured at different jaw sizes. A head phantom and photoluminescence glass dosimeters (PLDs) were used to measure the exposed lens dose (cGy). Different MVCT scan modes (pitch = 1, 2, and 3) and scan lengths (108 mm, 156 mm, and 204 mm) were applied in the MSAD and PLDs measurements. Results: The change in jaw size from J4 to J1 produced no change or only a slight improvement in image noise, uniformity, contrast linearity, and high-contrast resolution. However, the full-width at half-maximum reduced from approximately 7.2 at J4 to 4.5 mm at J1, which represents an enhancement in the longitudinal resolution. The MSAD at the center point changed from approximately 0.69-2.32 cGy (peripheral: 0.83-2.49 cGy) at J4 to 0.85-2.81 cGy (peripheral: 1.05-2.86 cGy) at J1. The measured lens dose increased from 0.92-3.36 cGy at J4 to 1.06-3.91 cGy at J1. Conclusions: The change in jaw size improved longitudinal resolution. The MVCT imaging dose of approximately 3.86 cGy, 1.92 cGy, and 1.22 cGy was delivered at a pitch of 1, 2, and 3, respectively, per fraction in the head and neck treatment plans. Therefore, allowance for an approximately 15% increase in lens dose over that with J4 should be provided with J1.

Jung, Jae Hong; Cho, Kwang Hwan; Kim, Yong Ho; Moon, Seong Kwon; Min, Chul Kee; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Eun Seog; Chang, Ah Ram; Kim, Tae Ho; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Suh, Tae-Suk; Huh, Hyun Do [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon 1174, Korea and Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon 1174 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan 23-20 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul 657 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 505 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Inha University of Korea, Incheon 7-206 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-08-15

372

EXTENSIVE DISEASE SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESISTANCE MECHANISMS  

PubMed Central

Background Some studies (but not others) suggested high doses are beneficial in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We hypothesized dose-response curve (DRC) shape reflects resistance mechanisms. Methods We reviewed published SCLC clinical trialss and converted response rates into estimated mean tumor cell kill, assuming killing is proportional to reduction in tumor volume. Mean % cell survival was plotted vs planned dose-intensity. Nonlinear and linear meta-regression analyses (weighted according to the number of patients in each study) were used to assess DRC characteristics. Results Although associations between dose and cell survival were not statistically significant, DRCs sloped downward for 5 of 7 agents across all doses and for all 7 when lowest doses were excluded. Maximum mean cell kill across all drugs and doses was approximately 90%, suggesting there may be a maximum achievable tumor cell kill irrespective of number of agents or drug doses. Conclusions Downward DRC slopes suggest that maintaining relatively high doses may possibly maximize palliation, although the associations between dose and slope did not achieve statistical significance, and slopes for most drugs tended to be shallow. DRC flattening at higher doses would preclude cure, and would suggest that “saturable passive resistance” (deficiency of factors required for cell killing) limits maximum achievable cell kill. An example of factors that could flatten the dose-response curve at higher doses and lead to saturable passive resistance would be presence of quiescent, non-cycling cells. PMID:20881640

Stewart, David J.; Johnson, Constance; Lopez, Adriana; Glisson, Bonnie; Rhee, Jay M.; Bekele, B. Nebiyou

2010-01-01

373

Dose tracking and dose auditing in a comprehensive computed tomography dose-reduction program.  

PubMed

Implementation of a comprehensive computed tomography (CT) radiation dose-reduction program is a complex undertaking, requiring an assessment of baseline doses, an understanding of dose-saving techniques, and an ongoing appraisal of results. We describe the role of dose tracking in planning and executing a dose-reduction program and discuss the use of the American College of Radiology CT Dose Index Registry at our institution. We review the basics of dose-related CT scan parameters, the components of the dose report, and the dose-reduction techniques, showing how an understanding of each technique is important in effective auditing of "outlier" doses identified by dose tracking. PMID:25129210

Duong, Phuong-Anh; Little, Brent P

2014-08-01

374

Cancer chemoprevention by dietary chlorophylls: a 12,000-animal dose-dose matrix biomarker and tumor study.  

PubMed

Recent pilot studies found natural chlorophyll (Chl) to inhibit carcinogen uptake and tumorigenesis in rodent and fish models, and to alter uptake and biodistribution of trace (14)C-aflatoxin B1 in human volunteers. The present study extends these promising findings, using a dose-dose matrix design to examine Chl-mediated effects on dibenzo(def,p)chrysene (DBC)-induced DNA adduct formation, tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and changes in gene regulation in the trout. The dose-dose matrix design employed an initial 12,360 rainbow trout, which were treated with 0-4000ppm dietary Chl along with 0-225ppm DBC for up to 4weeks. Dietary DBC was found to induce dose-responsive changes in gene expression that were abolished by Chl co-treatment, whereas Chl alone had no effect on the same genes. Chl co-treatment provided a dose-responsive reduction in total DBC-DNA adducts without altering relative adduct intensities along the chromatographic profile. In animals receiving DBC alone, liver tumor incidence (as logit) and tumor multiplicity were linear in DBC dose (as log) up to their maximum-effect dose, and declined thereafter. Chl co-treatment substantially inhibited incidence and multiplicity at DBC doses up to their maximum-effect dose. These results show that Chl concentrations encountered in Chl-rich green vegetables can provide substantial cancer chemoprotection, and suggest that they do so by reducing carcinogen bioavailability. However, at DBC doses above the optima, Chl co-treatments failed to inhibit tumor incidence and significantly enhanced multiplicity. This finding questions the human relevance of chemoprevention studies carried out at high carcinogen doses that are not proven to lie within a linear, or at least monotonic, endpoint dose-response range. PMID:22079312

McQuistan, Tammie J; Simonich, Michael T; Pratt, M Margaret; Pereira, Cliff B; Hendricks, Jerry D; Dashwood, Roderick H; Williams, David E; Bailey, George S

2012-02-01

375

Multi-site, multivariate weather generator using maximum entropy bootstrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather generators are increasingly becoming viable alternate models to assess the effects of future climate change scenarios on water resources systems. In this study, a new multisite, multivariate maximum entropy bootstrap weather generator (MEBWG) is proposed for generating daily weather variables, which has the ability to mimic both, spatial and temporal dependence structure in addition to other historical statistics. The maximum entropy bootstrap (MEB) involves two main steps: (1) random sampling from the empirical cumulative distribution function with endpoints selected to allow limited extrapolation and (2) reordering of the random series to respect the rank ordering of the original time series (temporal dependence structure). To capture the multi-collinear structure between the weather variables and between the sites, we combine orthogonal linear transformation with MEB. Daily weather data, which include precipitation, maximum temperature and minimum temperature from 27 years of record from the Upper Thames River Basin in Ontario, Canada, are used to analyze the ability of MEBWG based weather generator. Results indicate that the statistics from the synthetic replicates were not significantly different from the observed data and the model is able to preserve the 27 CLIMDEX indices very well. The MEBWG model shows better performance in terms of extrapolation and computational efficiency when compared to multisite, multivariate K-nearest neighbour model.

Srivastav, Roshan K.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

2014-05-01

376

Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

Summhammer, Johann

1994-01-01

377

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-print Network

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air and the Columbia River April 21,1994 TheTechnid Steering Panel of the Hanford - Environmental Dose Reconstruction than 40years, the U.S. Government made plutonium for nuclear weapons at the Hanford

378

Critical metal blistering doses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical He ion bombardment doses associated with blistering of Nb and stainless steel were measured. It was found that the critical doses for these materials are close together and in the range 1 to 4 x 10¹⁷ ion\\/cm². (JRD)

B. A. Kalin; N. M. Kirilin; A. A. Pisarev; D. M. Skorov; V. G. Tel'kovskii; S. K. Fedyaev; G. N. Shishkin

1975-01-01

379

BENCHMARK DOSE SOFTWARE (BMDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has announced the latest update to the Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) tool which is used to facilitate the application of benchmark dose (BMD) methods to EPA hazardous pollutant risk assessments. This latest version (1.4.1b) contains seventeen (17) different models that ar...

380

Dose finding with continuous outcome in phase I oncology trials.  

PubMed

The goal of a phase I clinical trial in oncology is to find a dose with acceptable dose-limiting toxicity rate. Often, when a cytostatic drug is investigated or when the maximum tolerated dose is defined using a toxicity score, the main endpoint in a phase I trial is continuous. We propose a new method to use in a dose-finding trial with continuous endpoints. The new method selects the right dose on par with other methods and provides more flexibility in assigning patients to doses in the course of the trial when the rate of accrual is fast relative to the follow-up time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25408518

Wang, Yunfei; Ivanova, Anastasia

2014-11-19

381

Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of a Higher Rifampin Dose versus the Standard Dose in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients?  

PubMed Central

Rifampin is a key drug for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. The available data suggest that the currently applied 10-mg/kg of body weight dose of rifampin may be too low and that increasing the dose may shorten the treatment duration. A double-blind randomized phase II clinical trial was performed to investigate the effect of a higher dose of rifampin in terms of pharmacokinetics and tolerability. Fifty newly diagnosed adult Indonesian TB patients were randomized to receive a standard (450-mg, i.e., 10-mg/kg in Indonesian patients) or higher (600-mg) dose of rifampin in addition to other TB drugs. A full pharmacokinetic curve for rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol was recorded after 6 weeks of daily TB treatment. Tolerability was assessed during the 6-month treatment period. The geometric means of exposure to rifampin (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0-24]) were increased by 65% (P < 0.001) in the higher-dose group (79.7 mg·h/liter) compared to the standard-dose group (48.5 mg·h/liter). Maximum rifampin concentrations (Cmax) were 15.6 mg/liter versus 10.5 mg/liter (49% increase; P < 0.001). The percentage of patients for whom the rifampin Cmax was ?8 mg/liter was 96% versus 79% (P = 0.094). The pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide and ethambutol were similar in both groups. Mild (grade 1 or 2) hepatotoxicity was more common in the higher-dose group (46 versus 20%; P = 0.054), but no patient developed severe hepatotoxicity. Increasing the rifampin dose was associated with a more than dose-proportional increase in the mean AUC0-24 and Cmax of rifampin without affecting the incidence of serious adverse effects. Follow-up studies are warranted to assess whether high-dose rifampin may enable shortening of TB treatment. PMID:17452486

Ruslami, Rovina; Nijland, Hanneke M. J.; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Parwati, Ida; van Crevel, Reinout; Aarnoutse, Rob E.

2007-01-01

382

High-dose combination cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and melphalan with autologous bone marrow support  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 23 patients were treated at five dose escalations with high-dose combination cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and melphalan with autologous bone marrow support. The maximum tolerated doses of cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and melphalan were 5,625, 180, and 80 mg\\/m2, respectively. The dose-limiting toxicity was cardiac toxicity. Objective tumor regression occurred in 14 of 18 evaluable cases, with a median duration of

William P. Peters; Ann Stuart; Mary Klotman; Colleen Gilbert; Roy B. Jones; Elizabeth J. Shpall; Jon Gockerman; Robert C. Bast; Joseph O. Moore

1989-01-01

383

Maximum entropy image restoration in astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical basis and applications of the Maximum Entropy Method of inference for obtaining the most probable nonnegative image consistent with astronomical data are detailed. The generalized image restoration problem is reviewed, noting the effects of atmospheric blurring and the practice of representing images as a Fourier series. The problem is encountered in both single aperture and synthesis observations, and

Ramesh Narayan; Rajaram Nityananda

1986-01-01

384

Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

Texas Child Care, 1995

1995-01-01

385

Pointing at Maximum Power for PV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams measure voltage and current in order to determine the power output of a photovoltaic (PV) panel. They vary the resistance in a simple circuit connected to the panel to demonstrate the effects on voltage, current, and power output. After collecting data, they calculate power for each resistance setting, creating a graph of current vs. voltage, and indentifying the maximum power point.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

386

: runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress  

E-print Network

: runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress fe,i : elastic limit strength of each specimen 750 uniaxial tensile fatigue stress. Interests in tensile fatigue strength and behaviour come from the fact.g. cantilever of bridge deck slab). Tensile Fatigue behaviour of UHPFRC Doctoral student: Tohru Makita

387

Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars  

SciTech Connect

Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.

Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. (Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, PL-00-716 Warsaw (Poland))

1990-07-15

388

MODIFIED ALSEP Maximum Antenna Pointing Error  

E-print Network

and high rates of 91 600 and 101 600 bps. The MSFN ground stations are considered to have either cooled angle and possible surface moon slopes could then cause a small amount of multipath signal cancellation°, the third side lobe will reflect from the moon's surface also with a 35° angle. The maximum loss from

Rathbun, Julie A.

389

Maximum Galactic Disks vs. Hot Dark Halos  

E-print Network

A series of arguments is presented for heavy galaxy disks not only in the optical regions, but also in the dark matter dominated regions of spirals. We are testing this possibility with extreme maximum disk N-body models without any conventional spheroidal dark halo.

Daniel Pfenniger

2000-09-04

390

Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle  

E-print Network

The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kiyoharu Kawana

2014-09-23

391

Integrated photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-power low-cost highly efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to be integrated into a photovoltaic (PV) panel is proposed. This can result in a 25% energy enhancement compared to a standard photovoltaic panel, while performing functions like battery voltage regulation and matching of the PV array with the load. Instead of using an externally connected MPPT, it is proposed

Johan H. R. Enslin; Mario S. Wolf; D. B. Snyman; Wernher Swiegers

1997-01-01

392

Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

1922-01-01

393

Maximum entropy analysis of hydraulic pipe networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) method is developed to infer mean external and internal flow rates and mean pressure gradients (potential differences) in hydraulic pipe networks, without or with sufficient constraints to render the system deterministic. The proposed method substantially extends existing methods for the analysis of flow networks (e.g. Hardy-Cross), applicable only to deterministic networks.

Waldrip, Steven H.; Niven, Robert K.; Abel, Markus; Schlegel, Michael

2014-12-01

394

Network Flow Maximum Flow and Minimum Cut  

E-print Network

3/3/2011 1 1 Chapter 7 Network Flow 2 Maximum Flow and Minimum Cut Max flow and min cut. Two very duality. Nontrivial applications / reductions. Data mining. Open-pit mining. Project selection. Airline-camera scene reconstruction. Many many more ... 3 Flow network. Abstraction for material flowing through

Srinivasan, Padmini

395

The effect of dose heterogeneity on radiation risk in medical imaging.  

PubMed

The current estimations of risk associated with medical imaging procedures rely on assessing the organ dose via direct measurements or simulation. The dose to each organ is assumed to be homogeneous. To take into account the differences in radiation sensitivities, the mean organ doses are weighted by a corresponding tissue-weighting coefficients provided by ICRP to calculate the effective dose, which has been used as a surrogate of radiation risk. However, those coefficients were derived under the assumption of a homogeneous dose distribution within each organ. That assumption is significantly violated in most medical-imaging procedures. In helical chest CT, for example, superficial organs (e.g. breasts) demonstrate a heterogeneous dose distribution, whereas organs on the peripheries of the irradiation field (e.g. liver) might possess a discontinuous dose profile. Projection radiography and mammography involve an even higher level of organ dose heterogeneity spanning up to two orders of magnitude. As such, mean dose or point measured dose values do not reflect the maximum energy deposited per unit volume of the organ. In this paper, the magnitude of the dose heterogeneity in both CT and projection X-ray imaging was reported, using Monte Carlo methods. The lung dose demonstrated factors of 1.7 and 2.2 difference between the mean and maximum dose for chest CT and radiography, respectively. The corresponding values for the liver were 1.9 and 3.5. For mammography and breast tomosynthesis, the difference between mean glandular dose and maximum glandular dose was 3.1. Risk models based on the mean dose were found to provide a reasonable reflection of cancer risk. However, for leukaemia, they were found to significantly under-represent the risk when the organ dose distribution is heterogeneous. A systematic study is needed to develop a risk model for heterogeneous dose distributions. PMID:23118440

Samei, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Chen, Baiyu; Reiman, Robert

2013-06-01

396

Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packard Hospital, Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (United States); EBG MedAustron, Wiener Neustadt, Austria A2700 (Austria)

2011-10-15

397

32 CFR 534.3 - Allowable expenses for witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01...Section 534.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT...the United States. (Article 47, Uniform Code of...to witnesses, not in excess of maximum rates...

2010-07-01

398

Novel maximum-power-point-tracking controller for photovoltaic energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) controller for a photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion system is presented. Using the slope of power versus voltage of a PV array, the proposed MPPT controller allows the conversion system to track the maximum power point very rapidly. As opposed to conventional two-stage designs, a single-stage configuration is implemented, resulting in size and weight reduction and increased

Yeong-Chau Kuo; Tsorng-Juu Liang; Jiann-Fuh Chen

2001-01-01

399

Deriving star formation histories: inverting Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams through a variational calculus maximum likelihood method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method for solving maximum likelihood problems through variational calculus, and apply it to the case of recovering an unknown star formation history, SFR(t), from the resulting Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. This approach allows a totally non-parametric solution, which has the advantage of requiring no initial assumptions about SFR(t). As a full maximum likelihood statistical model is used,

X. Hernandez; David Valls-Gabaud; Gerard Gilmore

1999-01-01

400

32 CFR 584.7 - Basic allowance for quarters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Basic allowance for quarters. 584.7 Section 584.7 National...PATERNITY § 584.7 Basic allowance for quarters. (a) Eligibility. (1...family is residing in Government family quarters. Also, if two soldier...

2010-07-01

401

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

2012-01-01

402

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

2014-01-01

403

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

2013-01-01

404

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

2011-01-01

405

45 CFR 2400.50 - Allowances and Summer Institute costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowances and Summer Institute costs. 2400.50 Section 2400.50 Public Welfare...REQUIREMENTS Graduate Study § 2400.50 Allowances and Summer Institute costs. At the Foundation's...

2010-10-01

406

45 CFR 2400.50 - Allowances and Summer Institute costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowances and Summer Institute costs. 2400.50 Section 2400.50 Public Welfare...REQUIREMENTS Graduate Study § 2400.50 Allowances and Summer Institute costs. At the Foundation's...

2012-10-01

407

45 CFR 2400.50 - Allowances and Summer Institute costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowances and Summer Institute costs. 2400.50 Section 2400.50 Public Welfare...REQUIREMENTS Graduate Study § 2400.50 Allowances and Summer Institute costs. At the Foundation's...

2013-10-01

408

45 CFR 2400.50 - Allowances and Summer Institute costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowances and Summer Institute costs. 2400.50 Section 2400.50 Public Welfare...REQUIREMENTS Graduate Study § 2400.50 Allowances and Summer Institute costs. At the Foundation's...

2011-10-01

409

14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Allowable advance planning costs. 151.125 Section 151...AIRPORTS Rules and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable advance planning costs. (a) The United...

2010-01-01

410

7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL...PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned...Cherries 1 Allowances for Quality Factors §...

2011-01-01

411

7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL...PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned...Cherries 1 Allowances for Quality Factors §...

2010-01-01

412

26 CFR 31.3402(m)-1 - Withholding allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Withholding allowances. 31.3402(m)-1 Section 31.3402(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(m)-1 Withholding allowances. (a) General...

2010-04-01

413

9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.  

...AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the destruction of...

2014-01-01

414

9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the destruction of...

2011-01-01

415

9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the destruction of...

2012-01-01

416

9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the destruction of...

2013-01-01

417

9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the destruction of...

2010-01-01

418

30 CFR 206.258 - Washing allowances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.258 Washing allowances—general. (a) For ad...marketable condition shall be allowed as a cost of washing. (e) Coal washing costs shall only be recognized as...

2010-07-01

419

30 CFR 206.457 - Washing allowances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.457 Washing allowances—general. (a) For ad...marketable condition shall be allowed as a cost of washing. (e) Coal washing costs shall only be recognized as...

2010-07-01

420

30 CFR 206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...completed page one of Form MMS-4292, Coal Washing Allowance Report, in accordance...previous reporting period. If coal washing is continuing, the lessee shall...next calendar year. The estimated coal washing allowance shall be based on...

2010-07-01

421

19 CFR 158.13 - Allowance for moisture and impurities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Allowance for moisture and impurities. 158.13 Section 158.13 Customs...158.13 Allowance for moisture and impurities. (a) Application by importer ...1507), for all detectable moisture and impurities present in or upon imported...

2010-04-01

422

45 CFR 1217.5 - Allowances and benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA VOLUNTEER LEADER § 1217.5 Allowances and benefits. The VISTA volunteer leader shall be entitled to all allowances...of selection of the VISTA volunteer leader. (b) Support for...

2010-10-01

423

30 CFR 206.159 - Determination of processing allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...delivery and installation of capital equipment) which are an integral part of the processing plant. (i) Allowable operating...original processor/lessee for purposes of the allowance calculation. With or without a change in ownership, a processing...

2010-07-01

424

Know your dose: RADDOSE  

PubMed Central

The program RADDOSE is widely used to compute the dose absorbed by a macromolecular crystal during an X-ray diffraction experiment. A number of factors affect the absorbed dose, including the incident X-ray flux density, the photon energy and the composition of the macromolecule and of the buffer in the crystal. An experimental dose limit for macromolecular crystallography (MX) of 30?MGy at 100?K has been reported, beyond which the biological information obtained may be compromised. Thus, for the planning of an optimized diffraction experiment the estimation of dose has become an additional tool. A number of approximations were made in the original version of RADDOSE. Recently, the code has been modified in order to take into account fluorescent X-­ray escape from the crystal (version 2) and the inclusion of incoherent (Compton) scattering into the dose calculation is now reported (version 3). The Compton cross-section, although negligible at the energies currently commonly used in MX, should be considered in dose calculations for incident energies above 20?keV. Calculations using version 3 of RADDOSE reinforce previous studies that predict a reduction in the absorbed dose when data are collected at higher energies compared with data collected at 12.4?keV. Hence, a longer irradiation lifetime for the sample can be achieved at these higher energies but this is at the cost of lower diffraction intensities. The parameter ‘diffraction-dose efficiency’, which is the diffracted intensity per absorbed dose, is revisited in an attempt to investigate the benefits and pitfalls of data collection using higher and lower energy radiation, particularly for thin crystals. PMID:20382991

Paithankar, Karthik S.; Garman, Elspeth F.

2010-01-01

425

Theoretical Analysis of Maximum Flow Declination Rate versus Maximum Area Declination Rate in Phonation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the maximum area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…

Titze, Ingo R.

2006-01-01

426

Computed tomography dose optimization.  

PubMed

Use of computed tomography (CT) as a medical diagnostic imaging tool has increased in recent decades because of its technical advances in data acquisition speed and image reconstruction technology. The increased reliance on CT was accompanied by increased patient exposure to ionizing radiation, however, and concerns among radiologic professionals and the public regarding CT dose resulted in increasing attention to dose reduction. Research and education efforts have addressed many of these concerns, and radiologic technologists play a critical role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in CT for individual patients and for the industry in general. PMID:25002653

Seeram, Euclid

2014-01-01

427

17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net equity. 190.07...COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net...obtained after performing the preceding calculations required by paragraph (b) of...

2010-04-01

428

A real time dose monitoring and dose reconstruction tool for patient specific VMAT QA and delivery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a real time dose monitoring and dose reconstruction tool to identify and quantify sources of errors during patient specific volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery and quality assurance. Methods: The authors develop a VMAT delivery monitor tool called linac data monitor that connects to the linac in clinical mode and records, displays, and compares real time machine parameters with the planned parameters. A new measure, called integral error, keeps a running total of leaf overshoot and undershoot errors in each leaf pair, multiplied by leaf width, and the amount of time during which the error exists in monitor unit delivery. Another tool reconstructs Pinnacle{sup 3} Trade-Mark-Sign format delivered plan based on the saved machine logfile and recalculates actual delivered dose in patient anatomy. Delivery characteristics of various standard fractionation and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) VMAT plans delivered on Elekta Axesse and Synergy linacs were quantified. Results: The MLC and gantry errors for all the treatment sites were 0.00 {+-} 0.59 mm and 0.05 {+-} 0.31 Degree-Sign , indicating a good MLC gain calibration. Standard fractionation plans had a larger gantry error than SBRT plans due to frequent dose rate changes. On average, the MLC errors were negligible but larger errors of up to 6 mm and 2.5 Degree-Sign were seen when dose rate varied frequently. Large gantry errors occurred during the acceleration and deceleration process, and correlated well with MLC errors (r= 0.858, p= 0.0004). PTV mean, minimum, and maximum dose discrepancies were 0.87 {+-} 0.21%, 0.99 {+-} 0.59%, and 1.18 {+-} 0.52%, respectively. The organs at risk (OAR) doses were within 2.5%, except some OARs that showed up to 5.6% discrepancy in maximum dose. Real time displayed normalized total positive integral error (normalized to the total monitor units) correlated linearly with MLC (r= 0.9279, p < 0.001) and gantry errors (r= 0.742, p= 0.005). There is a strong correlation between total integral error and PTV mean (r= 0.683, p= 0.015), minimum (r= 0.6147, p= 0.033), and maximum dose (r= 0.6038, p= 0.0376). Conclusions: Errors may exist during complex VMAT planning and delivery. Linac data monitor is capable of detecting and quantifying mechanical and dosimetric errors at various stages of planning and delivery.

Tyagi, Neelam; Yang Kai; Gersten, David; Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, 3601 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)

2012-12-15

429

Allowable Trajectory Variations for Space Shuttle Orbiter Entry-Aeroheating CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-number criteria are developed for acceptable variations in Space Shuttle Orbiter entry trajectories for use in computational aeroheating analyses. The criteria determine if an existing computational fluid dynamics solution for a particular trajectory can be extrapolated to a different trajectory. The criteria development considers twelve types of computational aeroheating data, such as boundary layer thickness. For each type of datum, the allowable uncertainty contribution due to trajectory variation has been set by the Entry Aeroheating Subsystem team. Then Reynolds-number relations between trajectory variation and output uncertainty are determined. From these relations the criteria are established for the maximum allowable trajectory variations. The most restrictive criterion allows a 25% variation in Reynolds number at constant Mach number between trajectories.

Wood, William A.; Alter, Stephen J.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.

2008-01-01

430

Allowable Trajectory Variations for Space Shuttle Orbiter Entry-Aeroheating CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-number criteria are developed for acceptable variations in Space Shuttle Orbiter entry trajectories for use in computational aeroheating analyses. The criteria determine if an existing computational fluid dynamics solution for a particular trajectory can be extrapolated to a different trajectory. The criteria development begins by estimating uncertainties for seventeen types of computational aeroheating data, such as boundary layer thickness, at exact trajectory conditions. For each type of datum, the allowable uncertainty contribution due to trajectory variation is set to be half of the value of the estimated exact-trajectory uncertainty. Then, for the twelve highest-priority datum types, Reynolds-number relations between trajectory variation and output uncertainty are determined. From these relations the criteria are established for the maximum allowable trajectory variations. The most restrictive criterion allows a 25% variation in Reynolds number at constant Mach number between trajectories.

Wood, William A.; Alter, Stephen J.

2008-01-01

431

Donut-Shaped High-Dose Configuration for Proton Beam Radiation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The authors report on the conception and first clinical application of a donut-shaped high-dose configuration for proton therapy (PT). This approach allows one to intensify target volume dose coverage for targets encompassing a critical, dose-limiting structure—like here, the cauda equina—, whilst delivering minimal dose to other healthy structures surrounding the target, thereby reducing the integral dose. Methods and Results:

Hans Peter Rutz; Antony J. Lomax

2005-01-01

432

Calculate Your Radiation Dose  

MedlinePLUS

... Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Calculate Your Radiation Dose Health Effects Main Page Exposure Pathways Calculate ... of the US do you live in? Internal radiation (in your body): From food and water, (e. ...

433

On optimizing maximum-power heat engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a general class of heat engines operating at maximum power, in which the generic sources of irreversibility are finite-rate heat transfer and friction only, a study is made of (1) the time-dependent driving functions that maximize power when heat input and heat rejection are constrained to be nonisothermal, as is the case in many conventional heat engines, and (2) the specific impact of friction on the nature of the engine cycle that maximizes power, and on the engine's power-efficiency characteristics. The extent to which maximum power is affected by the constraints on the driving function is evaluated, as well as the time divisions on the different branches of the optimal cycle. The fundamental differences in engine performance that arise from frictional losses being internally dissipative, as opposed to externally dissipative, are derived, and illustrative examples are presented.

Gordon, J. M.; Huleihil, Mahmoud

1991-01-01

434

MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS  

PubMed Central

A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator. PMID:25419259

Snijders, Tom A.B.; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael

2014-01-01

435

Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

Visser, Matt

2013-04-01

436

34 CFR 607.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 607...EDUCATION STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 607.30...

2012-07-01

437

34 CFR 607.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 607...EDUCATION STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 607.30...

2013-07-01

438

34 CFR 609.41 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 609...HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 609.41...

2012-07-01

439

34 CFR 608.40 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 608...HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 608.40...

2012-07-01

440

34 CFR 607.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 607...EDUCATION STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 607.30...

2011-07-01

441

34 CFR 606.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 606...DEVELOPING HISPANIC-SERVING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 606.30...

2012-07-01

442

34 CFR 606.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 606...DEVELOPING HISPANIC-SERVING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 606.30...

2013-07-01

443

34 CFR 609.41 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

...Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 609...HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 609.41...

2014-07-01

444

34 CFR 609.41 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 609...HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 609.41...

2011-07-01

445

34 CFR 607.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 607...EDUCATION STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 607.30...

2010-07-01

446

34 CFR 607.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

...Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 607...EDUCATION STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 607.30...

2014-07-01

447

34 CFR 608.40 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 608...HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 608.40...

2010-07-01

448

34 CFR 609.41 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 609...HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 609.41...

2010-07-01

449

34 CFR 608.40 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

...Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 608...HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 608.40...

2014-07-01

450

34 CFR 606.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

...Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 606...DEVELOPING HISPANIC-SERVING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 606.30...

2014-07-01

451

34 CFR 606.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 606...DEVELOPING HISPANIC-SERVING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 606.30...

2010-07-01

452

34 CFR 609.41 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 609...HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 609.41...

2013-07-01

453

34 CFR 606.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 606...DEVELOPING HISPANIC-SERVING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 606.30...

2011-07-01

454

34 CFR 608.40 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 608...HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 608.40...

2011-07-01

455

34 CFR 608.40 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 608...HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 608.40...

2013-07-01

456

Maximum likelihood estimation of population parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important parameters in population genetics is [theta] = 4N[sub e][mu] where N[sub e] is the effective population size and [mu] is the rate of mutation per gene per generation. The authors study two related problems, using the maximum likelihood method and the theory of coalescence. One problem is the potential improvement of accuracy in estimating the

Y. X. Fu; W. H. Li

1993-01-01

457

The Maximum Size of Dynamic Data Structures  

E-print Network

_->l. MAXIMUM SIZE OF DYNAMIC DATA STRUCTURES 811 intervals [ti, ti+l], with endpoints ti=i/n, for O Size2 _- a2 (2.3) dynamic queries over time. Let us denote the data structure size at time by Size(t). If we think of the items as horizontal intervals, then Size(t) is just the number of intervals "cut" by the vertical line...

Kenyon-Mathieu, Claire M.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

1991-10-01

458

The Maximum Principle for Holomorphic Operator Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that if an operator-valued analytic function f of a complex variable attains its maximum modulus at z\\u000a 0, then the coefficients of the nonconstant terms in the power series expansion about z\\u000a 0 cannot be invertible, provided a complex uniform convexity condition holds. One application is that the norm of the resolvent\\u000a of an operator on a complex

Andrzej Daniluk

2011-01-01

459

Dialogue act recognition using maximum entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dialogue-based interface for information systems is considered a potentially very useful approach to infor- mation access. A key step in computer processing of natural-language dialogues is dialogue-act (DA) recogni- tion. In this paper, we apply a feature-based classification approach for DA recognition, by using the maximum entropy (ME) method to build a classifier for labeling utterances with DA tags.

Kwok Cheung Lan; Kei Shiu Ho; Robert Wing Pong Luk; Hong Va Leong

2008-01-01

460

Therapeutic Experience of Maximum Feasible Participation  

E-print Network

Therapeutic Experience of Maximum Feasible Participation George Pierre Castile In 1965 a number of scholars looked about them at the state of Native Americans, among them was Henry Dobyns, whose contribution to the collec tion, "The American... Indian Today," was titled "Therapeutic Experience of Re sponsible Democracy" (Dobyns 1968). This phrase was taken from a statement by John Collier, Commissioner of Indian affairs from 1933-45. Collier had de clared "The experience of responsible...

Castile, George Pierre

2006-03-01

461

"SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

Schmitt, Raymond

2014-05-01

462

Continuity of the Maximum-Entropy Inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the inverse problem of inferring the state of a finite-level quantum system from expected values of a fixed set of observables, by maximizing a continuous ranking function. We have proved earlier that the maximum-entropy inference can be a discontinuous map from the convex set of expected values to the convex set of states because the image contains states of reduced support, while this map restricts to a smooth parametrization of a Gibbsian family of fully supported states. Here we prove for arbitrary ranking functions that the inference is continuous up to boundary points. This follows from a continuity condition in terms of the openness of the restricted linear map from states to their expected values. The openness condition shows also that ranking functions with a discontinuous inference are typical. Moreover it shows that the inference is continuous in the restriction to any polytope which implies that a discontinuity belongs to the quantum domain of non-commutative observables and that a geodesic closure of a Gibbsian family equals the set of maximum-entropy states. We discuss eight descriptions of the set of maximum-entropy states with proofs of accuracy and an analysis of deviations.

Stephan, Weis

2014-09-01

463

Continuity of the Maximum-Entropy Inference  

E-print Network

We study the inverse problem of inferring the state of a finite-level quantum system from expected values of a fixed set of observables, by maximizing a continuous ranking function. We have proved earlier that the maximum-entropy inference can be a discontinuous map from the convex set of expected values to the convex set of states because the image contains states of reduced support, while this map restricts to a smooth parametrization of a Gibbsian family of fully supported states. Here we prove for arbitrary ranking functions that the inference is continuous up to boundary points. This follows from a continuity condition in terms of the openness of the restricted linear map from states to their expected values. The openness condition shows also that ranking functions with a discontinuous inference are typical. Moreover it shows that the inference is continuous in the restriction to any polytope which implies that a discontinuity belongs to the quantum domain of non-commutative observables and that a geodesic closure of a Gibbsian family equals the set of maximum-entropy states. We discuss eight descriptions of the set of maximum-entropy states with proofs of accuracy and an analysis of deviations.

Stephan Weis

2014-04-21

464

CELL PHONE ALLOWANCE POLICY All Cell Phone Allowance Policies and Procedures must be conducted in accordance with all  

E-print Network

CELL PHONE ALLOWANCE POLICY All Cell Phone Allowance Policies and Procedures must be conducted%2029%2013.pdf Option 2 of University Policy 4-009.2 http://www.fa.ucf.edu/Forms/PCard/41-980.pdf Cell Phone Payroll FAQs (for Policy 4-900.2) http://hr.ucf.edu/files/CellPhonePayrollFAQ.pdf Cell Phone Allowance

Wu, Shin-Tson

465

Evaluation of radiation doses delivered in different chest CT protocols  

PubMed Central

Summary Background There are differences in the reference diagnostic levels for the computed tomography (CT) of the chest as cited in different literature sources. The doses are expressed either in weighted CT dose index (CTDIVOL) used to express the dose per slice, dose-length product (DLP), and effective dose (E). The purpose of this study was to assess the radiation dose used in Low Dose Computer Tomography (LDCT) of the chest in comparison with routine chest CT examinations as well as to compare doses delivered in low dose chest CT with chest X-ray doses. Material/Methods CTDIVOL and DLP doses were taken to analysis from routine CT chest examinations (64 MDCT TK LIGHT SPEED GE Medical System) performed in 202 adult patients with FBP reconstruction: 51 low dose, 106 helical, 20 angio CT, and 25 high resolution CT protocols, as well as 19 helical protocols with iterative ASIR reconstruction. The analysis of chest X-ray doses was made on the basis of reports from 44 examinations. Results Mean values of CTDIVOL and DLP were, respectively: 2.1 mGy and 85.1 mGy·cm, for low dose, 9.7 mGy and 392.3 mGy·cm for helical, 18.2 mGy and 813.9 mGy·cm for angio CT, 2.3 mGy and 64.4 mGy·cm for high resolution CT, 8.9 mGy. and 317.6 mGy·cm for helical ASIR protocols. Significantly lower CTDIVOL and DLP values were observed for low dose and high resolution CT versus the remaining CT protocols; doses delivered in CT ASIR protocols were also lower (80–81%). The ratio between medial doses in low dose CT and chest X-ray was 11.56. Conclusions Radiation dose in extended chest LDCT with parameters allowing for identification of mediastinal structures and adrenal glands is still much lower than that in standard CT protocols. Effective doses predicted for LDCT may exceed those used in chest X-ray examinations by a factor of 4 to 12, depending on LDCT scan parameters. Our results, as well as results from other authors, suggest a possibility of reducing the dose by means of iterative reconstruction. Efforts towards further dose reduction which would permit replacing chest X-ray with low dose CT in certain research screening projects should be encouraged. PMID:24454417

Gorycki, Tomasz; Lasek, Iwona; Kami?ski, Kamil; Studniarek, Micha?

2014-01-01

466

Improved maximum likelihood reconstruction of complex multi-generational pedigrees.  

PubMed

The reconstruction of pedigrees from genetic marker data is relevant to a wide range of applications. Likelihood-based approaches aim to find the pedigree structure that gives the highest probability to the observed data. Existing methods either entail an exhaustive search and are hence restricted to small numbers of individuals, or they take a more heuristic approach and deliver a solution that will probably have high likelihood but is not guaranteed to be optimal. By encoding the pedigree learning problem as an integer linear program we can exploit efficient optimisation algorithms to construct pedigrees guaranteed to have maximal likelihood for the standard situation where we have complete marker data at unlinked loci and segregation of genes from parents to offspring is Mendelian. Previous work demonstrated efficient reconstruction of pedigrees of up to about 100 individuals. The modified method that we present here is not so restricted: we demonstrate its applicability with simulated data on a real human pedigree structure of over 1600 individuals. It also compares well with a very competitive approximate approach in terms of solving time and accuracy. In addition to identifying a maximum likelihood pedigree, we can obtain any number of pedigrees in decreasing order of likelihood. This is useful for assessing the uncertainty of a maximum likelihood solution and permits model averaging over high likelihood pedigrees when this would be appropriate. More importantly, when the solution is not unique, as will often be the case for large pedigrees, it enables investigation into the properties of maximum likelihood pedigree estimates which has not been possible up to now. Crucially, we also have a means of assessing the behaviour of other approximate approaches which all aim to find a maximum likelihood solution. Our approach hence allows us to properly address the question of whether a reasonably high likelihood solution that is easy to obtain is practically as useful as a guaranteed maximum likelihood solution. The efficiency of our method on such large problems bodes well for extensions beyond the standard setting where some pedigree members may be latent, genotypes may be measured with error and markers may be linked. PMID:25107832

Sheehan, Nuala A; Bartlett, Mark; Cussens, James

2014-11-01

467

EPROM erasure in transient and total dose gamma environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four versions of 32Kbit EPROMs from three manufacturers were exposed to transient gamma and total dose radiation environments. At a maximum tested transient level of 3.9 x 10 to the 9th rad(Si)/sec, the devices were found to be resistant to erasure. Failures from the total dose exposures occurred at different levels for the four device types. The most susceptible part type failed between 3200 and 4500 rad(Si). The most resistant type failed between 9500 and 11000 rad(Si). These variations in total dose failure threshold are attributed to the floating gate oxide thickness differences between the four versions of this EPROM.

Linderman, P. B.; Okuma, J.

1982-12-01

468

30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section...Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

2012-07-01

469

30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section...Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

2011-07-01

470

30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section...Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

2012-07-01

471

30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section...Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

2013-07-01

472

30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.  

... 2014-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section...Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

2014-07-01

473

30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section...Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

2013-07-01

474

30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section...Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

2011-07-01

475

30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section...Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

2010-07-01

476

30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section...Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

2010-07-01

477

30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.  

... 2014-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section...Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

2014-07-01

478

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2014-01-01

479

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2011-01-01

480

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2012-01-01

481

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2010-01-01

482

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2013-01-01

483

A global maximum power point tracking DC-DC converter  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the design, and validation of a maximum power point tracking DC-DC converter capable of following the true global maximum power point in the presence of other local maximum. It does this without the ...

Duncan, Joseph, 1981-

2005-01-01

484

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2011-07-01

485

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2010-07-01

486

Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (DoSEN) are an early-stage space technology research project that combines two advanced complementary radiation detection concepts with fundamental advantages over traditional dosimetry. DoSEN measures not only the energy but also the charge distribution (including neutrons) of energetic particles that affect human (and robotic) health in a way not presently possible with current dosimeters. For heavy ions and protons, DoSEN provides a direct measurement of the lineal energy transfer (LET) spectra behind shielding material. For LET measurements, DoSEN contains stacks of thin-thick Si detectors similar in design to those used for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation. With LET spectra, we can now directly break down the observed spectrum of radiation into its constituent heavy-ion components and through biologically based quality factors that provide not only doses and dose rates but also dose equivalents, associated rates, and even organ doses. DoSEN also measures neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV, which requires enough sensitive mass to fully absorb recoil particles that the neutrons produce. DoSEN develops the new concept of combining these independent measurements and using the coincidence of LET measurements and neutron detection to significantly reduce backgrounds in each measurement. The background suppression through the use of coincidence allows for significant reductions in size, mass, and power needed to provide measurements of dose, neutron dose, dose equivalents, LET spectra, and organ doses. Thus, we introduce the DoSEN concept: a promising low-mass instrument that detects the full spectrum of energetic particles, heavy ions, and neutrons to determine biological impact of radiation in space.

Schwadron, Nathan; Bancroft, Chris; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James; Smith, Sonya; Spence, Harlan; Mazur, Joe; Zeitlin, Cary

2013-10-01

487

75 FR 54069 - U.S. Paralympics Monthly Assistance Allowance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Eligibility, Individuals with disabilities, Monthly assistance allowance, Overpayment, Oversight, Physically challenged athletes, Service-connected disabilities, Sport event, Travel and transportation expenses, U.S. Paralympics training...

2010-09-03

488

41 CFR 302-7.2 - What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored... § 302-7.2 What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense? The maximum weight allowance of HHG that may be...

2011-07-01

489

41 CFR 302-7.2 - What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored... § 302-7.2 What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense? The maximum weight allowance of HHG that may be...

2010-07-01

490

Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with tomotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase i, docetaxel dose-escalation study, with hypofractionated radiation regimen  

PubMed Central

Background Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy is demonstrately superior to sequential chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer not suitable for surgery. Docetaxel is considered to enhance the cytotoxic effect of radiotherapy on the tumour cells. Tomotherapy (HT) is a novel radiotherapeutic technique, which allows the delivery of Image Guided-IMRT (IG-IMRT), with a highly conformal radiation dose distribution. The goal of the study was to estimate tolerability of Docetaxel concurrent with IMRT and to find the maximum tolerated dose of weekly Docetaxel concurrent with IMRT delivered with HT Tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy with Cisplatin and Docetaxel in patients affected with stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Methods We designed a phase I, dose-finding study to determine the dose of weekly Docetaxel concurrent with Tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy, in patients affected by Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Stage III disease, not suitable for surgery. Results Concurrent weekly Docetaxel and Tomotherapy are feasible; we did not reach a maximum tolerated dose, because no life-threatening toxicity was observed, stopping the accrual at a level of weekly docetaxel 38 mg/m2, a greater dose than in previous assessments, from both phase-I studies with weekly docetaxel alone and with Docetaxel concomitant with standard radiotherapy. Conclusions Concurrent weekly Docetaxel and Tomotherapy are feasible, and even with Docetaxel at 38 mg/m2/week we did not observe any limiting toxicity. For those patients who completed the combined chemo-radio treatment, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 20 months and median overall survival (OS) was 24 months. PMID:24176164

2013-01-01

491

An ultraviolet polarimeter for the Solar Maximum Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Maximum Mission experiment contingency will include one instrument originally designed and built for OSO-8. The engineering model of the OSO-8 High Resolution Spectrometer has been rebuilt to make it lightworthy and to encompass several new functions, including solar ultraviolet polarimetry. The rebuilt package is designated as the High Resolution Ultraviolet Spectrometer/Polarimeter. The device that enables polarimetry is a dual channel rotating waveplate system. The waveplates are magnesium fluoride and will allow measurements to be made ranging from the Lyman alpha line to near visible ultraviolet. One wavelength channel will use the polarization characteristics of the spectrometer diffraction grating as the analyzer. The second channel has a built-in four-mirror polarizer. This paper describes the polarimeter design, operation, and calibration.

Calvert, J.; Griner, D.; Montenegro, J.; Nola, F.; Rutledge, F.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Wyman, C. L.; Beckers, J. M.

1979-01-01

492

How to adjust vertical turbine pumps for maximum efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The average performance indicates that about 30% of the energy used for irrigation could be saved if all pumping plants operated at the Nebraska Performance Criteria. There are many causes for poor pumping plant performance. Major causes were poor power unit performance, and poor pump performance often caused by improper pump adjustment. This circular discusses proper pump adjustment to attain maximum efficiency. Both semi-open and enclosed types of turbine pumps used in irrigation can benefit from proper impeller adjustment provided enough wear has occurred to allow water to leak past the pump seals and be recirculated within the pump bowl, and that there is enough seal area remaining in the bowl to reestablish a seal by lowering the impellers.

Dorn, T.W.; Schroeder, M.A.; Fischbach, P.E.

1986-01-01

493

Mapping dose distributions.  

PubMed

Clinical dose calculations are often performed by scaling distances from a dose distribution measured in one medium to calculate the dose in another. These perturbation calculations have the mathematical form of a mapping. In this paper we identify five conditions required for particle transport to reduce to this form and develop a new mapping for electrons which approximately satisfies these conditions. This continuous scattering mapping is based on two parameters, the scattering power of the medium which determines the shape of the scaling paths, and the stopping power of the medium which determines where the energy is deposited along these paths. Pencil beam dose distributions are calculated with EGS4 in one medium and mapped to other media. The resultant distributions are compared with EGS4 calculations done directly in the second medium. The accuracy of the mapping algorithm is shown to be superior to both linear density scaling and the MDAH electron pencil beam algorithm [Kenneth R. Hogstrom, Michael D. Mills, and Peter R. Almond, "Electron beam dose calculations," Phys. Med. Biol. 26, 445-459 (1981)] for pencil beams in homogeneous media and inhomogeneous phantoms (both slab and nonslab geometries) for a variety of materials of clinical interest. PMID:9800702

Beckett, C; Dickof, P

1998-10-01

494

The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.  

PubMed

Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes. PMID:14615526

Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M

2003-11-14

495

On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro

2007-08-01

496

Design of toroidal transformers for maximum efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the most efficient toroidal transformer that can be built given the frequency, volt-ampere rating, magnetic flux density, window fill factor, and materials is described. With the above all held constant and only the dimensions of the magnetic core varied, the most efficient design occurs when the copper losses equal 60 percent of the iron losses. When this criterion is followed, efficiency is only slightly dependent on design frequency and fill factor. The ratios of inside diameter to outside diameter and height to build of the magnetic core that result in transformers of maximum efficiency are computed.

Dayton, J. A., Jr.

1972-01-01

497

Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

498

Maximum profit performance of an absorption refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

The operation of an absorption refrigerator is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The relations between the optimal profit and COP (coefficient of performance), and the COP bound at the maximum profit of the refrigerator are derived based on a general heat transfer law. The results provide a theoretical basis for developing and utilizing a variety of absorption refrigerators. The focus of this paper is to search the compromise optimization between economics (profit) and the utilization factor (COP) for finite-time endoreversible thermodynamic cycles.

Chen, L.; Sun, F. [Naval Academy of Engineering, Wuhan (China)] [Naval Academy of Engineering, Wuhan (China); Wu, C. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.] [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1996-12-01

499

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes  

PubMed Central

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the coevolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady-state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand “dune-building” species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the timescale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches. Higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species, which shifts foredune formation landward and thus leads to larger foredunes. In this scenario, plants play a much more active role in modifying their habitat and altering coastal vulnerability than previously thought. PMID:24101481

Durán, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2013-01-01

500

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the co-evolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand `dune-building' species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the time scale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches: higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species which shifts foredune formation landwards and thus leads to larger foredunes.

Duran Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2014-05-01