Sample records for maximum allowable dose

  1. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

  2. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

  3. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

  4. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

  5. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

  6. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

  7. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

  8. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

  9. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

  10. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

  11. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Maximum allowable weights. 375.23 Section 375...375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft...in the United States on the basis of foreign airworthiness certificates...limitations on maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized...

  12. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. 36.44 Section 36.44 Mineral...36.44 Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. (a) When an engine is delivered...shall be accepted. The maximum fuel : air ratio determined from the exhaust-gas...

  13. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMAC's for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee.

  14. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants, and to review SMACs for various space-craft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee On Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMACs for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMACs for approximately 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the SMAC reports for 12 chemical contaminants that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee. This report is the second volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994.

  15. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    To protect space crews from air contaminants, NASA requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) and review NASA's development of exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. The NRC convened the Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines to address this task. The committee published Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (NRC 1992). The reason for the review of chemicals in Volume 5 is that many of them have not been examined for more than 10 years, and new research necessitates examining the documents to ensure that they reflect current knowledge. New knowledge can be in the form of toxicologic data or in the application of new approaches for analysis of available data. In addition, because NASA anticipates longer space missions beyond low Earth orbit, SMACs for 1,000-d exposures have also been developed.

  16. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report, prepared by the Committee on Toxicology of the National Research Council's Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, is in response to a request from NASA for guidelines to develop spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for space-station contaminants. SMACs are used to provide guidance on allowable chemical exposures during normal operations and emergency situations. Short-term SMACs refer to concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not compromise the performance of specific tasks during emergency conditions lasting up to 24 hours. Long-term SMACs are intended to avoid adverse health effects (either immediate or delayed) and to avoid degradation in crew performance with continuous exposure in a closed space-station environment for as long as 180 days.

  17. Estimation of maximum allowable tissue concentrations from literature data

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.L.; Sulzman, E.W.; Tate, D.J. [Ebasco Environmental, Lakewood, CO (United States); Fordham, C.L. [Terra Technologies, Golden, CO (United States); Ober, R.L.; Armstrong, J.P. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The authors estimated maximum allowable tissue concentrations (MATCs) based on toxicity studies for selected terrestrial biological receptors (several taxonomic groups of birds and mammals) and four bioaccumulative contaminants (aldrin/dieldrin, DDT/DDE, endrin, mercury). The effort was part of an ecological risk assessment for Rocky Mountain Arsenal, a US Army facility near Denver, Colorado. Data from the literature relating tissue concentrations to toxic effects were selected that would minimize the number and magnitude of extrapolations necessary to achieve a no adverse effects level for surrogate taxonomic groups used to represent the wildlife at the site. Variable uncertainty factors (UFs) were used to allow extrapolations for intertaxon variability (UFs = 1--5), exposure duration (UFs = 1--20), effects to no-effects (UFs = 1--10), and eight modifying factors (MFs) that account for such safety factors and extrapolations as threatened and endangered species, multiple contaminants, and intraspecific variability. The eight MFs were summed and the sum multiplied by the product of the three UF categories to compute a total UF that had a restricted upper-bound of 400. The resultant MATCs appeared reasonable based on known toxicities of the four contaminants. Variable UF values, rather than default UFs of 10, were considered more realistic and responsive to the literature data used to derive the safe toxicity levels.

  18. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

  19. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

  20. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

  1. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

  2. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

  3. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Provisions Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge... (3)(i) For Federal FY 2009, any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service...the maximum deductible, coinsurance or co-payment charge for each admission...

  4. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Provisions Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge... (3)(i) For Federal FY 2009, any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service...the maximum deductible, coinsurance or co-payment charge for each admission...

  5. Maximum tolerated dose: clinical endpoint for a bygone era?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris H. Takimoto

    2009-01-01

    The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has been the classically recommended phase II dose for cytotoxic chemotherapy anticancer\\u000a agents. However, the development of molecular targeted therapies with highly specific mechanisms of action has raised questions\\u000a about the paradigm of dosing at the MTD. Inhibition of the molecular target may occur at dose levels substantially below those\\u000a producing dose limiting toxicities. The

  6. 77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0308] Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    49 ? Transportation ? 4 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds ? A ? Appendix A to Part 213 ? Transportation ? Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) ? FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ? TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS ? Pt....

  8. Guidelines for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for Space Station contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing to launch a manned space station by the year 1996. Because of concerns about the health, safety, and functioning abilities of the crews, NASA has requested that the National Research Council (NRC) through the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST) provide advice on toxicological matters for the space-station program. The Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants was established by the Committee on Toxicology (COT) to address NASA's concerns. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) are defined as the maximum concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not cause adverse health effects, significant discomfort, or degradation in crew performance.

  9. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    SciTech Connect

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  10. 41 CFR 302-6.101 - May my agency reduce my TQSE allowance below the “maximum allowable amount”?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES PERMANENT CHANGE OF STATION (PCS) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 6-ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE EXPENSES...

  11. Multiple Test Procedures for Identifying the Minimum Effective and Maximum Safe Doses of a Drug

    E-print Network

    Tamhane, Ajit C.

    Multiple Test Procedures for Identifying the Minimum Effective and Maximum Safe Doses of a Drug of a drug by finding its minimum effective and maximum safe doses (MINED and MAXSD). The MINED is the lowest dose that exceeds the mean efficacy of the zero dose by a specified threshold, and the MAXSD

  12. Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L Frome; R. J. DuFrain

    1983-01-01

    In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between the yield of dicentric chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The dicentric yields follow the Poisson distribution, and the expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose for low LET radiation. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been

  13. Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Frome; R. J. DuFrain

    1986-01-01

    In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes are exposed to low-LET radiation, and the resulting dicentric chromosome aberrations follow the Poisson distribution. The expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has

  14. Heterogeneity-corrected vs -uncorrected critical structure maximum point doses in breast balloon brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Leonard, E-mail: kimlh@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) ? 0.930 (R{sup 2} = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) ? 0.955 (R{sup 2} = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor.

  15. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  16. Toxicological approach to setting spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, K. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are exposure limits for airborne chemicals used by NASA in spacecraft. The aim of these SMACs is to protect the spacecrew against adverse health effects and performance decrements that would interfere with mission objectives. Because of the 1 and 24 hr SMACs are set for contingencies, minor reversible toxic effects that do not affect mission objectives are acceptable. The 7, 30, or 180 day SMACs are aimed at nominal operations, so they are established at levels that would not cause noncarcinogenic toxic effects and more than one case of tumor per 1000 exposed individuals over the background. The process used to set the SMACs for carbon monoxide (CO) is described to illustrate the approach used by NASA. After the toxicological literature on CO was reviewed, the data were summarized and separated into acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity data. CO's toxicity depends on the formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood, reducing the blood's oxygen carrying capacity. The initial task was to estimate the COHb levels that would not produce toxic effects in the brain and heart.

  17. Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose

    E-print Network

    Tamhane, Ajit C.

    Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose This paper addresses the problem of power and sample size calculation for a stepwise multiple test procedure functions, respectively. The sample sizes necessary on the zero dose control and each of the positive doses

  18. 77 FR 56591 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Maximum Allowable Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ...Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Maximum...Emission of Particulate Matter From Fuel Burning Equipment...proposes to approve the State Implementation Plan...revision submitted by the State of Missouri to incorporate...Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions...

  19. GLOSSARY OF TERMS Balance Billing Out-of-network reimbursements are based on a maximum allowable

    E-print Network

    - 54 - GLOSSARY OF TERMS Balance Billing ­ Out-of-network reimbursements are based on a maximum the medical plan, i.e., does not share a common deductible): a) The prescription drug coverage has no annual Medicare eligible individual in 2008. #12;- 55 - For integrated plans (a plan where medical and Rx expenses

  20. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines. 192.620 Section 192.620 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

  1. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...01-30) that are likely to occur, or the designated coincident operating temperature, excluding any metal thickness specified as corrosion allowance. (See UG-25 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.) (c)...

  2. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...01-30) that are likely to occur, or the designated coincident operating temperature, excluding any metal thickness specified as corrosion allowance. (See UG-25 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.) (c)...

  3. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...01-30) that are likely to occur, or the designated coincident operating temperature, excluding any metal thickness specified as corrosion allowance. (See UG-25 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.) (c)...

  4. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...01-30) that are likely to occur, or the designated coincident operating temperature, excluding any metal thickness specified as corrosion allowance. (See UG-25 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.) (c)...

  5. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...01-30) that are likely to occur, or the designated coincident operating temperature, excluding any metal thickness specified as corrosion allowance. (See UG-25 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.) (c)...

  6. [Setting a maximum allowable concentration for urea in reclaimed potable water and evaluating the nature of its biological action].

    PubMed

    Mironets, N V; Savina, R V; Kucherov, I S; Solntseva, V V; Martyshchenko, N V

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify maxim allowable concentrations of urea in reclaimed potable water. The urea concentration equal to 80 mg/l is the threshold dose influencing the taste and flavor of water. Urea is a low toxicity substance (LD50 = 14,300 mg/kg), the effect of which is not cumulative. However, when used in high doses it affects bioenergetic and cholinergic processes and causes changes in ECG, higher nervous activity and visceral structure. It has been shown that when applied to warm-blooded animals the acting dose of urea is 14.3 and 1.43 mg/kg (1/1000 and 1/10000 LD50), the threshold dose is 0.72 mg/kg (1/20000 LD50), and the ineffective dose is 0.36 mg/kg (1/40000 LD50) which amounts to the concentration of 10 mg/l. In terms of toxic effects the dose equal to 10 mg/l is taken to be the maximally allowable concentration of urea. It is recommended to use the Laham biotest for measuring urea in water. PMID:2896273

  7. Glossary of Terms Balance Billing Out-of-network reimbursements are based on a maximum allowable fee

    E-print Network

    Glossary of Terms Balance Billing ­ Out-of-network reimbursements are based on a maximum allowable: For plans that are not integrated (a plan that provides Rx benefits that are separate from the medical plan eligible individual in 2008. - 1 - #12;For integrated plans (a plan where medical and Rx expenses

  8. Maximum entropy production allows a simple representation of heterogeneity in semiarid ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Kleidon, Axel; Stieglitz, Marc; Narula, Jatin

    2010-01-01

    Feedbacks between water use, biomass and infiltration capacity in semiarid ecosystems have been shown to lead to the spontaneous formation of vegetation patterns in a simple model. The formation of patterns permits the maintenance of larger overall biomass at low rainfall rates compared with homogeneous vegetation. This results in a bias of models run at larger scales neglecting subgrid-scale variability. In the present study, we investigate the question whether subgrid-scale heterogeneity can be parameterized as the outcome of optimal partitioning between bare soil and vegetated area. We find that a two-box model reproduces the time-averaged biomass of the patterns emerging in a 100 × 100 grid model if the vegetated fraction is optimized for maximum entropy production (MEP). This suggests that the proposed optimality-based representation of subgrid-scale heterogeneity may be generally applicable to different systems and at different scales. The implications for our understanding of self-organized behaviour and its modelling are discussed. PMID:20368263

  9. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to...Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density...

  10. Allowance for random dose estimation errors in atomic bomb survivor studies: a revision.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Donald A; Vaeth, Michael; Cologne, John B

    2008-07-01

    Allowing for imprecision of radiation dose estimates for A-bomb survivors followed up by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation can be improved through recent statistical methodology. Since the entire RERF dosimetry system has recently been revised, it is timely to reconsider this. We have found that the dosimetry revision itself does not warrant changes in these methods but that the new methodology does. In addition to assumptions regarding the form and magnitude of dose estimation errors, previous and current methods involve the apparent distribution of true doses in the cohort. New formulas give results conveniently and explicitly in terms of these inputs. Further, it is now possible to use assumptions about two components of the dose errors, referred to in the statistical literature as "classical" and "Berkson-type". There are indirect statistical indications, involving non-cancer biological effects, that errors may be somewhat larger than assumed before, in line with recommendations made here. Inevitably, methods must rely on uncertain assumptions about the magnitude of dose errors, and it is comforting to find that, within the range of plausibility, eventual cancer risk estimates are not very sensitive to these. PMID:18582151

  11. MAXINE: An improved methodology for estimating maximum individual dose from chronic atmospheric radioactive releases

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1994-02-01

    An EXCEL{reg_sign} spreadsheet has been developed that, when combined with the PC version of XOQDOQ, will generate estimates of maximum individual dose from routine atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The spreadsheet, MAXINE, utilizes a variety of atmospheric dispersion factors to calculate radiation dose as recommended by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Regulatory Guide 1.109 [USNRC 1977a]. The methodology suggested herein includes use of both the MAXINE spreadsheet and the PC version of XOQDOQ.

  12. Fludarabine Allows Dose Reduction for Total Body Irradiation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kornguth, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States)]. E-mail: dkorngut@mdanderson.org; Mahajan, Anita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Woo, Shiao [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Chan, Ka Wah [Division of Pediatrics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Antolak, John [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Ha, Chul S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To examine, in the setting of total body irradiation (TBI) for the preparation of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), whether TBI dose can be reduced without compromising the efficacy of a regimen consisting of fludarabine and radiotherapy; and whether there is any increased risk of pulmonary toxicity due to the radiosensitizing effect of fludarabine. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies received TBI-based conditioning regimens in preparation for allogeneic HSCT. Twenty-three patients received 12 Gy in 4 daily fractions in combination with cyclophosphamide, either alone or with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Twenty-nine patients received 9 Gy in 3 fractions in conjunction with fludarabine and melphalan. Clinical and radiation records were reviewed to determine engraftment, pulmonary toxicity (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria), transplant-related mortality, recurrence of primary disease, and overall survival. Results: The two groups of patients had comparable pretransplant clinical characteristics. For the 12-Gy and 9-Gy regimens, the engraftment (89% and 93%; p = 0.82), freedom from life-threatening pulmonary events (65% and 79%; p = 0.33), freedom from relapse (60% and 73%; p = 0.24), and overall survival (26% and 47%; p = 0.09) were not statistically different. Conclusions: The addition of fludarabine and melphalan seems to allow the dose of TBI to be lowered to 9 Gy without loss of engraftment or antitumor efficacy.

  13. 41 CFR 302-7.17 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished or...RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL...

  14. 41 CFR 302-7.17 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished or...RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL...

  15. 41 CFR 302-7.17 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished or...RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS, PROFESSIONAL...

  16. Improved lung dose calculation using tissue--maximum ratios in the Batho correction

    SciTech Connect

    El-Khatib, E.; Battista, J.J.

    1984-05-01

    We have reexamined the Batho power law for computing the dose within and beyond lung irradiated with small and large fields of cobalt-60 and 6-MV x rays. Using slab phantoms consisting of two materials, agreement between calculated and measured doses was within 2% inside lung for 6-MV x irradiation, but much poorer (9%) for cobalt-60 irradiation. For cobalt-60 irradiation, tissue--air ratios (TARs) were used initially in the Batho equation, while for 6-MV x rays, tissue--maximum ratios (TMRs) were used. When we substituted TMR values instead of TAR values for cobalt-60, we found marked improvement by nearly 5% in the accuracy of dose calculated within lung. This was confirmed by numerical comparison of the Batho expression with an analytic solution of the primary and first-scattered radiation. We therefore encourage the use of TMRs for cobalt-60 radiation, expecially for larger radiation fields, and provide measured data tables for field sizes up to 50 x 50 cm/sup 2/, and depths up to 30 cm. In addition to unifying the dosimetry for all megavoltage irradiation, this approach improves the accuracy of doses calculated within lung.

  17. Maximum likelihood estimates of mean and variance of occupation radiation doses subjected to minimum detection levels.

    PubMed

    Datta, D; Singh, Sanjay; Johnson, B E; Kushwaha, H S

    2008-01-01

    Data collection and its analysis in the field of nuclear safety is an important task in the sense that it powers the improvement of safety as well as reliability of the plant. Thus, occupational exposure data analysis is presented to measure the safety or reliability of radiation protection of a given facility. It also is required as a basic input in making decisions on radiation protection regulations and recommendations. A common practice in radiation protection is to record a zero for observation below minimum detection limit (MDL) doses, which leads to an underestimation of true doses and overestimation of the dose-response relationship. Exposure data (both external and internal) are collected by monitoring each individual and this kind of monitoring generally is graded as low-level monitoring. So, in such low-level monitoring, the occurrence of exposure below MDL invites statistical complications for estimating mean and variance because the data are generally censored, i.e observations below MDL are marked. In Type I censoring, the point of censoring (e.g. the detection limit) is 'fixed' a priori for all observations and the number of the censored observations varies. In Type II censoring, the number of censored observations is fixed a priori, and the point of censoring vary. The methodology generally followed in estimating mean and variance with these censored data was the replacement of missing dose by half the MDL. In this paper, authors have used the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach for the estimation of mean and standard deviation. A computer code BDLCENSOR has been developed in which all these MLE-based advanced algorithms are implemented. In addition to the MLE-based method, an expectation maximisation algorithm has also been implemented. The code is written using Visual BASIC 6.0. The paper describes the details of the algorithms adopted for handling such censored data to estimate bias free mean and standard deviation. PMID:18083720

  18. Breast radiotherapy in the prone position primarily reduces the maximum out-of-field measured dose to the ipsilateral lung

    E-print Network

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Breast radiotherapy in the prone position primarily reduces the maximum out-of-field measured dose advantages of prone position breast radiotherapy in terms of the radiation exposure to out-of-field organs) was to the treatment volume, the more dose spar- ing was seen for prone vs supine positioning. Breast radiotherapy

  19. 73 FR 51899 - Allowing Bar-Type Cut Turkey Operations To Use J-Type Cut Maximum Line Speeds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-09-08

    ...establishments will be able to process more turkeys by using the J-type cut line speeds. According...install the shackles to process Bar-type cut turkeys...J-type cut maximum line speeds and used the...modified shackles on two assembly lines. Regulatory...

  20. 70 FR 53582 - Allowing Bar-Type Cut Turkey Operations To Use J-Type Cut Maximum Line Speeds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-09-09

    ...using the J-type cut line speeds than they can process by using the Bar-type...J-type cut maximum line speeds and that used...modified shackles on two assembly lines. If this rule is adopted...establishments that process whole birds may...

  1. Noncoplanar beam intensity modulation allows large dose escalation in stage III lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Derycke; Bart Van Duyse; Werner De Gersem; Carlos De Wagter; Wilfried De Neve

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation in stage III non-small cell lung cancer, we compared standard coplanar (2D) with non-coplanar beam arrangements, without (3D) and with beam intensity modulation (3D-BIM).Materials and methods: This study was a planning effort performed on a non-selected group of 10 patients. Starting from a serial CT scan, treatment planning was performed using Sherouse's

  2. Maximum likelihood estimation of proton irradiated field and deposited dose distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Inaniwa, Taku; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Yamagata, Fumiko; Tomitani, Takehiro; Sato, Shinji; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Urakabe, Eriko [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Department of Accelerator and Medical Physics, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Proton Therapy Division, Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Suntou-gun, Shizuoka Prefecture 411-8777 (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    In proton therapy, it is important to evaluate the field irradiated with protons and the deposited dose distribution in a patient's body. Positron emitters generated through fragmentation reactions of target nuclei can be used for this purpose. By detecting the annihilation gamma rays from the positron emitters, the annihilation gamma ray distribution can be obtained which has information about the quantities essential to proton therapy. In this study, we performed irradiation experiments with mono-energetic proton beams of 160 MeV and the spread-out Bragg peak beams to three kinds of targets. The annihilation events were detected with a positron camera for 500 s after the irradiation and the annihilation gamma ray distributions were obtained. In order to evaluate the range and the position of distal and proximal edges of the SOBP, the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method was applied to the detected distributions. The evaluated values with the MLE method were compared with those estimated from the measured dose distributions. As a result, the ranges were determined with the difference between the MLE range and the experimental range less than 1.0 mm for all targets. For the SOBP beams, the positions of distal edges were determined with the difference less than 1.0 mm. On the other hand, the difference amounted to 7.9 mm for proximal edges.

  3. CPG ODN allows lower dose of antigen against hepatitis B surface antigen in BALB\\/c mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Risini Weeratna; Lacrimioara Comanita; Heather L Davis

    2003-01-01

    We have evaluated alum, immunostimulatory cytosine guanine dinucleotide-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CPG ODN), and an alum\\/CPG ODN combination as adjuvants with hepatitis B surface antigen, to compare their potential to allow lower doses of antigen to be used for induction of humoral responses. BALB\\/c mice were immunized by intramuscular injection with 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 µg recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen without

  4. Effect of a Therapeutic Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC) Program on the Cost and Utilization of Proton Pump Inhibitors in an Employer-Sponsored Drug Plan in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VINCENT H. MABASA; JOHNNY MA

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Therapeutic maximum allowable cost (MAC) is a managed care intervention that uses reference pricing in a therapeutic class or category of drugs or an indication (e.g., heartburn). Therapeutic MAC has not been studied in Canada or the United States. The proton pump inhibitor (PPI) rabeprazole was used as the reference drug in this therapeutic MAC program based on prices

  5. Empiric Radioactive Iodine Dosing Regimens Frequently Exceed Maximum Tolerated Activity Levels in Elderly Patients with Thyroid Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Michael Tuttle; Rebecca Leboeuf; Richard J. Robbins; Rebecca Qualey; Keith Pentlow; Steven M. Larson; Chee Y. Chan

    Although 131I-iodine (RAI) therapy is a mainstay in the treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer, there is controversy regarding the maximum activity that can safely be administered without dosi- metric determination of the maximum tolerable activity (MTA). At most institutions, a fixed empiric dosing strategy is often used, with administered activities ranging from 5.55 to 9.25 GBq (150-250 mCi). In our

  6. The additive effect of latanoprost to maximum-tolerated medications with low-dose, high-dose, or no pilocarpine therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong H Shin; Michael S McCracken; Rick E Bendel; Robert Pearlman; Mark S Juzych; Bret A Hughes; Laura L Schulz; Chaesik Kim; Nam H Baek

    1999-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the efficacy of latanoprost additive therapy in patients with intraocular pressure (IOP) out of control while taking maximum-tolerated medications and to determine whether pilocarpine therapy has a dose-dependent adverse effect on the efficacy of latanoprost therapy.

  7. Multiple Test Procedures for Identifying the Minimum Effective and Maximum Safe Doses of Author(s): Ajit C. Tamhane and Brent R. Logan

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Multiple Test Procedures for Identifying the Minimum Effective and Maximum Safe Doses of a Drug Effective and Maximum Safe Doses of a Drug AjitC. TAMHANEand Brent R. LOGAN We addressthe problemof determiningthe therapeuticwindow of a drugby findingits minimumeffective and maximumsafe doses (MINED and MAXSD

  8. The maximal cumulative solar UVB dose allowed to maintain healthy and young skin and prevent premature photoaging.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Ando, Hideya

    2014-10-01

    The young facial skin of children with a smooth healthy appearance changes over time to photoaged skin having mottled pigmentation, solar lentigines, wrinkles, dry and rough skin, leathery texture, and benign and malignant tumors after exposure to chronic, repeated solar radiation. The first sign of photoaging in Japanese subjects is usually solar lentigines appearing around 20 years of age on the face. Fine wrinkles can then appear after 30 years of age, and benign skin tumors, seborrhoeic keratoses, can occur after 35 years of age in sun-exposed skin. We theoretically calculated the maximal daily exposure time to solar radiation, which could prevent the development of photoaged skin until 60 and 80 years of age, based on published data of personal solar UVB doses in sun-exposed skin. One MED (minimal erythema dose) was determined to be 20 mJ/cm(2) , and 200 MED was used as the average yearly dose of Japanese children. Further, we hypothesized that the annual dose of Japanese adults is the same as that of the children. The cumulative UVB dose at 20 years of age was thus calculated to be 4000 MED, and 22 MED was used as the maximal daily UVB dose based on data measured in Kobe, located in the central area of Japan. We used the solar UVB dose from 10:00 a.m. to 14:00 p.m. which occupies 60% of the total daily UV dose, to obtain the maximal UVB per hour in a day, and calculated the maximal daily UV exposure time that would delay the onset of solar lentigines until 60 or 80 years of age. The mean daily sun exposure time to maintain healthy skin until 80 years of age in the summer was calculated to be 2.54 min (0.14 MED) for unprotected skin and 127 min with the use of a sunscreen of SPF (sun protection factor) of 50. In this study, we did not evaluate the photoaging effect of UVA radiation, but findings of the adverse effects of UVA radiation on the skin have accumulated in the last decade. Therefore, it will be important to estimate the maximal dose of solar UV radiation to retard the onset of photoaging based on an evaluation of both solar UVB and UVA in the future. Finally, we expect that this study may contribute to keeping Japanese and other types of skin young and healthy by limiting the exposure of the skin to solar radiation outdoors during the day. PMID:25234836

  9. Phase-I\\/II study to evaluate dose limiting toxicity, maximum tolerated dose, and tolerability of bendamustine HCl in pre-treated patients with B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (Binet stages B and C) requiring therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lissitchkov; G. Arnaudov; D. Peytchev; Kh. Merkle

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Bendamustine hydrochloride, an anti-neoplastic agent with unique mechanism of action, is known to cause impressive remissions\\u000a in relapsed nonHodgkin’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Optimal bendamustine dosing for CLL patients had\\u000a not been finally established and a phase I\\/II study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose limiting\\u000a toxicity (DLT) of bendamustine. Methods: The

  10. The derivation of tissue-maximum ratio from percentage depth dose requires peak scatter factor to be considered a function of source-to-surface distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J L BEDFORD; V N HANSEN; S WEBB; Surrey SM

    A formula for the calculation of tissue-maximum ratio (TMR) from percentage depth dose (PDD) and peak scatter factor (PSF) is derived from first principles using a simple geometric model for the case when the field size for PDD and PSF is defined at the surface. The derivation is carried out in two ways: (a) taking field size for PDD and

  11. Evaluation of the adverse event profile and pharmacodynamics of toceranib phosphate administered to dogs with solid tumors at doses below the maximum tolerated dose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The receptor kinase inhibitor toceranib phosphate (Palladia) was approved for use in dogs in 2009 using a dose of 3.25 mg/kg administered every other day. Preliminary data suggests that lower doses of toeceranib may be associated with a reduced adverse event profile while maintaining sufficient drug exposure to provide biologic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the Cmax of toceranib in dogs with solid tumors receiving 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and to document the adverse events associated with this dose rate. Secondary objectives included determination of plasma VEGF concentrations in treated dogs and response to therapy. Results Dogs with solid tumors were administered toceranib at an intended target dose ranging from 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and plasma samples were obtained for analysis of toceranib and VEGF plasma concentrations on days 0, 7, 14 and 30 of the study at 6 and 8 hours post drug administration. Additionally, plasma samples were obtained at 0, 1, 2, 6, 8, and 12 hours from dogs on day 30 for confirmation of Cmax. Response to therapy was assessed using standard RECIST criteria and adverse events were characterized using the VCOG-CTCAE. Toceranib administered at doses between 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day resulted in an average 6–8 hr plasma concentration ranging from 100–120 ng/ml, well above the 40 ng/ml concentration associated with target inhibition. Plasma VEGF concentrations increased significantly over the 30 day treatment period indicating that VEGFR2 inhibition was likely achieved in the majority of dogs. The lower doses of toceranib used in this study were associated with a substantially reduced adverse event profile compared to the established label dose of 3.25 mg/kg EOD. Conclusions Doses of toceranib ranging from 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day provide drug exposure considered sufficient for target inhibition while resulting in an adverse event profile substantially reduced from that associated with the label dose of toceranib. This lower dose range of toceranib should be considered for future use in dogs with cancer. PMID:24079884

  12. Dose response study of ipratropium bromide aerosol on maximum exercise performance in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, A.; Nishimura, K.; Koyama, H.; Tsukino, M.; Mishima, M.; Izumi, T.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the bronchodilating effect of inhaled anticholinergics has been established in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), their effects on exercise capacity are still controversial. Previous studies have suggested that the standard dosage hardly affects exercise tolerance, whereas higher doses might elicit an improvement. The aim of the present study was to determine the dose of ipratropium bromide aerosol that improves exercise performance using progressive cycle ergometry in patients with stable COPD. METHODS: Twenty men with stable COPD of mean (SD) age 69.2 (4.6) years and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 1.00 (0.37) 1 were studied in a randomised double blind manner. Each patient received ipratropium bromide in doses of 240 micrograms, 160 micrograms, 80 micrograms, 40 micrograms, and placebo from a metered dose inhaler (MDI) with an InspirEase spacer on five separate days. Spirometric parameters were assessed before and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after each inhalation, and pulse rate and blood pressure were also measured immediately before each spirometric measurement. Symptom limited progressive (20 watts/min) cycle ergometer exercise tests were performed 90 minutes after each inhalation. RESULTS: Ipratropium bromide in doses of 160 micrograms and 240 micrograms produced a greater increase in FEV1 than 40 micrograms or 80 micrograms ipratropium bromide at all time points. Doses of 160 micrograms and 240 micrograms ipratropium bromide also produced greater increases in maximal work load and maximal oxygen consumption than placebo, whereas 40 micrograms and 80 micrograms ipratropium bromide did not. There was a weak correlation between the change in FEV1 and the change in maximal work load (r = 0.45). No differences were found in pulse rate or blood pressure between the treatment and placebo groups, and no side effects were noted throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: A dose of at least four times the standard dose of ipratropium bromide from an MDI with a spacer device was necessary to improve maximal cycle exercise capacity in patients with stable COPD. Although the data from cycle ergometry cannot be directly applied to exercise performed during day to day activities, it is conceivable that the recommended doses of ipratropium bromide do not elicit the optimal clinical benefits. PMID:8658369

  13. Phase I clinical trial to determine maximum tolerated dose of oral albendazole in patients with advanced cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad H. Pourgholami; Michael Szwajcer; Melvin Chin; Winston Liauw; Jonathan Seef; Peter Galettis; David L. Morris; Matthew Links

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Albendazole is a potential anticancer agent that is currently under development for the treatment of cancer. We carried out\\u000a a dose-finding phase I study of oral albendazole in patients with advanced malignancies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Thirty-six patients with refractory solid tumors were enrolled. Albendazole was given orally on a day 1–14 of a 3 weekly cycle,\\u000a starting at 400 mg BD with dose

  14. The role of the maximum involvement of biopsy core in predicting outcome for patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the influence of the maximum involvement of biopsy core (MIBC) on outcome for prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and materials The outcomes of 590 men with localized prostate cancer treated with EBRT (?75?Gy) at a single institution were retrospectively analyzed. The influence of MIBC on freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), freedom from metastasis (FFM), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) was compared to other surrogates for biopsy tumor volume, including the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) and the total percentage of cancer volume (PCV). Results MIBC correlated with PSA, T-stage, Gleason score, NCCN risk group, PPC, PCV, and treatment related factors. On univariate analysis, MIBC was prognostic for all endpoints except OS; with greatest impact in those with Gleason scores of 8–10. However, on multivariate analysis, MIBC was only prognostic for FFBF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.9, p?=?0.008), but not for FFM (p?=?0.19), CSS (p?=?0.16), and OS (p?=?0.99). Conclusions In patients undergoing dose-escalated EBRT, MIBC had the greatest influence in those with Gleason scores of 8–10 but provided no additional prognostic data as compared to PPC and PCV, which remain the preferable prognostic variables in this patient population. PMID:22852797

  15. Protected Graft Copolymer Excipient Leads to a Higher Acute Maximum Tolerated Dose and Extends Residence Time of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Significantly Better than Sterically Stabilized Micelles

    PubMed Central

    Reichstetter, Sandra; Castillo, Gerardo M.; Rubinstein, Israel; Nishimoto-Ashfield, Akiko; Lai, ManShun; Jones, Cynthia C.; Banjeree, Aryamitra; Lyubimov, Alex; Bloedow, Duane C.; Bogdanov, Alexei; Bolotin, Elijah M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine and compare pharmacokinetics and toxicity of two nanoformulations of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP). Methods VIP was formulated using a micellar (Sterically Stabilized Micelles, SSM) and a polymer-based (Protected Graft Copolymer, PGC) nanocarrier at various loading percentages. VIP binding to the nanocarriers, pharmacokinetics, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and acute maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the formulations after injection into BALB/c mice were determined. Results Both formulations significantly extend in vivo residence time compared to unformulated VIP. Formulation toxicity is dependent on loading percentage, showing major differences between the two carrier types. Both formulations increase in vivo potency of unformulated VIP and show acute MTDs at least 140 times lower than unformulated VIP, but still at least 100 times higher than the anticipated highest human dose, 1–5 ?g/kg. These nanocarriers prevented a significant drop in arterial blood pressure compared to unformulated VIP. Conclusions While both carriers enhance in vivo residence time compared to unformulated VIP and reduce the drop in blood pressure immediately after injection, PGC is the excipient of choice to extend residence time and improve the safety of potent therapeutic peptides such as VIP. PMID:23224976

  16. Compassionate Allowances

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The hearings were on rare diseases, cancers, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, early-onset Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disease and multiple organ transplants and autoimmune diseases. Contact the Compassionate Allowances Team ...

  17. Approach to calculating upper bounds on maximum individual doses from the use of contaminated well water following a WIPP repository breach. Report EEG-9

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegler, P.

    1981-09-01

    As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report.

  18. The maximum tolerated dose and biologic effects of 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) in combination with irinotecan for patients with refractory solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Brian S.; Alberti, Dona B.; Schelman, William R.; Kolesar, Jill M.; Thomas, James P.; Marnocha, Rebecca; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Ivy, S. Percy; Wilding, George; Holen, Kyle D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose 3-AP is a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor and has been postulated to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic agents. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and antitumor activity of 3-AP with irinotecan. Correlative studies included pharmacokinetics and the effects of ABCB1 and UGT1A1 polymorphisms. Methods The treatment plan consisted of irinotecan on day 1 with 3-AP on days 1-3 of a 21-day cycle. Starting dose was irinotecan 150 mg/m2 and 3-AP 85 mg/m2/d. Polymorphisms of ABCB1 were evaluated by pyrosequencing. Drug concentrations were determined by HPLC. Results Twenty-three patients were enrolled, 10 men and 13 women. Tumor types included 7 patients with pancreatic cancer, 4 with lung cancer, 2 with cholangiocarcinoma, 2 with mesothelioma, 2 with ovarian cancer, and 6 with other malignancies. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) at dose level 1, requiring amendment of the dose escalation scheme. Maximal tolerated dose (MTD) was determined to be 3-AP 60 mg/m2/d and irinotecan 200 mg/m2. DLTs consisted of hypoxia, leukopenia, fatigue, infection, thrombocytopenia, dehydration and ALT elevation. One partial response in a patient with refractory non-small cell lung cancer was seen. Genotyping suggests that patients with wild-type ABCB1 have a higher rate of grade 3 or 4 toxicity than those with ABCB1 mutations. Conclusions The MTD for this combination was 3-AP 60 mg/m2/d on days 1-3 and irinotecan 200 mg/m2 on day 1 every 21 days. Antitumor activity in a patient with refractory non-small cell lung cancer was noted at level 1. PMID:20127092

  19. Absorbed Radiation Dose in Radiosensitive Organs During Coronary CT Angiography Using 320-MDCT: Effect of Maximum Tube Voltage and Heart Rate Variations

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Boris; Khosa, Faisal; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Khan, Atif N.; Sarwar, Sheryar; Yam, Chun-Shan; Court, Laurence E.; Raptopoulos, Vassilios; Clouse, Melvin E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to estimate the absorbed radiation dose in radiosensitive organs during coronary MDCT angiography using 320-MDCT and to determine the effects of tube voltage variation and heart rate (HR) control on absorbed radiation dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS Semiconductor field effect transistor detectors were used to measure absorbed radiation doses for the thyroid, midbreast, breast, and midlung in an anthropomorphic phantom at 100, 120, and 135 kVp at two different HRs of 60 and 75 beats per minute (bpm) with a scan field of view of 320 mm, 400 mA, 320 × 0.5 mm detectors, and 160 mm collimator width (160 mm range). The paired Student’s t test was used for data evaluation. RESULTS At 60 bpm, absorbed radiation doses for 100, 120, and 135 kVp were 13.41 ± 3.59, 21.7 ± 4.12, and 29.28 ± 5.17 mGy, respectively, for midbreast; 11.76 ± 0.58, 18.86 ± 1.06, and 24.82 ± 1.45 mGy, respectively, for breast; 12.19 ± 2.59, 19.09 ± 3.12, and 26.48 ± 5.0 mGy, respectively, for lung; and 0.37 ± 0.14, 0.69 ± 0.14, and 0.92 ± 0.2 mGy, respectively, for thyroid. Corresponding absorbed radiation doses for 75 bpm were 38.34 ± 2.02, 59.72 ± 3.13, and 77.8 ± 3.67 mGy for midbreast; 26.2 ± 1.74, 44 ± 1.11, and 52.84 ± 4.07 mGy for breast; 38.02 ± 1.58, 58.89 ± 1.68, and 78 ± 2.93 mGy for lung; and 0.79 ± 0.233, 1.04 ± 0.18, and 2.24 ± 0.52 mGy for thyroid. Absorbed radiation dose changes were significant for all organs for both tube voltage reductions as well as for HR control from 75 to 60 bpm at all tube voltage settings (p < 0.05). The absorbed radiation doses for the calcium score protocol were 11.2 ± 1.4 mGy for midbreast, 9.12 ± 0.48 mGy for breast, 10.36 ± 1.3 mGy for lung, and 0.4 ± 0.05 mGy for thyroid. CONCLUSION CT angiography with 320-MDCT scanners results in absorbed radiation doses in radiosensitive organs that compare favorably to those previously reported. Significant dose reductions can be achieved by tube voltage reductions and HR control. PMID:21098194

  20. Tensile properties of the NLF reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels after irradiation in a fast reactor spectrum to a maximum dose of 67 dpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloy, Stuart A.; James, M. R.; Romero, T. J.; Toloczko, M. B.; Kurtz, R. J.; Kimura, A.

    2005-05-01

    The NLF series of steels are reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels that are a part of the Japanese program to produce a suitable reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel for the ITER project. Published reports on the NLF steels after about 35 dpa at 400 °C by Kurishita et al., indicate that these steels have similar strength and better ductility than other RAFM steels such as the JLF steels and F82H irradiated at 400 °C to similar doses. The tensile properties of NLF steels irradiated at ?400 °C to doses as high as 67 dpa are presented here. Tensile tests were conducted at a strain rate of 5 × 10-4 s-1 at 25, 400 °C, and 500 °C. Variations in irradiation temperature in the range of 390-430 °C had a relatively small, but definite effect on the tensile properties for tests conducted at 25, 400, and 500 °C. The strongest hardening is observed for specimens irradiated at 390 °C, and very little hardening is observed for specimens irradiated at 430 °C. Strain rate jump tests were performed on NLF-0 and NLF-1 at 400 °C after irradiation to 52 dpa. The rate sensitivity, m, is quite low, 0.003-0.005 and does not appear to be affected by irradiation at 52 dpa for an irradiation temperature of 430 °C.

  1. SU-E-T-280: Reconstructed Rectal Wall Dose Map-Based Verification of Rectal Dose Sparing Effect According to Rectum Definition Methods and Dose Perturbation by Air Cavity in Endo-Rectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J [Dept. of Pediatrics, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, H [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J [Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S; Lee, M; Suh, T [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B [Dept. of Bio-Convergence Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sun Medical Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric effect and discrepancy according to the rectum definition methods and dose perturbation by air cavity in an endo-rectal balloon (ERB) were verified using rectal-wall (Rwall) dose maps considering systematic errors in dose optimization and calculation accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) for prostate cancer patients. Methods: When the inflated ERB having average diameter of 4.5 cm and air volume of 100 cc is used for patient, Rwall doses were predicted by pencil-beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA), and AcurosXB (AXB) with material assignment function. The errors of dose optimization and calculation by separating air cavity from the whole rectum (Rwhole) were verified with measured rectal doses. The Rwall doses affected by the dose perturbation of air cavity were evaluated using a featured rectal phantom allowing insert of rolled-up gafchromic films and glass rod detectors placed along the rectum perimeter. Inner and outer Rwall doses were verified with reconstructed predicted rectal wall dose maps. Dose errors and extent at dose levels were evaluated with estimated rectal toxicity. Results: While AXB showed insignificant difference of target dose coverage, Rwall doses underestimated by up to 20% in dose optimization for the Rwhole than Rwall at all dose range except for the maximum dose. As dose optimization for Rwall was applied, the Rwall doses presented dose error less than 3% between dose calculation algorithm except for overestimation of maximum rectal dose up to 5% in PBC. Dose optimization for Rwhole caused dose difference of Rwall especially at intermediate doses. Conclusion: Dose optimization for Rwall could be suggested for more accurate prediction of rectal wall dose prediction and dose perturbation effect by air cavity in IMRT for prostate cancer. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) (Grant No. 200900420)

  2. NOTE: On biologically conformal boost dose optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alber, M.; Paulsen, F.; Eschmann, S. M.; Machulla, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    A method is described that allows the inclusion of biological imaging data in the optimization of intensity-modulated radiotherapy to produce dose boosts that conform with target subvolumes of potentially reduced radiosensitivity. The biological image (e.g. PET, fMRI, etc) is transformed into a dose efficiency distribution using a piecewise linear calibration function with a prescribed maximum boost factor. Instead of dose alone, the cost function of the optimization algorithm depends on the product of the physical dose times dose efficiency. An example case of a base-of-tongue tumour which was imaged with the hypoxia tracer fluoro-misonidazole is presented, showing the excellent capability of IMRT to produce dose distributions that conform to spatially variable dose prescriptions.

  3. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...the CPI-U for the period of September to September ending in the preceding calendar...each year, beginning October 1, 2015, by the percentage increase in...the CPI-U for the period of September to September of the...

  4. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.200... (1) Bid bond premiums. (2) Financial, accounting, legal, engineering and other professional, consulting or...

  5. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.200... (1) Bid bond premiums. (2) Financial, accounting, legal, engineering and other professional, consulting or...

  6. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.200... (1) Bid bond premiums. (2) Financial, accounting, legal, engineering and other professional, consulting or...

  7. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.200... (1) Bid bond premiums. (2) Financial, accounting, legal, engineering and other professional, consulting or...

  8. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.200... (1) Bid bond premiums. (2) Financial, accounting, legal, engineering and other professional, consulting or...

  9. Comparative evaluation of US Food and Drug Administration and pharmacologically guided approaches to determine the maximum recommended starting dose for first-in-human clinical trials in adult healthy men.

    PubMed

    Imam, Md Tarique; Venkateshan, S P; Tandon, Monika; Saha, Nilanjan; Pillai, K K

    2011-12-01

    The authors compared US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and 9 pharmacologically guided approaches (PGAs; simple allometry, maximum life span potential [MLP], brain weight, rule of exponent [ROE], two 2-sp methods and 3 one-sp methods) to determine the maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD) for first-in-human clinical trials in adult healthy men using 10 drugs. The ROE method as suggested by Mahmood and Balian1 gave the best prediction accuracy for a pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter. Values derived from clearance were consistently better than volume of distribution (Vd)-based methods and had lower root mean square error (RMSE) values. A pictorial method evaluation chart was developed based on fold errors for simultaneous evaluation of various methods. The one-sp method (rat) and the US FDA methods gave the highest prediction accuracy and low RMSE values, and the 2-sp methods gave the least prediction accuracy with high RMSE values. The ROE method gave more consistent predictions for PK parameters than other allometric methods. Despite this, the MRSD predictions were not better than US FDA methods, probably indicating that across-species variation in clearance may be higher than variation in no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and that PGA methods may not be consistently better than the NOAEL based methods. PMID:21415286

  10. RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED Batteries, toner, ink cartridges & cell phones and recycling is an important part of that effort. Below is a guide to on-campus recycling at RSMAS: Visit http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/msgso/ for map of recycling bin locations. NOTE: This is not an exhaustive list. If unauthorized items are found

  11. Maximum Likelihood

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Siegrist, Kyle

    This material introduces the basic theory of maximum likelihood estimation by discussing the likelihood function, the log likelihood function, and maximizing these functions using calculus. Several exercises ask students to derive certain estimators, while others have students compare the behavior of those estimators with other possibilities through the use of various JAVA applets. The applets use the same control features: the sliders set the parameter values, the Â?Stop #Â? drop down menu sets the number of samples taken, the Â?Update #Â? drop down menu sets how often the graph and tables update during the experiment, the single arrow takes one sample, the double arrow runs the full experiment, the square stops the experiment, and the back arrow resets the applet. This page is one lesson from the Virtual Laboratories in Statistics.

  12. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...pipe as seamless API 5L Grade X42 pipe, the pipeline...as the seamless API 5L Grade X42 steel pipe listed in PG&E's...Consolidated Western Steel Corporation as the manufacturer...demonstrates can provide an equivalent understanding of...

  13. Flexible Phase I Clinical Trials: Allowing for Nonbinary Toxicity Response and Removal of Other Common Limitations.

    PubMed

    Potthoff, Richard F; George, Stephen L

    2009-08-01

    Phase I clinical trials are often subject to severe limitations. The most important one is that they typically allow only for binary response-toxic (1) or nontoxic (0)-rather than a range of responses from 0 to 1. They also may not allow a new patient to be treated until results for all previous patients are available. They may assign patients to doses in groups of two or more, rather than individually. They may require the selected dose to be one of a few prespecified doses. The flexible method proposed here addresses these four limitations. It adopts a quasi-Bayesian approach incorporating a logistic dose-response model with two parameters for the mean response. The response at any dose follows a beta distribution, which entails a third parameter. The choice of dose for a patient is based on a utility function that reflects the latest estimates of toxicity and of the variance of the estimate of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Simulations show that the method works well, and that a nonbinary toxicity measure leads to a far more accurate MTD estimate than does a binary one. PMID:20221317

  14. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

  15. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

  16. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

  17. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

  18. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

  19. Allowable/Non-Allowable Expenses by Fund Type Expenditures

    E-print Network

    Zhuang, Yu

    , including bottled water Gifts, gift cards and gift certificates Goods and services for personal use LeaseAllowable/Non-Allowable Expenses by Fund Type Source Allowable Expenditures Commodities for state-appropriated funds Rev. 10/30/14 Page 1 #12;Allowable/Non-Allowable Expenses by Fund Type Source

  20. A silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass for IMRT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J. H. D.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Khanna, S.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia) and Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia) and Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong Hospital, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); St. George Cancer Care Centre, Kogarah, Sydney, New South Wales 2217 (Australia); SPA BIT, 01034 Kiev (Ukraine); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of escalated radiation dose to tumor while sparing adjacent critical organs. In doing so, IMRT plans tend to incorporate steep dose gradients at interfaces between the target and the organs at risk. Current quality assurance (QA) verification tools such as 2D diode arrays, are limited by their spatial resolution and conventional films are nonreal time. In this article, the authors describe a novel silicon strip detector (CMRP DMG) of high spatial resolution (200 {mu}m) suitable for measuring the high dose gradients in an IMRT delivery. Methods: A full characterization of the detector was performed, including dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with Farmer ion chamber measurements, stem effect, dose linearity, uniformity, energy response, angular response, and penumbra measurements. They also present the application of the CMRP DMG in the dosimetric verification of a clinical IMRT plan. Results: The detector response changed by 23% for a 390-fold change in the dose per pulse. A correction function is derived to correct for this effect. The strip detector depth dose curve agrees with the Farmer ion chamber within 0.8%. The stem effect was negligible (0.2%). The dose linearity was excellent for the dose range of 3-300 cGy. A uniformity correction method is described to correct for variations in the individual detector pixel responses. The detector showed an over-response relative to tissue dose at lower photon energies with the maximum dose response at 75 kVp nominal photon energy. Penumbra studies using a Varian Clinac 21EX at 1.5 and 10.0 cm depths were measured to be 2.77 and 3.94 mm for the secondary collimators, 3.52 and 5.60 mm for the multileaf collimator rounded leaf ends, respectively. Point doses measured with the strip detector were compared to doses measured with EBT film and doses predicted by the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The differences were 1.1%{+-}1.8% and 1.0%{+-}1.6%, respectively. They demonstrated the high temporal resolution capability of the detector readout system, which will allow one to investigate the temporal dose pattern of IMRT and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) deliveries. Conclusions: The CMRP silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass interfaced to a TERA ASIC DAQ system has high spatial and temporal resolution. It is a novel and valuable tool for QA in IMRT dose delivery and for VMAT dose delivery.

  1. Maximum a Posteriori Maximum Entropy Signal Denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghouane, Abd-Krim; Knockaert, Luc

    2007-11-01

    When fitting wavelet based models, shrinkage of the empirical wavelet coefficients is an effective tool for signal denoising. Based on different approaches, different shrinkage functions have been proposed in the literature. The shrinkage functions derived using Bayesian estimation theory depend on the prior used on the wavelet coefficients. However, no simple and direct method exists for the choice of the prior. In this paper a new method based on maximum entropy considerations is proposed for the construction of the prior on the wavelet coefficients. The new shrinkage function is obtained by coupling this prior to maximum a posteriori arguments. A comparison with classical shrinkage functions is given in a simulation example of image denoising in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed thresholding method.

  2. 24 CFR 883.604 - Maximum annual commitment and project account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...604 Maximum annual commitment and project account. (a) Maximum annual commitment. The maximum annual...allowances for all assisted units in the project, plus the...which the maximum annual commitment exceeds the amount...

  3. Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

  4. Safety, tolerability, QTc evaluation, and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of enzastaurin HCl (LY317615), a protein kinase C-beta inhibitor, in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Welch, Pamela A; Sinha, Vikram P; Cleverly, Ann L; Darstein, Christelle; Flanagan, Shawn D; Musib, Luna C

    2007-09-01

    The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of orally administered enzastaurin were evaluated in 2 placebo-controlled, dose escalation studies in healthy subjects. In the first human dose study, single doses (2-400 mg) were evaluated, with 22 subjects receiving enzastaurin. The mean half-lives of enzastaurin and its metabolites ranged from approximately 12 to 40 hours. The longer half-life of the major circulating and pharmacologically active metabolite allowed once-a-day dosing and predicted that steady state would be achieved within 2 weeks of daily oral dosing in all subjects. In the multiple-dose study, daily doses (25-400 mg) were examined, with 24 subjects receiving at least 1 dose. The most common adverse events related to enzastaurin were headache, sleepiness, diarrhea, and nausea. No clinically significant changes in QTc intervals were observed. Overall, enzastaurin was well tolerated in healthy subjects, and the planned maximum dose was achieved in both studies. PMID:17766700

  5. Total Maximum Daily Load Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.

  6. [Status of hemapoiesis in residents of the Techa riverside villages in the period of maximum radiation exposure. Report 2. Influence of exposure dose and dose rate of red bone marrow as well as modifying factors on the frequency of cytopenia and cytosis].

    PubMed

    Akleev, A V; Dimov, G P; Varfolomeeva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is a retrospective estimation of the influence of dose and dose rate of the red bone marrow chronic radiation exposure in combination with various modifying factors (gender, age, comorbidity) on the frequency of deviations from normal values of the results of peripheral blood investigation in humans exposed on the Techa River. The results of investigation show that humans chronically exposed to radiation can develop marked changes in the cellular composition of peripheral blood characterized by a tendency to cytopenia (signs of the decompensation of hemopoiesis). The tendency to cytopenia can be identified earlier in the lymphoid germ, and later in platelet and erythroid lines. A high lability of granulocytes under the influence of various, often infectious, factors is the cause of the lack of statistically significant differences in terms of frequency of neutropenia. Several non-radiation factors (gender, age, health status) in combination with radiation exposure could have a modifying influence on hematopoiesis, which contributed to the disruption of adaptation processes and the development of conditions characterized by a tendency to cytopenias in exposed individuals. The red bone marrow dose rate reduction resulted in a gradual decrease in the frequency of erythrocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and lymphocytopenia in the group of exposed population. Increased frequencies of erythrocytosis, thrombocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and neutrophilia were observed when the median dose rate was reduced to the level of 0.024 Gy/year (in the year 1956), which could be regarded as activation of regenerative processes in hematopoiesis. PMID:22690575

  7. Maximum life spur gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Mackulin, M. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

  8. Illinois Withholding Allowance Worksheet Step 1: Figure your basic personal allowances (including allowances for dependents)

    E-print Network

    Bordenstein, Seth

    Illinois Withholding Allowance Worksheet Step 1: Figure your basic personal allowances (including to which you are entitled. 3 _______________ 4 If you want to have additional Illinois Income Tax withheld additional Illinois Income Tax withheld from your pay, you may reduce the number of additional allowances

  9. Benchmarking for maximum value.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ed

    2009-03-01

    Speaking at the most recent Healthcare Estates conference, Ed Baldwin, of international built asset consultancy EC Harris LLP, examined the role of benchmarking and market-testing--two of the key methods used to evaluate the quality and cost-effectiveness of hard and soft FM services provided under PFI healthcare schemes to ensure they are offering maximum value for money. PMID:19344004

  10. Last Glacial Maximum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kristine DeLong

    In this activity for undergraduates, students explore the CLIMAP (Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping and Prediction) model results for differences between the modern and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and discover the how climate and vegetation may have changed in different regions of the Earth based on scientific data.

  11. High-dose midazolam infusion for refractory status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Andres; Lantigua, Hector; Lesch, Christine; Shao, Belinda; Foreman, Brandon; Schmidt, J. Michael; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Mayer, Stephan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study compares 2 treatment protocols allowing low vs high continuous IV midazolam (cIV-MDZ) doses. Methods: We compared adults with refractory status epilepticus treated with a protocol allowing for high-dose cIV-MDZ (n = 100; 2002–2011) with those treated with the previous lower-dose cIV-MDZ (n = 29; 1996–2000). We collected data on baseline characteristics, cIV-MDZ doses, seizure control, hospital course, and outcome. Results: Median maximum cIV-MDZ dose was 0.4 mg/kg/h (interquartile range [IQR] 0.2, 1.0) for the high-dose group and 0.2 mg/kg/h (IQR 0.1, 0.3) for the low-dose group (p < 0.001) with similar duration of infusion. Median time from status epilepticus onset to cIV-MDZ start was 1 day (IQR 1, 3) for the high-dose group and 2 days (IQR 1, 5) for the low-dose group (p = 0.016). “Withdrawal seizures” (occurring within 48 hours of discontinuation of cIV-MDZ) were less frequent in the high-dose group (15% vs 64%, odds ratio 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.27). “Ultimate cIV-MDZ failure” (patients requiring change to a different cIV antiepileptic medication) and hospital complications were not different between groups. Hypotension was more frequent with higher cIV-MDZ doses but was not associated with worse outcome. Discharge mortality was lower in the high-dose group (40% vs 62%, odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.13–0.92 in multivariate analysis). Conclusions: High-dose cIV-MDZ treatment of refractory status epilepticus can be performed safely, is associated with a lower seizure rate after cIV-MDZ discontinuation, and may be associated with lower mortality than traditional lower-dose protocols. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that midazolam at higher infusion rates is associated with a reduction in seizure recurrence within 48 hours after discontinuation and may be associated with lower mortality. PMID:24363133

  12. Calculation of dose profiles in stereotactic synchrotron microplanar beam radiotherapy in a tissue-lung phantom.

    PubMed

    Company, F Z

    2007-03-01

    Synchrotron x-ray beams with high fluence rate and highly collimated may be used in stereotactic radiotherapy of lung tumours. A bundle of converging monochromatic x-ray beams having uniform microscopic thickness i.e. (microplanar beams) are directed to the center of the tumour, delivering lethal dose to the target volume while sparing normal cells. The proposed technique takes advantage of the hypothesised repair mechanism of capillary cells between alternate microbeam zones, which regenerate the lethally irradiated endothelial cells. The sharply dropping lateral dose of a microbeam provides low scattered dose to the off-target interbeam volume. In the target volume the converging bundle of beams are closely spaced, and relatively high primary and secondary electron doses overlap and produce a high dose region between the beams. This higher and lower dose margins in the target volume allows precise targeting. The advantages of stereotactic microbeam radiotherapy will be lost as the dose between microbeams exceeds the tolerance dose of the dose limiting tissues. Therefore, it is essential to optimize the interbeam doses in off-target volume. The lateral and depth doses of 100 keV microplanar beams are investigated for a single beam and an array of converging microplanar beams in a tissue, lung and tissue-lung phantoms. The EGS5 Monte Carlo code is used to calculate dose profiles at different depths and bundles of beams. The maximum dose on the beam axis (peak) and the minimum interbeam dose (valley) are compared at different energies, depths, bundle sizes, heights, widths and beam spacings. The interbeam dose is calculated at different depths and an isodose map of the phantom is obtained. An acceptable energy region is found for tissue and lung microbeam radiotherapy and a stereotactic microbeam radiotherapy model is proposed for a 4 cm diameter and 1 cm thick tumour on the lung phantom. PMID:17508599

  13. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

  14. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

  15. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

  16. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

  17. Maximum allowable manipulator mass based on cycle time, impact safety and pinching safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. A. Vermeulen; M. Wisse

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – Safety is an important issue when manipulators operate in an environment where humans are present, such as the agriculture industry. An intrinsically safe mechanical system guarantees human safety when electronics or controls fail. However, industry also demands a certain operating velocity. A low inertia is the most important aspect to combine safety with a useful operating velocity, because

  18. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

  19. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...State. (e) Interference currents (1) For a new pipeline segment...address the impacts of induced alternating current from parallel electric transmission...of potential interference with corrosion control. [72 FR...

  20. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...State. (e) Interference currents (1) For a new pipeline segment...address the impacts of induced alternating current from parallel electric transmission...of potential interference with corrosion control. [72 FR...

  1. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...The pipe must be protected against external corrosion by a non-shielding coating. (2) Coating...program must include examinations using direct current voltage gradient (DCVG), alternating current voltage gradient (ACVG), or an...

  2. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...The pipe must be protected against external corrosion by a non-shielding coating. (2) Coating...program must include examinations using direct current voltage gradient (DCVG), alternating current voltage gradient (ACVG), or an...

  3. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...State. (e) Interference currents (1) For a new pipeline segment...address the impacts of induced alternating current from parallel electric transmission...of potential interference with corrosion control. [72 FR...

  4. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...State. (e) Interference currents (1) For a new pipeline segment...address the impacts of induced alternating current from parallel electric transmission...of potential interference with corrosion control. [72 FR...

  5. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...The pipe must be protected against external corrosion by a non-shielding coating. (2) Coating...program must include examinations using direct current voltage gradient (DCVG), alternating current voltage gradient (ACVG), or an...

  6. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...State. (e) Interference currents (1) For a new pipeline segment...address the impacts of induced alternating current from parallel electric transmission...of potential interference with corrosion control. [72 FR...

  7. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...The pipe must be protected against external corrosion by a non-shielding coating. (2) Coating...program must include examinations using direct current voltage gradient (DCVG), alternating current voltage gradient (ACVG), or an...

  8. Evaluation of maximum allowable viscosity of gear and transmission oils for cold starting of automotive vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Zaskal'ko; M. I. Sheremet; V. V. Chechetkin; A. I. Bosenko; E. G. Kuznetsov; Yu. A. Cherednichenko; A. D. Mishakov

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness with which automotive equipment can be used at low ambient temperatures is determined primarily by the suitability of the equipment design and the service materials for severe climatic and road conditions, and also on the way in which the equipment is operated. In a number of studies [1], the emphasis has been on methods to obtain easier starting

  9. Introduction to maximum entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Maximum gravitational recoil.

    PubMed

    Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O; Zlochower, Yosef; Merritt, David

    2007-06-01

    Recent calculations of gravitational radiation recoil generated during black-hole binary mergers have reopened the possibility that a merged binary can be ejected even from the nucleus of a massive host galaxy. Here we report the first systematic study of gravitational recoil of equal-mass binaries with equal, but counteraligned, spins parallel to the orbital plane. Such an orientation of the spins is expected to maximize the recoil. We find that recoil velocity (which is perpendicular to the orbital plane) varies sinusoidally with the angle that the initial spin directions make with the initial linear momenta of each hole and scales up to a maximum of approximately 4000 km s-1 for maximally rotating holes. Our results show that the amplitude of the recoil velocity can depend sensitively on spin orientations of the black holes prior to merger. PMID:17677894

  11. Phase I study of dose-escalated busulfan with fludarabine and alemtuzumab as conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant: reduced clearance at high doses and occurrence of late sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease

    PubMed Central

    O’DONNELL, PETER H.; ARTZ, ANDREW S.; UNDEVIA, SAMIR D.; PAI, RISH K.; CERRO, PAULA DEL; HOROWITZ, SARAH; GODLEY, LUCY A.; HART, JOHN; INNOCENTI, FEDERICO; LARSON, RICHARD A.; ODENIKE, OLATOYOSI M.; STOCK, WENDY; VAN BESIEN, KOEN

    2013-01-01

    Disease recurrence after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (alloHCT) remains common, making improvements in conditioning regimens desirable. A dose-response relationship between busulfan exposure and outcome is known. Using individual real-time monitoring of the busulfan area under the curve (AUC), we aimed to determine the maximum-tolerated busulfan AUC in a conditioning regimen with fludarabine/alemtuzumab. Thirty-six patients with advanced hematologic malignancies were treated. Busulfan levels after a test dose and conditioning dose 1 allowed targeting of subsequent AUCs and dose-escalation above the starting AUC of 4800 ?mol-min/L. Clearance of busulfan test doses was not always sufficiently predictive of treatment dose AUC and, on average, test dose clearance was faster than treatment dose clearance. When the study was modified to use conditioning dose 1 pharmacokinetics instead, accurately targeted treatment AUCs were achieved, and dose-escalation was possible. Severe, late-occurring sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) was the dose-limiting toxicity seen in 5/8 patients at an AUC level of 6800 ?mol-min/L. The risk for SOS/VOD correlated with the highest observed AUC (AUCmax) rather than with the average cumulative AUC (AUCavg). Busulfan dose-escalation to a maximum-tolerated AUC of 5800 ?mol-min/L—higher than that achieved by current standard busulfan regimens—was accurate and achievable using real-time pharmacokinetics monitoring of the first conditioning dose. This AUC is now being studied in phase II for patients receiving busulfan/fludarabine/alemtuzumab as alloHCT conditioning. PMID:20919852

  12. Dose Calculations for [131I] Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine-Induced Bystander Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gow, M. D.; Seymour, C. B.; Boyd, M.; Mairs, R. J.; Prestiwch, W. V.; Mothersill, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is a potentially useful treatment for some cancers and may be potentiated by bystander effects. However, without estimation of absorbed dose, it is difficult to compare the effects with conventional external radiation treatment. Methods: Using the Vynckier – Wambersie dose point kernel, a model for dose rate evaluation was created allowing for calculation of absorbed dose values to two cell lines transfected with the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene and treated with [131I]MIBG. Results: The mean doses required to decrease surviving fractions of UVW/NAT and EJ138/NAT cells, which received medium from [131I]MIBG-treated cells, to 25 – 30% were 1.6 and 1.7 Gy respectively. The maximum mean dose rates achieved during [131I]MIBG treatment were 0.09 – 0.75 Gy/h for UVW/NAT and 0.07 – 0.78 Gy/h for EJ138/NAT. These were significantly lower than the external beam gamma radiation dose rate of 15 Gy/h. In the case of control lines which were incapable of [131I]MIBG uptake the mean absorbed doses following radiopharmaceutical were 0.03 – 0.23 Gy for UVW and 0.03 – 0.32 Gy for EJ138. Conclusion: [131I]MIBG treatment for ICCM production elicited a bystander dose-response profile similar to that generated by external beam gamma irradiation but with significantly greater cell death. PMID:24659931

  13. Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Young, E-mail: eyhan@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Moros, Eduardo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Corry, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

  14. Experimental verification of a portal dose prediction model

    SciTech Connect

    Elmpt, W.J.C. van; Nijsten, S.M.J.J.G.; Mijnheer, B.J.; Minken, A.W.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO Physics), GROW, U.H. Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) can be used to measure a two-dimensional (2D) dose distribution behind a patient, thus allowing dosimetric treatment verification. For this purpose we experimentally assessed the accuracy of a 2D portal dose prediction model based on pencil beam scatter kernels. A straightforward derivation of these pencil beam scatter kernels for portal dose prediction models is presented based on phantom measurements. The model is able to predict the 2D portal dose image (PDI) behind a patient, based on a PDI without the patient in the beam in combination with the radiological thickness of the patient, which requires in addition a PDI with the patient in the beam. To assess the accuracy of portal dose and radiological thickness values obtained with our model, various types of homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous phantoms were irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam. With our model we are able to predict a PDI with an accuracy better than 2% (mean difference) if the radiological thickness of the object in the beam is symmetrically situated around the isocenter. For other situations deviations up to 3% are observed for a homogeneous phantom with a radiological thickness of 17 cm and a 9 cm shift of the midplane-to-detector distance. The model can extract the radiological thickness within 7 mm (maximum difference) of the actual radiological thickness if the object is symmetrically distributed around the isocenter plane. This difference in radiological thickness is related to a primary portal dose difference of 3%. It can be concluded that our model can be used as an easy and accurate tool for the 2D verification of patient treatments by comparing predicted and measured PDIs. The model is also able to extract the primary portal dose with a high accuracy, which can be used as the input for a 3D dose reconstruction method based on back-projection.

  15. Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Polynomial System Solving Kim Batselier

    E-print Network

    polynomial system. Then, a new algorithm is presented, set in a linear algebra framework, which allows the field of algebraic statistics which seeks to mix algebraic geometry and commutative algebra for finding maximum likelihood estimates which is guaranteed to find the global maximum. This is achieved

  16. Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Adjunction Pyramids

    E-print Network

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Adjunction Pyramids Jos B Abstract We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume ren- dering to an efficient multiresolution MIP algorithm, because it allows the computation of the maxima along the line

  17. Environmental Radiation Dose on the Moon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hayatsu; S. Kobayashi; N. Yamashita; M. Hareyama; K. Sakurai; N. Hasebe

    2008-01-01

    Ambient dose equivalent on the lunar surface is estimated as contribution from galactic cosmic rays, secondary neutrons and gamma rays from the lunar surface. Since the cosmic ray flux on the lunar surface varies with the phase of the solar activity, radiation doses on the surface are calculated of the three cases of this activity; the maximum, the minimum and

  18. Preliminary liver dose estimation in the new facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor.

    PubMed

    Gadan, M; Crawley, V; Thorp, S; Miller, M

    2009-07-01

    As a part of the project concerning the irradiation of a section of the human liver left lobe, a preliminary estimation of the expected dose was performed. To obtain proper input values for the calculation, neutron flux and gamma dose rate characterization were carried out using adequate portions of cow or pig liver covered with demineralized water simulating the preservation solution. Irradiations were done inside a container specially designed to fulfill temperature preservation of the organ and a reproducible irradiation position (which will be of importance for future planification purposes). Implantable rhodium based self-powered neutron detectors were developed to obtain neutron flux profiles both external and internal. Implantation of SPND was done along the central longitudinal axis of the samples, where lowest flux is expected. Gamma dose rate was obtained using a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber moved along external surfaces of the samples. The internal neutron profile resulted uniform enough to allow for a single and static irradiation of the liver. For dose estimation, irradiation condition was set in order to obtain a maximum of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. Additionally, literature reported boron concentrations of 47 ppm in tumor and 8 ppm in healthy tissue and a more conservative relationship (30/10 ppm) were used. To make a conservative estimation of the dose the following considerations were done: i). Minimum measured neutron flux inside the sample (approximately 5 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1) was considered to calculate dose in tumor. (ii). Maximum measured neutron flux (considering both internal as external profiles) was used to calculate dose in healthy tissue (approximately 8.7 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1). (iii). Maximum measured gamma dose rate (approximately 13.5 Gy h-1) was considered for both tumor and healthy tissue. Tumor tissue dose was approximately 69 Gy-eq for 47 ppm of (10)B and approximately 42 Gy-eq for 30 ppm, for a maximum dose of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. As can be seen from these results, even for the most conservative case, minimum tumor dose will be acceptable from the treatment point of view, which shows that the irradiation conditions at this facility have quite good characteristics for the proposed irradiation. PMID:19394239

  19. Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groer, P. G.; Carnes, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed dose thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as dose thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a dose threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold dose after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body doses for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body doses were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the dose thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a maximum value at zero with increasing doses. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types.

  20. 24 CFR 880.503 - Maximum annual commitment and project account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...503 Maximum annual commitment and project account. (a) Maximum Annual Commitment. Where HUD is...allowances for all assisted units in the project. Where...allowances for all assisted units plus an administrative...which the maximum annual commitment exceeds the...

  1. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  2. Estimation of three-dimensional intrinsic dosimetric uncertainties resulting from using deformable image registration for dose mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Salguero, Francisco J.; Saleh-Sayah, Nahla K.; Yan Chenyu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, 23298 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: This article presents a general procedural framework to assess the point-by-point precision in mapped dose associated with the intrinsic uncertainty of a deformable image registration (DIR) for any arbitrary patient. Methods: Dose uncertainty is obtained via a three-step process. In the first step, for each voxel in an imaging pair, a cluster of points is obtained by an iterative DIR procedure. In the second step, the dispersion of the points due to the imprecision of the DIR method is used to compute the spatial uncertainty. Two different ways to quantify the spatial uncertainty are presented in this work. Method A consists of a one-dimensional analysis of the modules of the position vectors, whereas method B performs a more detailed 3D analysis of the coordinates of the points. In the third step, the resulting spatial uncertainty estimates are used in combination with the mapped dose distribution to compute the point-by-point dose standard deviation. The process is demonstrated to estimate the dose uncertainty induced by mapping a 62.6 Gy dose delivered on maximum exhale to maximum inhale of a ten-phase four-dimensional lung CT. Results: For the demonstration lung image pair, the standard deviation of inconsistency vectors is found to be up to 9.2 mm with a mean {sigma} of 1.3 mm. This uncertainty results in a maximum estimated dose uncertainty of 29.65 Gy if method A is used and 21.81 Gy for method B. The calculated volume with dose uncertainty above 10.00 Gy is 602 cm{sup 3} for method A and 1422 cm{sup 3} for method B. Conclusions: This procedure represents a useful tool to evaluate the precision of a mapped dose distribution due to the intrinsic DIR uncertainty in a patient. The procedure is flexible, allowing incorporation of alternative intrinsic error models.

  3. Digital tomosynthesis mammography using a parallel maximum likelihood reconstruction method

    E-print Network

    Meleis, Waleed

    Digital tomosynthesis mammography using a parallel maximum likelihood reconstruction method Tao Wu tomosynthesis mammography. Tomosynthesis mammography acquires 11 low-dose projections of a breast by moving an x are retrospectively reconstructed from a single scan. Tomosynthesis mammography has been investigated to solve

  4. Patient dose and image quality from mega-voltage cone beam computed tomography imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gayou, Olivier; Parda, David S.; Johnson, Mark; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 and Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The evolution of ever more conformal radiation delivery techniques makes the subject of accurate localization of increasing importance in radiotherapy. Several systems can be utilized including kilo-voltage and mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT), CT on rail or helical tomography. One of the attractive aspects of mega-voltage cone-beam CT is that it uses the therapy beam along with an electronic portal imaging device to image the patient prior to the delivery of treatment. However, the use of a photon beam energy in the mega-voltage range for volumetric imaging degrades the image quality and increases the patient radiation dose. To optimize image quality and patient dose in MV-CBCT imaging procedures, a series of dose measurements in cylindrical and anthropomorphic phantoms using an ionization chamber, radiographic films, and thermoluminescent dosimeters was performed. Furthermore, the dependence of the contrast to noise ratio and spatial resolution of the image upon the dose delivered for a 20-cm-diam cylindrical phantom was evaluated. Depending on the anatomical site and patient thickness, we found that the minimum dose deposited in the irradiated volume was 5-9 cGy and the maximum dose was between 9 and 17 cGy for our clinical MV-CBCT imaging protocols. Results also demonstrated that for high contrast areas such as bony anatomy, low doses are sufficient for image registration and visualization of the three-dimensional boundaries between soft tissue and bony structures. However, as the difference in tissue density decreased, the dose required to identify soft tissue boundaries increased. Finally, the dose delivered by MV-CBCT was simulated using a treatment planning system (TPS), thereby allowing the incorporation of MV-CBCT dose in the treatment planning process. The TPS-calculated doses agreed well with measurements for a wide range of imaging protocols.

  5. Minimal Length, Friedmann Equations and Maximum Density

    E-print Network

    Adel Awad; Ahmed Farag Ali

    2014-06-14

    Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach[gr-qc/9504004], Cai et al [hep-th/0501055,hep-th/0609128] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar--Cai derivation [hep-th/0609128] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure $p(\\rho,a)$ leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature $k$. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state $p=\\omega \\rho$ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

  6. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health...Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. Individuals awarded regular...

  7. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health...Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. Individuals awarded regular...

  8. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health...Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. Individuals awarded regular...

  9. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health...Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. Individuals awarded regular...

  10. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

  11. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

  12. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

  13. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

  14. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

  15. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

  16. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

  17. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

  18. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

  19. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

  20. 77 FR 34218 - Clothing Allowance; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN64 Clothing Allowance; Correction AGENCY: Department...regulations governing eligibility for clothing allowances. VA has since determined...veteran may be entitled to more than one clothing allowance. Proposed paragraph...

  1. Furman University Cell Phone Allowance Request Form

    E-print Network

    Furman University Cell Phone Allowance Request Form Date Payment: $___________ All cell phone allowance payments are departmental responsibility and considered other compensation charged to object code ________. The cell phone allowance will start at the next

  2. Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  3. Radiation dose to workers due to the inhalation of dust during granite fabrication.

    PubMed

    Zwack, L M; McCarthy, W B; Stewart, J H; McCarthy, J F; Allen, J G

    2014-03-01

    There has been very little research conducted to determine internal radiation doses resulting from worker exposure to ionising radiation in granite fabrication shops. To address this issue, we estimated the effective radiation dose of granite workers in US fabrication shops who were exposed to the maximum respirable dust and silica concentrations allowed under current US regulations, and also to concentrations reported in the literature. Radiation doses were calculated using standard methods developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated internal doses were very low, and below both US occupational standards (50 mSv yr(-1)) and limits applicable to the general public (1 mSv yr(-1)). Workers exposed to respirable granite dust concentrations at the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) respirable dust permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg m(-3) over a full year had an estimated radiation dose of 0.062 mSv yr(-1). Workers exposed to respirable granite dust concentrations at the OSHA silica PEL and at the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value for a full year had expected radiation doses of 0.007 mSv yr(-1) and 0.002 mSv yr(-1), respectively. Using data from studies of respirable granite dust and silica concentrations measured in granite fabrication shops, we calculated median expected radiation doses that ranged from <0.001 to 0.101 mSv yr(-1). PMID:24270240

  4. Electron dose rate and photon contamination in electron arc therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Pla; Ervin B. Podgorsak; Conrado Pla

    1989-01-01

    The electron dose rate at the depth of dose maximum dmax and the photon contamination are discussed as a function of several parameters of the rotational electron beam. A pseudoarc technique with an angular increment of 10 degrees and a constant number of monitor units per each stationary electron field was used in our experiments. The electron dose rate is

  5. Principles of maximum entropy and maximum caliber in statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressé, Steve; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Lee, Julian; Dill, Ken A.

    2013-07-01

    The variational principles called maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum caliber (MaxCal) are reviewed. MaxEnt originated in the statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs, as a theoretical tool for predicting the equilibrium states of thermal systems. Later, entropy maximization was also applied to matters of information, signal transmission, and image reconstruction. Recently, since the work of Shore and Johnson, MaxEnt has been regarded as a principle that is broader than either physics or information alone. MaxEnt is a procedure that ensures that inferences drawn from stochastic data satisfy basic self-consistency requirements. The different historical justifications for the entropy S=-?ipilog?pi and its corresponding variational principles are reviewed. As an illustration of the broadening purview of maximum entropy principles, maximum caliber, which is path entropy maximization applied to the trajectories of dynamical systems, is also reviewed. Examples are given in which maximum caliber is used to interpret dynamical fluctuations in biology and on the nanoscale, in single-molecule and few-particle systems such as molecular motors, chemical reactions, biological feedback circuits, and diffusion in microfluidics devices.

  6. Parameterization of solar flare dose

    E-print Network

    Lamarche, Anne Helene

    1995-01-01

    of the proton transport through a given shield to obtain the dose to astronauts, the Baryon transport code, BRYNTRN, will be used. This code, developed at NASA Langley Research Center, can be used to solve the fundamental Boltzmann transport equation... at another part of the solar system. NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) answered many questions about proton acceleration sites (Chupp, 1987). Since proton storms generally outlast flares by many hours, it seems unclear whether they originate in similarly...

  7. Internal Dose Estimates from

    E-print Network

    Appendix F Internal Dose Estimates from NTS Fallout F-1 #12;Radiation Dose to the Population;TABLE OF CONTENTS Page F- Part I. Estimates of Dose .................................................................................................................7 General system of dose calculation

  8. Integral T-Shaped Phantom-Dosimeter System to Measure Transverse and Longitudinal Dose Distributions Simultaneously for Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Moon, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyoung Won; Han, Ki-Tek; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeon, Dayeong; Park, Jang-Yeon; Park, Byung Gi; Lee, Bongsoo

    2012-01-01

    A T-shaped fiber-optic phantom-dosimeter system was developed using square scintillating optical fibers, a lens system, and a CMOS image camera. Images of scintillating light were used to simultaneously measure the transverse and longitudinal distributions of absorbed dose of a 6 MV photon beam with field sizes of 1 × 1 and 3 × 3 cm2. Each optical fiber has a very small sensitive volume and the sensitive material is water equivalent. This allows the measurements of cross-beam profile as well as the percentage depth dose of small field sizes. In the case of transverse dose distribution, the measured beam profiles were gradually become uneven and the beam edge had a gentle slope with increasing depth of the PMMA phantom. In addition, the maximum dose values of longitudinal dose distribution for 6 MV photon beam with field sizes of 1 × 1 and 3 × 3 cm2 were found to be at a depth of approximately 15 mm and the percentage depth dose of both field sizes were nearly in agreement at the skin dose level. Based on the results of this study, it is anticipated that an all-in-one phantom-dosimeter can be developed to accurately measure beam profiles and dose distribution in a small irradiation fields prior to carrying out stereotactic radiosurgery. PMID:22778649

  9. A numerical investigation for the optimal positions and weighting coefficients of point dose measurements in the weighted CTDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Constantin, Dragos; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    The mean dose over the central phantom plane (i.e., z = 0, dose maximum image) is useful in that it allows us to compare radiation dose levels across different CT scanners and acquisition protocols. The mean dose from a conventional CT scan with table translation is typically estimated by weighted CTDI (CTDIW). However, conventional CTDIW has inconsistent performance, depending on its weighting coefficients ("1/2 and 1/2" or "1/3 and 2/3") and acquisition protocols. We used a Monte Carlo (MC) model based on Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) to generate dose profiles in the central plane of the CTDI phantom. MC simulations were carried out for three different sizes of z-collimator and different tube voltages (80, 100, or 120 kVp), a tube current of 80 mA, and an exposure time of 25 ms. We derived optimal weighting coefficients by taking the integral of the radial dose profiles. The first-order linear equation and the quadratic equation were used to fit the dose profiles along the radial direction perpendicular to the central plane, and the fitted profiles were revolved about the Z-axis to compute the mean dose (i.e., total volume under the fitted profiles/the central plane area). The integral computed using the linear equation resulted in the same equation as conventional CTDIW, and the integral computed using the quadratic equation resulted in a new CTDIW (CTDIMW) that incorporates different weightings ("2/3 and 1/3") and the middle dose point instead of the central dose point. Compared to the results of MC simulations, our new CTDIMW showed less error than the previous CTDIW methods by successfully incorporating the curvature of the dose profiles regardless of acquisition protocols. Our new CTDIMW will also be applicable to the AAPM-ICRU phantom, which has a middle dose point.

  10. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...of existing facilities used primarily for programs under the Act are allowable. Additionally, the costs of home repair, weatherization and rehabilitation are allowable when the work is performed on low income housing as defined in § 632.4. (d)...

  11. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...206.439 Allowable costs. (a) General requirements...determining allowable costs are established in...Administrative and management costs for major disasters...pre-award planning or project costs at its...

  12. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design...Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined...

  13. ON-LINE MAXIMUM INDEPENDENT SET IN CHORDAL GRAPHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George CHRISTODOULOU; Vassilis ZISSIMOPOULOS

    In this paper we deal with the on-line maximum independent set and we propose a probabilistic O(logn)-competitive algorithm for chordal and interval graphs, proving that the same ratio is a lower bound of the problem. The relation of the on-line maximum independent set with the on-line admis- sion control, allows us to obtain as particular case, an O(logn)-competitive algorithm for

  14. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    SciTech Connect

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.silva.rodriguez@sergas.es; Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain) [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Sánchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Víctor [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain)] [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Cortés, Julia; Garrido, Miguel [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia, Spain and Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain)] [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia, Spain and Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Pombar, Miguel [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain)] [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Ruibal, Álvaro [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain) [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Fundación Tejerina, 28003, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  15. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

  16. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

  17. 14 CFR 1261.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property as a direct consequence...be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property when used for...be allowed for damage to, or loss of, clothing or accessories...person, such as eyeglasses, hearing aids or...

  18. 24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property as a direct consequence...be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property when used for...be allowed for damage to, or loss of, clothing or accessories...person, such as eyeglasses, hearing aids, or dentures....

  19. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property as a direct consequence...be allowed for damage to, or loss, of property when used for...be allowed for damage to, or loss of, clothing and accessories...person, such as eyeglasses, hearing aids, or dentures....

  20. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810 Section 3.810...Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except as provided...upon application therefor, to an annual clothing allowance as specified in 38...

  1. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810 Section 3.810...Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except as provided...upon application therefore, to an annual clothing allowance, which is payable in a...

  2. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810 Section 3.810...Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except as provided...upon application therefore, to an annual clothing allowance, which is payable in a...

  3. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810 Section 3.810...Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except as provided...upon application therefor, to an annual clothing allowance as specified in 38...

  4. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810 Section 3.810...Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except as provided...upon application therefore, to an annual clothing allowance, which is payable in a...

  5. The Maximum Density of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  6. Maximum Chemical and Physical Hardness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph G. Pearson

    1999-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is briefly reviewed, especially concepts such as the electronic chemical potential and the hardness of the electron density function. There is much evidence, and a mathematical proof, that this chemical hardness is a maximum for an equilibrium system. The proof is based on a combination of statistical mechanics, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, and correlation functions. In MO

  7. Molecular Size as the Main Determinant of Solute Maximum Flux Across the Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrice M. Magnusson; Yuri G. Anissimov; Sheree E. Cross; Michael S. Roberts

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important determinants of dermatological and systemic penetration after topical application is the delivery or flux of solutes into or through the skin. The maximum dose of solute able to be delivered over a given period of time and area of application is defined by its maximum flux (Jmax, mol per cm2 per h) from a given

  8. Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartibu, L. K.

    2015-06-01

    This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.

  9. Radiation dose assessment for the biota of terrestrial ecosystems in the shoreline zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant cooling pond.

    PubMed

    Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Hinton, Thomas G; Coughlin, Daniel; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature. PMID:21878760

  10. RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  11. Dose finding with continuous outcome in phase I oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunfei; Ivanova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The goal of a phase I clinical trial in oncology is to find a dose with acceptable dose-limiting toxicity rate. Often, when a cytostatic drug is investigated or when the maximum tolerated dose is defined using a toxicity score, the main endpoint in a phase I trial is continuous. We propose a new method to use in a dose-finding trial with continuous endpoints. The new method selects the right dose on par with other methods and provides more flexibility in assigning patients to doses in the course of the trial when the rate of accrual is fast relative to the follow-up time. PMID:25408518

  12. NIEL Dose Dependence for Solar Cells Irradiated with Electrons and Protons

    E-print Network

    C. Baur; M. Gervasi; P. Nieminen; S. Pensotti; P. G. Rancoita; M. Tacconi

    2014-02-10

    The investigation of solar cells degradation and the prediction of its end-of-life performance is of primary importance in the preparation of a space mission. In the present work, we investigate the reduction of solar-cells' maximum power resulting from irradiations with electrons and protons. Both GaAs single junction and GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells were studied. The results obtained indicate how i) the dominant radiation damaging mechanism is due to atomic displacements, ii) the relative maximum power degradation is almost independent of the type of incoming particle, i.e., iii) to a first approximation, the fitted semi-empirical function expressing the decrease of maximum power depends only on the absorbed NIEL dose, and iv) the actual displacement threshold energy value (Ed=21 eV) accounts for annealing treatments, mostly due to self-annealing induced effects. Thus, for a given type of solar cell, a unique maximum power degradation curve can be determined as a function of the absorbed NIEL dose. The latter expression allows one to predict the performance of those solar cells in space radiation environment.

  13. Niel Dose Dependence for Solar Cells Irradiated with Electrons and Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, C.; Gervasi, M.; Nieminen, P.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.; Tacconi, M.

    2014-06-01

    The investigation of solar cells degradation and the prediction of its end-of-life performance is of primary importance in the preparation of a space mission. In the present work, we investigate the reduction of solar-cells' maximum power resulting from irradiations with electrons and protons. Both GaAs single junction and GalnP/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells were studied. The results obtained indicate how i) the dominant radiation damaging mechanism is due to atomic displacements, ii) the relative maximum power degradation is almost independent of the type of incoming particle, i.e., iii) to a first approximation, the fitted semi-empirical function expressing the decrease of maximum power depends only on the absorbed NIEL dose, and iv) the actual displacement threshold energy value (Ed = 21 eV) accounts for annealing treatments, mostly due to self-annealing induced effects. Thus, for a given type of solar cell, a unique maximum power degradation curve can be determined as a function of the absorbed NIEL dose. The latter expression allows one to predict the performance of those solar cells in space radiation environment.

  14. Cancer de prostate : doses et volumes cibles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hennequin; S. Rivera; L. Quero; I. Latorzeff

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is nowadays a major therapeutic option in prostate cancer. Technological improvements allowed dose escalation without increasing late toxicity. Some randomized trials have shown that dose escalation decreases the biochemical failure rate, without any benefit in survival with the present follow-up. However, some studies indicate that the distant metastases rate is also decreased. Most of these studies have been done

  15. Optimization of design allowables for composite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Munjal, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Determination of optimum design allowables for composites is much more complicated than for metals. Unlike metals, for which the design allowables can be readily obtained from standard sources like MIL-HDBK-5C, extensive testing has to be done to determine and optimize composite design allowables. This paper compared composites with metals and addresses the unique problems encountered in developing optimum composite design allowables. It discusses the effect of various factors on design allowables. These factors include design, materials, characterization/testing, processing, tooling, quality control, fabrication method, and service life degradation. Sources of errors originating from the above factors are discussed and recommendations made to minimize the problems and optimize the various composite design allowables. 26 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  16. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    PubMed Central

    Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Berthelsen, Anne K.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena; Bentzen, Søren M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed. Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy. Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%. Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity. PMID:23927314

  17. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Berthelsen, Anne K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Bentzen, Søren M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy.Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%.Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity.

  18. Solar maximum: solar array degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.

    1985-08-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  19. Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2010 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1

    E-print Network

    Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2010 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1 DRAFT The radiological dose, and local regulations and the public is protected. The potential radiological dose to members of the public is calculated at the site boundary as the maximum dose that could be received by a hypothetical individual

  20. Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2011 Site environmental report8-1

    E-print Network

    Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2011 Site environmental report8-1 BNL's annual radiological dose and local regulations, and that the public is protected. The potential radiological dose to members of the public is calculated at the site boundary as the maximum dose that could be received by a hypothetical

  1. Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2012 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1

    E-print Network

    Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2012 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1 BNL's annual radiological dose, state, and local regulations, and that the public is protected. The potential radiological dose to members of the public is calculated at an off-site location closest to emission source as the maximum dose

  2. AGREEMENT FOR MOBILE TECHNOLOGY ACCESS AND ALLOWANCE

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Security Program; · Acceptable Use of Computing Resources. Allowance option only: 3. I understand that I and service. I understand that in the event I am no longer eligible for the allowance, I am responsible under the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) apply to personally-owned wireless

  3. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the...performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under Federal Management Circular 74-4; and costs of projects eligible under § 266.7 of this...

  4. 24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...following are examples of the principal types of claims which may be allowed, but these examples are not exclusive and other types of claims may be allowed, unless excluded...such as eyeglasses, hearing aids, or dentures. [36 FR 24427, Dec. 22,...

  5. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  6. Mobile Communications Device Allowances Frequently Asked Questions

    E-print Network

    ://www.ncsu.edu/software/agreements/blackberry/index.php. If your device uses Active Sync or IMAP, the NC State University Help Desk (515-HELP) can help you or other benefits? A: No. Although the allowance will be paid to you as additional salary, it will not be used to determine University retirement coverage or other benefits. Q: The allowance I receive

  7. Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    SCHELLEKENS, JONA

    2009-01-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

  8. An algorithm for kilovoltage x-ray dose calculations with applications in kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, Jason M.; Ding, George X.

    2014-04-01

    A new model-based dose calculation algorithm is presented for kilovoltage x-rays and is tested for the cases of calculating the radiation dose from kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT) and 2D planar projected radiographs. This algorithm calculates the radiation dose to water-like media as the sum of primary and scattered dose components. The scatter dose is calculated by convolution of a newly introduced, empirically parameterized scatter dose kernel with the primary photon fluence. Several approximations are introduced to increase the scatter dose calculation efficiency: (1) the photon energy spectrum is approximated as monoenergetic; (2) density inhomogeneities are accounted for by implementing a global distance scaling factor in the scatter kernel; (3) kernel tilting is ignored. These approximations allow for efficient calculation of the scatter dose convolution with the fast Fourier transform. Monte Carlo simulations were used to obtain the model parameters. The accuracy of using this model-based algorithm was validated by comparing with the Monte Carlo method for calculating dose distributions for real patients resulting from radiotherapy image guidance procedures including volumetric kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs. For all patients studied, mean dose-to-water errors for kV-CBCT are within 0.3% with a maximum standard deviation error of 4.1%. Using a medium-dependent correction method to account for the effects of photoabsorption in bone on the dose distribution, mean dose-to-medium errors for kV-CBCT are within 3.6% for bone and 2.4% for soft tissues. This algorithm offers acceptable accuracy and has the potential to extend the applicability of model-based dose calculation algorithms from megavoltage to kilovoltage photon beams.

  9. [Decision process of Notification Value by the Dose Index Registry system in X-ray computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Masafumi; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa; Sasaki, Toru

    2014-01-01

    A new technical standard for X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been published by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) that allows the Alert Value and Notification Value for cumulative dose to be configurable by CT systems operators in conjunction with the XR-25 (Dose check) standard. In this study, a decision method of the Notification Values for reducing the radiation dose was examined using the dose index registry (DIR) system, during 122 continuous days from August 1, 2012 to November 30, 2012. CT images were obtained using the Discovery CT 750HD (GE Healthcare) and the dose index was calculated using the DoseWatch DIR system. The CT dose index-volume (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) were output from the DIR system in comma-separated value (CSV) file format for each examination protocol. All data were shown as a schematic boxplot using statistical processing software. The CTDIvol of a routine chest examination showed the following values (maximum: 23.84 mGy; minimum: 2.55 mGy; median: 7.60 mGy; 75% tile: 10.01 mGy; 25% tile: 6.54 mGy). DLP showed the following values (maximum: 944.56 mGy·cm; minimum: 97.25 mGy·cm; median: 307.35 mGy·cm; 75% tile: 406.87 mGy·cm; 25% tile: 255.75 mGy·cm). These results indicate that the 75% tile of CTDIvol and DLP as an initial value proved to be safe and efficient for CT examination and operation. We have thus established one way of determining the Notification Value from the output of the DIR system. Transfer back to the protocol of the CT and automated processing each numeric value in the DIR system is desired. PMID:24464059

  10. Maximum entropy, Nonadditive entropies and Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presse, Steve

    2014-03-01

    Gibbs once presciently noted that the elegance and simplicity of the principles of statistical physics were worthy of independent development outside of thermodynamics. Biophysical systems -from the single cell to the single protein level- provide an ideal framework in which to test and apply far-from-equilibrium generalizations of statistical physics. Here we discuss two theoretical topics at the intersection of statistical physics and biology. First, we will describe a recipe for deriving, from first principles, probabilistic equations of motion from limited biophysical single particle tracking data. That is, we will show that maximum entropy principles can be used to determine the most likely statistical weights of trajectories from an ensemble of allowed system trajectories. For instance, using this reasoning, we can show under what circumstances Markov processes and chemical master equations rigorously follow from the data. Second, we will explore the logical implications of using a principle other than maximum entropy to select models (e.g. a model could be a trajectory ensemble in conformational space of a biomolecule) from non-equilibrium biophysical data. In particular, we will show that nonadditive entropy maximization can lead to biophysical models with features that go beyond what is warranted by the data.

  11. Utility allowed returns and market extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Murry, D.A.; Nan, G.D.; Harrington, B.M.

    1993-03-01

    In recent years interest rates have fluctuated from exceptionally high levels in the early 1980s to their current levels, the lowest in two decades. Observers and analysts generally have assumed that allowed returns by regulatory commissions follow the movement of interest rates; indeed some analysts use a risk premium method to estimate the cost of common equity, assuming a constant and linear relationship between interest rates and the cost of common equity. That suggests we could expect a relatively stable relationship between interest rates and allowed returns, as well. However, a simple comparison of allowed returns and interest rates shows that this is not the case in recent years. The relationship between market interest rates and the returns allowed by commissions varies and is obviously a great deal more complicated. Empirically, there appears to be only a narrow range where market interest rates significantly affect the allowed returns on common stock set by state commissions, at least for electric and combination utilities. If rates are at historically low levels, allowed returns based largely on market rates will hasten subsequent rate filings, and commissions appear to look beyond the low rate levels. Conversely, it appears that regulators do not let historically high market rates determine allowed returns either. At either high or low interest levels, caution seems to be the policy.

  12. Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Arya; Yang, Jinzhong; Williamson, Ryan; McBurney, Michelle L.; Erasmus, Jeremy; Allen, Pamela K.; Karhade, Mandar; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James; Dong, Lei; Welsh, James

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As the recommended radiation dose for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum tolerated dose to the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010 who had received>55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multi-atlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexuson the original planning CT scans and scoredplexopathy according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03. Results The median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range 56-87.5 Gy, 1.5-2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients had had brachial plexopathy (16%) (8 [9%] grade 1 and 6 [7%] grade ?2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range 1.4-37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of median brachial plexus dose >69 Gy(odds ratio [OR] 10.091, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.512-67.331, P=0.005), maximum dose >75 Gy to 2 cm3 of the brachial plexus(OR 4.909, 95% CI 0.966-24.952, P=0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation(OR 4.722, 95% CI 1.267-17.606, P=0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method which allowed us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future prospective trialswithhigh dose radiation therapy for unresectable lung cancer. PMID:22284035

  13. Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Arya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Yang Jinzhong; Williamson, Ryan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McBurney, Michelle L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Erasmus, Jeremy [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Karhade, Mandar; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56-87.5 Gy; 1.5-2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade {>=}2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4-37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512-67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm{sup 3} of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966-24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267-17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future prospective trials with high-dose radiation therapy for unresectable lung cancer.

  14. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31; however, the grants officer or the award terms and conditions may in rare cases authorize a determination of allowable costs that are in accordance with uniform cost accounting standards and comply...

  15. Quasiconformal Hyperelasticity Cavitation is not Allowed

    E-print Network

    Kovalev, Leonid

    Quasiconformal Hyperelasticity when Cavitation is not Allowed Tadeusz Iwaniec Jani Onninen Abstract that the lower bound at (3) prevents all sorts of cavitation from growing to higher dimensions. For instance

  16. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance...Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability...organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in...

  17. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance...Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability...organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in...

  18. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance...Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability...organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in...

  19. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance...Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability...organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in...

  20. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance...Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability...organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in...

  1. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory allowance....

  2. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory allowance....

  3. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory allowance....

  4. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory allowance....

  5. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory allowance....

  6. Allowable levels of take for the trade in Nearctic songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Walters, Matthew A.H.; Boomer, G. Scott

    2012-01-01

    The take of Nearctic songbirds for the caged-bird trade is an important cultural and economic activity in Mexico, but its sustainability has been questioned. We relied on the theta-logistic population model to explore options for setting allowable levels of take for 11 species of passerines that were subject to legal take in Mexico in 2010. Because estimates of population size necessary for making periodic adjustments to levels of take are not routinely available, we examined the conditions under which a constant level of take might contribute to population depletion (i.e., a population below its level of maximum net productivity). The chance of depleting a population is highest when levels of take are based on population sizes that happen to be much lower or higher than the level of maximum net productivity, when environmental variation is relatively high and serially correlated, and when the interval between estimation of population size is relatively long (?5 years). To estimate demographic rates of songbirds involved in the Mexican trade we relied on published information and allometric relationships to develop probability distributions for key rates, and then sampled from those distributions to characterize the uncertainty in potential levels of take. Estimates of the intrinsic rate of growth (r) were highly variable, but median estimates were consistent with those expected for relatively short-lived, highly fecund species. Allowing for the possibility of nonlinear density dependence generally resulted in allowable levels of take that were lower than would have been the case under an assumption of linearity. Levels of take authorized by the Mexican government in 2010 for the 11 species we examined were small in comparison to relatively conservative allowable levels of take (i.e., those intended to achieve 50% of maximum sustainable yield). However, the actual levels of take in Mexico are unknown and almost certainly exceed the authorized take. Also, the take of Nearctic songbirds in other Latin American and Caribbean countries ultimately must be considered in assessing population-level impacts.

  7. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established...Class 4 locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS...192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the...

  8. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established...Class 4 locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS...192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the...

  9. EFFECTIVE: 01 OCTOBER 2012 MAXIMUM PER DIEM RATES OUTSIDE THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES TRAVEL PER DIEM ALLOWANCES

    E-print Network

    Shihadeh, Alan

    /06/2007 ALASKA EIELSON AFB 15-May 15-Sep 175 82 47 20 277 01/02/2012 ALASKA EIELSON AFB 16-Sep 14-May 75 74 43 18 167 01/02/2012 ALASKA ELFIN COVE 01-Jan 31-Dec 175 37 25 9 221 01/02/2012 ALASKA ELMENDORF AFB 16-May 30-Sep 181 83 48 21 285 01/02/2012 ALASKA ELMENDORF AFB 01-Oct 15-May 99 77 45 19 195 01

  10. 41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...lodging) prescribed in chapter 301 of this title for travel in CONUS, by the Secretary of Defense for travel in non-foreign...per diem or actual subsistence expense rates when traveling in CONUS or in non-foreign areas under the following...

  11. 41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...lodging) prescribed in chapter 301 of this title for travel in CONUS, by the Secretary of Defense for travel in non-foreign...per diem or actual subsistence expense rates when traveling in CONUS or in non-foreign areas under the following...

  12. Nonlinear dose dependence of TL and LM-OSL within the one trap-one center model

    E-print Network

    Chen, Reuven

    Nonlinear dose dependence of TL and LM-OSL within the one trap-one center model R. Chen a,*, V of numerical simulation of dose dependence of the TL maximum under similar conditions. In some cases, the TL. Different sublinear dose-dependence functions of the trap occupancy and the maximum TL are demonstrated

  13. System for Memorizing Maximum Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either liner or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  14. System for memorizing maximum values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  15. SU-E-T-356: Accuracy of Eclipse Electron Macro Monte Carlo Dose Algorithm for Use in Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, R [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Popple, R; Benhabib, S [UniversityAlabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United Kingdom); Antolak, J [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Sprunger, C [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Hogstrom, K [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of electron dose distribution calculated by the Varian Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for use with recent commercially available bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT). Methods: eMC-calculated electron dose distributions for bolus ECT have been compared to those previously measured for cylindrical phantoms (retromolar trigone and nose), whose axial cross sections were based on the mid-PTV CT anatomy for each site. The phantoms consisted of SR4 muscle substitute, SR4 bone substitute, and air. The bolus ECT treatment plans were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system and calculated using the maximum allowable histories (2×10{sup 9}), resulting in a statistical error of <0.2%. Smoothing was not used for these calculations. Differences between eMC-calculated and measured dose distributions were evaluated in terms of absolute dose difference as well as distance to agreement (DTA). Results: Results from the eMC for the retromolar trigone phantom showed 89% (41/46) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of ?0.12% with a standard deviation of 2.56%. Results for the nose phantom showed 95% (54/57) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of 1.12% with a standard deviation of 3.03%. Dose calculation times for the retromolar trigone and nose treatment plans were 15 min and 22 min, respectively, using 16 processors (Intel Xeon E5-2690, 2.9 GHz) on a Varian Eclipse framework agent server (FAS). Results of this study were consistent with those previously reported for accuracy of the eMC electron dose algorithm and for the .decimal, Inc. pencil beam redefinition algorithm used to plan the bolus. Conclusion: These results show that the accuracy of the Eclipse eMC algorithm is suitable for clinical implementation of bolus ECT.

  16. Using EPA`s allowance tracking system to assess the allowance market

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, M.; Kruger, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The development of a credible framework for analyzing private allowance transfers recorded in EPA`s Allowance Tracking System (ATS) is essential for effective assessment of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market. The ATS began recording transfers of allowances in March, 1994, and since then has served as an automated record of allowance holdings and transfers of ownership. Though primarily concerned with determining compliance, the ATS contains details of private allowance transfers representing what is believed to be a significant portion of overall SO{sub 2} allowance market activity. This paper will analyze these private transfers recorded in ATS and will develop relevant categories for classification purposes. The resulting categorization will enable consistent analysis of the SO{sub 2} allowance market and provide substantial insight into the level and type of allowance trading activity under the Acid Rain Program.

  17. Some considerations for modeling doses from radionuclides transported through groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Waters; Marilyn M. Gruebel

    1998-01-01

    Analysts typically incorporate into groundwater pathway models for low-level radioactive waste a simplified approach for the buildup and decay of radioactive progeny during environmental transport. The inventory is transported to the exposure point, with doses calculated there for the parent and progeny based on predicted concentrations of the parent radionuclides. This approach generally provides conservative values because maximum combined doses

  18. Some Considerations for modeling doses from radionuclides transported through groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Waters; Marilyn M. Gruebel

    1998-01-01

    Analysts typically incorporate into groundwater pathway models for low-level radioactive waste a simplified approach for the buildup and decay of radioactive progeny during environmental transport. The inventory is transported to the exposure point, with doses calculated there for the parent and progeny based on predicted concentrations of the parent radionuclides. This approach generally provides conservative values because maximum combined doses

  19. Fractionated Radioimmunotherapy With 90Y-Clivatuzumab Tetraxetan and Low-Dose Gemcitabine Is Active in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ocean, Allyson J.; Pennington, Kenneth L.; Guarino, Michael J.; Sheikh, Arif; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Serafini, Aldo N.; Lee, Daniel; Sung, Max W.; Gulec, Seza A.; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Manzone, Timothy; Holt, Michael; O’Neil, Bert H.; Hall, Nathan; Montero, Alberto J.; Kauh, John; Gold, David V.; Horne, Heather; Wegener, William A.; Goldenberg, David M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND It has been demonstrated that the humanized clivatuzumab tetraxetan (hPAM4) antibody targets pancreatic ductal carcinoma selectively. After a trial of radioimmunotherapy that determined the maximum tolerated dose of single-dose yttrium-90-labeled hPAM4 (90Y-hPAM4) and produced objective responses in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal carcinoma, the authors studied fractionated radioimmunotherapy combined with low-dose gemcitabine in this disease. METHODS Thirty-eight previously untreated patients (33 patients with stage IV disease and 5 patients with stage III disease) received gemcitabine 200 mg/m2 weekly for 4 weeks with 90Y-hPAM4 given weekly in Weeks 2, 3, and 4 (cycle 1), and the same cycle was repeated in 13 patients (cycles 2–4). In the first part of the study, 19 patients received escalating weekly 90Y doses of 6.5 mCi/m2, 9.0 mCi/m2, 12.0 mCi/m2, and 15.0 mCi/m2. In the second portion, 19 additional patients received weekly doses of 9.0 mCi/m2 or 12.0 mCi/m2. RESULTS Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia or neutropenia (according to version 3.0 of the National Cancer Institute’s Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) developed in 28 of 38 patients after cycle 1 and in all retreated patients; no grade >3 nonhematologic toxicities occurred. Fractionated dosing of cycle 1 allowed almost twice the radiation dose compared with single-dose radioimmunotherapy. The maximum tolerated dose of 90Y-hPAM4 was 12.0 mCi/m2 weekly for 3 weeks for cycle 1, with ?9.0 mCi/m2 weekly for 3 weeks for subsequent cycles, and that dose will be used in future trials. Six patients (16%) had partial responses according to computed tomography-based Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, and 16 patients (42%) had stabilization as their best response (58% disease control). The median overall survival was 7.7 months for all 38 patients, including 11.8 months for those who received repeated cycles (46% [6 of 13 patients] ?1 year), with improved efficacy at the higher radioimmunotherapy doses. CONCLUSIONS Fractionated radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-hPAM4 and low-dose gemcitabine demonstrated promising therapeutic activity and manageable myelosuppression in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal carcinoma. PMID:22569804

  20. TLD extrapolation for skin dose determination in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomas Kron; Martin Butson; Fiona Hunt; James Denham

    1996-01-01

    Prediction of skin reactions requires knowledge of the dose at various depths in the human skin. Using thermoluminescence dosimeters of three different thicknesses, the dose can be extrapolated to the surface and interpolated between the different depths. A TLD holder was designed for these TLD extrapolation measurements on patients during treatment which allowed measurements of entrance and exit skin dose

  1. An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

    1994-07-01

    We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

  2. Acetaminophen accumulation in pediatric patients after repeated therapeutic doses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Nahata; D. A. Powell; D. E. Durrell; M. A. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Summary  Acetaminophen serum concentrations were studied in 21 infants and children with fever. The maximum serum concentrations ranged from 9.96 to 19.6 µg\\/ml after a single dose of 12–14 mg\\/kg and 13.9 to 40.1 µg\\/ml after a single dose of 22–27 mg\\/kg. Ten patients were restudied at steadystate after repeat doses had been given every 4 or 8 h for 1

  3. 38 CFR 76.2 - Assistance allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...an allowance to a veteran with a disability who is: (1) Invited by the United States Paralympics (USP) to compete for a slot on, or selected for, the USP Team for any month or part of any month in which the veteran is training or competing in any...

  4. Generalized Relativistic Wave Equations with Intrinsic Maximum Momentum

    E-print Network

    Chee Leong Ching; Wei Khim Ng

    2013-11-15

    We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential are stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied are bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.

  5. Optimum inactivation dose and indices of radiation response based on the linear quadratic survival equation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baruch S. Jacobson

    1993-01-01

    For typical tumor-cell dose-response curves, the efficiency ratio, i.e., the ratio between the fraction of cells killed and the radiation dose administered, is a continuously decreasing function of dose. However, if the survival curve is sufficiently “shouldered”, this ratio has a maximum value at a dose greater than zero. In radiotherapy, one possible criterion for the ideal dose per session

  6. Fast searching on compressed text allowing errors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edleno Silva de Moura; Gonzalo Navarro; Nivio Ziviani; Ricardo A. Baeza-Yates

    1998-01-01

    We present a fast compression and decom- pression scheme for natural language texts that allows efficient and flexible string matching by searching the compressed text directly. The compression scheme uses a word-based Huffman encoding and the coding alpha- bet is byte-oriented rather than bit-oriented. We com- press typical English texts to about 30% of their original size, against 40% and

  7. Parameterized Algorithms for Directed Maximum Leaf Problems

    E-print Network

    Krivelevich, Michael

    Parameterized Algorithms for Directed Maximum Leaf Problems Noga Alon 1 , Fedor V. Fomin 2 spanning tree, then D contains one with at least (n/2) 1/5 - 1 leaves. 1 Introduction The Maximum Leaf a digraph D, the Directed Maximum Leaf Out­Branching problem is the problem of finding an out­branching in D

  8. Evaluating the accuracy of electronic pediatric drug dosing rules

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Eric S; Spooner, S Andrew; Logan, Judith R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy of vendor-supplied dosing eRules for pediatric medication orders. Inaccurate or absent dosing rules can lead to high numbers of false alerts or undetected prescribing errors and may potentially compromise safety in this already vulnerable population. Materials and methods 7 months of medication orders and alerts from a large pediatric hospital were analyzed. 30 medications were selected for study across 5 age ranges and 5 dosing parameters. The resulting 750 dosing rules from a commercial system formed the study corpus and were examined for accuracy against a gold standard created from traditional clinical resources. Results Overall accuracy of the rules in the study corpus was 55.1% when the rules were transformed to fit a priori age ranges. Over a pediatric lifetime, the dosing rules were accurate an average of 57.6% of the days. Dosing rules pertaining to the newborn age range were as accurate as other age ranges on average, but exhibited more variability. Daily frequency dosing parameters showed more accuracy than total daily dose, single dose minimum, or single dose maximum. Discussion The accuracy of a vendor-supplied set of dosing eRules is suboptimal when compared with traditional dosing sources, exposing a gap between dosing rules in commercial products and actual prescribing practices by pediatric care providers. More research on vendor-supplied eRules is warranted in order to understand the effects of these products on safe prescribing in children. PMID:23813541

  9. Internal Dose Estimates from

    E-print Network

    Appendix H Internal Dose Estimates from Global Fallout H-1 #12;Radiation Dose to the Population. 263-MQ-008090 September 30, 2000 H-2 #12;Radiation Dose to the Population of the Continental United States from the Ingestion of Food Contaminated with Radionuclides from Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Test

  10. External Dose Estimates from

    E-print Network

    Appendix G External Dose Estimates from Global Fallout G-1 #12;External Radiation Exposure exposure and whole body effective dose received by residents of the continental U.S. during the period 1953-2000 from nuclear weapons tests. Doses were calculated for tests carried out in the Pacific by the U

  11. External Dose Estimates from

    E-print Network

    Appendix E External Dose Estimates from NTS Fallout E-1 #12;External Radiation Exposure and whole-body effective dose received by residents of the continental U.S. during the period 1951-1962 from for each test and for each year of testing. The average committed population dose from all NTS tests

  12. Radiation Dose Estimates from

    E-print Network

    Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air and the Columbia River April 21,1994 TheTechnid Steering Panel of the Hanford - Environmental Dose Reconstruction HonfordEnvironmental DoseRecartnrczionProject,anddonot necessaii!~rcfrcnthe view ofCDC. ,: :: ::sr

  13. Low-dose tomography using proton beam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. Balakin; E. A. Kushnirenko

    2000-01-01

    Computerised tomography is widely applied to disease diagnostics. The X-ray tomography technique is now widespread. During production of X-ray tomograms the object under investigation absorbs a significant radiation dose. It is shown in this work that using a proton beam with an energy of about 300 eV for tomography allows one to reduce the dose absorbed by an object by

  14. Maximum likelihood inference of reticulate evolutionary histories.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yun; Dong, Jianrong; Liu, Kevin J; Nakhleh, Luay

    2014-11-18

    Hybridization plays an important role in the evolution of certain groups of organisms, adaptation to their environments, and diversification of their genomes. The evolutionary histories of such groups are reticulate, and methods for reconstructing them are still in their infancy and have limited applicability. We present a maximum likelihood method for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories while accounting simultaneously for incomplete lineage sorting. Additionally, we propose methods for assessing confidence in the amount of reticulation and the topology of the inferred evolutionary history. Our method obtains accurate estimates of reticulate evolutionary histories on simulated datasets. Furthermore, our method provides support for a hypothesis of a reticulate evolutionary history inferred from a set of house mouse (Mus musculus) genomes. As evidence of hybridization in eukaryotic groups accumulates, it is essential to have methods that infer reticulate evolutionary histories. The work we present here allows for such inference and provides a significant step toward putting phylogenetic networks on par with phylogenetic trees as a model of capturing evolutionary relationships. PMID:25368173

  15. Surface dose for megavoltage photon beams outside the treatment field

    SciTech Connect

    Starkschall, G.; St. George, F.J.; Zellmer, D.L.

    1983-11-01

    Measurements made on photon beams from four different radiotherapy machines have demonstrated that skin dose several centimeters outside the boundary of a treatment field may be as much as 20% of the central axis maximum dose. This surface dose has been measured for an AECL Theratron 80, Siemens Mevatron VI, Varian Clinac 20, and CGR Sagittaire for distances up to 12 cm outside the field boundary and for depths up to the depth of maximum central axis dose. This dose has also been measured as a function of field size and of source-to-skin distance. For the lower energy photon beams, this radiation is significantly attenuated in the first 2: 3 mm of tissue, while for higher energy beams, a buildup phenomenon with a d/sub max/ of 2--3 mm is observed. The magnitude of this radiation is approximately linearly dependent upon field dimension for all energies.

  16. Stochastic Maximum Principle for Optimal Control of SPDEs

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman, Marco, E-mail: marco.fuhrman@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)] [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy); Hu, Ying, E-mail: ying.hu@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite Rennes 1, IRMAR (France)] [Universite Rennes 1, IRMAR (France); Tessitore, Gianmario, E-mail: gianmario.tessitore@unimib.it [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Matematica e Applicazioni (Italy)] [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Matematica e Applicazioni (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    We prove a version of the maximum principle, in the sense of Pontryagin, for the optimal control of a stochastic partial differential equation driven by a finite dimensional Wiener process. The equation is formulated in a semi-abstract form that allows direct applications to a large class of controlled stochastic parabolic equations. We allow for a diffusion coefficient dependent on the control parameter, and the space of control actions is general, so that in particular we need to introduce two adjoint processes. The second adjoint process takes values in a suitable space of operators on L{sup 4}.

  17. New generation mooring system allows longer deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye, Dan; Hogg, Nelson; Wunsch, Carl

    Conventional mooring systems in use today are mainly derived from technology that was developed from the 1950s through the 1970s. The subsurface or "intermediate" mooring design that matured in the 1970s allows measurements to be made reliably for up to 2 years. Thousands of these moorings have been deployed throughout the world's oceans and most marginal seas. A partial archive of the data that have been collected is available at http://ortelius.whoi.edu/website/BGTS/viewer.htm. Much of what we have learned about ocean circulation, and the processes governing it, has been provided by the world-wide effort to acquire moored (Eulerian) measurements of temperature, velocity, and other associated time series.

  18. Intrathecal clonidine in the neonatal rat: dose-dependent analgesia and evaluation of spinal apoptosis and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Suellen M.; Grafe, Marjorie; Yaksh, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neuraxial clonidine is utilized for peri-operative analgesia in children of all ages. Preclinical studies in the postnatal rat allow comparison of the relative toxicity and safety of spinal analgesics throughout postnatal development. METHODS Rat pups aged 3, 7 or 21 postnatal (P) days were briefly anesthetized for intrathecal injections of saline or clonidine. At each age, the maximum tolerated, anti-nociceptive (increased hindlimb mechanical withdrawal threshold) and anti-hyperalgesic (hindpaw carrageenan inflammation) doses were determined. Lumbar spinal cord sections were assessed for apoptosis and cell death (histology, activated caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, Fluoro-Jade C staining), histopathology (haematoxylin and eosin staining), and increased glial reactivity (microglial and astrocytic markers). P3 intrathecal ketamine sections served as positive controls. In additional groups, thermal latency and mechanical withdrawal threshold were measured at P35. RESULTS Intrathecal clonidine produces age- and dose-dependent analgesia in rat pups. Maximal doses of clonidine did not alter the degree or distribution of apoptosis or increase glial reactivity in the neonatal spinal cord. No spinal histopathology was seen 1 or 7 days following injection at any age. Intrathecal clonidine did not produce persistent changes in reflex sensitivity to mechanical or thermal stimuli at P35. CONCLUSIONS Intrathecal clonidine in the postnatal rat did not produce signs of spinal cord toxicity, even at doses much greater than required for analgesia. The therapeutic ratio (maximum tolerated dose/anti-hyperalgesic dose) was >300 at P3, >30 at P7, and >10 at P21. These data provide additional information to inform the clinical choice of spinal analgesic agent in early life. PMID:22467896

  19. Simplified calculations involving the maximum load on bridge fatigue details under inspection. Part II: Fatigue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Righiniotis

    2004-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth implies that the maximum load that may be sustained by a bridge detail becomes a function of time. Two examples are studied here which demonstrate that, under a set of specified assumptions, the fatigue life under variable amplitude loading is approximately lognormal. Following this treatment, simplified calculations are presented which allow maximum load specification in terms of

  20. 3D inpatient dose reconstruction from the PET-CT imaging of {sup 90}Y microspheres for metastatic cancer to the liver: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Fourkal, E.; Veltchev, I.; Lin, M.; Meyer, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States); Koren, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York 10011 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York 10011 (United States); Doss, M.; Yu, J. Q. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)] [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The introduction of radioembolization with microspheres represents a significant step forward in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease to the liver. This technique uses semiempirical formulae based on body surface area or liver and target volumes to calculate the required total activity for a given patient. However, this treatment modality lacks extremely important information, which is the three-dimensional (3D) dose delivered by microspheres to different organs after their administration. The absence of this information dramatically limits the clinical efficacy of this modality, specifically the predictive power of the treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a 3D dose calculation technique that is based on the PET imaging of the infused microspheres.Methods: The Fluka Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the voxel dose kernel for {sup 90}Y source with voxel size equal to that of the PET scan. The measured PET activity distribution was converted to total activity distribution for the subsequent convolution with the voxel dose kernel to obtain the 3D dose distribution. In addition, dose-volume histograms were generated to analyze the dose to the tumor and critical structures.Results: The 3D inpatient dose distribution can be reconstructed from the PET data of a patient scanned after the infusion of microspheres. A total of seven patients have been analyzed so far using the proposed reconstruction method. Four patients underwent treatment with SIR-Spheres for liver metastases from colorectal cancer and three patients were treated with Therasphere for hepatocellular cancer. A total of 14 target tumors were contoured on post-treatment PET-CT scans for dosimetric evaluation. Mean prescription activity was 1.7 GBq (range: 0.58–3.8 GBq). The resulting mean maximum measured dose to targets was 167 Gy (range: 71–311 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 70% of target (D70) was 68 Gy (range: 25–155 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 90% of target (D90) was 53 Gy (range: 13–125 Gy).Conclusions: A three-dimensional inpatient dose reconstruction method has been developed that is based on the PET/CT data of a patient treated with {sup 90}Y microspheres. It allows for a complete description of the absorbed dose by the tumor and critical structures. It represents the first step in building predictive models for treatment outcomes for patients receiving this therapeutic modality as well as it allows for better analysis of patients' dose response and will ultimately improve future treatment administration.

  1. Low-dose megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography for lung tumors using a high-efficiency image receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sillanpaa, Jussi; Chang Jenghwa; Mageras, Gikas; Yorke, Ellen; Arruda, Fernando De; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Munro, Peter; Seppi, Edward; Pavkovich, John; Amols, Howard [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Ginzton Technology Center, Varian Medical Systems, Mountain View, California 94043 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    We report on the capabilities of a low-dose megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) system. The high-efficiency image receptor consists of a photodiode array coupled to a scintillator composed of individual CsI crystals. The CBCT system uses the 6 MV beam from a linear accelerator. A synchronization circuit allows us to limit the exposure to one beam pulse [0.028 monitor units (MU)] per projection image. 150-500 images (4.2-13.9 MU total) are collected during a one-minute scan and reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm. Anthropomorphic and contrast phantoms are imaged and the contrast-to-noise ratio of the reconstruction is studied as a function of the number of projections and the error in the projection angles. The detector dose response is linear (R{sup 2} value 0.9989). A 2% electron density difference is discernible using 460 projection images and a total exposure of 13 MU (corresponding to a maximum absorbed dose of about 12 cGy in a patient). We present first patient images acquired with this system. Tumors in lung are clearly visible and skeletal anatomy is observed in sufficient detail to allow reproducible registration with the planning kV CT images. The MV CBCT system is shown to be capable of obtaining good quality three-dimensional reconstructions at relatively low dose and to be clinically usable for improving the accuracy of radiotherapy patient positioning.

  2. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site fallout: internal dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Whicker, F W; Kirchner, T B; Anspaugh, L R; Ng, Y C

    1996-10-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a very few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. 131I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (< 3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided. PMID:8830749

  3. Population Pharmacokinetics of Fusidic Acid: Rationale for Front-Loaded Dosing Regimens Due to Autoinhibition of Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Okusanya, Olanrewaju O.; Forrest, Alan; Bhavnani, Sujata M.; Clark, Kay; Still, J. Gordon; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ambrose, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model to describe the absorption and disposition of fusidic acid after single and multiple doses and to determine the effect of food on the rate and extent of bioavailability. Plasma PK data from three phase 1 studies (n = 75; n = 14 with and without food) in which healthy subjects received sodium fusidate (500 to 2,200 mg) as single or multiple oral doses every 8 h (q8h) or q12h for up to 7 days were modeled using S-ADAPT (MCPEM algorithm). Accumulation of fusidic acid after multiple doses was more than that predicted based on single-dose data. The PK of fusidic acid was best described using a time-dependent mixed-order absorption process, two disposition compartments, and a turnover process to describe the autoinhibition of clearance. The mean total clearance (% coefficient of variation) was 1.28 liters/h (33%) and the maximum extent of autoinhibition was 71.0%, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 46.3 mg/liter (36%). Food decreased the extent of bioavailability by 18%. As a result of the autoinhibition of clearance, steady state can be achieved earlier with dosing regimens that contain higher doses (after 8 days for 750 mg q12h and 1 day for 1,500 mg q12h on day 1 followed by 600 mg q12h versus 3 weeks for 500 mg q12h). Given that large initial doses autoinhibit the clearance of fusidic acid, this characteristic provides a basis for the administration of front-loaded dosing regimens of sodium fusidate which would allow for effective concentrations to be achieved early in therapy. PMID:23147726

  4. Population pharmacokinetics of fusidic acid: rationale for front-loaded dosing regimens due to autoinhibition of clearance.

    PubMed

    Bulitta, Jürgen B; Okusanya, Olanrewaju O; Forrest, Alan; Bhavnani, Sujata M; Clark, Kay; Still, J Gordon; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ambrose, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model to describe the absorption and disposition of fusidic acid after single and multiple doses and to determine the effect of food on the rate and extent of bioavailability. Plasma PK data from three phase 1 studies (n = 75; n = 14 with and without food) in which healthy subjects received sodium fusidate (500 to 2,200 mg) as single or multiple oral doses every 8 h (q8h) or q12h for up to 7 days were modeled using S-ADAPT (MCPEM algorithm). Accumulation of fusidic acid after multiple doses was more than that predicted based on single-dose data. The PK of fusidic acid was best described using a time-dependent mixed-order absorption process, two disposition compartments, and a turnover process to describe the autoinhibition of clearance. The mean total clearance (% coefficient of variation) was 1.28 liters/h (33%) and the maximum extent of autoinhibition was 71.0%, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 46.3 mg/liter (36%). Food decreased the extent of bioavailability by 18%. As a result of the autoinhibition of clearance, steady state can be achieved earlier with dosing regimens that contain higher doses (after 8 days for 750 mg q12h and 1 day for 1,500 mg q12h on day 1 followed by 600 mg q12h versus 3 weeks for 500 mg q12h). Given that large initial doses autoinhibit the clearance of fusidic acid, this characteristic provides a basis for the administration of front-loaded dosing regimens of sodium fusidate which would allow for effective concentrations to be achieved early in therapy. PMID:23147726

  5. Predictive Bayesian microbial dose-response assessment based on suggested self-organization in primary illness response: Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Englehardt, James D; Swartout, Jeff

    2006-04-01

    The probability of illness caused by very low doses of pathogens cannot generally be tested due to the numbers of subjects that would be needed, though such assessments of illness dose response are needed to evaluate drinking water standards. A predictive Bayesian dose-response assessment method was proposed previously to assess the unconditional probability of illness from available information and avoid the inconsistencies of confidence-based approaches. However, the method uses knowledge of the conditional dose-response form, and this form is not well established for the illness endpoint. A conditional parametric dose-response function for gastroenteric illness is proposed here based on simple numerical models of self-organized host-pathogen systems and probabilistic arguments. In the models, illnesses terminate when the host evolves by processes of natural selection to a self-organized critical value of wellness. A generalized beta-Poisson illness dose-response form emerges for the population as a whole. Use of this form is demonstrated in a predictive Bayesian dose-response assessment for cryptosporidiosis. Results suggest that a maximum allowable dose of 5.0 x 10(-7) oocysts/exposure (e.g., 2.5 x 10(-7) oocysts/L water) would correspond with the original goals of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Surface Water Treatment Rule, considering only primary illnesses resulting from Poisson-distributed pathogen counts. This estimate should be revised to account for non-Poisson distributions of Cryptosporidium parvum in drinking water and total response, considering secondary illness propagation in the population. PMID:16573639

  6. 40 CFR 73.27 - Special allowance reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations ...unit's Allowance Tracking System Account according to the following...unit's Allowance Tracking System account according to the following...allowances shall be rounded down for decimals less than .5 and up for...

  7. 40 CFR 73.27 - Special allowance reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations ...unit's Allowance Tracking System Account according to the following...unit's Allowance Tracking System account according to the following...allowances shall be rounded down for decimals less than .5 and up for...

  8. 40 CFR 73.27 - Special allowance reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations ...unit's Allowance Tracking System Account according to the following...unit's Allowance Tracking System account according to the following...allowances shall be rounded down for decimals less than .5 and up for...

  9. 40 CFR 73.27 - Special allowance reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations ...unit's Allowance Tracking System Account according to the following...unit's Allowance Tracking System account according to the following...allowances shall be rounded down for decimals less than .5 and up for...

  10. 40 CFR 73.27 - Special allowance reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations ...unit's Allowance Tracking System Account according to the following...unit's Allowance Tracking System account according to the following...allowances shall be rounded down for decimals less than .5 and up for...

  11. A. Advertising and Signs Exterior signage is allowed for students sponsored activities, clubs and events to

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    A. Advertising and Signs Exterior signage is allowed for students sponsored activities, clubs and events to promote student participation. 1. Student organizations may use exterior signs to advertise. A maximum of three wood signs may be posted for advertising an activity, club or event. 4. All signs must

  12. Allowing for Correlations between Correlations in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis of Correlation Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevost, A. Toby; Mason, Dan; Griffin, Simon; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Sutton, Stephen; Spiegelhalter, David

    2007-01-01

    Practical meta-analysis of correlation matrices generally ignores covariances (and hence correlations) between correlation estimates. The authors consider various methods for allowing for covariances, including generalized least squares, maximum marginal likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, illustrated using a 6-dimensional response in a series of…

  13. Effect of Breathing Motion on Radiotherapy Dose Accumulation in the Abdomen Using Deformable Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Velec, Michael, E-mail: michael.velec@rmp.uhn.on.c [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Moseley, Joanne L. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Eccles, Cynthia L.; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.; Dawson, Laura A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of breathing motion and dose accumulation on the planned radiotherapy dose to liver tumors and normal tissues using deformable image registration. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one free-breathing stereotactic liver cancer radiotherapy patients, planned on static exhale computed tomography (CT) for 27-60 Gy in six fractions, were included. A biomechanical model-based deformable image registration algorithm retrospectively deformed each exhale CT to inhale CT. This deformation map was combined with exhale and inhale dose grids from the treatment planning system to accumulate dose over the breathing cycle. Accumulation was also investigated using a simple rigid liver-to-liver registration. Changes to tumor and normal tissue dose were quantified. Results: Relative to static plans, mean dose change (range) after deformable dose accumulation (as % of prescription dose) was -1 (-14 to 8) to minimum tumor, -4 (-15 to 0) to maximum bowel, -4 (-25 to 1) to maximum duodenum, 2 (-1 to 9) to maximum esophagus, -2 (-13 to 4) to maximum stomach, 0 (-3 to 4) to mean liver, and -1 (-5 to 1) and -2 (-7 to 1) to mean left and right kidneys. Compared to deformable registration, rigid modeling had changes up to 8% to minimum tumor and 7% to maximum normal tissues. Conclusion: Deformable registration and dose accumulation revealed potentially significant dose changes to either a tumor or normal tissue in the majority of cases as a result of breathing motion. These changes may not be accurately accounted for with rigid motion.

  14. Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Reduces the Dose to Normal Tissue Compared With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy or Passive Scattering Proton Therapy and Enables Individualized Radical Radiotherapy for Extensive Stage IIIB Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Virtual Clinical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaodong; Li Yupeng; Pan Xiaoning; Xiaoqiang, Li; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.or [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To compare dose volume histograms of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) with those of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) for the treatment of stage IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to explore the possibility of individualized radical radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose volume histograms designed to deliver IMRT at 60 to 63 Gy, PSPT at 74 Gy, and IMPT at the same doses were compared and the use of individualized radical radiotherapy was assessed in patients with extensive stage IIIB NSCLC (n = 10 patients for each approach). These patients were selected based on their extensive disease and were considered to have no or borderline tolerance to IMRT at 60 to 63 Gy, based on the dose to normal tissue volume constraints (lung volume receiving 20 Gy [V20] of <35%, total mean lung dose <20 Gy; spinal cord dose, <45 Gy). The possibility of increasing the total tumor dose with IMPT for each patient without exceeding the dose volume constraints (maximum tolerated dose [MTD]) was also investigated. Results: Compared with IMRT, IMPT spared more lung, heart, spinal cord, and esophagus, even with dose escalation from 63 Gy to 83.5 Gy, with a mean MTD of 74 Gy. Compared with PSPT, IMPT allowed further dose escalation from 74 Gy to a mean MTD of 84.4 Gy (range, 79.4-88.4 Gy) while all parameters of normal tissue sparing were kept at lower or similar levels. In addition, IMPT prevented lower-dose target coverage in patients with complicated tumor anatomies. Conclusions: IMPT reduces the dose to normal tissue and allows individualized radical radiotherapy for extensive stage IIIB NSCLC.

  15. Radiation dose in defecography

    SciTech Connect

    Goei, R.; Kemerink, G. (Univ. Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands))

    1990-07-01

    The effective dose equivalent, as an expression of total patient risk for exposure to limited areas of the body, and gonadal doses associated with hereditary effects were estimated in 67 consecutive subjects (43 women and 24 men) who underwent defecography. With use of measured entrance exposure values and data from Monte Carlo simulations, the mean effective dose equivalent was estimated at 4.9 mSv +/- 1.6 (490 mrem +/- 160) for women and 0.6 mSv +/- 0.2 (60 mrem +/- 20) for men. The ovarian dose was 15 mSv +/- 5 (1.5 rem +/- 0.5). The testes are not within the primary beam and therefore are exposed to scattered radiation only, hence the low received dose of 0.14 mSv or less (14 mrem or less). These data indicate that defecography is among the radiologic procedures associated with a considerable, but not extreme, radiation dose.

  16. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  17. Resident away rotations allow adaptive neurosurgical training.

    PubMed

    Gephart, Melanie Hayden; Derstine, Pamela; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Grady, M Sean; Burchiel, Kim; Batjer, H Hunt; Popp, A John; Barbaro, Nicholas M

    2015-04-01

    Subspecialization of physicians and regional centers concentrate the volume of certain rare cases into fewer hospitals. Consequently, the primary institution of a neurological surgery training program may not have sufficient case volume to meet the current Residency Review Committee case minimum requirements in some areas. To ensure the competency of graduating residents through a comprehensive neurosurgical education, programs may need for residents to travel to outside institutions for exposure to cases that are either less common or more regionally focused. We sought to evaluate off-site rotations to better understand the changing demographics and needs of resident education. This would also allow prospective monitoring of modifications to the neurosurgery training landscape. We completed a survey of neurosurgery program directors and query of data from the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education to characterize the current use of away rotations in neurosurgical education of residents. We found that 20% of programs have mandatory away rotations, most commonly for exposure to pediatric, functional, peripheral nerve, or trauma cases. Most of these rotations are done during postgraduate year 3 to 6, lasting 1 to 15 months. Twenty-six programs have 2 to 3 participating sites and 41 have 4 to 6 sites distinct from the host program. Programs frequently offset potential financial harm to residents rotating at a distant site by support of housing and transportation costs. As medical systems experience fluctuating treatment paradigms and demographics, over time, more residency programs may adapt to meet the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education case minimum requirements through the implementation of away rotations. PMID:25635889

  18. Limitations of the maximum entropy principle in devising drug input rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Paintaud; C. W. Maboundou; L. Helleday; G. Alván

    1995-01-01

    A computer program applying the principle of maximum entropy to the analysis of drug absorption rate has been developed. Plasma concentrations of amoxicillin obtained after oral and intravenous dosing have been analysed, together with simulated data corresponding to a complex input.

  19. Radiation dose in CT.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, L N; Pentlow, K S

    1992-11-01

    The energy deposited in the patient by the rotating x-ray beam in computed tomography produces more uniform absorbed dose values within the section of imaged tissue than those produced in conventional radiologic procedures. The dose values within a specific section are determined by factors such as voltage, current, scan time, scan field, rotation angle, filtration, collimation, and section thickness and spacing. For routine dose determinations, a pencil ionization chamber is usually employed with a plastic phantom. Dose for a specific patient can be determined with thermoluminescent dosimeters placed on the patient. Multiple-scan procedures normally increase the dose in a specific section by less than a factor of two. Typical multiple-scan average doses are in the range of 40-60 mGy for head scans and 10-40 mGy for body scans. Integral dose, however, is directly proportional to the number of sections in an examination. When examination factors are changed to reduce dose, the image noise increases. An optimum protocol is one that results in a balance between dose and image quality. PMID:1439023

  20. Effect of jaw size in megavoltage CT on image quality and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Jae Hong; Cho, Kwang Hwan; Kim, Yong Ho; Moon, Seong Kwon; Min, Chul Kee; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Eun Seog; Chang, Ah Ram; Kim, Tae Ho; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Suh, Tae-Suk; Huh, Hyun Do [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon 1174, Korea and Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon 1174 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan 23-20 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul 657 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 505 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Inha University of Korea, Incheon 7-206 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Recently, the jaw size for the TomoTherapy Hi-Art II{sup Registered-Sign} (TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI) was reduced from 4 mm (J4) to 1 mm (J1) to improve the longitudinal (IEC-Y) resolution in megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images. This study evaluated the effect of jaw size on the image quality and dose, as well as the dose delivered to the lens of the eye, which is a highly radiosensitive tissue. Methods: MVCT image quality (image noise, uniformity, contrast linearity, high-contrast resolution, and full width at half-maximum) and multiple scan average dose (MSAD) were measured at different jaw sizes. A head phantom and photoluminescence glass dosimeters (PLDs) were used to measure the exposed lens dose (cGy). Different MVCT scan modes (pitch = 1, 2, and 3) and scan lengths (108 mm, 156 mm, and 204 mm) were applied in the MSAD and PLDs measurements. Results: The change in jaw size from J4 to J1 produced no change or only a slight improvement in image noise, uniformity, contrast linearity, and high-contrast resolution. However, the full-width at half-maximum reduced from approximately 7.2 at J4 to 4.5 mm at J1, which represents an enhancement in the longitudinal resolution. The MSAD at the center point changed from approximately 0.69-2.32 cGy (peripheral: 0.83-2.49 cGy) at J4 to 0.85-2.81 cGy (peripheral: 1.05-2.86 cGy) at J1. The measured lens dose increased from 0.92-3.36 cGy at J4 to 1.06-3.91 cGy at J1. Conclusions: The change in jaw size improved longitudinal resolution. The MVCT imaging dose of approximately 3.86 cGy, 1.92 cGy, and 1.22 cGy was delivered at a pitch of 1, 2, and 3, respectively, per fraction in the head and neck treatment plans. Therefore, allowance for an approximately 15% increase in lens dose over that with J4 should be provided with J1.

  1. Biologically Based Dose-Response Modeling. What is the potential for accurate description of the biological linkages in the applied dose - tissue dose-health effect continuum?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given knowledge of exposure, the shape of the dose response curve is the key to predicting health risk, which in turn determines allowable levels of exposure and the associated economic costs of compliance....

  2. Maximum Electrical Stimulation for Urge Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Nakamura; Tsutomu Sakurai; Hideki Sugao; Takao Sonoda

    1987-01-01

    Urge incontinence was controlled in 13 (62%) of 21 patients by maximum electrical stimulation which was applied to the anus or the perianal skin. The first session of maximum electrical stimulation was able to determine if this treatment would be successful. This method of patient selection for further stimulation was simple and reliable and achieved clinical success in all of

  3. Maximum entropy principle and nonlinear stochastic oscillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sobczyk; J. Trebicki

    1993-01-01

    The principle of maximum entropy introduced first in physics and successfully applied in many other fields (e.g. statistics, reliability estimation, simulation) has recently been developed to analyze the systems governed by stochastic differential equations. In this paper we extend the maximum entropy method to the general class of stochastic nonlinear systems and apply it to stochastic nonlinear oscillators. To indicate

  4. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

  5. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR GENERALISED LOGISTIC DISTRIBUTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quanxi Shao

    2002-01-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation for the type I generalised logistic distributions is investigated. We show that the maximum likelihood estimation usually exists, except when the so-called embedded model problem occurs. A full set of embedded distributions is derived, including Gumbel distribution and a two-parameter reciprocal exponential distribution. Properties relating the embedded distributions are given. We also provide criteria to determine when

  6. On bias in maximum likelihood estimators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Mardia; H. R. Southworth; C. C. Taylor

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that maximum likelihood estimators are often biased, and it is of use to estimate the expected bias so that we can reduce the mean square errors of our parameter estimates. Expressions for estimating the bias in maximum likelihood estimates have been given by Cox and Hinkley (1974), (Theoretical Statistics, Chapman & Hall, London). In this paper,

  7. Maximum-Likelihood Stereo Correspondence using Field

    E-print Network

    MacLean, W. James

    estimation. 1 Introduction Stereo vision makes use of two images from different view points to construct) motion-compensated stereo estimation. 2 Maximum-Likelihood Stereo Vision Dense stereo correspondence mayMaximum-Likelihood Stereo Correspondence using Field Programmable Gate Arrays Siraj Sabihuddin & W

  8. A new maximum power point tracking system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. A. Teulings; J. C. Marpinard; A. Capel; D. O'Sullivan

    1993-01-01

    In power systems involving a load, a battery and a solar array, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) is a promising principle to extract the maximum amount of energy from the solar array and distribute it to the battery and loads. A digital hill-climbing control strategy combined with a bidirectional current mode power cell is presented that makes it possible to

  9. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Finn Ã?rup

    Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Neural Networks Finn A ffi rup Nielsen Section for Digital Signal, 1998 OVERVIEW ffl Artificial neural networks ffl Maximum likelihood, MAP, MPL neural networks ffl Bayesian neural networks -- MCMC Bayesian neural networks \\Lambda Hybrid Monte Carlo ffl lyngby matlab

  10. Dose reconstruction in deforming lung anatomy: Dose grid size effects and clinical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosu, Mihaela; Chetty, Indrin J.; Balter, James M.; Kessler, Marc L.; McShan, Daniel L.; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0010 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    In this study we investigated the accumulation of dose to a deforming anatomy (such as lung) based on voxel tracking and by using time weighting factors derived from a breathing probability distribution function (p.d.f.). A mutual information registration scheme (using thin-plate spline warping) provided a transformation that allows the tracking of points between exhale and inhale treatment planning datasets (and/or intermediate state scans). The dose distributions were computed at the same resolution on each dataset using the Dose Planning Method (DPM) Monte Carlo code. Two accumulation/interpolation approaches were assessed. The first maps exhale dose grid points onto the inhale scan, estimates the doses at the 'tracked' locations by trilinear interpolation and scores the accumulated doses (via the p.d.f.) on the original exhale data set. In the second approach, the 'volume' associated with each exhale dose grid point (exhale dose voxel) is first subdivided into octants, the center of each octant is mapped to locations on the inhale dose grid and doses are estimated by trilinear interpolation. The octant doses are then averaged to form the inhale voxel dose and scored at the original exhale dose grid point location. Differences between the interpolation schemes are voxel size and tissue density dependent, but in general appear primarily only in regions with steep dose gradients (e.g., penumbra). Their magnitude (small regions of few percent differences) is less than the alterations in dose due to positional and shape changes from breathing in the first place. Thus, for sufficiently small dose grid point spacing, and relative to organ motion and deformation, differences due solely to the interpolation are unlikely to result in clinically significant differences to volume-based evaluation metrics such as mean lung dose (MLD) and tumor equivalent uniform dose (gEUD). The overall effects of deformation vary among patients. They depend on the tumor location, field size, volume expansion, tissue heterogeneity, and direction of tumor displacement with respect to the beam, and are more likely to have an impact on serial organs (such as esophagus), rather than on large parallel organs (such as lung)

  11. The problem of permissible doses of irradiation for biota

    SciTech Connect

    Korogodin, V.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    The dose of acute irradiation or of chronic irradiation under which the biota`s functioning is not disturbed is suggested as a permissible dose of irradiation for biota. On the basis of many separate experiments and observations, doses of chronic irradiation 1-3 gy/year are supposed to be permissible for higher plants and animals. The irradiation tolerance of microorganisms is considerably higher. The permissible doses of irradiation for the biota and for human beings are compared. The accepted maximum tolerance dose of irradiation of 10{sup -3} gy/year for humans is determined to be groundless. We propose substituting the term {open_quotes}permissible dose.{close_quotes} 28 refs., 3 figs.

  12. How cloud radiative forcing could allow Snowball Earth deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Neoproterozoic, and possibly Paleoproterozoic, glaciations represent the most extreme climate events in post-Hadean Earth, and may link closely with the evolution of the atmosphere and life. According to the Snowball Earth hypothesis, the entire ocean was covered with ice during these events for a few million years, during which time volcanic CO2 increased enough to cause deglaciation. Geochemical proxy data and geochemical model calculations suggest that the maximum CO2 was 0.01-0.1 by volume, but early climate modeling suggested that the Snowball was not even close to deglaciation at CO2=0.2. Unless resolved, this discrepancy would be problematic for the Snowball Earth hypothesis. First, I will present results from six GCMs suggesting that positive cloud radiative forcing would likely have warmed a Snowball Earth enough to reduce the CO2 required for deglaciation by a factor of 10-100. Next, I will present results from a cloud resolving model run on a small domain that are consistent with the GCM results and allow us to understand the GCM behavior better. The cloud resolving model produces convection that extends vertically to a similar temperature as modern tropical convection. This convection produces clouds that resemble stratocumulus clouds under an inversion on modern Earth, which slowly dissipate by sedimentation of cloud ice. There is enough cloud ice for the clouds to be optically thick in the longwave, and the resulting cloud radiative forcing is similar to that produced in GCMs run in Snowball conditions. This result is robust to large changes in the cloud microphysics scheme because the cloud longwave forcing, which dominates the total forcing, is relatively insensitive to cloud amount and particle size. Taken together, these results from a hierarchy of models suggest that positive cloud radiative forcing would warm a Snowball Earth enough to allow deglaciation at a CO2 consistent with geochemical data.

  13. Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Groundwater Concentrations for Basement Fill Model. Zion Station Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Terry [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental, and Climate Sciences Dept.

    2014-12-02

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant dose not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y?¹. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on contaminant concentrations in the fill material; (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use in dose assessment calculations; (c) Estimate the maximum concentration in a well located outside of the fill material; and (d) Perform a sensitivity analysis of key parameters.

  14. BENCHMARK DOSE SOFTWARE (BMDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced the latest update to the Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) tool which is used to facilitate the application of benchmark dose (BMD) methods to EPA hazardous pollutant risk assessments. This latest version (1.4.1b) contains seventeen (17) different models that ar...

  15. Dialysis dose and frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Locatelli; Umberto Buoncristiani; Bernard Canaud; Hans Kohler; Thierry Petitclerc; Pietro Zucchelli; Ospedale A. Manzoni; CHU Montpellier; Schwerpunkt Nephrologie

    2004-01-01

    Background. From the beginning of the dialysis era, the issue of optimal dialysis dose and frequency has been a central topic in the delivery of dialysis treatment. Methods. We undertook a discussion to achieve a consensus on key points relating to dialysis dose and frequency, focusing on the relationships with clinical and patient outcomes. Results. Traditionally, dialysis adequacy has been

  16. Maximum work extraction and implementation costs for nonequilibrium Maxwell's demons.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Henrik; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Newton, Nigel J; Mitter, Sanjoy K

    2014-10-01

    We determine the maximum amount of work extractable in finite time by a demon performing continuous measurements on a quadratic Hamiltonian system subjected to thermal fluctuations, in terms of the information extracted from the system. The maximum work demon is found to apply a high-gain continuous feedback involving a Kalman-Bucy estimate of the system state and operates in nonequilibrium. A simple and concrete electrical implementation of the feedback protocol is proposed, which allows for analytic expressions of the flows of energy, entropy, and information inside the demon. This let us show that any implementation of the demon must necessarily include an external power source, which we prove both from classical thermodynamics arguments and from a version of Landauer's memory erasure argument extended to nonequilibrium linear systems. PMID:25375450

  17. Maximum work extraction and implementation costs for nonequilibrium Maxwell's demons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Henrik; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Newton, Nigel J.; Mitter, Sanjoy K.

    2014-10-01

    We determine the maximum amount of work extractable in finite time by a demon performing continuous measurements on a quadratic Hamiltonian system subjected to thermal fluctuations, in terms of the information extracted from the system. The maximum work demon is found to apply a high-gain continuous feedback involving a Kalman-Bucy estimate of the system state and operates in nonequilibrium. A simple and concrete electrical implementation of the feedback protocol is proposed, which allows for analytic expressions of the flows of energy, entropy, and information inside the demon. This let us show that any implementation of the demon must necessarily include an external power source, which we prove both from classical thermodynamics arguments and from a version of Landauer's memory erasure argument extended to nonequilibrium linear systems.

  18. A Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-Field Type

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Daniel, E-mail: danieand@math.kth.se; Djehiche, Boualem, E-mail: boualem@math.kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    We study the optimal control of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of mean-field type, where the coefficients are allowed to depend on some functional of the law as well as the state of the process. Moreover the cost functional is also of mean-field type, which makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. Under the assumption of a convex action space a maximum principle of local form is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. These are also shown to be sufficient under additional assumptions. This maximum principle differs from the classical one, where the adjoint equation is a linear backward SDE, since here the adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE. As an illustration, we apply the result to the mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

  19. Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packard Hospital, Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (United States); EBG MedAustron, Wiener Neustadt, Austria A2700 (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

  20. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 ...OTHER SYSTEMS Student-Employees... First year college undergraduate... Fourth year college undergraduate...maximum money amount in each...agency may pay a student-employee...

  1. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  2. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  3. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  4. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  5. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  6. On the efficiency at maximum cooling power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Michot, A.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2013-08-01

    The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of heat engines operating as generators is one corner stone of finite-time thermodynamics, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency \\eta_CA being considered as a universal upper bound. Yet, no valid counterpart to \\eta_CA has been derived for the efficiency at maximum cooling power (EMCP) for heat engines operating as refrigerators. In this letter we analyse the reasons of the failure to obtain such a bound and we demonstrate that, despite the introduction of several optimisation criteria, the maximum cooling power condition should be considered as the genuine equivalent of maximum power condition in the finite-time thermodynamics frame. We then propose and discuss an analytic expression for the EMCP in the specific case of exoreversible refrigerators.

  7. Incremental Network Design with Maximum Flows

    E-print Network

    2013-12-21

    Dec 21, 2013 ... Incremental Network Design with Maximum Flows. Thomas ... optimization problems capturing that feature and combining two types of ...... The following computational tools were used to develop and analyze the formulations.

  8. A real time dose monitoring and dose reconstruction tool for patient specific VMAT QA and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Neelam; Yang Kai; Gersten, David; Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, 3601 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a real time dose monitoring and dose reconstruction tool to identify and quantify sources of errors during patient specific volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery and quality assurance. Methods: The authors develop a VMAT delivery monitor tool called linac data monitor that connects to the linac in clinical mode and records, displays, and compares real time machine parameters with the planned parameters. A new measure, called integral error, keeps a running total of leaf overshoot and undershoot errors in each leaf pair, multiplied by leaf width, and the amount of time during which the error exists in monitor unit delivery. Another tool reconstructs Pinnacle{sup 3} Trade-Mark-Sign format delivered plan based on the saved machine logfile and recalculates actual delivered dose in patient anatomy. Delivery characteristics of various standard fractionation and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) VMAT plans delivered on Elekta Axesse and Synergy linacs were quantified. Results: The MLC and gantry errors for all the treatment sites were 0.00 {+-} 0.59 mm and 0.05 {+-} 0.31 Degree-Sign , indicating a good MLC gain calibration. Standard fractionation plans had a larger gantry error than SBRT plans due to frequent dose rate changes. On average, the MLC errors were negligible but larger errors of up to 6 mm and 2.5 Degree-Sign were seen when dose rate varied frequently. Large gantry errors occurred during the acceleration and deceleration process, and correlated well with MLC errors (r= 0.858, p= 0.0004). PTV mean, minimum, and maximum dose discrepancies were 0.87 {+-} 0.21%, 0.99 {+-} 0.59%, and 1.18 {+-} 0.52%, respectively. The organs at risk (OAR) doses were within 2.5%, except some OARs that showed up to 5.6% discrepancy in maximum dose. Real time displayed normalized total positive integral error (normalized to the total monitor units) correlated linearly with MLC (r= 0.9279, p < 0.001) and gantry errors (r= 0.742, p= 0.005). There is a strong correlation between total integral error and PTV mean (r= 0.683, p= 0.015), minimum (r= 0.6147, p= 0.033), and maximum dose (r= 0.6038, p= 0.0376). Conclusions: Errors may exist during complex VMAT planning and delivery. Linac data monitor is capable of detecting and quantifying mechanical and dosimetric errors at various stages of planning and delivery.

  9. Know your dose: RADDOSE

    PubMed Central

    Paithankar, Karthik S.; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2010-01-01

    The program RADDOSE is widely used to compute the dose absorbed by a macromolecular crystal during an X-ray diffraction experiment. A number of factors affect the absorbed dose, including the incident X-ray flux density, the photon energy and the composition of the macromolecule and of the buffer in the crystal. An experimental dose limit for macromolecular crystallography (MX) of 30?MGy at 100?K has been reported, beyond which the biological information obtained may be compromised. Thus, for the planning of an optimized diffraction experiment the estimation of dose has become an additional tool. A number of approximations were made in the original version of RADDOSE. Recently, the code has been modified in order to take into account fluorescent X-­ray escape from the crystal (version 2) and the inclusion of incoherent (Compton) scattering into the dose calculation is now reported (version 3). The Compton cross-section, although negligible at the energies currently commonly used in MX, should be considered in dose calculations for incident energies above 20?keV. Calculations using version 3 of RADDOSE reinforce previous studies that predict a reduction in the absorbed dose when data are collected at higher energies compared with data collected at 12.4?keV. Hence, a longer irradiation lifetime for the sample can be achieved at these higher energies but this is at the cost of lower diffraction intensities. The parameter ‘diffraction-dose efficiency’, which is the diffracted intensity per absorbed dose, is revisited in an attempt to investigate the benefits and pitfalls of data collection using higher and lower energy radiation, particularly for thin crystals. PMID:20382991

  10. On minimizing maximum transient energy growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Whidborne; John McKernan; Anthony J. Steer

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The problem of minimizing the maximum,transient energy growth is considered. This problem has importance in some fluid flow control problems and other classes of non-linear systems. Conditions for the existence of static controllers that restrict the maximum,transient energy growth to unity are established. An explicit parametrization of all linear controllers ensuring monotonic decrease of the transient energy is derived.

  11. Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, P.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.

    2012-06-01

    We introduce the application of maximum-likelihood (ML) principles to the image reconstruction problem in coherent diffractive imaging. We describe an implementation of the optimization procedure for ptychography, using conjugate gradients and including preconditioning strategies, regularization and typical modifications of the statistical noise model. The optimization principle is compared to a difference map reconstruction algorithm. With simulated data important improvements are observed, as measured by a strong increase in the signal-to-noise ratio. Significant gains in resolution and sensitivity are also demonstrated in the ML refinement of a reconstruction from experimental x-ray data. The immediate consequence of our results is the possible reduction of exposure, or dose, by up to an order of magnitude for a reconstruction quality similar to iterative algorithms currently in use.

  12. 40 CFR 141.65 - Maximum residual disinfectant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.65 Maximum residual disinfectant levels. (a) Maximum...

  13. 24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

  14. 24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

  15. 24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

  16. 24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

  17. On testing of the maximum magnitude based on catalog data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holschneider, Matthias; Zoeller, Gert; Hainzl, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    We discuss what can be learned from catalogue data alone about the maximum magnitude of earthquakes within a region in the context of a doubly truncated Gutenberg Richter law. We consider present day catalogs as well as paleoseismic data. We show that present day catalogs do not allow the estimation of of the maxmimum magnitude with sufficient confidence. The results will be presented in the language of testing and of confidence intervals. This sheds a new light on the parameter Mmax and its usefulness for hazard estimation.

  18. Single and Multiple-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Dose Proportionality of the Psychotropic Agent Paliperidone Extended Release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Boom; Krishna Talluri; Luc Janssens; Bart Remmerie; Marc De Meulder; Stefaan Rossenu; Nancy van Osselaer; Marielle Eerdekens; Adriaan Cleton

    2009-01-01

    Paliperidone extended-release tablet (paliperidone ER) is a centrally active dopamine D2- and serotonergic 5-HT2A-receptor antagonist that is registered for the treatment of schizophrenia. The controlled rate of release of paliperidone from the ER formulation is designed to have a slower absorption rate, which results in gradual ascending plasma concentrations with observed maximum plasma concentrations occurring at 24 hours after dosing

  19. VirtualDose: a software for reporting organ doses from CT for adult and pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ding, Aiping; Gao, Yiming; Liu, Haikuan; Caracappa, Peter F; Long, Daniel J; Bolch, Wesley E; Liu, Bob; Xu, X George

    2015-07-21

    This paper describes the development and testing of VirtualDose-a software for reporting organ doses for adult and pediatric patients who undergo x-ray computed tomography (CT) examinations. The software is based on a comprehensive database of organ doses derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations involving a library of 25 anatomically realistic phantoms that represent patients of different ages, body sizes, body masses, and pregnant stages. Models of GE Lightspeed Pro 16 and Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 scanners were carefully validated for use in MC dose calculations. The software framework is designed with the 'software as a service (SaaS)' delivery concept under which multiple clients can access the web-based interface simultaneously from any computer without having to install software locally. The RESTful web service API also allows a third-party picture archiving and communication system software package to seamlessly integrate with VirtualDose's functions. Software testing showed that VirtualDose was compatible with numerous operating systems including Windows, Linux, Apple OS X, and mobile and portable devices. The organ doses from VirtualDose were compared against those reported by CT-Expo and ImPACT-two dosimetry tools that were based on the stylized pediatric and adult patient models that were known to be anatomically simple. The organ doses reported by VirtualDose differed from those reported by CT-Expo and ImPACT by as much as 300% in some of the patient models. These results confirm the conclusion from past studies that differences in anatomical realism offered by stylized and voxel phantoms have caused significant discrepancies in CT dose estimations. PMID:26134511

  20. Acetaminophen dosing for children

    MedlinePLUS

    Taking acetaminophen (Tylenol) can help children with colds and fever feel better. As with all drugs, it is important to give children the correct dose. Acetaminophen is safe when taken as directed. But taking ...

  1. Cord Dose Specification and Validation for Stereotactic Body Radiosurgery of Spine

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shidong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: Shidong.Li@thus.temple.edu; Liu Yan; Chen Qing; Jin Jianyue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States) Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Effective dose to a portion of the spinal cord in treatment segment, rather than the maximum point dose in the cord surface, was set as the dose limit in stereotactic-body radiosurgery (SBRS) of spine. Such a cord dose specification is sensitive to the volume size and position errors. Thus, we used stereotactic image guidance to minimize phantom positioning errors and compared the results of a 0.6-cm{sup 3} Farmer ionization chamber and a 0.01-cm{sup 3} compact ionization chamber to determine the detector size effect on 9 SBRS cases. The experimental errors ranging from 2% to 7% were estimated by the deviation of the mean dose in plans to the chamber with spatial displacements of 0.5 mm. The mean and measured doses for the large chamber to individual cases were significantly ({approx}17%) higher than the doses with the compact chamber placed at the same point. Our experimental results shown that the mean doses to the volume of interest could represent the measured cord doses. For the 9 patients, the mean doses to 10% of the cord were about 10 Gy, while the maximum cord doses varied from 11.6 to 17.6 Gy. The mean dose, possibly correlated with the cord complication, provided us an alternative and reliable cord dose specification in SBRS of spine.

  2. Policy #1050 Business Related Travel Allowance 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Policy #1050 ­ Business Related Travel Allowance 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #1050 BUSINESS-RELATED TRAVEL ALLOWANCE Responsible Oversight Executive: Vice President. POLICY STATEMENT With the approval of the President, a business-related travel allowance may

  3. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

  4. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

  5. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

  6. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

  7. 38 CFR 21.332 - Payments of subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Payments of subsistence allowance. 21.332 Section 21.332 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...Allowance and Training and Rehabilitation Services § 21.332 Payments of subsistence allowance. (a)...

  8. 38 CFR 21.332 - Payments of subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Payments of subsistence allowance. 21.332 Section 21.332 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...Allowance and Training and Rehabilitation Services § 21.332 Payments of subsistence allowance. (a)...

  9. 42 CFR 136.340 - Provision of continuing education allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Provision of continuing education allowances. 136...136.340 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...HEALTH Indian Health Care Improvement...J-5-Continuing Education Allowances § 136...Provision of continuing education allowances. ...dentists and other health...

  10. 42 CFR 136.340 - Provision of continuing education allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Provision of continuing education allowances. 136...136.340 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...HEALTH Indian Health Care Improvement...J-5-Continuing Education Allowances § 136...Provision of continuing education allowances. ...dentists and other health...

  11. 42 CFR 136.340 - Provision of continuing education allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Provision of continuing education allowances. 136...136.340 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...HEALTH Indian Health Care Improvement...J-5-Continuing Education Allowances § 136...Provision of continuing education allowances. ...dentists and other health...

  12. 42 CFR 136.340 - Provision of continuing education allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Provision of continuing education allowances. 136...136.340 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...HEALTH Indian Health Care Improvement...J-5-Continuing Education Allowances § 136...Provision of continuing education allowances. ...dentists and other health...

  13. 42 CFR 136.340 - Provision of continuing education allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Provision of continuing education allowances. 136...136.340 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...HEALTH Indian Health Care Improvement...J-5-Continuing Education Allowances § 136...Provision of continuing education allowances. ...dentists and other health...

  14. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

  15. Studies of Limits on Uncontrolled Heavy Ion Beam Losses for Allowing Hands-On Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Reginald M. Ronningen; Igor Remec

    2010-09-11

    Dose rates from accelerator components activated by 1 W/m beam losses are obtained semiempirically for a 1 GeV proton beam and by use of Monte Carlo transport codes for the proton beam and for 777 MeV/u 3He, 500 MeV/u 48Ca, 86Kr, 136Xe, and 400 MeV/u 238U ions. The dose rate obtained by the semi-empirical method, 0.99 mSv/h (99 mrem/h) at 30 cm, 4 h after 100 d irradiation by a 1-GeV proton beam, is consistent with studies at several accelerator facilities and with adopted hands-on maintenance dose rate limits. Monte Carlo simulations verify this result for protons and extend studies to heavy ion beam losses in drift-tube linac and superconducting linac accelerating structures. The studies indicate that the 1 W/m limit imposed on uncontrolled beam losses for high-energy proton beams might be relaxed for heavy ion beams. These studies further suggest that using the ratio of neutrons produced by a heavy ion beam to neutrons produced by a proton beam along with the dose rate from the proton beam (for thin-target scenarios) should allow an estimate of the dose rates expected from heavy ion beam losses.

  16. Comparison of 2D and 3D Imaging and Treatment Planning for Postoperative Vaginal Apex High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, James K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Armeson, Kent E. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Richardson, Susan, E-mail: srichardson@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate bladder and rectal doses using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D treatment planning for vaginal cuff high-dose rate (HDR) in endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2007 were evaluated. Seventy-one and 20 patients underwent 2D and 3D planning, respectively. Each patient received six fractions prescribed at 0.5 cm to the superior 3 cm of the vagina. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) doses were calculated for 2D patients. Maximum and 2-cc doses were calculated for 3D patients. Organ doses were normalized to prescription dose. Results: Bladder maximum doses were 178% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were no different than ICRU doses (p = 0.22). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 59% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Rectal maximum doses were 137% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 87% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 64% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final bladder dose to within 10% for 44%, 59%, 83%, 82%, and 89% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 45%, 55%, 80%, 85%, and 85% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 37%, 68%, 79%, 79%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final rectal dose to within 10% for 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 75% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 68%, 95%, 84%, 84%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Conclusions: Doses to organs at risk vary depending on the calculation method. In some cases, final dose accuracy appears to plateau after the third fraction, indicating that simulation and planning may not be necessary in all fractions. A clinically relevant level of accuracy should be determined and further research conducted to address this issue.

  17. Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information

    E-print Network

    B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

    2014-04-29

    Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

  18. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with tomotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase i, docetaxel dose-escalation study, with hypofractionated radiation regimen

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy is demonstrately superior to sequential chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer not suitable for surgery. Docetaxel is considered to enhance the cytotoxic effect of radiotherapy on the tumour cells. Tomotherapy (HT) is a novel radiotherapeutic technique, which allows the delivery of Image Guided-IMRT (IG-IMRT), with a highly conformal radiation dose distribution. The goal of the study was to estimate tolerability of Docetaxel concurrent with IMRT and to find the maximum tolerated dose of weekly Docetaxel concurrent with IMRT delivered with HT Tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy with Cisplatin and Docetaxel in patients affected with stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Methods We designed a phase I, dose-finding study to determine the dose of weekly Docetaxel concurrent with Tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy, in patients affected by Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Stage III disease, not suitable for surgery. Results Concurrent weekly Docetaxel and Tomotherapy are feasible; we did not reach a maximum tolerated dose, because no life-threatening toxicity was observed, stopping the accrual at a level of weekly docetaxel 38 mg/m2, a greater dose than in previous assessments, from both phase-I studies with weekly docetaxel alone and with Docetaxel concomitant with standard radiotherapy. Conclusions Concurrent weekly Docetaxel and Tomotherapy are feasible, and even with Docetaxel at 38 mg/m2/week we did not observe any limiting toxicity. For those patients who completed the combined chemo-radio treatment, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 20 months and median overall survival (OS) was 24 months. PMID:24176164

  19. The Distribution of Maximum Relative Gravitational Torques in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buta, R.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.

    2004-01-01

    The maximum value of the ratio of the tangential force to the mean background radial force is a useful quantitative measure of the strength of nonaxisymmetric perturbations in disk galaxies. Here we consider the distribution of this ratio, called Qg, for a statistically well-defined sample of 180 spiral galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey and the Two Micron All Sky Survey. The ratio Qg can be interpreted as the maximum gravitational torque per unit mass per unit square of the circular speed and is derived from gravitational potentials inferred from near-infrared images under the assumptions of a constant mass-to-light ratio and an exponential vertical density law. In order to derive the most reliable maximum relative torques, orientation parameters based on blue-light isophotes are used to deproject the galaxies, and the more spherical shapes of bulges are taken into account using two-dimensional decompositions that allow for analytical fits to bulges, disks, and bars. Also, vertical scale heights hz are derived by scaling the radial scale lengths hR from the two-dimensional decompositions, allowing for the type dependence of hR/hz indicated by optical and near-infrared studies of edge-on spiral galaxies. The impact of dark matter is assessed using a ``universal rotation curve'' parameterization and is found to be relatively insignificant for our sample. In agreement with a previous study by Block et al., the distribution of maximum relative gravitational torques is asymmetric toward large values and shows a deficiency of low-Qg galaxies. However, because of the above refinements, our distribution shows more low-Qg galaxies than that of Block et al. We also find a significant type dependence in maximum relative gravitational torques, in the sense that Qg is lower on average in early-type spirals than in late-type spirals. The effect persists even when the sample is separated into bar-dominated and spiral-dominated subsamples and also when near-infrared types are used, as opposed to optical types.

  20. Connection between maximum-work and maximum-power thermal cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Ayala, Julian; Arias-Hernandez, L. A.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2013-11-01

    A new connection between maximum-power Curzon-Ahlborn thermal cycles and maximum-work reversible cycles is proposed. This linkage is built through a mapping between the exponents of a class of heat transfer laws and the exponents of a family of heat capacities depending on temperature. This connection leads to the recovery of known results and to a wide and interesting set of results for a class of thermal cycles. Among other results it was found that it is possible to use analytically closed expressions for maximum-work efficiencies to calculate good approaches to maximum-power efficiencies. Behind the proposed connection is an interpretation of endoreversibility hypothesis. Additionally, we suggest that certain reversible maximum-work cycles depending on working substance can be used as reversible landmarks for FTT maximum-power cycles, which also depend on working substance properties.

  1. Depth dose characteristics of electron beams at extended SSDS.

    PubMed

    Gunhan, Basri; Karaçam, Songül; Koca, Ayse; Demir, Bayram; Emre, Dervis; Akin, Nil

    The purpec: of this study is to investigate the behaviour of the percent depth dose curves (%DD) and surface doses of electronbeams at extended Source-to Surface Distances (SSDS). A (GE) Saturne 42 linear accelerator was used in this study, which produces dual photon energies of 6 and 15 MV as well as eight electron energies ranging between 4.5 and 21 MeV. The % Depth Dose curves were geneated with water scanning equipment at 6, 9, and 15 MeV for 4x4 cm(2) and 20x20 cm(2) field sizes at SSDS of 100 cm, 108 cm, and 115 cm. According to the measurements from surface to the depth of dose maximum the surface dose increased for all of the electron energies studied at extended SSDS for small field sizes. On the other hand for larger field sizes the surface doses decreased at extended SSDS. It was also observed that the increase in the surface dose diminished as the field size approached to 10x10cm(2) then the surface dose started decreasing at extended SSDS as the field sizes increased. Extended SSDS have no observable effect on the tail portion of the depth dose curves. PMID:18348849

  2. A phase 1 study with dose expansion of the CDK inhibitor dinaciclib (SCH 727965) in combination with epirubicin in patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Zahi; Karakas, Cansu; Wei, Caimiao; Briones, Brian; Simmons, Holly; Ibrahim, Nuhad; Alvarez, Ricardo; Murray, James L; Keyomarsi, Khandan; Moulder, Stacy

    2015-08-01

    Purpose, Low molecular weight cyclin E (LMW-E) isoforms, overexpressed in a majority (~70 %) of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC), were found in preclinical models to mediate tumorigenesis through binding and activation of CDK2. CDK1/CDK2 inhibitors, such as dinaciclib, combined with anthracyclines, were synergistic in decreasing viability of TNBC cell lines. Based on this data, a phase 1 study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose of dinaciclib in combination with epirubicin in patients with metastatic TNBC. Methods, Cohorts of at least 2 patients were treated with escalating doses of dinaciclib given on day 1 followed by standard dose of epirubicin given on day 2 of a 21 day cycle. No intra-patient dose escalation was allowed. An adaptive accrual design based upon toxicity during cycle 1 determined entry into therapy cohorts. The target acceptable dose limiting toxicity (DLT) to advance to the next treatment level was 30 %. Results, Between 9/18/2012 and 7/18/2013, 9 patients were enrolled and treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center. DLTs included febrile neutropenia (grade 3, n?=?2), syncope (grade 3, n?=?2) and vomiting (grade 3, n?=?1). Dose escalation did not proceed past the second cohort due to toxicity. After further accrual, the first dose level was also found to be too toxic. No treatment responses were noted, median time to progression was 5.5 weeks (range 3-12 weeks). Thus, accrual was stopped rather than explore the -1 dose level. Conclusion, The combination of dinaciclib and epirubicin is associated with substantial toxicities and does not appear to be an effective treatment option for TNBC. PMID:25947565

  3. Radiation dose estimates from timepieces containing tritium or promethium-147 in radioluminous paints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. McDowell-Boyer; F. R. ODonnell

    1978-01-01

    Potential radiation doses from the distribution, use, repair, and disposal of timepieces containing tritium (H-3) or promethium-147 (Pm-147) in radioluminous paint were estimated for the United States population. Under typical conditions, a maximum annual whole-body dose from H-3 of 0.9 mrem\\/year was estimated for repairmen, while a maximum of 0.3 mrem\\/ year was estimated for watch wearers from Pm-147. The

  4. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

    1993-11-01

    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets.

  5. SD of maximum Stem Diameter (in cm)

    E-print Network

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    SD of maximum Stem Diameter (in cm) 1,4 - 13,3 13,4 - 14,8 14,9 - 15,6 15,7 - 16,5 16,6 - 17,3 17,8 12,9 - 14,3 14,4 - 16,1 16,2 - 30,0 Mean of maximum Stem Diameter (in cm) 0,0 - 13,3 13,4 - 14,5 14 look quite similar. Mean of Stem Height, Stem Diameter and Leaf Number seem to show higher values

  6. Deriving star formation histories: inverting Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams through a variational calculus maximum likelihood method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Hernandez; David Valls-Gabaud; Gerard Gilmore

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a new method for solving maximum likelihood problems through variational calculus, and apply it to the case of recovering an unknown star formation history, SFR(t), from the resulting Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. This approach allows a totally non-parametric solution, which has the advantage of requiring no initial assumptions about SFR(t). As a full maximum likelihood statistical model is used,

  7. Fluence-to-dose confusion regarding external stochastic dose determination within the DOE complex.

    SciTech Connect

    Shores, E. F. (Erik F.); Brown, T. H. (Thomas H.)

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) occupational radiation protection dose limits are specified in 10 CFR 835 (hereafter referred to as 'regulation'). Ambiguity in the regulation regarding designation of dose and fluence-to-dose conversion factors leads to confusion and disagreement regarding the appropriate choice of conversion factors. Three primary dose quantities of relevance are absorbed dose, D, quality factor, Q, and the product of those, called dose equivalent, H. The modifier Q is intended to express the long-term fatal cancer causing potential of different radiation types and generally increases with energy for neutrons. For photons, Q is close to unity regardless of energy. In principle, H could be estimated by incorporating a phantom and relevant Q values in a radiation-transport model. In practice, this would entail too much model complexity and computer time. The evaluator of H instead relies on pre-calculated energy-dependent fluence-to-dose conversion factors. Three primary sets of fluence-to-dose conversion factors are commonly used to determine stochastic dose for neutrons and photons: (1) ANSI/ANS-6.1.1-1977 that incorporates the NCRP-38 data for neutrons and sets based on Claiborne and Wells for photons, (2) ANSI/ANS -6.1.1-1991 that are based on and nearly identical to the neutron and photon sets in ICRP -51, and (3) neutron and photon sets in ICRP-74. The first set is maximum H values in a 30-cm diameter cylinder phantom for neutrons and in a 30-cm thick slab phantom for photons. The second set is effective dose equivalent, HE, derived from an anthropomorphic phantom by summing the products of tissue dose equivalents, HT, and tissue weighting factors, w{sub T}. The third set is effective dose, E, also derived from an anthropomorphic phantom by summing the products of H{sub T} and w{sub T}. E is functionally identical to H{sub E} except H{sub T} is the product of D and the radiation weighting factor, w{sub R}, which is similar in meaning to Q.

  8. Exenatide dosing in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Cebra, C K; Smith, C C; Stang, B V; Tornquist, S J

    2014-08-01

    In order to investigate whether exenatide could be used to stimulate glucose clearance and insulin secretion in alpacas without causing colic signs, six healthy adult alpacas were injected once a day with increasing subcutaneous doses. A follow-up intravenous glucose injection was given to induce hyperglycemia, and serial blood samples were collected to measure plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids. The exenatide doses used were saline control (no drug), and 0.02, 0.05, or 0.1 mcg/kg injected subcutaneously. Alpacas had significantly lower plasma glucose concentrations and higher insulin concentrations on all treatment days compared with the control day, but the increase in insulin was significantly greater and lasted significantly longer when the alpacas received the two higher dosages. Two of the alpacas developed mild colic signs at the 0.05 mcg/kg dose and were not evaluated at the highest dose. Based on these findings, the 0.05 mcg/kg dose appears to offer the greatest stimulation of insulin secretion and glucose clearance without excessive risk or severity of complications. PMID:24479825

  9. The use of EPID-measured leaf sequence files for IMRT dose reconstruction in adaptive radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Louis; Mao Weihua; Xing Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    For intensity modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) dose reconstruction, multileaf collimator (MLC) log files have been shown applicable for deriving delivered fluence maps. However, MLC log files are dependent on the accuracy of leaf calibration and only available from one linear accelerator manufacturer. This paper presents a proof of feasibility and principles in (1) using an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (aSi-EPID) to capture the MLC segments during an IMRT delivery and (2) reconstituting a leaf sequence (LS) file based on the leaf end positions calculated from the MLC segments and their associated fractional monitor units. These EPID-measured LS files are then used to derive delivered fluence maps for dose reconstruction. The developed approach was tested on a pelvic phantom treated with a typical prostate IMRT plan. The delivered fluence maps, which were derived from the EPID-measured LS files, showed slight differences in the intensity levels compared with the corresponding planned ones. The dose distribution calculated with the delivered fluence maps showed a discernible difference in the high dose region when compared to that calculated with the planned fluence maps. The maximum dose in the former distribution was also 2.5% less than that in the latter one. The EPID-measured LS file can serve the same purpose as a MLC log files does for the derivation of the delivered fluence map and yet is independent of the leaf calibration. The approach also allows users who do not have access to MLC log files to probe the actual IMRT delivery and translate the information gained for dose reconstruction in adaptive radiation therapy.

  10. 3D Dose Verification Using Tomotherapy CT Detector Array

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Ke, E-mail: ks2mc@virginia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Jones, Ryan; Yang Wensha; Saraiya, Siddharth; Schneider, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Chen Quan; Sobering, Geoff; Olivera, Gustavo [TomoTherapy, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Read, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a three-dimensional dose verification method based on the exit dose using the onboard detector of tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study included 347 treatment fractions from 24 patients, including 10 prostate, 5 head and neck (HN), and 9 spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) cases. Detector sonograms were retrieved and back-projected to calculate entrance fluence, which was then forward-projected on the CT images to calculate the verification dose, which was compared with ion chamber and film measurement in the QA plans and with the planning dose in patient plans. Results: Root mean square (RMS) errors of 2.0%, 2.2%, and 2.0% were observed comparing the dose verification (DV) and the ion chamber measured point dose in the phantom plans for HN, prostate, and spinal SBRT patients, respectively. When cumulative dose in the entire treatment is considered, for HN patients, the error of the mean dose to the planning target volume (PTV) varied from 1.47% to 5.62% with a RMS error of 3.55%. For prostate patients, the error of the mean dose to the prostate target volume varied from -5.11% to 3.29%, with a RMS error of 2.49%. The RMS error of maximum doses to the bladder and the rectum were 2.34% (-4.17% to 2.61%) and 2.64% (-4.54% to 3.94%), respectively. For the nine spinal SBRT patients, the RMS error of the minimum dose to the PTV was 2.43% (-5.39% to 2.48%). The RMS error of maximum dose to the spinal cord was 1.05% (-2.86% to 0.89%). Conclusions: An excellent agreement was observed between the measurement and the verification dose. In the patient treatments, the agreement in doses to the majority of PTVs and organs at risk is within 5% for the cumulative treatment course doses. The dosimetric error strongly depends on the error in multileaf collimator leaf opening time with a sensitivity correlating to the gantry rotation period.

  11. A GENERAL ASYMPTOTIC THEORY FOR MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION IN SEMIPARAMETRIC REGRESSION MODELS WITH CENSORED DATA

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Donglin; Lin, D. Y.

    2010-01-01

    We establish a general asymptotic theory for nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation in semiparametric regression models with right censored data. We identify a set of regularity conditions under which the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimators are consistent, asymptotically normal, and asymptotically efficient with a covariance matrix that can be consistently estimated by the inverse information matrix or the profile likelihood method. The general theory allows one to obtain the desired asymptotic properties of the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimators for any specific problem by verifying a set of conditions rather than by proving technical results from first principles. We demonstrate the usefulness of this powerful theory through a variety of examples. PMID:20577580

  12. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  13. Maximum union-free subfamilies Choongbum Lee

    E-print Network

    Fox, Jacob

    Maximum union-free subfamilies Jacob Fox Choongbum Lee Benny Sudakov Abstract An old problem of Moser asks: how large of a union-free subfamily does every family of m sets have? A family of sets is called union-free if there are no three distinct sets in the family such that the union of two

  14. Finding Maximum Length Tours Under Polyhedral Norms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Barvinok; David S. Johnson; Gerhard J. Woeginger; Russell Woodroofe

    1998-01-01

    We consider the traveling salesman problem when the cities are points in IRdfor some fixed d and distances are computed according to a polyhedral norm. Weshow that for any such norm, the problem of finding a tour of maximum lengthcan be solved in polynomial time. If arithmetic operations are assumed to takeunit time, our algorithms run in time O(nf+1), where

  15. Maximum terminal velocity of relativistic rocket

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Vulpetti

    1985-01-01

    The maximum terminal velocity problem of the classical propulsion is extended to a relativistic rocket assumed broken down into active mass, inert mass and gross payload. A fraction of the active mass is converted into energy shared between inert mass and active mass residual. Significant effects are considered. State and co-state equations are carried out to find the exhaust speed

  16. Maximum Homologous Crossover for Linear Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Maximum Homologous Crossover for Linear Genetic Programming Michael Defoin Platel1,2 , Manuel Fitness problem, for Linear Genetic Programming. Two variants of the new crossover operator are described of deleterious crossovers. 1 Introduction The role played by crossover in the Genetic Programming (GP

  17. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1 First year college...with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the...

  18. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1 First year college...with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the...

  19. Original article Inequality of maximum a posteriori

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    for the genetic evaluation of breeding animals. A logical step would be to use an animal model as well to describeOriginal article Inequality of maximum a posteriori estimators with equivalent sire and animal models for threshold traits M Mayer University of Nairobi, Department of Animal Production, PO Box 29053

  20. Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle

    E-print Network

    Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kiyoharu Kawana

    2015-03-28

    The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

  1. Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle

    E-print Network

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-01-01

    The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

  2. Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

    1922-01-01

    Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

  3. ccsd00003341, On nonparametric maximum likelihood

    E-print Network

    Algorithm; Mix- tures of Probability Measures; Repeated Measurements Data; Longitudinal Data. Subject Classi value f(S i ; T i ). This kind of data is known as repeated measurements, or called longitudinal since of Pfanzagl related to mixtures [23, 24]. Keywords: Inverse Problems; Nonlinear Models; Maximum Likelihood; EM

  4. Maximum entropy analysis of hydraulic pipe networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrip, Steven H.; Niven, Robert K.; Abel, Markus; Schlegel, Michael

    2014-12-01

    A Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) method is developed to infer mean external and internal flow rates and mean pressure gradients (potential differences) in hydraulic pipe networks, without or with sufficient constraints to render the system deterministic. The proposed method substantially extends existing methods for the analysis of flow networks (e.g. Hardy-Cross), applicable only to deterministic networks.

  5. Maximum entropy analysis of flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Robert K.; Abel, Markus; Schlegel, Michael; Waldrip, Steven H.

    2014-12-01

    This study examines a generalised maximum entropy (MaxEnt) analysis of a flow network, involving flow rates and potential differences on the network, connected by resistance functions. The analysis gives a generic derivation based on an explicit form of the resistance functions. Accounting for the constraints also leads to an extended form of Gibbs' phase rule, applicable to flow networks.

  6. Predicting maximum lake depth from surrounding topography.

    PubMed

    Hollister, Jeffrey W; Milstead, W Bryan; Urrutia, M Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset - Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945

  7. Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. (Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, PL-00-716 Warsaw (Poland))

    1990-07-15

    Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.

  8. Maximum Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhekar, Sarang

    1991-01-01

    Using a physical picture, an expression for the maximum possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)

  9. Direct measurement of a patient's entrance skin dose during pediatric cardiac catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lue; Mizuno, Yusuke; Iwamoto, Mari; Goto, Takahisa; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Yuka; Tsuboi, Koji; Chida, Koichi; Moritake, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Children with complex congenital heart diseases often require repeated cardiac catheterization; however, children are more radiosensitive than adults. Therefore, radiation-induced carcinogenesis is an important consideration for children who undergo those procedures. We measured entrance skin doses (ESDs) using radio-photoluminescence dosimeter (RPLD) chips during cardiac catheterization for 15 pediatric patients (median age, 1.92 years; males, n = 9; females, n = 6) with cardiac diseases. Four RPLD chips were placed on the patient's posterior and right side of the chest. Correlations between maximum ESD and dose–area products (DAP), total number of frames, total fluoroscopic time, number of cine runs, cumulative dose at the interventional reference point (IRP), body weight, chest thickness, and height were analyzed. The maximum ESD was 80 ± 59 (mean ± standard deviation) mGy. Maximum ESD closely correlated with both DAP (r = 0.78) and cumulative dose at the IRP (r = 0.82). Maximum ESD for coiling and ballooning tended to be higher than that for ablation, balloon atrial septostomy, and diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, we directly measured ESD using RPLD chips and found that maximum ESD could be estimated in real-time using angiographic parameters, such as DAP and cumulative dose at the IRP. Children requiring repeated catheterizations would be exposed to high radiation levels throughout their lives, although treatment influences radiation dose. Therefore, the radiation dose associated with individual cardiac catheterizations should be analyzed, and the effects of radiation throughout the lives of such patients should be followed. PMID:24968708

  10. Low-Dose Carcinogenicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major deficiencies of cancer risk assessments is the lack of low-dose carcinogenicity data. Most assessments require extrapolation from high to low doses, which is subject to various uncertainties. Only 4 low-dose carcinogenicity studies and 5 low-dose biomarker/pre-n...

  11. Implementation of radiochromic film dosimetry protocol for volumetric dose assessments to various organs during diagnostic CT procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Samuel; Yoshizumi, Terry; Toncheva, Greta; Frush, Donald [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); and others

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: The authors present a means to measure high-resolution, two-dimensional organ dose distributions in an anthropomorphic phantom of heterogeneous tissue composition using XRQA radiochromic film. Dose distributions are presented for the lungs, liver, and kidneys to demonstrate the organ volume dosimetry technique. XRQA film response accuracy was validated using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Methods: XRQA film and TLDs were first exposed at the center of two CTDI head phantoms placed end-to-end, allowing for a simple cylindrical phantom of uniform scatter material for verification of film response accuracy and sensitivity in a computed tomography (CT) exposure geometry; the TLD and film dosimeters were exposed separately. In a similar manner, TLDs and films were placed between cross-sectional slabs of a 5 yr old anthropomorphic phantom's thorax and abdomen regions. The anthropomorphic phantom was used to emulate real pediatric patient geometry and scatter conditions. The phantom consisted of five different tissue types manufactured to attenuate the x-ray beam within 1%-3% of normal tissues at CT beam energies. Software was written to individually calibrate TLD and film dosimeter responses for different tissue attenuation factors, to spatially register dosimeters, and to extract dose responses from film for TLD comparison. TLDs were compared to film regions of interest extracted at spatial locations corresponding to the TLD locations. Results: For the CTDI phantom exposure, the film and TLDs measured an average difference in dose response of 45%(SD{+-}2%). Similar comparisons within the anthropomorphic phantom also indicated a consistent difference, tracking along the low and high dose regions, for the lung (28%) (SD{+-}8%) and liver and kidneys (15%) (SD{+-}4%). The difference between the measured film and TLD dose values was due to the lower response sensitivity of the film that arose when the film was oriented with its large surface area parallel to the main axis of the CT beam. The consistency in dose response difference allowed for a tissue specific correction to be applied. Once corrected, the average film response agreed to better than 3%(SD{+-}2%) for the CTDI scans, and for the anthropomorphic phantom scans: 3%(SD{+-}3%) for the lungs, 5%(SD{+-}3%) for the liver, and 4%(SD{+-}3%) for the kidneys. Additionally, XRQA film measured a heterogeneous dose distribution within the organ volumes. The extent of the dose distribution heterogeneity was not measurable with the TLDs due to the limitation on the number of TLDs loadable in the regions of the phantom organs. In this regard, XRQA film demonstrated an advantage over the TLD method by discovering a 15% greater maximum dose to lung in a region unmeasured by TLDs. Conclusions: The films demonstrated a lower sensitivity to absorbed dose measurements due to the geometric inefficiency of measuring dose from a beam situated end-on to the film. Once corrected, the film demonstrated equivalent dose measurement accuracy as TLD detectors with the added advantage of relatively simple measurement of high-resolution dose distributions throughout organ volumes.

  12. Theoretical Analysis of Maximum Flow Declination Rate versus Maximum Area Declination Rate in Phonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the maximum area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…

  13. Clinical pharmacodynamics of anticancer drugs: a basis for extending the concept of dose-intensity.

    PubMed

    Evans, W E

    1988-06-01

    The studies reviewed herein support the precept that "systemic dose-intensity" (i.e., systemic exposure) may be more informative than "administered dose-intensity" for certain anticancer drugs. This does not mean that the administered dose-intensity should be ignored; in fact these data indicate the importance of documenting and assessing administered dose-intensity as an initial step toward identifying those situations where systemic dose-intensity may be most important. The studies described in this review were selected as representative examples of successful clinical pharmacodynamic studies; other published examples include vincristine AUC versus severity of neurotoxicity, etoposide systemic exposure versus leukopenia, red cell concentration of mercaptopurine metabolites versus neutropenia in children with ALL, and ARA-CTP retention in leukemic blasts versus clinical response in acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. As is the case with other types of clinical trials in cancer patients, there are also examples of negative pharmacodynamic studies (i.e., no relationship found between concentration and effects). There are several possible reasons for such negative findings, including the lack of such a relationship for some drugs, measuring the inappropriate drug moiety (e.g., failure to measure all active metabolites), measuring drug concentrations in the wrong biological fluid, evaluating systemic exposure over too narrow a range (i.e., all patients have either sub- or supra-therapeutic systemic exposure), selecting inappropriate sampling times or pharmacokinetic parameters, inadequately assessing drug toxicity or response, or simply studying an inadequate number of patients or patients with drug-resistant cancers. Therefore, negative findings in some pharmacodynamic studies should not deter the investigation of other drugs and/or other malignant diseases, just as negative therapeutic trials do not preclude subsequent clinical trials in oncology. Also, finding a relation between systemic exposure and drug toxicity, in the absence of a clear relation to antitumor effects, is potentially of great clinical utility. Such data should allow more objective escalation of drug dosages in individual patients, to ensure maximum dose-intensity while avoiding host toxicity. Obviously, if such dose escalation could be guided by more easily measured patient characteristics (e.g., age, weight, CrCl, shoe size, etc.), then using drug concentrations in individual patients might be obviated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3289632

  14. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Smith; D. L. Blunt; G. P. Williams; C. L. Tebes

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of

  15. Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William L. Robison; Cynthia L. Conrado; Kenneth T. Bogen

    1999-01-01

    On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment

  16. Dose reduction methods for CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kevin J; Yee, Judy

    2013-04-01

    Patients, referring physicians, the media, and government agencies have all expressed concern over the risks of medical radiation, particularly as it relates to CT. This concern is particularly paramount when associated with a screening examination such as CT colonography. These theoretical risks must be weighed realistically against the substantial benefits of colon cancer screening as well as against the risks inherent in the major alternative screening option, optical colonoscopy. When put into perspective, the risk-benefit ratio is highly in favor of the performance of CT colonography. Nevertheless, in following the ALARA principle, there is an ever increasing armamentarium of options that can be employed in the pursuit of CT radiation dose reduction, all of which can be used in many synergistic combinations allowing for dose reduction while simultaneously preserving image quality and minimizing image noise. After a brief tutorial on estimating radiation dose, various strategies will be discussed including reductions in tube current and tube voltage as well as the use of automatic dose modulation and iterative reconstruction. Other practical considerations will also be reviewed including proper patient isocentering, optimization of colonic insufflation to minimize additional decubitus scans, proper choice of scan volumes to avoid overranging, and variation of slice thickness and window width to minimize perceived image noise. Finally, a strategy for how to incrementally introduce these methods as well as a way to compare dose reduction efforts across institutions throughout the country will be offered. PMID:23229777

  17. Significance of including field non-uniformities such as the heel effect and beam scatter in the determination of the skin dose distribution during interventional fluoroscopic procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Vijay; Gill, Kamaljit; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2012-03-01

    The current version of the real-time skin-dose-tracking system (DTS) we have developed assumes the exposure is contained within the collimated beam and is uniform except for inverse-square variation. This study investigates the significance of factors that contribute to beam non-uniformity such as the heel effect and backscatter from the patient to areas of the skin inside and outside the collimated beam. Dose-calibrated Gafchromic film (XR-RV3, ISP) was placed in the beam in the plane of the patient table at a position 15 cm tube-side of isocenter on a Toshiba Infinix C-Arm system. Separate exposures were made with the film in contact with a block of 20-cm solid water providing backscatter and with the film suspended in air without backscatter, both with and without the table in the beam. The film was scanned to obtain dose profiles and comparison of the profiles for the various conditions allowed a determination of field non-uniformity and backscatter contribution. With the solid-water phantom and with the collimator opened completely for the 20-cm mode, the dose profile decreased by about 40% on the anode side of the field. Backscatter falloff at the beam edge was about 10% from the center and extra-beam backscatter decreased slowly with distance from the field, being about 3% of the beam maximum at 6 cm from the edge. Determination of the magnitude of these factors will allow them to be included in the skin-dose-distribution calculation and should provide a more accurate determination of peak-skin dose for the DTS.

  18. Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.; Endres, G.W.R.; Durham, J.S.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Tomeraasen, P.L.; Stroud, C.M.; Faust, L.G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1988-07-01

    Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a /sup 3/He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose.

  19. 41 CFR 302-7.2 - What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government...302-7.2 What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government...expense? The maximum weight allowance of HHG that may be shipped or stored at...

  20. 77 FR 36583 - NRC Form 5, Occupational Dose Record for a Monitoring Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...NRC-2012-0133] NRC Form 5, Occupational Dose Record for a Monitoring Period AGENCY...proposed draft NRC Form 5, ``Occupational Dose Record for a Monitoring Period.'' The...definition change to the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE), which allowed...

  1. Letter to the Editor Estimating RBEs at clinical doses from microdosimetric spectra

    E-print Network

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Letter to the Editor Estimating RBEs at clinical doses from microdosimetric spectra Received 4, that a particular formalism that has been used by a number of authors2­11 to calculate RBEs at clinical doses based that a correct application of microdosimetric theory does indeed allow predictions of RBE, both at low doses

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF PREDICTIVE BAYESIAN DOSE-RESPONSE MODEL FOR CCL PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Bayesian approach allows for dose-response assessment even when human and animal dose-response data are inadequate in themselves. The project will consist of the development of a mathematical beta-Poisson dose-response model that will formally incorporate empirical and subjecti...

  3. Evaluation of the accuracy of dose delivery for IMRT based on transit dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Baek, Tae Seong; Chung, Eun Ji; Koh, Eui Kwan; Seo, Jungju; Yoon, Myonggeun

    2014-09-01

    The authors have developed and evaluated a new method that uses transit dose in the treatment room in verification of dose delivery to patients. Five intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were selected from actual cancer patients, and transit dose was measured using MapCHECK 2 and an anthropomorphic phantom. The criteria used as a verification tool for the dose delivery to the patient were gamma-index-based dose comparison between the computed dose and measured dose. When the doses were delivered to an anthropomorphic phantom normally, the average passing rate was 95.2% based on a gamma index analysis. This feasibility study suggested that transit dose-based quality assurance can provide information about the accuracy of an inhomogeneity correction algorithm and patient positioning during treatment, allowing its use as a verification tool for actual dose delivery to patients in the treatment room. PMID:25068957

  4. Effects of Proton Radiation Dose, Dose Rate and Dose Fractionation on Hematopoietic Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ware, J. H.; Sanzari, J.; Avery, S.; Sayers, C.; Krigsfeld, G.; Nuth, M.; Wan, X. S.; Rusek, A.; Kennedy, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute effects of radiation dose, dose rate and fractionation as well as the energy of protons in hematopoietic cells of irradiated mice. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of 51.24 MeV protons at a dose of 2 Gy and a dose rate of 0.05–0.07 Gy/min or 1 GeV protons at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Gy delivered in a single dose at dose rates of 0.05 or 0.5 Gy/min or in five daily dose fractions at a dose rate of 0.05 Gy/min. Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent loss of white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes by up to 61% and 72%, respectively, in mice irradiated with protons at doses up to 2 Gy. The results also demonstrate that the dose rate, fractionation pattern and energy of the proton radiation did not have significant effects on WBC and lymphocyte counts in the irradiated animals. These results suggest that the acute effects of proton radiation on WBC and lymphocyte counts are determined mainly by the radiation dose, with very little contribution from the dose rate (over the range of dose rates evaluated), fractionation and energy of the protons. PMID:20726731

  5. A new plan quality index for dose painting radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang-Kyun; Park, Soyeon; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kim, Siyong

    2014-01-01

    Dose painting radiotherapy is considered a promising radiotherapy technology that enables more targeted dose delivery to tumor rich regions while saving critical normal tissues. Obviously, dose painting planning would be more complicated and hard to be evaluated with current plan quality index systems that were developed under the paradigm of uniform dose prescription. In this study, we introduce a new plan quality index, named "index of achievement (IOA)" that assesses how close the planned dose distribution is to the prescribed one in a dose painting radiotherapy plan. By using voxel-based comparison between planned and prescribed dose distributions in its formulation, the index allows for a single-value evaluation regardless of the number of prescribed dose levels, which cannot be achieved with the conventional indices such as conventional homogeneity index. Benchmark calculations using patient data demonstrated feasibility of the index not only for contour-based dose painting plans, but also for dose painting by numbers plans. Also, it was shown that there is strong correlation between the new index and conventional indices, which indicates a potential of the new index as an alternative to conventional ones in general radiotherapy plan evaluation. PMID:25207424

  6. The use of a silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass in stereotactic radiotherapy QA and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J. H. D.; Knittel, T.; Downes, S.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Jackson, M.; Rosenfeld, A. B. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia) and Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, New South Wales 2031 (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia) and Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong Hospital, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); SPA-BIT, Kiev, 04136 (Ukraine); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, New South Wales 2031 (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery/therapy (SRS/SRT) is the use of radiation ablation in place of conventional surgical excision to remove or create fibrous tissue in small target volumes. The target of the SRT/SRS treatment is often located in close proximity to critical organs, hence the requirement of high geometric precision including a tight margin on the planning target volume and a sharp dose fall off. One of the major problems with quality assurance (QA) of SRT/SRS is the availability of suitable detectors with the required spatial resolution. The authors present a novel detector that they refer to as the dose magnifying glass (DMG), which has a high spatial resolution (0.2 mm) and is capable of meeting the stringent requirements of QA and dosimetry in SRS/SRT therapy. Methods: The DMG is an array of 128 phosphor implanted n{sup +} strips on a p-type Si wafer. The sensitive area defined by a single n{sup +} strip is 20x2000 {mu}m{sup 2}. The Si wafer is 375 {mu}m thick. It is mounted on a 0.12 mm thick Kapton substrate. The authors studied the dose per pulse (dpp) and angular response of the detector in a custom-made SRS phantom. The DMG was used to determine the centers of rotation and positioning errors for the linear accelerator's gantry, couch, and collimator rotations. They also used the DMG to measure the profiles and the total scatter factor (S{sub cp}) of the SRS cones. Comparisons were made with the EBT2 film and standard S{sub cp} values. The DMG was also used for dosimetric verification of a typical SRS treatment with various noncoplanar fields and arc treatments when applied to the phantom. Results: The dose per pulse dependency of the DMG was found to be <5% for a dpp change of 7.5 times. The angular response of the detector was investigated in the azimuthal and polar directions. The maximum polar angular response was 13.8% at the gantry angle of 320 deg., which may be partly due to the phantom geometry. The maximum azimuthal angular response was 15.3% at gantry angles of 90 deg. and 270 deg. The angular response at the gantry angle of 180 deg. was 6.3%. A correction function was derived to correct for the angular dependence of the detector, which takes into account the contribution of the azimuthal and polar angular response at different treatment couch positions. The maximum positioning errors due to collimator, gantry, and couch rotation were 0.2{+-}0.1, 0.4{+-}0.1, and 0.4{+-}0.2 mm, respectively. The SRS cone S{sub cp} agrees very well with the standard data with an average difference of 1.2{+-}1.1%. Comparison of the relative intensity profiles of the DMG and EBT2 measurements for a simulated SRS treatment shows a maximum difference of 2.5%. Conclusions: The DMG was investigated for dose per pulse and angular dependency. Its application to SRS/SRT delivery verification was demonstrated. The DMG with its high spatial resolution and real time capability allows measurement of dose profiles for cone applicators down to 5 mm in diameter, both accurately and rapidly as required in typical SRS/SRT deliveries.

  7. Pharmacokinetic profiles of ciprofloxacin after single intravenous and oral doses.

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri, J T; Rogge, M C; Kaiser, L; Echols, R M; Heller, A H

    1992-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was administered to 12 healthy male volunteers at doses of 300 and 400 mg intravenously (i.v.) and 500 and 750 mg orally in a randomized, double-blind, single-dose, four-period crossover study. On each treatment day, each subject received both oral and i.v. formulations, one of which was a placebo. Blood and urine samples were obtained through 24 h postdose. By each dosing route, the pharmacokinetic profiles were dose proportional. The 400-mg i.v. dose was equivalent to the 500-mg oral dose with respect to the area under the concentration-time curve and was equivalent to the 750-mg oral dose with respect to the maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in serum. The oral bioavailability was 78.0%. The steady-state volume of distribution averaged 178 liters, and the terminal half-life in serum after i.v. dosing was approximately 4.3 h. Renal clearance accounted for approximately 60% of total body clearance. No significant adverse events were associated with either route of administration. PMID:1510426

  8. Effect of high dose ramipril with or without indomethacin on glomerular selectivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Pisoni; Piero Ruggenenti; Fabio Sangalli; Maria Serena Lepre; Andrea Remuzzi; Giuseppe Remuzzi

    2002-01-01

    Effect of high dose ramipril with or without indomethacin on glomerular selectivity.BackgroundDespite the accumulating evidence of their efficacy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) still provide imperfect renoprotection. Up-titration above conventional doses and combined therapy with other antiproteinuric agents may serve to achieve renoprotection in patients at risk of rapid disease progression.MethodsThe effect of maximum tolerated ACEi doses (ramipril 15 mg\\/day, range

  9. Dose Rate Upset Investigations on the Xilinx Virtex IV Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alonzo Vera; Daniel Llamocca; Marios Pattichis; William Kemp; Walter Shedd; David Alexander; James Lyke

    2007-01-01

    The following paper describes the results of ionizing dose rate investigations into upset, supply photocurrent, latch-up, and burnout susceptibility of the Xilinx Virtex IV XC4VFX12. All investigations were performed on a commercial version of the device. The maximum no-upset dose rate was 2.8times108 rad(Si)\\/s. Photocurrent amplitudes as a function of dose rate were recorded.

  10. Dose-dense regimen of temozolomide given every other week in patients with primary central nervous system tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Vera; L. Djafari; S. Faivre; J.-S. Guillamo; K. Djazouli; M. Osorio; F. Parker; C. Cioloca; B. Abdulkarim; J.-P. Armand; E. Raymond

    2004-01-01

    2 \\/day on days 1-5 every 4 weeks. In this study, a new alternative dose-dense regimen of temozolomide was explored in patients with recurrent brain tumors. Patients and methods: In this study, we evaluated the safety, dose-limiting toxicity, maximum tolerated dose, recommended dose and activity of temozolomide given on days 1-3 and 14-16 every 28 days (one cycle). The starting

  11. Allowable Trajectory Variations for Space Shuttle Orbiter Entry-Aeroheating CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William A.; Alter, Stephen J.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Reynolds-number criteria are developed for acceptable variations in Space Shuttle Orbiter entry trajectories for use in computational aeroheating analyses. The criteria determine if an existing computational fluid dynamics solution for a particular trajectory can be extrapolated to a different trajectory. The criteria development considers twelve types of computational aeroheating data, such as boundary layer thickness. For each type of datum, the allowable uncertainty contribution due to trajectory variation has been set by the Entry Aeroheating Subsystem team. Then Reynolds-number relations between trajectory variation and output uncertainty are determined. From these relations the criteria are established for the maximum allowable trajectory variations. The most restrictive criterion allows a 25% variation in Reynolds number at constant Mach number between trajectories.

  12. Comparison of minimum space allowance standards for transportation of cattle by road from 8 authorities.

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, T L

    2000-01-01

    Space allowance for animals in transit is a consistent concern in many countries developing codes of practice and regulations to assure humane treatment of food producing animals. Describing minimum space allowance requirements for cattle in transit has proven to be difficult, as the space required increases as the animal grows. Loading pressure, defined as weight of live animal per unit area, has proven to be a clear method of communicating with transporters and inspection staff what the maximum safe stocking limit is based on individual animal weight. The loading density recommendations in the Canadian code of practice for beef cattle are compared with other standards by using loading pressure charts as a visual aid. Loading pressure charts are recommended in preference to a tabular format to describe the minimal space allowed per animal for cattle transported by road. PMID:11126490

  13. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Chris H; Suba??, Yi?it; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic. PMID:25871054

  14. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tom A B; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael

    2010-06-01

    A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator. PMID:25419259

  15. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    PubMed

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope. PMID:26159097

  16. Finding maximum colorful subtrees in practice.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Imran; Rasche, Florian; Nicolas, François; Böcker, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    In metabolomics and other fields dealing with small compounds, mass spectrometry is applied as a sensitive high-throughput technique. Recently, fragmentation trees have been proposed to automatically analyze the fragmentation mass spectra recorded by such instruments. Computationally, this leads to the problem of finding a maximum weight subtree in an edge-weighted and vertex-colored graph, such that every color appears, at most once in the solution. We introduce new heuristics and an exact algorithm for this Maximum Colorful Subtree problem and evaluate them against existing algorithms on real-world and artificial datasets. Our tree completion heuristic consistently scores better than other heuristics, while the integer programming-based algorithm produces optimal trees with modest running times. Our fast and accurate heuristic can help determine molecular formulas based on fragmentation trees. On the other hand, optimal trees from the integer linear program are useful if structure is relevant, for example for tree alignments. PMID:23509858

  17. Maximum Entropy Analysis of Queueing Network Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demetres D. Kouvatsos

    1993-01-01

    The principle of Maximum Entropy (ME) provides a consistent method of inference for estimating the form of an unknown discrete-state probability distribution, based on information expressed in terms of true expected values. In this tutorial paper entropy maximisation is used to characterise product-form approximations and resolution algorithms for arbitrary continuous-time and discrete-time Queueing Network Models (QNMs) at equilibrium under Repetitive-Service

  18. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.

  19. Maximum Correntropy Criterion for Robust Face Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ran He; Wei-Shi Zheng; Bao-Gang Hu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a sparse correntropy framework for computing robust sparse representations of face images for recognition. Compared with the state-of-the-art l 1 norm-based sparse representation classifier (SRC), which assumes that noise also has a sparse representation, our sparse algorithm is developed based on the maximum correntropy criterion, which is much more insensitive to outliers. In order to

  20. THEORETICAL ESTIMATE OF MAXIMUM POSSIBLE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bethe

    1950-01-01

    The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide

  1. Exploring appropriate offset values for Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo dose optimization in lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy encompassing the effects of respiration and tumor location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Grant

    Evaluation of dose optimization using the Pencil Beam (PB) and Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms may allow physicists to apply dosimetric offsets to account for inaccuracies of the PB algorithm for lung cancer treatment with Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). 20 cases of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) were selected. Treatment plans were created with Brainlab iPlanDose RTM 4.1.2. The D97 of the Planning Target Volume (PTV) was normalized to 50 Gy on the Average Intensity Projection (AIP) using the fast PB and compared with MC. This exact plan with the same beam Monitor Units (MUs) was recalculated over each respiratory phase. The results show that the PB algorithm has a 2.3-2.4% less overestimation at the maximum exhalation phase than the maximum inhalation phase when compared to MC. Significantly smaller dose difference between PB and MC is also shown in plans for peripheral lesions (7.7 +/- 0.7%) versus central lesions (12.7+/-0.8%) (p< 0.01).

  2. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section...Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section...Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section...Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

  5. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section...Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section...Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section...Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section...Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section...Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section...Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section...Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...

  12. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Secondary maximum contaminant levels. 143.3 Section 143.3 ...REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant levels. The secondary maximum contaminant levels for public water systems are...

  13. 24 CFR 886.108 - Maximum annual contract commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Maximum annual contract commitment. (a) Number of units assisted. Based...in the project. All units currently assisted...to such conversion. Units assisted under section...Maximum annual Contract commitment. The maximum...

  14. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

  15. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

  16. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

  17. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

  18. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

  19. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

  20. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the destruction of...

  1. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the destruction of...

  2. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the destruction of...

  3. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the destruction of...

  4. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the destruction of...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3402(m)-1 - Withholding allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Withholding allowances. 31.3402(m)-1 Section 31.3402(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(m)-1 Withholding allowances. (a) General...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.156 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...actual, and necessary. An application for exception (using Form MMS-4393, Request to Exceed Regulatory Allowance Limitation...If the lessee takes a deduction for transportation on Form MMS-2014 by improperly netting the allowance against the...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.158 - Processing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...actual, and necessary. An application for exception (using Form MMS-4393, Request to Exceed Regulatory Allowance Limitation...interest. If the lessee takes a deduction for processing on Form MMS-2014 by improperly netting the allowance against the...

  8. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  9. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  10. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  11. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR...

  12. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR...

  13. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR...

  14. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR...

  15. Parallel Composition Communication and Allow Hiding Parallel Processes

    E-print Network

    Groote, Jan Friso

    Parallel Composition Communication and Allow Hiding Parallel Processes Mohammad Mousavi Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Requirement Analysis and Design Verification, 2008-2009 Mousavi: Parallel Processes #12;Parallel Composition Communication and Allow Hiding Overview Motivation Parallel

  16. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. 97.53 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  17. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. 97.53 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  18. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 97.50...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  19. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  20. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 97.50...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  1. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  2. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers. 97.60 Section 97.60...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  3. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers. 97.60 Section 97.60...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  4. 14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

  5. 14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

  6. 14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

  7. 14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

  8. 14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable...necessary and reasonable planning and engineering services. (b) The allowable advance planning costs consist of planning and engineering expenses necessarily incurred in...

  9. 38 CFR 21.268 - Employment adjustment allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment adjustment allowance. 21...Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter...Assistance Services § 21.268 Employment adjustment allowance....

  10. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  11. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers. 97.60 Section 97.60...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  12. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 97.50...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  13. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  14. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers. 97.60 Section 97.60...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  15. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 97.50...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  16. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. 97.53 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  17. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. 97.53 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  18. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. 97.53 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  19. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers. 97.60 Section 97.60...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  20. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 97.50...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  1. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  2. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  3. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  4. Dosimetric evaluation of the OneDose MOSFET for measuring kilovoltage imaging dose from image-guided radiotherapy procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, George X.; Coffey, Charles W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, B-902, TVC 1301 Medical Center Drive, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-5671 (United States) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University College of Art and Sciences, B-902, TVC, 1301 Medical Center Drive, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-5671 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a single-use dosimeter, OneDose MOSFET designed for in vivo patient dosimetry, for measuring the radiation dose from kilovoltage (kV) x rays resulting from image-guided procedures. Methods: The OneDose MOSFET dosimeters were precalibrated by the manufacturer using Co-60 beams. Their energy response and characteristics for kV x rays were investigated by using an ionization chamber, in which the air-kerma calibration factors were obtained from an Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (ADCL). The dosimetric properties have been tested for typical kV beams used in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Results: The direct dose reading from the OneDose system needs to be multiplied by a correction factor ranging from 0.30 to 0.35 for kilovoltage x rays ranging from 50 to 125 kVp, respectively. In addition to energy response, the OneDose dosimeter has up to a 20% reduced sensitivity for beams (70-125 kVp) incident from the back of the OneDose detector. Conclusions: The uncertainty in measuring dose resulting from a kilovoltage beam used in IGRT is approximately 20%; this uncertainty is mainly due to the sensitivity dependence of the incident beam direction relative to the OneDose detector. The ease of use may allow the dosimeter to be suitable for estimating the dose resulting from image-guided procedures.

  5. Mars surface radiation exposure for solar maximum conditions and 1989 solar proton events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The Langley heavy-ion/nucleon transport code, HZETRN, and the high-energy nucleon transport code, BRYNTRN, are used to predict the propagation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) and solar flare protons through the carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars. Particle fluences and the resulting doses are estimated on the surface of Mars for GCR's during solar maximum conditions and the Aug., Sep., and Oct. 1989 solar proton events. These results extend previously calculated surface estimates for GCR's at solar minimum conditions and the Feb. 1956, Nov. 1960, and Aug. 1972 solar proton events. Surface doses are estimated with both a low-density and a high-density carbon dioxide model of the atmosphere for altitudes of 0, 4, 8, and 12 km above the surface. A solar modulation function is incorporated to estimate the GCR dose variation between solar minimum and maximum conditions over the 11-year solar cycle. By using current Mars mission scenarios, doses to the skin, eye, and blood-forming organs are predicted for short- and long-duration stay times on the Martian surface throughout the solar cycle.

  6. Motion-encoded dose calculation through fluence/sinogram modification

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Weiguo; Olivera, Gustavo H.; Mackie, Thomas R. [TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 and University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1300 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin, 53705 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Conventional radiotherapy treatment planning systems rely on a static computed tomography (CT) image for planning and evaluation. Intra/inter-fraction patient motions may result in significant differences between the planned and the delivered dose. In this paper, we develop a method to incorporate the knowledge of intra/inter-fraction patient motion directly into the dose calculation. By decomposing the motion into a parallel (to beam direction) component and perpendicular (to beam direction) component, we show that the motion effects can be accounted for by simply modifying the fluence distribution (sinogram). After such modification, dose calculation is the same as those based on a static planning image. This method is superior to the 'dose-convolution' method because it is not based on 'shift invariant' assumption. Therefore, it deals with material heterogeneity and surface curvature very well. We test our method using extensive simulations, which include four phantoms, four motion patterns, and three plan beams. We compare our method with the 'dose-convolution' and the 'stochastic simulation' methods (gold standard). As for the homogeneous flat surface phantom, our method has similar accuracy as the 'dose-convolution' method. As for all other phantoms, our method outperforms the 'dose-convolution'. The maximum motion encoded dose calculation error using our method is within 4% of the gold standard. It is shown that a treatment planning system that is based on 'motion-encoded dose calculation' can incorporate random and systematic motion errors in a very simple fashion. Under this approximation, in principle, a planning target volume definition is not required, since it already accounts for the intra/inter-fraction motion variations and it automatically optimizes the cumulative dose rather than the single fraction dose.

  7. Estimation of the Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Current models to estimate radiation risk use the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort that received high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Transferring risks from these high dose rates to the low doses and dose rates received by astronauts in space is a source of uncertainty in our risk calculations. The solid cancer models recommended by BEIR VII [1], UNSCEAR [2], and Preston et al [3] is fitted adequately by a linear dose response model, which implies that low doses and dose rates would be estimated the same as high doses and dose rates. However animal and cell experiments imply there should be curvature in the dose response curve for tumor induction. Furthermore animal experiments that directly compare acute to chronic exposures show lower increases in tumor induction than acute exposures. A dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) has been estimated and applied to transfer risks from the high doses and dose rates of the LSS cohort to low doses and dose rates such as from missions in space. The BEIR VII committee [1] combined DDREF estimates using the LSS cohort and animal experiments using Bayesian methods for their recommendation for a DDREF value of 1.5 with uncertainty. We reexamined the animal data considered by BEIR VII and included more animal data and human chromosome aberration data to improve the estimate for DDREF. Several experiments chosen by BEIR VII were deemed inappropriate for application to human risk models of solid cancer risk. Animal tumor experiments performed by Ullrich et al [4], Alpen et al [5], and Grahn et al [6] were analyzed to estimate the DDREF. Human chromosome aberration experiments performed on a sample of astronauts within NASA were also available to estimate the DDREF. The LSS cohort results reported by BEIR VII were combined with the new radiobiology results using Bayesian methods.

  8. Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

    2003-06-27

    OAK - B135 This project final report summarizes modeling research conducted in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Low Dose Radiation Research Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute from October 1998 through June 2003. The modeling research described involves critically evaluating the validity of the linear nonthreshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to stochastic effects induced in cells by low doses of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. The LNT model plays a central role in low-dose risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation (or genotoxic chemical) exposure is assumed to increase one¡¯s risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of cancer deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Our research has focused on developing biologically based models that explain the shape of dose-response curves for low-dose radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells. Understanding the shape of the dose-response curve for radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells helps to better understand the shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction in humans. We have used a modeling approach that facilitated model revisions over time, allowing for timely incorporation of new knowledge gained related to the biological basis for low-dose-induced stochastic effects in cells. Both deleterious (e.g., genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) and protective (e.g., DNA repair and apoptosis) effects have been included in our modeling. Our most advanced model, NEOTRANS2, involves differing levels of genomic instability. Persistent genomic instability is presumed to be associated with nonspecific, nonlethal mutations and to increase both the risk for neoplastic transformation and for cancer occurrence. Our research results, based on applications of NEOTRANS2, indicate that nonlinear threshold-type, dose-response relationships for excess stochastic effects (problematic nonlethal mutations, neoplastic transformation) should be expected after exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma rays or gamma rays in combination with high-LET alpha radiation. Similar thresholds are expected for low-dose-rate low-LET beta irradiation. We attribute the thresholds to low-dose, low-LET radiation induced protection against spontaneous mutations and neoplastic transformations. The protection is presumed mainly to involve selective elimination of problematic cells via apoptosis. Low-dose, low-LET radiation is presumed to trigger wide-area cell signaling, which in turn leads to problematic bystander cells (e.g., mutants, neoplastically transformed cells) selectively undergoing apoptosis. Thus, this protective bystander effect leads to selective elimination of problematic cells (a tissue cleansing process in vivo). However, this protective bystander effects is a different process from low-dose stimulation of the immune system. Low-dose, low-LET radiation stimulation of the immune system may explain why thresholds for inducing excess cancer appear much larger (possibly more than 100-fold larger) than thresholds for inducing excess mutations and neoplastic transformations, when the dose rate is low. For ionizing radiation, the current risk assessment paradigm is such that the relative risk (RR) is always ¡Ý 1, no matter how small the dose. Our research results indicate that for low-dose or low-dose-rate, low-LET irradiation, RR < 1 may be more the rule than the exception. Directly tied to the current RR paradigm are the billion-dollar cleanup costs for radionuclide-contaminated DOE sites. Our research results suggest that continued use of the current RR paradigm for which RR ¡Ý 1 could cause more harm than benefit to society (e.g., by spreading unwarranted fear about phantom excess risks associated with low-dose low-LET radiation). Such phantom risks also may arise from risk assessments conducted for com

  9. ISSO Information Alert Mozilla Vulnerabilities Could Allow Remote Code Execution

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Request object to read these error messages, allowing user privacy to be eroded. Cross Domain Security BypassChildRemove()'. This vulnerability could be exploited to possibly allow for remote code execution. Cross Domain Scripting Vulnerability A CrossDomain Scripting Vulnerability can occur when the application allows attackers to bypass

  10. 45 CFR 2522.245 - How are living allowances disbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are living allowances disbursed? 2522.245 Section...Requirements, and Benefits § 2522.245 How are living allowances disbursed? A living allowance is not a wage and programs may not...

  11. 45 CFR 2522.245 - How are living allowances disbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are living allowances disbursed? 2522.245 Section...Requirements, and Benefits § 2522.245 How are living allowances disbursed? A living allowance is not a wage and programs may not...

  12. Absorbed Gamma-Ray Doses due to Natural Radionuclides in Building Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, Vitor A. P.; Medina, Nilberto H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Ramon H.; Silveira, Marcilei A. G. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-21

    This work is devoted to the application of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in the study of the effective dose coming from naturally occurring radionuclides, namely {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, present in building materials such as sand, cement, and granitic gravel. Four models were applied to estimate the effective dose and the hazard indices. The maximum estimated effective dose coming from the three reference rooms considered is 0.90(45) mSv/yr, and maximum internal hazard index is 0.77(24), both for the compact clay brick reference room. The principal gamma radiation sources are cement, sand and bricks.

  13. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, John P., E-mail: jkirk@radonc.duke.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kogel, Albert J. van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schultheiss, Timothy E. [Department of Radiation Physics, City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Dose-volume data for myelopathy in humans treated with radiotherapy (RT) to the spine is reviewed, along with pertinent preclinical data. Using conventional fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy/fraction to the full-thickness cord, the estimated risk of myelopathy is <1% and <10% at 54 Gy and 61 Gy, respectively, with a calculated strong dependence on dose/fraction (alpha/beta = 0.87 Gy.) Reirradiation data in animals and humans suggest partial repair of RT-induced subclinical damage becoming evident about 6 months post-RT and increasing over the next 2 years. Reports of myelopathy from stereotactic radiosurgery to spinal lesions appear rare (<1%) when the maximum spinal cord dose is limited to the equivalent of 13 Gy in a single fraction or 20 Gy in three fractions. However, long-term data are insufficient to calculate a dose-volume relationship for myelopathy when the partial cord is treated with a hypofractionated regimen.

  14. Dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor in SLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Braby, L. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Atwell, W.

    1992-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) sensitive to the lineal energy range of 0.26-300 keV micrometer-1 was flown on STS-40 (39 degrees x 278 km x 296 km) inside the Spacelab. This instrument was previously flown on STS-31 but was modified to provide a finer resolution at lower lineal energies to better map the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) protons. The instrument was turned on 6 June 1991, and operated for 7470 min (124.5 h). The flight duration was characterized by a very large number of X-ray solar flares and enhanced magnetic field fluctuations; however, no significant dose from the solar particles was measured at the location of this instrument. The flight data can be separated into trapped and galactic cosmic radiation parts. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate and quality factor for trapped radiation were 4.21 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 7.72 +/- 0.05 mrem day-1, and 1.83 +/- 0.1, respectively. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor for galactic cosmic radiation were 5.34 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 14.63 +/- 0.06 mrem day-1, and 2.74 +/- 0.1, respectively. The overall quality factor for the flight was 2.38. The dose from the GCR is higher than from SAA protons because of the high inclination and low altitude of this flight. The AP8MAX model of the trapped radiation gives a dose rate of 2.43 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 1.77. The CREME solar maximum model of galactic cosmic radiation gives a dose rate of 2.54 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 2.91. Thus the AP8MAX model underestimates the dose by a factor of 1.8 whereas the CREME model leads to an underestimation of the dose by a factor of 2. A comparison of the LET spectra using the AP8MAX model and galactic cosmic radiation transport codes shows only a qualitative agreement.

  15. Shared dosimetry error in epidemiological dose-response analyses.

    PubMed

    Stram, Daniel O; Preston, Dale L; Sokolnikov, Mikhail; Napier, Bruce; Kopecky, Kenneth J; Boice, John; Beck, Harold; Till, John; Bouville, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Radiation dose reconstruction systems for large-scale epidemiological studies are sophisticated both in providing estimates of dose and in representing dosimetry uncertainty. For example, a computer program was used by the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study to provide 100 realizations of possible dose to study participants. The variation in realizations reflected the range of possible dose for each cohort member consistent with the data on dose determinates in the cohort. Another example is the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 which estimates both external and internal exposures and provides multiple realizations of "possible" dose history to workers given dose determinants. This paper takes up the problem of dealing with complex dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of dose in an epidemiologic analysis. In this paper we derive expected scores and the information matrix for a model used widely in radiation epidemiology, namely the linear excess relative risk (ERR) model that allows for a linear dose response (risk in relation to radiation) and distinguishes between modifiers of background rates and of the excess risk due to exposure. We show that treating the mean dose for each individual (calculated by averaging over the realizations) as if it was true dose (ignoring both shared and unshared dosimetry errors) gives asymptotically unbiased estimates (i.e. the score has expectation zero) and valid tests of the null hypothesis that the ERR slope ? is zero. Although the score is unbiased the information matrix (and hence the standard errors of the estimate of ?) is biased for ??0 when ignoring errors in dose estimates, and we show how to adjust the information matrix to remove this bias, using the multiple realizations of dose. The use of these methods in the context of several studies including, the Mayak Worker Cohort, and the U.S. Atomic Veterans Study, is discussed. PMID:25799311

  16. Shared Dosimetry Error in Epidemiological Dose-Response Analyses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stram, Daniel O.; Preston, Dale L.; Sokolnikov, Mikhail; Napier, Bruce; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Boice, John; Beck, Harold; Till, John; Bouville, Andre; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-03-23

    Radiation dose reconstruction systems for large-scale epidemiological studies are sophisticated both in providing estimates of dose and in representing dosimetry uncertainty. For example, a computer program was used by the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study to provide 100 realizations of possible dose to study participants. The variation in realizations reflected the range of possible dose for each cohort member consistent with the data on dose determinates in the cohort. Another example is the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 which estimates both external and internal exposures and provides multiple realizations of "possible" dose history to workers given dose determinants. This paper takesmore »up the problem of dealing with complex dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of dose in an epidemiologic analysis. In this paper we derive expected scores and the information matrix for a model used widely in radiation epidemiology, namely the linear excess relative risk (ERR) model that allows for a linear dose response (risk in relation to radiation) and distinguishes between modifiers of background rates and of the excess risk due to exposure. We show that treating the mean dose for each individual (calculated by averaging over the realizations) as if it was true dose (ignoring both shared and unshared dosimetry errors) gives asymptotically unbiased estimates (i.e. the score has expectation zero) and valid tests of the null hypothesis that the ERR slope ? is zero. Although the score is unbiased the information matrix (and hence the standard errors of the estimate of ?) is biased for ?6¼0 when ignoring errors in dose estimates, and we show how to adjust the information matrix to remove this bias, using the multiple realizations of dose. The use of these methods in the context of several studies including, the MayakWorker Cohort, and the U.S. Atomic Veterans Study, is discussed.« less

  17. Single dose radiosurgical treatment of recurrent previously irradiated primary brain tumors and brain metastases: final report of RTOG protocol 90-05

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Shaw; Charles Scott; Luis Souhami; Robert Dinapoli; Robert Kline; Jay Loeffler; Nancy Farnan

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose of single fraction radiosurgery in patients with recurrent previously irradiated primary brain tumors and brain metastases.Methods and Materials: Adults with cerebral or cerebellar solitary non-brainstem tumors ? 40 mm in maximum diameter were eligible. Initial radiosurgical doses were 18 Gy for tumors ? 20 mm, 15 Gy for those 21–30 mm, and 12

  18. Derivation of a Melamine Oral Reference Dose (RfD) and Drinking-Water Total Allowable Concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virunya S. Bhat; Gwen L. Ball; Clifton J. McLellan

    2010-01-01

    Due to its high nitrogen content, melamine has been used to adulterate food to increase apparent protein content. In 2008, thousands of Chinese infants consumed reconstituted formula derived from melamine-adulterated milk. Urinary-tract stones (comprised of melamine and uric acid) accumulated in some victims and lead to acute renal failure or death. Premature infants and children (<2 yr) have an increased

  19. Allowing for correlations between correlations in random-effects meta-analysis of correlation matrices.

    PubMed

    Prevost, A Toby; Mason, Dan; Griffin, Simon; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Sutton, Stephen; Spiegelhalter, David

    2007-12-01

    Practical meta-analysis of correlation matrices generally ignores covariances (and hence correlations) between correlation estimates. The authors consider various methods for allowing for covariances, including generalized least squares, maximum marginal likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, illustrated using a 6-dimensional response in a series of psychological studies concerning prediction of exercise behavior change. Quantities of interest include the overall population mean correlation matrix, the contrast between the mean correlations, the predicted correlation matrix in a new study, and the conflict between the existing studies and a new correlation matrix. The authors conclude that accounting for correlations between correlations is unnecessary when interested in individual correlations but potentially important if concerned with a composite measure involving 2 or more correlations. A simulation study indicates the asymptotic normal assumption appears reasonable. Because of potential instability in the generalized least squares methods, they recommend a model-based approach, either the maximum marginal likelihood approach or a full Bayesian analysis. PMID:18179354

  20. Maximum likelihood and restricted maximum likelihood estimation for a class of Gaussian Markov random fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor De Oliveira; Marco A. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    This work describes a Gaussian Markov random field model that includes several previously proposed models, and studies properties\\u000a of its maximum likelihood (ML) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimators in a special case. Specifically, for models\\u000a where a particular relation holds between the regression and precision matrices of the model, we provide sufficient conditions\\u000a for existence and uniqueness of ML

  1. Reducing degeneracy in maximum entropy models of networks.

    PubMed

    Horvát, Szabolcs; Czabarka, Éva; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2015-04-17

    Based on Jaynes's maximum entropy principle, exponential random graphs provide a family of principled models that allow the prediction of network properties as constrained by empirical data (observables). However, their use is often hindered by the degeneracy problem characterized by spontaneous symmetry breaking, where predictions fail. Here we show that degeneracy appears when the corresponding density of states function is not log-concave, which is typically the consequence of nonlinear relationships between the constraining observables. Exploiting these nonlinear relationships here we propose a solution to the degeneracy problem for a large class of systems via transformations that render the density of states function log-concave. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on examples. PMID:25933345

  2. Midnight density maximum in the thermosphere from the CHAMP observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Haibing; Lei, Jiuhou; Dou, Xiankang; Wan, Weixing; Liu, Yong C.-M.

    2014-05-01

    The midnight temperature maximum (MTM) is generally believed to occur over the equatorial region, while a few recent studies suggested the extension of the MTM to middle and high latitudes. In this paper, we investigate the latitudinal variations of nighttime thermospheric density on the basis of the accelerometer measurement onboard the CHAMP satellite during 2002-2009. The sampling of the CHAMP satellite allows for observation of a statistical average of the midnight density maximum (MDM). From these observations, it was found that the MDM of the thermosphere, a manifestation of the MTM, occurs in all seasons at both low and high solar activities, but its features vary significantly with season and solar activity. The peak of the MDM over the equatorial region occurs at ~01:00 LT under the low solar activity condition, whereas it happens about 1-2 h earlier at high solar activity. We observe extension of the MDM from the equatorial region to southern midlatitudes, especially under the low solar activity condition.

  3. Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the co-evolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand `dune-building' species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the time scale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches: higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species which shifts foredune formation landwards and thus leads to larger foredunes.

  4. Choline PET based dose-painting in prostate cancer - Modelling of dose effects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several randomized trials have documented the value of radiation dose escalation in patients with prostate cancer, especially in patients with intermediate risk profile. Up to now dose escalation is usually applied to the whole prostate. IMRT and related techniques currently allow for dose escalation in sub-volumes of the organ. However, the sensitivity of the imaging modality and the fact that small islands of cancer are often dispersed within the whole organ may limit these approaches with regard to a clear clinical benefit. In order to assess potential effects of a dose escalation in certain sub-volumes based on choline PET imaging a mathematical dose-response model was developed. Methods Based on different assumptions for ?/?, ?50, sensitivity and specificity of choline PET, the influence of the whole prostate and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) dose on tumor control probability (TCP) was calculated. Based on the given heterogeneity of all potential variables certain representative permutations of the parameters were chosen and, subsequently, the influence on TCP was assessed. Results Using schedules with 74 Gy within the whole prostate and a SIB dose of 90 Gy the TCP increase ranged from 23.1% (high detection rate of choline PET, low whole prostate dose, high ?50/ASTRO definition for tumor control) to 1.4% TCP gain (low sensitivity of PET, high whole prostate dose, CN + 2 definition for tumor control) or even 0% in selected cases. The corresponding initial TCP values without integrated boost ranged from 67.3% to 100%. According to a large data set of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients the resulting TCP gains ranged from 22.2% to 10.1% (ASTRO definition) or from 13.2% to 6.0% (CN + 2 definition). Discussion Although a simplified mathematical model was employed, the presented model allows for an estimation in how far given schedules are relevant for clinical practice. However, the benefit of a SIB based on choline PET seems less than intuitively expected. Only under the assumption of high detection rates and low initial TCP values the TCP gain has been shown to be relevant. Conclusions Based on the employed assumptions, specific dose escalation to choline PET positive areas within the prostate may increase the local control rates. Due to the lack of exact PET sensitivity and prostate ?/? parameter, no firm conclusions can be made. Small variations may completely abrogate the clinical benefit of a SIB based on choline PET imaging. PMID:20298546

  5. Tolerability of Velcade (Bortezomib) subcutaneous administration using a maximum volume of 3?mL per injection site.

    PubMed

    Ng, Pamela; Incekol, Diana; Lee, Roy; Paisley, Emma; Dara, Celina; Brandle, Ian; Kaufman, Marina; Chen, Christine; Trudel, Suzanne; Tiedemann, Rodger; Reece, Donna; Kukreti, Vishal

    2015-08-01

    Subcutaneous injection is now commonly used as a standard for bortezomib administration. The bortezomib (Velcade®) product monograph recommends that intravenous injections be prepared at a concentration of 1?mg/mL, while subcutaneous injections may be prepared at a concentration of 2.5?mg/mL. Many institutions and subcutaneous administration guidelines use 2?mL as the maximum volume for subcutaneous injection. Using 2?mL as the maximum volume for injection would mean that many patients receiving bortezomib will receive two injections during each visit with common dosing parameters. In this prospective study evaluating a change to subcutaneous administration, bortezomib 1?mg/mL was administered subcutaneously at a higher maximum of 3?mL per injection site. For 57 individual patients, 339 doses were administered. Skin reactions were noted in 42% with all reactions being Grade 1 or 2. Patients tolerated subcutaneous injections well and only four patients were switched back to intravenous route. This is the first time that subcutaneous bortezomib of a volume up to a maximum of 3?mL (bortezomib 3?mg) per injection site has been reported. This higher single dose is well tolerated with limited skin reactions, no significant hypotension and facilitates ease of administration with only 5 patients needing two injections per visit. If the maximum volume for injection was kept at 2?mL, a total of 46 patients would have received two injections per visit. PMID:24781451

  6. Estimating maximum performance: effects of intraindividual variation.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Stephen C; Pickering, Trevor

    2008-04-01

    Researchers often estimate the performance capabilities of animals using a small number of trials per individual. This procedure inevitably underestimates maximum performance, but few studies have examined the magnitude of this effect. In this study we explored the effects of intraindividual variation and individual sample size on the estimation of locomotor performance parameters. We measured sprint speed of the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis at two temperatures (20 degrees C and 35 degrees C), obtaining 20 measurements per individual. Speed did not vary temporally, indicating no training or fatigue effects. About 50% of the overall variation in speed at each temperature was due to intraindividual variation. While speed was repeatable, repeatability decreased slightly with increasing separation between trials. Speeds at 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C were positively correlated, indicating repeatability across temperatures as well. We performed statistical sampling experiments in which we randomly drew a subset of each individual's full set of 20 trials. As expected, the sample's maximum speed increased with the number of trials per individual; for example, five trials yielded an estimate averaging 89% of the true maximum. The number of trials also influenced the sample correlation between mean speeds at 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C; for example, five trials yielded a correlation coefficient averaging 90% of the true correlation. Therefore, intraindividual variation caused underestimation of maximal speed and the correlation between speeds across temperatures. These biases declined as the number of trials per individual increased, and depended on the magnitude of intraindividual variation, as illustrated by running sampling experiments that used modified data sets. PMID:18375858

  7. Clinical applicability of biologically effective dose calculation for spinal cord in fractionated spine stereotactic body radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Heon; Lee, Kyu Chan; Choi, Jinho; Ahn, So Hyun; Lee, Seok Ho; Sung, Ki Hoon; Kil, Se Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to investigate whether biologically effective dose (BED) based on linear-quadratic model can be used to estimate spinal cord tolerance dose in spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivered in 4 or more fractions. Patients and methods. Sixty-three metastatic spinal lesions in 47 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The most frequently prescribed dose was 36 Gy in 4 fractions. In planning, we tried to limit the maximum dose to the spinal cord or cauda equina less than 50% of prescription or 45 Gy2/2. BED was calculated using maximum point dose of spinal cord. Results. Maximum spinal cord dose per fraction ranged from 2.6 to 6.0 Gy (median 4.3 Gy). Except 4 patients with 52.7, 56.4, 62.4, and 67.9 Gy2/2, equivalent total dose in 2-Gy fraction of the patients was not more than 50 Gy2/2 (12.1–67.9, median 32.0). The ratio of maximum spinal cord dose to prescription dose increased up to 82.2% of prescription dose as epidural spinal cord compression grade increased. No patient developed grade 2 or higher radiation-induced spinal cord toxicity during follow-up period of 0.5 to 53.9 months. Conclusions. In fractionated spine SBRT, BED can be used to estimate spinal cord tolerance dose, provided that the dose per fraction to the spinal cord is moderate, e.g. < 6.0 Gy. It appears that a maximum dose of up to 45–50 Gy2/2 to the spinal cord is tolerable in 4 or more fractionation regimen.

  8. The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.

    PubMed

    Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M

    2003-11-14

    Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes. PMID:14615526

  9. Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Random Linear Models: Generalizations and Performance Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ami Wiesel; Yonina C. Eldar

    2006-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating an unknown deterministic parameter vector in a linear model with a Gaussian model matrix. The matrix has a known mean and independent rows of equal covariance matrix. Our problem formulation also allows for some known columns within this model matrix. We derive the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator associated with this problem and show that

  10. Maximum likelihood estimation of spectra information from multiple independent cosmic ray data sets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L HOWELLJR

    2005-01-01

    A procedure based on the method of maximum likelihood (ML) is developed to allow an arbitrary number of cosmic ray data sets produced by different instruments with different energy ranges and resolutions to be used together in the analysis of the spectra. Application of this approach will facilitate the interpretation of energy spectra data from multiple science missions and thereby

  11. Stratified and Maximum Information Item Selection Procedures in Computer Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Hui; Ansley, Timothy; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this study we evaluated and compared three item selection procedures: the maximum Fisher information procedure (F), the a-stratified multistage computer adaptive testing (CAT) (STR), and a refined stratification procedure that allows more items to be selected from the high a strata and fewer items from the low a strata (USTR), along with…

  12. The High Altitude Observatory Coronagraph\\/Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. MacQueen; A. Csoeke-Poeckh; E. Hildner; L. House; R. Reynolds; A. Stanger; H. Tepoel; W. Wagner

    1980-01-01

    The High Altitude Observatory Coronagraph\\/Polarimeter, to be flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Solar Maximum Mission satellite, is designed to produce images of the solar corona in seven wavelength bands in the visible spectral range. The spectral bands have been chosen to specifically exclude or include ‘chromospheric’ spectral lines, so as to allow discrimination between ejecta at high

  13. Rectal thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements using the microselectron high dose rate afterloader in postoperative intravaginal radiation cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kessaris, N.; Nori, D. (Booth Memorial Medical Center, Flushing, NY (United States))

    1993-03-20

    The purpose of this study is twofold: First, to measure the dose distribution along the anterior and posterior rectal wall, compare them to the prescribed dose and establish the rectal length receiving the maximum dose. Second, to carry out in-phantom dose measurements in order to confirm that the dose planned is in fact the dose delivered. The dose distribution along the anterior and posterior rectal wall was measured for a group of 25 gynecologic cases treated with a vaginal cylinder, using the MicroSelectron High Dose Rate system. The method of measurement employed flexible vinyl rectal probes (1 or 2 cm diameter). Two fine plastic tubes, each containing 15 thermoluminescent dosimeters rods, were attached along the probe on opposite sides to measure the anterior and posterior rectal wall dose distributions. The dose distribution exhibited a sharp peak covering a rectal length from one to two centimeters. The peak doses for the anterior rectal wall ranged from 60% to 110% of prescribed dose. In-phantom measurements used layers of phantom material that contained a special source tube for the Iridium-192 source as well as thermoluminescent dosimeter tube(s) positioned at 1 cm distance from the source tube. The afterloader was programmed to deliver 300 cGy at 1 cm along its treatment length. The thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements showed good agreement with the doses expected on the basis of the treatment plan. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Organ and effective dose reduction in adult chest CT using abdominal lead shielding

    PubMed Central

    Iball, G R; Brettle, D S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare organ and effective dose savings that could be achieved using conventional lead aprons and a new, custom-designed shield as out-of-plane shielding devices during chest CT scans. Methods Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure doses throughout the abdomen and pelvis during CT scans of the chest of a RANDO phantom. Dose measurements were made with no shielding, with lead aprons and with the new shield around the abdomen and pelvis in order to quantify the achievable organ and effective dose reductions. Results Average dose savings in the 10 phantom sections ranged from 5% to 78% with the highest point dose saving of 93% being found in the mid-pelvis. When shielding was used, the maximum measured organ dose reduction was a 72% dose saving to the testes. Significant dose savings were found throughout the abdomen and pelvis, which contributed to an effective dose saving of 4% that was achieved over and above the dose savings obtained through conventional optimisation strategies. This could yield significant population dose savings and reductions in collective radiation risk. Conclusion In this study significant organ and effective dose reductions have been achieved through the use of abdominal shielding during chest CT examinations and it is therefore recommended that out-of-plane patient shielding devices should be used for all chest CT scans and potentially for every CT scan, irrespective of body part. PMID:22011831

  15. Reduction of Radiation Doses to Patients and Staff During Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Sulieman, Abdelmoneim; Paroutoglou, Georgios; Kapsoritakis, Andreas; Kapatenakis, Anargeyros; Potamianos, Spiros; Vlychou, Marianna; Theodorou, Kiki

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is associated with a considerable radiation exposure for patients and staff. While optimization of the radiation dose is recommended, few studies have been published. The purpose of this study has been to measure patient and staff radiation dose, to estimate the effective dose and radiation risk using digital fluoroscopic images. Entrance skin dose (ESD), organ and effective doses were estimated for patients and staff. Materials and Methods: Fifty-seven patients were studied using digital X-ray machine and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) to measure ESD at different body sites. Organ and surface dose to specific radiosensitive organs was carried out. The mean, median, minimum, third quartile and the maximum values are presented due to the asymmetry in data distribution. Results: The mean ESD, exit and thyroid surface dose were estimated to be 75.6 mGy, 3.22 mGy and 0.80 mGy, respectively. The mean effective dose for both gastroenterologist and assistant is 0.01 mSv. The mean patient effective dose was 4.16 mSv, and the cancer risk per procedure was estimated to be 2 × 10-5 Conclusion: ERCP with fluoroscopic technique demonstrate improved dose reduction, compared to the conventional radiographic based technique, reducing the surface dose by a factor of 2, without compromising the diagnostic findings. The radiation absorbed doses to the different organs and effective doses are relatively low. PMID:21196649

  16. Dose Response Effects of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Treatment in Adults With ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kollins, Scott H.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Goodman, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore dose–response effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) treatment for ADHD. Method This was a 4-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, forced-dose titration study in adult participants, aged 18 to 55 years, meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) criteria for ADHD. Results Nearly all participants assigned to an LDX dose achieved their assigned dose with the exception of about 4% of participants assigned to the 50 mg or 14% assigned to the 70 mg doses. Higher doses of LDX led to greater improvements in ADHD-rating scale scores, independent of prior pharmacotherapy. This was evident for both inattentive and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms. The authors found some evidence for an interaction between LDX dose and baseline severity of ADHD symptoms. Conclusion For LDX doses between 30 and 70 mg/d, the dose–response efficacy effect for LDX is not affected by prior pharmacotherapy, but patients with a greater severity of illness may benefit more from higher doses, especially for hyperactive–impulsive symptoms. The results do not provide information about doses above 70 mg/d, which is the maximum approved dose of LDX and the highest dose studied in ADHD clinical trials. PMID:21527575

  17. Dose measurements of bremsstrahlung-produced neutrons from thick targets at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Job, P. K.

    1998-09-16

    Bremsstrahlung is produced in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring when the positron beam interacts with the storage-ring components or with the residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum. This bremsstrahlung has an energy range of zero to 7.0 GeV, which is the maximum energy of the positron beam. Bremsstrahlung photons of sufficient high energy can interact with beamline components such as beam stops and collimators, generating neutrons of varying energies. This paper presents the results of simultaneous measurements, conducted at the Advanced Photon Source, of bremsstrahlung and the corresponding photoneutron production from thick targets of iron, copper, tungsten and lead, which allow one to correlate photoneutron dose rates from these metals as a function of bremsstrahlung power. The average photoneutron dose equivalent rates, normalized to the bremsstrahlung power, are measured as 2.7 {+-} 0.5 rem/h/W for iron, 3.2 {+-} 0.5 rem/h/W for copper, 3.9 {+-} 0.5 rem/h/W for tungsten, and 4.6 {+-} 0.8 rem/h/W for lead targets. These are measured at 80 cm lateral from the center of the targets, perpendicular to the photon beam direction.

  18. [Successful anesthetic management of three patients receiving pheochromocytoma resection using extremely high-dose remifentanil infusion].

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Yuko; Masuda, Rikuo; Suzuki, Takashi; Serada, Kazuyuki

    2010-10-01

    We describe three consecutive cases of successful anesthetic management for pheochromocytoma resection under balanced anesthesia with sevoflurane inhalation and extremely high-dose remifentanil infusion. This case series aimed to examine whether the aggressive dosing of remifentanil, exerting both depressor and bradycardic actions with short durations, is applicable for hemodynamic control during pheochromocytoma resection. The remifentanil infusion rate was set to maintain the systolic arterial pressure below 150 mmHg and heart rate below 100 beats x min(-1). In 2 of 3 cases, intraoperative hemodynamics were controlled by titrated remifentanil infusion with up to 2 and 3 microg x kg(-1) min(-1) in each case, without additional vasoactive agents. In another case, since adequate antihypertensive control was ineffective despite incremental remifentanil infusion to a maximum of 5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) supplemented with repeated boluses of 200 microg remifentanil, a total of 2.4 mg of nicardipine as a depressor was needed. Ephedrine 12 mg was employed following tumor removal. This anesthetic regimen thus allowed minimal or no concomitant use of depressors during tumor manipulation and vasopressors following tumor removal. In conclusion, the liberal use of remifentanil for the anesthetic management of pheochromocytoma resection appears to be simple, safe and effective. PMID:20960893

  19. Age-related Changes in Maximum Pelvic Anteversion and Retroversion Angles Measured in the Sitting Position.

    PubMed

    Asai, Hitoshi; Tsuchiyama, Hiroyuki; Hatakeyama, Tomoyuki; Inaoka, Pleiades Tiharu; Murata, Kanichirou

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the maximum pelvic anteversion and retroversion angles, as well as the associated pelvic range of motion, measured in a sitting position with free knee movement. [Subjects] A total of 132 healthy volunteers (74 women, 58 men; age range, 20-79 years) were divided into six groups based on age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years). [Methods] The maximum pelvic anteversion and retroversion angles were measured manually five times by a goniometer in a sitting position that allowed free movement of the knee joints. [Results] There was a significant effect of age group on the maximum pelvic anteversion and retroversion angles and pelvic range of motion (the difference between these angles). There was a significant correlation between age and the maximum pelvic anteversion angle, maximum pelvic retroversion angle, and pelvic range of motion. [Conclusion] The maximum pelvic anteversion and retroversion angles and pelvic range of motion were significantly correlated with age. The maximum pelvic anteversion angle and pelvic range of motion were most affected by age. PMID:25540507

  20. Determining the optimal dose in the development of anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Mathijssen, Ron H J; Sparreboom, Alex; Verweij, Jaap

    2014-05-01

    Identification of the optimal dose remains a key challenge in drug development. For cytotoxic drugs, the standard approach is based on identifying the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in phase I trials and incorporating this to subsequent trials. However, this strategy does not take into account important aspects of clinical pharmacology. For targeted agents, the dose-effect relationships from preclinical studies are less obvious, and it is important to change the way these agents are developed to avoid recommending drug doses for different populations without evidence of differential antitumour effects in different diseases. The use of expanded cohorts in phase I trials to better define MTD and refine dose optimization should be further explored together with a focus on efficacy rather than toxicity-based predictions. Another key consideration in dose optimization is related to interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. High variability in intra-individual pharmacokinetics has been observed for many orally-administered drugs, especially those with low bioavailability, which might complicate identification of dose-effect relationships. End-organ dysfunction, interactions with other prescription drugs, herbal supplements, adherence, and food intake can influence pharmacokinetics. It is important these variables are identified during early clinical trials and considered in the development of further phase II and subsequent large-scale phase III studies. PMID:24663127