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1

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2011-10-01

2

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2012-10-01

3

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2010-10-01

4

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2013-10-01

5

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2009-10-01

6

40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

2010-07-01

7

40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

2012-07-01

8

40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

2011-07-01

9

40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the maximum allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...

2013-07-01

10

49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section 174.86 Transportation...174.86 Maximum allowable operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten...subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

2013-10-01

11

30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. 36.44 Section 36...Requirements § 36.44 Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. (a) When an engine is...system shall be accepted. The maximum fuel : air ratio determined from the...

2010-07-01

12

30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. 36.44 Section 36...Requirements § 36.44 Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. (a) When an engine is...system shall be accepted. The maximum fuel : air ratio determined from the...

2009-07-01

13

43 CFR 418.38 - Maximum allowable diversion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Maximum allowable diversion. (a) The MAD established in this part is based on...includes distribution system losses. The MAD will be established (and is likely to vary) each year. The annual MAD will be calculated each year based on...

2010-10-01

14

43 CFR 418.38 - Maximum allowable diversion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maximum allowable diversion. (a) The MAD established in this part is based on...includes distribution system losses. The MAD will be established (and is likely to vary) each year. The annual MAD will be calculated each year based on...

2013-10-01

15

43 CFR 418.38 - Maximum allowable diversion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Maximum allowable diversion. (a) The MAD established in this part is based on...includes distribution system losses. The MAD will be established (and is likely to vary) each year. The annual MAD will be calculated each year based on...

2009-10-01

16

Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or (open quotes)critical(close quotes)) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. ...

D. M. McEligot

1995-01-01

17

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...season, the maximum allowable diversion (MAD) for each year must be determined...entitlements. ER18DE97.004 (2) The MAD will be calculated annually to ensure...decreed entitlement and this part. The MAD is the maximum amount of water...

2009-10-01

18

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...season, the maximum allowable diversion (MAD) for each year must be determined...entitlements. ER18DE97.004 (2) The MAD will be calculated annually to ensure...decreed entitlement and this part. The MAD is the maximum amount of water...

2010-10-01

19

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to this request, the NRC first developed criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants, published in its 1992 report Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. Since then, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations has been reviewing NASA's documentation of chemical-specific SMAC's as described in the Introduction to this volume. This report is the third volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994 and the second in 1996.

1996-01-01

20

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants, and to review SMACs for various space-craft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee On Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMACs for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMACs for approximately 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the SMAC reports for 12 chemical contaminants that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee. This report is the second volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994.

1996-01-01

21

Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle  

SciTech Connect

For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes}) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration.

McEligot, D.M.

1995-08-14

22

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report, prepared by the Committee on Toxicology of the National Research Council's Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, is in response to a request from NASA for guidelines to develop spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for space-station contaminants. SMACs are used to provide guidance on allowable chemical exposures during normal operations and emergency situations. Short-term SMACs refer to concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not compromise the performance of specific tasks during emergency conditions lasting up to 24 hours. Long-term SMACs are intended to avoid adverse health effects (either immediate or delayed) and to avoid degradation in crew performance with continuous exposure in a closed space-station environment for as long as 180 days.

1996-01-01

23

14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES ...allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to...particular variation of the aircraft type, and for the...

2014-01-01

24

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to Part 213 Transportation...Part 213âMaximum Allowable Curving Speeds This appendix contains four tables identifying maximum allowing curving speeds based on 3, 4, 5, and 6...

2013-10-01

25

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2011-10-01

26

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2012-10-01

27

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2010-10-01

28

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2009-10-01

29

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2013-10-01

30

77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0308] Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

2012-12-21

31

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

Langford, Shannon D.

2007-01-01

32

Increasing maximum tumor dose to manage range uncertainties in IMPT treatment planning.  

PubMed

The accuracy of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is sensitive to range uncertainties. Geometric margins, as dosimetric surrogates, are ineffective and robust optimization strategies are needed. These, however, lead to increased normal tissue dose. We explore here how this dose increase can be reduced by increasing the maximum tumor dose instead. We focus on range uncertainties, modeled by scaling the stopping powers 5% up (undershoot) or down (overshoot) compared to the nominal scenario. Robust optimization optimizes for target dose conformity in the most likely scenario, not the worst, while constraining target coverage for the worst-case scenario. Non-robust plans are also generated. Different maximum target doses are applied (105% versus 120% versus 140%) to investigate the effect on normal tissue dose reduction. The method is tested on a homogeneous and a lung phantom and on a liver patient. Target D99 of the robust plans equals the prescription dose of 60 GyE for all scenarios, but decreases to 36 GyE for the non-robust plans. The mean normal tissue dose in a 2 cm ring around the target is 11% to 31% higher for the robust plans. This increase can be reduced to -8% and 3% (compared to the non-robust plan) by allowing a maximum tumor dose of 120% instead of 105%. Thus robustness leads to more normal tissue dose, but it can be compensated by allowing a higher maximum tumor dose. PMID:24077105

Petit, Steven; Seco, Joao; Kooy, Hanne

2013-10-21

33

Preliminary estimates of the virtually safe dose for tumors obtained from the maximum tolerated dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to examine the correlation between the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the low-dose estimate of the virtually safe dose (VSD) for animal carcinogens. Chronic bioassay results from the National Cancer Institute\\/National Toxicology Program carcinogenesis screening program were used. Estimates of the VSD were obtained by linear low-dose extrapolation for which an adequate dose-response relationship

D GAYLOR

1989-01-01

34

Optimal Allocation of Maximum Allowable Discharged Total Nitrogen Load among Field Plots in Agricultural Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiobjective optimization model is developed for controlling TN (Total Nitrogen) load discharged from field plots in an agricultural watershed. In optimization, maximizations of allowable TN discharge per unit area and total yield of rice are intended while complying with an effluent limitation standard prescribed for river water quality management. The discharge from a field plot is separated into two components, i.e., direct runoff and baseflow. As discharged TN from a plot travels with these components toward an outlet of the watershed, the amount of TN is assumed to decrease due to distance-related self-purification occurring in subsurface zone, drainage canal and river. Locations of field plots and traveling routes of TN are identified or predicted by a GIS (Geographic Information System) with a digital elevation model and by field surveys. The model developed is applied to an agricultural watershed bordering with Lake Biwa in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. The result demonstrates that the optimal allocation of maximum allowable discharged TN load among field plots is helpful in prioritizing plots where fertilization should be reduced.

Maeda, Shigeya; Yoshikawa, Kazuki; Takeuchi, Junichiro; Kawachi, Toshihiko; Chono, Shunsuke; Unami, Koichi

35

The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are LWLSG, a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and L?, a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 RSun central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size L? of the active region, (2) in (Log LWLSG, Log L?) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active-region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: áBñ ? ?A ? 300 G, where ? is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (< 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division, NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences, and AFOSR's MURI Program.

Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, D. A.

2009-05-01

36

Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves  

SciTech Connect

In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes are exposed to low-LET radiation, and the resulting dicentric chromosome aberrations follow the Poisson distribution. The expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been presented by Kellerer and Rossi (1972, Current Topics on Radiation Research Quarterly 8, 85-158; 1978, Radiation Research 75, 471-488) using the theory of dual radiation action. Two special cases of practical interest are split-dose and continuous exposure experiments, and the resulting dose-time-response models are intrinsically nonlinear in the parameters. A general-purpose maximum likelihood estimation procedure is described, and estimation for the nonlinear models is illustrated with numerical examples from both experimental designs. Poisson regression analysis is used for estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression diagnostics. Results are discussed in the context of exposure assessment procedures for both acute and chronic human radiation exposure.

Frome, E.L.; DuFrain, R.J.

1986-03-01

37

Toxicological approach to setting spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for carbon monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are exposure limits for airborne chemicals used by NASA in spacecraft. The aim of these SMACs is to protect the spacecrew against adverse health effects and performance decrements that would interfere with mission objectives. Because of the 1 and 24 hr SMACs are set for contingencies, minor reversible toxic effects that do not affect mission objectives are acceptable. The 7, 30, or 180 day SMACs are aimed at nominal operations, so they are established at levels that would not cause noncarcinogenic toxic effects and more than one case of tumor per 1000 exposed individuals over the background. The process used to set the SMACs for carbon monoxide (CO) is described to illustrate the approach used by NASA. After the toxicological literature on CO was reviewed, the data were summarized and separated into acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity data. CO's toxicity depends on the formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood, reducing the blood's oxygen carrying capacity. The initial task was to estimate the COHb levels that would not produce toxic effects in the brain and heart.

Wong, K. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

1992-01-01

38

Pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled particles and the maximum tolerated dose.  

PubMed Central

Chronic inhalation bioassays in rodents are used to assess pulmonary carcinogenicity for purposes of hazard identification and potentially for risk characterization. The influence of high experimental doses on tumor development has been recognized for some time and has led to the concept of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for dose selection, with the highest dose being at the MTD. Exposure at the MTD should ensure that the animals are sufficiently challenged while at the same time the animal's normal longevity is not altered from effects other than carcinogenicity. A characteristic of exposure-dose-response relationships for chronically inhaled particles is that lung tumors are significantly increased only at high exposure levels, and that lung tumors are seen in rats only but not in mice or hamsters. This lung tumor response in rats is thought to be secondary to persistent alveolar inflammation, indicating that the MTD may have been exceeded. Thus, mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity may be dose dependent and may not operate at lower doses that humans normally experience. Despite awareness of this problem, carcinogenicity bioassays that evaluate particulate compounds in rodents have not always been designed with the MTD concept in mind. This is due to several problems associated with determining an appropriate MTD for particle inhalation studies. One requirement for the MTD is that some toxicity should be observed. However, it is difficult to define what degree of toxic response is indicative of the MTD. For particle inhalation studies, various noncancer end points in addition to mortality and body weight gain have been considered as indicators of the MTD, i.e., pulmonary inflammation, increased epithelial cell proliferation, increased lung weight, impairment of particle clearance function, and significant histopathological findings at the end of a subchronic study. However, there is no general agreement about quantification of these end points to define the MTD. To determine whether pulmonary responses are indicative of the MTD, we suggest defining an MTD based on results of a multidose subchronic and chronic inhalation study with a known human particulate carcinogen, e.g., asbestos or crystalline silica. Quantification of effects in such a study using the noncancer end points listed above would identify a dose level without significant signs of toxicity at the end of the subchronic study. If this dose level still results in significant lung tumor incidence at the end of the chronic study. We will have a sound basis for characterizing the MTD and justifying its use in future particle inhalation studies. Also, a better understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of particle-induced lung tumors is needed to support the MTD concept.

Oberdorster, G

1997-01-01

39

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following limits: Where the service time is Maximum allowable average concentration...than 0.5 percent carbon dioxide at any time, except on apparatus for escape only...than 1.5 percent carbon dioxide at any...

2012-10-01

40

Heterogeneity-corrected vs -uncorrected critical structure maximum point doses in breast balloon brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) * 0.930 (R(2) = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) * 0.955 (R(2) = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor. PMID:23474368

Kim, Leonard; Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning

2013-01-01

41

Maximum tolerable dose (MTD): a new index for ultraviolet radiation toxicity in the lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum tolerable dose (MTD2.3:16) for avoidance of cataract on exposure to UVR-300 nm in the rat was currently estimated to 3.65 kJ/m2. For this, Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally exposed to UVR in the 300 nm wavelength region, generated with a high pressure mercury arc source. The intensity of forward light scattering was measured one week after exposure. MTD allows estimation of toxicity for continuous response events with small sample experiments. Current safety standards for avoidance of cataract after exposure to UVR are based on a binary response event. It has however recently been shown that UVR-induced cataract is a continuous dose-dependent event. MTD provides a statistically well defined criterium of toxicity for continuous response events.

Soederberg, Per G.; Loefgren, Stefan; Ayala, Marcelo; Kakar, M.

2001-06-01

42

The effect of maximum-allowable payload temperature on the mass of a multimegawatt space-based platform  

SciTech Connect

Calculations were performed to determine the mass of a space-based platform as a function of the maximum-allowed operating temperature of the electrical equipment within the platform payload. Two computer programs were used in conjunction to perform these calculations. The first program was used to determine the mass of the platform reactor, shield, and power conversion system. The second program was used to determine the mass of the main and secondary radiators of the platform. The main radiator removes the waste heat associated with the power conversion system and the secondary radiator removes the waste heat associated with the platform payload. These calculations were performed for both Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with two different types of payload cooling systems: a pumped-loop system (a heat exchanger with a liquid coolant) and a refrigerator system. The results indicate that increases in the maximum-allowed payload temperature offer significant platform mass savings for both the Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with either the pumped-loop or refrigerator payload cooling systems. Therefore, with respect to platform mass, the development of high temperature electrical equipment would be advantageous. 3 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

Dobranich, D.

1987-08-01

43

The Impact of Maximum Rectal Distention and Tandem Angle on Rectal Dose in 3D Planned Gynecologic High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning for cervical cancer has allowed investigation into the volumetric radiation dose delivered to the rectum. The goal of intracavitary brachytherapy is to maximize the tumor dose while decreasing the dose to normal tissue like the rectum. We investigated the effects of tandem angle and maximum rectal distention on rectal dose delivered in HDR brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials Between July 2007 and January 2010, 97 brachytherapy treatment planning CT scans from the first and last implant of 51 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were reviewed. The rectum was manually contoured from the ischial tuberosity to the bottom of the sacroiliac joint. The maximum rectal distention was determined by measuring the largest anterior-posterior diameter of the rectum superior to the tandem ring and inferior to the end of the applicator. A volumetric measurement of the maximum and mean rectal dose, dose to 2cc (D2cc), dose to 1cc (D1cc) of the rectum was calculated. The tandem angle and the ICRU rectal point were recorded, and a dose volume histogram was referenced. Results The mean maximum rectal distention was 3.01cm. The mean D1cc, D2cc, mean rectal dose, maximum rectal dose, and ICRU rectal dose were 3.03 Gy, 2.78 Gy, 4.19 cGy, 1.40 cGy, and 2.99 Gy per treatment, respectively. In a multivariate analysis controlling for surface area, tandem angle, and body mass index (BMI), there was a significant increase in D2cc with increasing rectal distention (P=.016). There were no significant findings when observing the effects of tandem angle on D2cc. Conclusion Rectal distention significantly impacts D2cc delivered in HDR brachytherapy. In contrast, tandem angle does not. Concerted efforts to decrease rectal distention should be considered during treatment planning and delivery.

Lim, Jihoon; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Valicenti, Richard; Mathai, Matthew; Stern, Robin; Mayadev, Jyoti

2013-01-01

44

41 CFR 302-7.17 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished or...RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL...

2013-07-01

45

Statistical methodology to determine kinetically derived maximum tolerated dose in repeat dose toxicity studies.  

PubMed

Several statistical approaches were evaluated to identify an optimum method for determining a point of nonlinearity (PONL) in toxicokinetic data. (1) A second-order least squares regression model was fit iteratively starting with data from all doses. If the second order term was significant (?<0.05), the dataset was reevaluated with successive removal of the highest dose until the second-order term became non-significant. This dose, whose removal made the second order term non-significant, is an estimate of the PONL. (2) A least squares linear model was fit iteratively starting with data from all doses except the highest. The mean response for the omitted dose was compared to the 95% prediction interval. If the omitted dose falls outside the confidence interval it is an estimate of the PONL. (3) Slopes of least squares linear regression lines for sections of contiguous doses were compared. Nonlinearity was suggested when slopes of compared sections differed. A total of 33 dose-response datasets were evaluated. For these toxicokinetic data, the best statistical approach was the least squares regression analysis with a second-order term. Changing the ? level for the second-order term and weighting the second-order analysis by the inverse of feed consumption were also considered. This technique has been shown to give reproducible identification of nonlinearities in TK datasets. PMID:22487418

McFadden, Lisa G; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; Price, Paul S; Fontaine, Donald D; Saghir, Shakil A

2012-07-01

46

Quick Estimate of the Regulatory Virtually Safe Dose Based on the Maximum Tolerated Dose for Rodent Bioassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a limited subset of National Cancer Institute\\/National Toxicology Program (NCI\\/NTP) bioassays, Gaylor (Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 9, 101-108, 1989) showed that the regulatory virtually safe dose (VSD), corresponding to an estimated lifetime cancer risk of less than 10?6, could be estimated within a factor of 10 simply by dividing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), estimated from the results of a

D. W. Gaylor; L. S. Gold

1995-01-01

47

Fludarabine Allows Dose Reduction for Total Body Irradiation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine, in the setting of total body irradiation (TBI) for the preparation of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), whether TBI dose can be reduced without compromising the efficacy of a regimen consisting of fludarabine and radiotherapy; and whether there is any increased risk of pulmonary toxicity due to the radiosensitizing effect of fludarabine. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies received TBI-based conditioning regimens in preparation for allogeneic HSCT. Twenty-three patients received 12 Gy in 4 daily fractions in combination with cyclophosphamide, either alone or with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Twenty-nine patients received 9 Gy in 3 fractions in conjunction with fludarabine and melphalan. Clinical and radiation records were reviewed to determine engraftment, pulmonary toxicity (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria), transplant-related mortality, recurrence of primary disease, and overall survival. Results: The two groups of patients had comparable pretransplant clinical characteristics. For the 12-Gy and 9-Gy regimens, the engraftment (89% and 93%; p = 0.82), freedom from life-threatening pulmonary events (65% and 79%; p = 0.33), freedom from relapse (60% and 73%; p = 0.24), and overall survival (26% and 47%; p = 0.09) were not statistically different. Conclusions: The addition of fludarabine and melphalan seems to allow the dose of TBI to be lowered to 9 Gy without loss of engraftment or antitumor efficacy.

Kornguth, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States)]. E-mail: dkorngut@mdanderson.org; Mahajan, Anita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Woo, Shiao [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Chan, Ka Wah [Division of Pediatrics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Antolak, John [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Ha, Chul S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States)

2007-07-15

48

MAXINE: An improved methodology for estimating maximum individual dose from chronic atmospheric radioactive releases  

SciTech Connect

An EXCEL{reg_sign} spreadsheet has been developed that, when combined with the PC version of XOQDOQ, will generate estimates of maximum individual dose from routine atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The spreadsheet, MAXINE, utilizes a variety of atmospheric dispersion factors to calculate radiation dose as recommended by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Regulatory Guide 1.109 [USNRC 1977a]. The methodology suggested herein includes use of both the MAXINE spreadsheet and the PC version of XOQDOQ.

Hamby, D.M.

1994-02-01

49

Optimal Allocations of Maximum Allowable Load among Influent Rivers: An Application for Strategic Management of Lake Water Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake water quality management is an extremely complicated problem due to a variety of land use and existence of multiple stakeholders in the watershed. A decision support tool is thus necessary for examining physical, economical and social constraints associated with the management and for coordinating conflicting goals of the stakeholders. In this study, a multiobjective linear programming model is developed for supporting strategic management of lake water quality. Optimal allocation of river-genetic pollutant load is determined to maximize total allowable load into the lake with in-lake water quality standard. The shallow water equations and two-dimensional COD (chemical oxygen demand) transport equation are employed as basic equations to represent physical constraints on COD concentration. In order to consider an economical requirement on equity, the model proactively controls the difference in share of the total allowable load among influent rivers. An optimization example demonstrates that the methodology developed can produce several noninferior solutions (i.e., load allocations) useful for decision-making in lake water quality management.

Maeda, Shigeya; Kawachi, Toshihiko; Unami, Koichi; Takeuchi, Junichiro

50

Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.  

PubMed Central

Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time.

Backer, H; Hollowell, J

2000-01-01

51

Does EU legislation allow the use of the Benchmark Dose (BMD) approach for risk assessment?  

PubMed

Hazard characterisation is largely based on an approach of (statistically) comparing dose groups with the controls in order to derive points of departure such as no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs). This approach suggests the absence of any relevant effect at the NOAEL. The NOAEL approach has been debated for decades. A recent Scientific Opinion by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that the Benchmark Dose (BMD) approach should be preferred over the NOAEL approach for deriving human (health-based) limit or guidance values. Nonetheless, the BMD approach is used infrequently within European regulatory frameworks. The reason for this may lie in legislation or guidelines requiring the use of the NOAEL approach. In this context, various EU regulatory frameworks were examined on such demands. Interestingly, no single legislation was identified containing statutory requirements in conflict with the use of the BMD approach. PMID:23871753

Brandon, E F A; Bulder, A S; van Engelen, J G M; Mahieu, C M; Mennes, W C; Pronk, M E J; Rietveld, A G; van de Ven, B M; Ten Voorde, S E C G; Wolterink, G; Slob, W; Zeilmaker, M J; Bessems, J G M

2013-11-01

52

Rat sodium iodide symporter allows using lower dose of 131I for cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient gene delivery is a critical obstacle for gene therapy that must be overcome. Until current limits of gene delivery technology are solved, identification of systems with bystander effects is highly desirable. As an anticancer agent, radioactive iodine 131I has minimal toxicity. The physical characteristics of 131I decay allow radiation penetration within a local area causing bystander killing of adjacent

E Mitrofanova; R Unfer; N Vahanian; C Link

2006-01-01

53

Comparative study of blood collection tubes and thromboplastin reagents for correction of INR discrepancies: a proposal for maximum allowable magnesium contamination in sodium citrate anticoagulant solutions.  

PubMed

International normalized ratio (INR) discrepancies were noted between clinical laboratories using various prothrombin time (PT) systems. We studied the influence of different commercial blood collection tubes and different PT systems on INR measurements. INRs of fresh patient samples were determined by 3 laboratories, each using different PT systems. In the first part of the study, samples were drawn with Vacutainer tubes and in the second part with Monovette tubes. In the first part of the study, the maximum bias for all patients amounted to 0.46 INR (14%), and in the second part, to 0.14 INR (4.9%). The maximum bias for all patients could be reduced further by local system calibration using frozen pooled plasma specimens. The sodium citrate solutions in the blood collection tubes were contaminated with magnesium ions (approximately 2.7 mmol/L and 0.3 mmol/L in the Vacutainer and Monovette, respectively). INR discrepancies could be explained largely by this influence of blood collection tubes. The maximum allowable magnesium contamination in sodium citrate anticoagulant solutions should be less than 1 mmol/L. PMID:22904137

van den Besselaar, Anton M H P; van Zanten, Anton P; Brantjes, Helen M; Elisen, Marc G L M; van der Meer, Felix J M; Poland, Dennis C W; Sturk, Augueste; Leyte, Anja; Castel, Ad

2012-08-01

54

Statistical Analysis of Dose-Response Experiments by Maximum Likelihood Analysis and Iteratively Reweighted Nonlinear Least Squares Regression Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dose-response studies often form integral parts of pharmacological investigations of drug activity and efficacy and of toxicological investigations of drug and chemical safety. Standardized dose-response study protocols, statistical models, model fitting techniques, and computer programs are widely available for such applications. Many studies however, require nonstandard models and model fitting procedures to adequately describe the resulting data. Maximum likelihood analysis

P. I. Feder; C. T. Olson; D. W. Hobson; M. C. Matthews; R. L. Joiner

1991-01-01

55

Maximum allowable currents in YBa2Cu3O7 superconducting tapes as a function of the coating thickness, external magnetic field induction, and cooling conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum allowable (ultimate) currents stably passing through an YBa2Cu3O7 superconducting current-carrying element are determined as a function of a silver (or copper) coating thickness, external magnetic field induction, and cooling conditions. It is found that if a magnetic system based on yttrium ceramics is cooled by a cryogenic coolant, currents causing instabilities (instability onset currents) are almost independent of the coating thickness. If, however, liquid helium is used as a cooling agent, the ultimate current monotonically grows with the thickness of the stabilizing copper coating. It is shown that depending on cooling conditions, the stable values of the current and electric field strength preceding the occurrence of instability may be both higher and lower than the a priori chosen critical parameters of the superconductor. These features should be taken into account in selecting the stable value of the operating current of YBa2Cu3O7 superconducting windings.

Arkharov, A. M.; Dontsova, E. S.; Lavrov, N. A.; Romanovskii, V. R.

2014-04-01

56

Empiric Radioactive Iodine Dosing Regimens Frequently Exceed Maximum Tolerated Activity Levels in Elderly Patients with Thyroid Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although 131I-iodine (RAI) therapy is a mainstay in the treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer, there is controversy regarding the maximum activity that can safely be administered without dosi- metric determination of the maximum tolerable activity (MTA). At most institutions, a fixed empiric dosing strategy is often used, with administered activities ranging from 5.55 to 9.25 GBq (150-250 mCi). In our

R. Michael Tuttle; Rebecca Leboeuf; Richard J. Robbins; Rebecca Qualey; Keith Pentlow; Steven M. Larson; Chee Y. Chan

57

Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities.  

PubMed

Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (alpha(max)) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining alpha(max), which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t(E)) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL(e)) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that alpha(max) increases for increasing TVL(e) (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t(E), with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation. PMID:18561656

Fondevila, Damián; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Mónica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

2008-05-01

58

Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities  

SciTech Connect

Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle ({alpha}{sub max}) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining {alpha}{sub max}, which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t{sub E}) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL{sub e}) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that {alpha}{sub max} increases for increasing TVL{sub e} (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t{sub E}, with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation.

Fondevila, Damian; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Monica; Dosoretz, Bernardo [Vidt Centro Medico, Vidt 1924, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-05-15

59

EPR spectrum deconvolution and dose assessment of fossil tooth enamel using maximum likelihood common factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the components which give rise to the EPR spectrum around g = 2 we have applied Maximum Likelihood Common Factor Analysis (MLCFA) on the EPR spectra of enamel sample 1126 which has previously been analysed by continuous wave and pulsed EPR as well as EPR microscopy. MLCFA yielded agreeing results on three sets of X-band spectra

G. Vanhaelewyn; F. Callens; R. Grün

2000-01-01

60

A Phase I Trial to Determine the Safety, Tolerability, and Maximum Tolerated Dose of Deforolimus in Patients with Advanced Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Purpose This was a phase I trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose and toxicity of deforolimus (AP23573, MK-8669), an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antineoplastic effects were also studied. Experimental Design Deforolimus was administered intravenously over 30 min every 7 days according to a flat dosing schedule. Dose was escalated according to an accelerated titration design. Patients remained on study until disease progression as long as they tolerated the drug without significant toxicities. Results Forty-six patients were enrolled on the study. Common side effects included fatigue, anorexia, and mucositis. The maximum tolerated dose was 75 mg and mucositis was the dose-limiting toxicity. Similar to other mTOR inhibitors, deforolimus exhibited nonlinear pharmacokinetics and a prolonged half-life. Among 34 patients evaluable for response, 1 patient had a partial response, 21 patients had stable disease, and 12 had progressed. Percent change in tumor size was significantly associated with AUC (P = 0.015). A significant association was also detected for maximum change in cholesterol within the first two cycles of therapy and change in tumor size (r = ?0.38; P = 0.029). Conclusions Deforolimus was well tolerated on the schedule tested in this trial with toxicity and pharmacokinetic profiles that were similar to that of other mTOR inhibitors. Additional phase II studies are needed to determine if deforolimus is superior to other mTOR inhibitors in terms of efficacy. The change in serum cholesterol as a potential biomarker of activity should be studied further.

Hartford, Christine M.; Desai, Apurva A.; Janisch, Linda; Karrison, Theodore; Rivera, Victor M.; Berk, Lori; Loewy, John W.; Kindler, Hedy; Stadler, Walter M.; Knowles, Heather L.; Bedrosian, Camille; Ratain, Mark J.

2011-01-01

61

Maximum Age Predictions for Optical Dating on Mars Based on Dose/Depth Models and Martian Meteorite Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental need in the Mars exploration portfolio is in-situ absolute dating. Optical dating has been proposed for determining the age of Mars surface features and landforms as well as the rates of martian surface processes. On Earth, the method is employed for Quaternary studies because the technique currently has a terrestrial maximum age limit of approximately 350 ka. This maximum age limit is a function of the saturation dose of the dosimeter material (silicate sediments) and the local ionizing radiation dose rate. The sources of ionizing radiation germane to optical dating are K, Rb, U, Th in the sediment/soil environment and cosmic rays. On Mars the near surface dose rate will be dominated by cosmic rays, however, at depth the decay of radioisotopes will be the principle contributor of ionizing radiation. In this work we present an evaluation of the maximum age limits for OSL dating on Mars as a function of depth. At this time we have considered only static burial. Our calculations are based on published models of and data for: (i) Mars surface cosmic dose rate and its attenuation by martian regolith, (ii) elemental analyses of Mars meteorites, (iii) an experimental evaluation of the saturation dose for the martian soil simulant JSC Mars-1. Our analysis confirms earlier inferences that optical dating should have a greater effective age range on Mars than on Earth. At depths easily accessible by penetrators or moles (1-3 m), maximum optical ages greater than 600 ka are possible. Geochronology on this scale would include at least two stadial/interstadial cycles within Mars' last "Glacial Epoch" (synchronized insolation variations between the poles). A wide range of landforms and surface processes associated with climate variability -- e.g. outwash and lacustrine deposition, large-scale eolian activation -- could potentially be optically dated. At greater depths, that could be reached by mobile drilling rigs or cryobots (10-30m), optical age maximums of 4.5 to greater than 35 Ma appear to be possible.

Franklund, R. T.; Lepper, K.

2004-12-01

62

Basic dosimetry of radiosurgery narrow beams using Monte Carlo simulations: a detailed study of depth of maximum dose.  

PubMed

In radiosurgery narrow photon beams, the depth of maximum dose d(max), in the beam central axis increases as the size of the additional collimator increases. This behavior is the opposite of what is observed in radiotherapy conventional beams. To understand this effect, experimental depth dose curves of the additional collimators were obtained for a Siemens KD2 linear accelerator in 6 MV photon mode and the shift of d(max) varied from 11.0 +/- 0.6 mm for the 5 mm collimator to 14.5 +/- 0.6 mm for the 23 mm collimator. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the photons that had no interactions in the additional collimators, contributing more than 90% to the total dose in water, were responsible for the shift in d(max). Monte Carlo simulations also showed that electrons originated from these photons and contributing to the dose deposit in water in the beam central axis could be divided in two groups: those that deposit energy far away from their point of origin (the point of the first photon collision in water) and those that deposit energy locally (originated at more than one photon collision in water). Applying a simplified model based on the fact that the photons originating Compton electrons (at the first and subsequent collisions) have similar characteristics in air for all the additional collimators, it was shown that these electrons were also responsible for the shift of d(max) in the beam central axis. Finally, it was shown that the changes in the initial gradients of the depth dose curves of the additional collimators were mainly due to electrons originated from the first photon collision in water. PMID:14655937

Chaves, A; Lopes, M C; Alves, C C; Oliveira, C; Peralta, L; Rodrigues, P; Trindade, A

2003-11-01

63

An appreciation of the maximum tolerated dose: an inadequately precise decision point in designing a carcinogenesis bioassay  

SciTech Connect

Cancers arise in specific tissues. One difficulty with the present definitions of the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), as they pertain to the rodent cancer bioassay, is that they base MTD on relatively crude parameters associated with the well-being of the entire animal rather than with the lack of specific tissue toxicity. Additional factors that could be included in the MTD definition, or could be separately determined, are addressed. Many of these factors refer to toxic behavior in one or a few tissues and, if used in setting the MTD, may mask more relevant events occurring at higher dose levels in other tissues. Reducing the MTD to a level that fails to take into account pesticide or drug-related toxicity may lead to the loss of relevant information in the bioassay. It is concluded, therefore, that there are two possible approaches to a more appropriate use of the MTD. The highest dose of the test agent (MTD) may be chosen (i) to lie below the thresholds of carcinogenicity-related non-genotoxic toxicity or (ii) the present high level MTD may continue to be used and tumors that arise may be classified as being irrelvant to humans at some or all exposure levels. The latter approach is to be preferred. It has the potential to avoid missing high level effects of the test agent that may be relevant to the human population.91 references.

Clayson, D.B.; Iverson, F.; Mueller, R. (Toxicology Research Division, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1991-01-01

64

Fixed-dose pegfilgrastim is safe and allows neutrophil recovery in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma received a single subcutaneous injection of 6 mg pegfilgrastim approximately 24 h after the start of CHOP chemotherapy. The safety of pegfilgrastim in this patient population was determined by reports of adverse events. The pharmacokinetics of pegfilgrastim were characterized and the duration of grade 4 neutropenia, time to absolute neutrophil count (ANC) recovery to > or = 2.0 x 10(9)/l, neutrophil nadir, and incidence of febrile neutropenia were determined in the first 21-day chemotherapy cycle. The incidence of grade 4 neutropenia in cycle 1 was 43% with a mean (SD) duration of grade 4 neutropenia value of 1.0 (1.4) day. No apparent relationship between the duration of grade 4 neutropenia and body weight was observed. The median [quartiles] time to ANC recovery was 10 [9, 11] days. The incidence of febrile neutropenia was 11%. No unexpected adverse events were reported and no patient developed antibodies to pegfilgrastim. Serum concentration of pegfilgrastim reached a maximum (median [quartiles]) of 128 [58, 159] ng/ml at approximately 24 h after administration, and was followed by a second smaller peak (median [quartiles]) of 10.6 [3.0, 20.5] ng/ml at the time of the neutrophil nadir. After the second peak, concentration of pegfilgrastim declined linearly with a median terminal half-life of approximately 42 h. PMID:14692520

George, S; Yunus, F; Case, D; Yang, B B; Hackett, J; Shogan, J E; Meza, L A; Neumann, T A; Liang, B C

2003-10-01

65

A gradient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for computing multivariate maximum likelihood estimates and posterior distributions: mixture dose-response assessment.  

PubMed

Multivariate probability distributions, such as may be used for mixture dose-response assessment, are typically highly parameterized and difficult to fit to available data. However, such distributions may be useful in analyzing the large electronic data sets becoming available, such as dose-response biomarker and genetic information. In this article, a new two-stage computational approach is introduced for estimating multivariate distributions and addressing parameter uncertainty. The proposed first stage comprises a?gradient Markov chain Monte Carlo?(GMCMC) technique to find Bayesian posterior mode estimates (PMEs) of parameters, equivalent to maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) in the absence of subjective information. In the second stage, these estimates are used to initialize a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, replacing the conventional burn-in period to allow convergent simulation of the full joint Bayesian posterior distribution and the corresponding unconditional multivariate distribution (not conditional on uncertain parameter values). When the distribution of parameter uncertainty is such a Bayesian posterior, the unconditional distribution is termed?predictive. The method is demonstrated by finding conditional and unconditional versions of the recently proposed emergent dose-response function (DRF). Results are shown for the five-parameter common-mode and seven-parameter dissimilar-mode models, based on published data for eight benzene-toluene dose pairs. The common mode conditional DRF is obtained with a 21-fold reduction in data requirement versus MCMC. Example common-mode unconditional DRFs are then found using synthetic data, showing a 71% reduction in required data. The approach is further demonstrated for a PCB 126-PCB 153 mixture. Applicability is analyzed and discussed. Matlab(®) computer programs are provided. PMID:21906114

Li, Ruochen; Englehardt, James D; Li, Xiaoguang

2012-02-01

66

Comparison of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) dermal response in three strains of mice following repeated exposure to acrylic acid.  

PubMed

The dermal response of three strains of mice (ICR, C3H and B6C3F1) exposed to repeated doses of 0, 1 or 4% acrylic acid was examined over 13 wk. Microscopic and gross changes to the skin were classified as being indicative of exceeding the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), reaching the MTD, or tolerating the dose based on proposed MTD guidelines established in US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Workshops on dermal carcinogenesis bioassays. A significant number of animals in all three strains with repeated exposure to 4% acrylic acid experienced skin irritation that was classified as having reached or exceeded the MTD compared with animals exposed to either 1% acrylic acid or the 0% acrylic acid acetone control. These results were observed within the first 3 wk of exposure, but there was some accommodation to irritation by 8 wk of exposure. Microscopic findings provided a more sensitive index for exceeding MTD than gross observations taken only at autopsy, but generally correlated well for MTD if gross observations were taken at regular intervals during treatment. That is, to set MTD, gross observations could be used if taken over the entire course of the exposure, but using microscopic findings was generally a more reliable or sensitive measure. EPA guidelines suggest that it is inappropriate to conduct a dermal bioassay at concentrations that exceed the MTD. Acrylic acid at 4% in acetone clearly exceeded the MTD based on microscopic or gross observation criteria. At 4%, strain differences were evident by gross observation only, with the ICR strain being less susceptible to irritation than C3H or B6C3F1 strains. These strain differences were not apparent with microscopic examination. Acrylic acid at 1% in acetone, although demonstrating signs of minimal irritation, was fairly well tolerated by all mice in all strains. Thus, acrylic acid at 1% in acetone, one-quarter of the concentration that was in clear excess of the MTD, would be the appropriate dose concentration for lifetime skin studies based on MTD criteria. PMID:7797178

McLaughlin, J E; Parno, J; Garner, F M; Clary, J J; Thomas, W C; Murphy, S R

1995-06-01

67

Silica nanoparticles administered at the maximum tolerated dose induce genotoxic effects through an inflammatory reaction while gold nanoparticles do not.  

PubMed

While the collection of genotoxicity data and insights into potential mechanisms of action for nano-sized particulate materials (NPs) are steadily increasing, there is great uncertainty whether current standard assays are suitable to appropriately characterize potential risks. We investigated the effects of NPs in an in vivo Comet/micronucleus (MN) combination assay and in an in vitro MN assay performed with human blood. We also incorporated additional endpoints into the in vivo study in an effort to delineate primary from secondary mechanisms. Amorphous silica NPs (15 and 55 nm) were chosen for their known reactivity, while gold nano/microparticles (2, 20, and 200 nm) were selected for their wide size range and lower reactivity. DNA damage in liver, lung and blood cells and micronuclei in circulating reticulocytes were measured after 3 consecutive intravenous injections to male Wistar rats at 48, 24 and 4h before sacrifice. Gold nano/microparticles were negative for MN induction in vitro and in vivo, and for the induction of DNA damage in all tissues. Silica particles, however, caused a small but reproducible increase in DNA damage and micronucleated reticulocytes when tested at their maximum tolerated dose (MTD). No genotoxic effects were observed at lower doses, and the in vitro MN assay was also negative. We hypothesize that silica NPs initiate secondary genotoxic effects through release of inflammatory cell-derived oxidants, similar to that described for crystalline silica (quartz). Such a mechanism is supported by the occurrence of increased neutrophilic infiltration, necrosis, and apoptotic cells in the liver, and induction of inflammatory markers TNF-? and IL-6 in plasma at the MTDs. These results were fairly consistent between silica NPs and the quartz control, thereby strengthening the argument that silica NPs may act in a similar, thresholded manner. The observed profile is supportive of a secondary genotoxicity mechanism that is driven by inflammation. PMID:22504169

Downs, Thomas R; Crosby, Meredith E; Hu, Ting; Kumar, Shyam; Sullivan, Ashley; Sarlo, Katherine; Reeder, Bob; Lynch, Matt; Wagner, Matthew; Mills, Tim; Pfuhler, Stefan

2012-06-14

68

Modification of the 50% maximum dose depth for 41-MeV ( p/sup +/,Be) neutrons by use of filtration and/or transmission targets  

SciTech Connect

Several target configurations for the 41-MeV ( p/sup +/,Be) reaction have been evaluated for the characteristics of the radiation field produced; depth dose, dose rate per ..mu..A. From analysis, it is concluded that to achieve the desired 13.2-cm depth for 50% of maximum dose and acceptable dose rate at a target-to-skin distance (TSD) of 125--150 cm, the neutron spectra must be filtered to preferentially absorb the lower-energy neutrons. Further increases in depth of 50% of maximum dose and a significant reduction in beryllium heating problems result if a partial transmission target is used with the terminal 30% of proton energy being deposited in a copper target backing.

Smathers, J.B.; Graves, R.G.; Earls, L.; Otte, V.A.; Almond, P.R.

1982-11-01

69

Low-dose Dobutamine Tissue-tagged MRI with 3D Strain Analysis Allows Assessment of Myocardial Viability in Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Background: Tissue-tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 3-dimensional (3D) myocardial strain analysis allows quantitative assessment of myocardial contractility. We assessed the hypothesis that 3D strain determination at rest and with low-dose dobutamine would discriminate between viable and nonviable myocardium in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). Methods: MRI with radiofrequency tissue-tagging at rest and with low-dose dobutamine was performed in 16 normal volunteers and 14 patients with ICM. Three-dimensional global and regional circumferential strains (Ecc) were computed for all subjects at rest and with dobutamine. Results were compared to clinically indicated conventional viability studies. Results: Compared to normal volunteers, global left ventricular Ecc was significantly decreased in patients with ICM at rest (?0.15 ± 0.06 vs. ?0.27 ± 0.03, p<0.001) and with dobutamine (?0.17 ± 0.08 vs. ?0.37 ± 0.10, p<0.001). Ecc was significantly decreased in nonviable regions compared to viable segments at rest (?0.08 ± 0.06 vs. ?0.17 ± 0.10, p<0.001) and with dobutamine (?0.07 ± 0.06 vs. ?0.21 ± 0.11, p<0.001). Ecc in viable segments increased significantly in response to dobutamine (p=0.04) whereas Ecc did not change in nonviable segments (p=0.50). Normal controls (96 segments) had increased Ecc at rest (?0.27 ± 0.07) and with dobutamine (?0.37 ± 0.15) compared to both viable and nonviable regions in ICM patients (p<0.001). Conclusions: Noninvasive dobutamine tissue-tagged MRI with calculation of 3D strain allows the identification, quantification and display of regionally varying ventricular function. The response of systolic strain to low-dose dobutamine has significant promise in discriminating between viable and nonviable myocardium.

Bree, Douglas; Wollmuth, Jason R.; Cupps, Brian P.; Krock, Marc D.; Howells, Analyn; Moazami, Nader; Pasque, Michael K.; Rogers, Joseph

2006-01-01

70

Methodology used to compute maximum potential doses from ingestion of edible plants and wildlife found on the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the assumptions, dose factors, consumption rates, and methodology used to evaluate potential radiation doses to persons who may eat contaminated wildlife or contaminated plants collected from the Hanford Site. This report includes a description of the number and variety of wildlife and edible plants on the Hanford Site, methods for estimation of the quantities of these items consumed and conversion of intake of radionuclides to radiation doses, and example calculations of radiation doses from consumption of plants and wildlife. Edible plants on the publicly accessible margins of the shoreline of the Hanford Site and Wildlife that move offsite are potential sources of contaminated food for the general public. Calculations of potential radiation doses from consumption of agricultural plants and farm animal products are made routinely and reported annually for those produced offsite, using information about concentrations of radionuclides, consumption rates, and factors for converting radionuclide intake into dose. Dose calculations for onsite plants and wildlife are made intermittently when appropriate samples become available for analysis or when special studies are conducted. Consumption rates are inferred from the normal intake rates of similar food types raised offsite and from the edible weight of the onsite product that is actually available for harvest. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

1990-10-01

71

Impact of a proposed change in the maximum permissible dose limit for neutrons to radiation-protection programs at DOE facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has issued a statement advising that it is considering lowering the maximum permissible dose for neutrons. This action would present substantive problems to radiation protection programs at DOE facilities where a potential for neutron exposure exists. In addition to altering administrative controls, a lowering of the maximum permissible dose for neutrons will require advances in personnel neutron dosimetry systems and neutron detection and measurement instrumentation. Improvement in the characterization of neutron fields and spectra at work locations will also be needed. DOE has initiated research and development programs in these areas. However, problems related to the control of personnel neutron exposure have yet to be resolved and investigators are encouraged to continue collaboration with both United States and international authorities.

Murphy, B. L.

1981-09-01

72

Maximum Age Predictions for Optical Dating on Mars Based on Dose\\/Depth Models and Martian Meteorite Compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental need in the Mars exploration portfolio is in-situ absolute dating. Optical dating has been proposed for determining the age of Mars surface features and landforms as well as the rates of martian surface processes. On Earth, the method is employed for Quaternary studies because the technique currently has a terrestrial maximum age limit of approximately 350 ka. This

R. T. Franklund; K. Lepper

2004-01-01

73

Maximum permissible amounts of accidentally released tritium derived from an environmental experiment to meet dose limits for public exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that it is important in the design of future fusion reactors and associated facilities that incorporate passive safety to take account of the possible environmental impact of accidental tritium release. Reliable information on dose consequences can be obtained by evaluating urine samples from persons exposed to tritium. Translating the results of the environmental HT experiment performed in

M. Taeschner; C. Bunnenberg; W. Gulden

1991-01-01

74

Biocompatibility of antimicrobials to maggot debridement therapy: medical maggots Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) exhibit tolerance to clinical maximum doses of antimicrobials.  

PubMed

The larvae of calliphorid flies are used to debride wounds of patients with severe tissue destruction, often concurrently with antimicrobials. The current study evaluates the effects of ceftazidime, tobramycin, amikacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, doxycycline, paromomycin, amphotericin B, sodium stibogluconate, and miltefosine at 1, 10, and 100 x the Maximum Clinical Concentration (mg/kg/d) in raw liver assays. Effects on larvae were small and depended on dose and antimicrobial formulation, with hours in assay (24 or 48 h) having a significant effect on larval survival. Sodium stibgluconate had the strongest effect on maggot survival (80.0% at 48 h). These results suggest that the antimicrobials tested here may be used simultaneously with maggot debridement therapy, and may actually increase the effectiveness of maggot debridement therapy in certain applications where >1 x Maximum Clinical Concentration is indicated, such as topical creams for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:23025196

Peck, George W; Kirkup, Benjamin C

2012-09-01

75

Single-event and total-dose effects in geo-stationary transfer orbit during solar-activity maximum period measured by the Tsubasa satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tsubasa satellite developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency was launched in Feb 2002 into Geo-stationary Transfer Orbit GTO Perigee 500km Apogee 36000km and had been operated well until Sep 2003 The objective of this satellite was to verify the function of commercial parts and new technologies of bus-system components in space Thus the on-board experiments were conducted in the more severe radiation environment of GTO rather than in Geo-stationary Earth Orbit GEO or Low Earth Orbit LEO The Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment SEDA on board the Tsubasa satellite had the Single-event Upset Monitor SUM and the DOSimeter DOS to evaluate influences on electronic devices caused by radiation environment that was also measured by the particle detectors of the SEDA the Standard DOse Monitor SDOM for measurements of light particles and the Heavy Ion Telescope HIT for measurements of heavy ions The SUM monitored single-event upsets and single-event latch-ups occurred in the test sample of two 64-Mbit DRAMs The DOS measured accumulated radiation dose at fifty-six locations in the body of the Tsubasa satellite Using the data obtained by these instruments single-event and total-dose effects in GTO during solar-activity maximum period especially their rapid changes due to solar flares and CMEs in the region from L 1 1 through L 11 is discussed in this paper

Koshiishi, H.; Kimoto, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Goka, T.

76

Reduced-intensity conditioning using fludarabine with either antithymocyte globulin and BU, or low-dose TBI allowing allogeneic hematopoietic SCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a single-center study, we analyzed the outcomes of 66 patients with advanced hematological malignancies receiving two reduced-intensity conditioning regimens for allogeneic transplantation: fludarabine and low-dose TBI (flu\\/TBI, n=25), or fludarabine, antithymocyte globulin and BU (flu\\/ATG\\/BU, n=41). The selection criteria were based on the hypothesis that flu\\/TBI patients were expected to achieve autologous recovery in the event of non-engraftment. Sixty-three

C Cable; M P Buzzeo; J D Schold; S Khan; H Leather; J Moreb; K Jamieson; J Scornik; R J Amdur; J R Wingard; V Reddy

2010-01-01

77

Metronomic chemotherapy following the maximum tolerated dose is an effective anti-tumour therapy affecting angiogenesis, tumour dissemination and cancer stem cells.  

PubMed

In this article, the effectiveness of a multi-targeted chemo-switch (C-S) schedule that combines metronomic chemotherapy (MET) after treatment with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is reported. This schedule was tested with gemcitabine in two distinct human pancreatic adenocarcinoma orthotopic models and with cyclophosphamide in an orthotopic ovarian cancer model. In both models, the C-S schedule had the most favourable effect, achieving at least 80% tumour growth inhibition without increased toxicity. Moreover, in the pancreatic cancer model, although peritoneal metastases were observed in control and MTD groups, no dissemination was observed in the MET and C-S groups. C-S treatment caused a decrease in angiogenesis, and its effect on tumour growth was similar to that produced by the MTD followed by anti-angiogenic DC101 treatment. C-S treatment combined an increase in thrombospondin-1 expression with a decrease in the number of CD133+ cancer cells and triple-positive CD133+/CD44+/CD24+ cancer stem cells (CSCs). These findings confirm that the C-S schedule is a challenging clinical strategy with demonstrable inhibitory effects on tumour dissemination, angiogenesis and CSCs. PMID:23649709

Vives, Marta; Ginestà, Mireia M; Gracova, Kristina; Graupera, Mariona; Casanovas, Oriol; Capellà, Gabriel; Serrano, Teresa; Laquente, Berta; Viñals, Francesc

2013-11-15

78

30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...44 Section 36.44 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test...

2013-07-01

79

Maximum Score Type Estimators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents maximum score type estimators for linear, binomial, tobit and truncated regression models. These estimators estimate the normalized vector of slopes and do not provide the estimator of intercept, although it may appear in the model. Strong consistency is proved. In addition, in the case of truncated and tobit regression models, maximum score estimators allow restriction of the

Marcin Owczarczuk

2009-01-01

80

Etoposide (VP-16) and cisplatin at maximum tolerated dose in non-small cell lung carcinoma: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-institutional cooperative group trial was undertaken by the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of cisplatin and intravenous etoposide for the treatment of metastatic or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The doses used were those previously determined to be the maximally tolerated dose of this drug combination. Forty patients were entered

Joseph J. Muscato; Constance Cirrincione; Gerald Clamon; Michael C. Perry; George Omura; Irving Berkowitz; Thomas Reid; James E. Herndon; Mark R. Green

1995-01-01

81

Approach to calculating upper bounds on maximum individual doses from the use of contaminated well water following a WIPP repository breach. Report EEG-9  

SciTech Connect

As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report.

Spiegler, P.

1981-09-01

82

Absorbed Radiation Dose in Radiosensitive Organs During Coronary CT Angiography Using 320-MDCT: Effect of Maximum Tube Voltage and Heart Rate Variations  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to estimate the absorbed radiation dose in radiosensitive organs during coronary MDCT angiography using 320-MDCT and to determine the effects of tube voltage variation and heart rate (HR) control on absorbed radiation dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS Semiconductor field effect transistor detectors were used to measure absorbed radiation doses for the thyroid, midbreast, breast, and midlung in an anthropomorphic phantom at 100, 120, and 135 kVp at two different HRs of 60 and 75 beats per minute (bpm) with a scan field of view of 320 mm, 400 mA, 320 × 0.5 mm detectors, and 160 mm collimator width (160 mm range). The paired Student’s t test was used for data evaluation. RESULTS At 60 bpm, absorbed radiation doses for 100, 120, and 135 kVp were 13.41 ± 3.59, 21.7 ± 4.12, and 29.28 ± 5.17 mGy, respectively, for midbreast; 11.76 ± 0.58, 18.86 ± 1.06, and 24.82 ± 1.45 mGy, respectively, for breast; 12.19 ± 2.59, 19.09 ± 3.12, and 26.48 ± 5.0 mGy, respectively, for lung; and 0.37 ± 0.14, 0.69 ± 0.14, and 0.92 ± 0.2 mGy, respectively, for thyroid. Corresponding absorbed radiation doses for 75 bpm were 38.34 ± 2.02, 59.72 ± 3.13, and 77.8 ± 3.67 mGy for midbreast; 26.2 ± 1.74, 44 ± 1.11, and 52.84 ± 4.07 mGy for breast; 38.02 ± 1.58, 58.89 ± 1.68, and 78 ± 2.93 mGy for lung; and 0.79 ± 0.233, 1.04 ± 0.18, and 2.24 ± 0.52 mGy for thyroid. Absorbed radiation dose changes were significant for all organs for both tube voltage reductions as well as for HR control from 75 to 60 bpm at all tube voltage settings (p < 0.05). The absorbed radiation doses for the calcium score protocol were 11.2 ± 1.4 mGy for midbreast, 9.12 ± 0.48 mGy for breast, 10.36 ± 1.3 mGy for lung, and 0.4 ± 0.05 mGy for thyroid. CONCLUSION CT angiography with 320-MDCT scanners results in absorbed radiation doses in radiosensitive organs that compare favorably to those previously reported. Significant dose reductions can be achieved by tube voltage reductions and HR control.

Nikolic, Boris; Khosa, Faisal; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Khan, Atif N.; Sarwar, Sheryar; Yam, Chun-Shan; Court, Laurence E.; Raptopoulos, Vassilios; Clouse, Melvin E.

2012-01-01

83

Etoposide (VP-16) and cisplatin at maximum tolerated dose in non-small cell lung carcinoma: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.  

PubMed

A multi-institutional cooperative group trial was undertaken by the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of cisplatin and intravenous etoposide for the treatment of metastatic or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The doses used were those previously determined to be the maximally tolerated dose of this drug combination. Forty patients were entered into the trial, 37 of whom were eligible for evaluation. Cisplatin (35 mg/M2/day for 3 days) and etoposide (200 mg/M2/day for 3 days) were administered every 28 days for a planned 6 cycles of therapy. Sixteen of 37 evaluable patients (43%) responded to therapy. Myelosuppression was the dominant toxicity, with 89% of the patients experiencing grade 4 neutropenia, and nearly half grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia. Median survival was 8.5 months, with 30% of the patients alive at 1 year and 10% alive at 2 years. Malaise, fatigue, and peripheral neuropathy were the other major toxicities. The combination of etoposide at the dose of 200 mg/M2/day for 3 days and cisplatin at 35 mg/M2/day for 3 days is a highly potent combination against metastatic non-small cell carcinoma. PMID:8719068

Muscato, J J; Cirrincione, C; Clamon, G; Perry, M C; Omura, G; Berkowitz, I; Reid, T; Herndon, J E; Green, M R

1995-12-01

84

76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mitigation AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities of...threat and risk analyses that integrate...section 5, a risk analysis of its pipeline to identify additional...Hazardous Liquid and Gas Pipeline...

2011-01-10

85

Use of CFU-GM assay for prediction of human maximum tolerated dose of a new antitumoral drug: Yondelis (ET-743).  

PubMed

Acute cytotoxic exposure causes decreases in bone marrow progenitors that precedes the neutrophil nadir. Experiments in animal models reveal a relationship between the reduction in granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (CFU-GM) and the decrease in absolute neutrophil count [Toxicol. Pathol. 21 (1993) 241]. Recently, the prevalidation of a model for predicting acute neutropenia by the CFU-GM assay has been reported [Toxicol. In Vitro 15 (2001) 729]. The model was based on prediction of human MTD by adjusting the animal-derived MTD for the differential sensitivity between CFU-GM from animal species and humans. In this study, this model has been applied on a new antitumoral drug, Yondelis (Ecteinascidin; ET-743). Preclinical studies showed that hematotoxicity was the main side effect in mice, being the MTD of 600 microg/m2 [Drugs Future 21 (1996) 1155]. The sensitivity of myeloid progenitors was higher in mice than in humans, with IC90 values of 0.69+/-0.22 nM and 1.31+/-0.21 nM for murine and human CFU-GMs respectively. This study predicts a human MTD of 1145 microg/m2. The reported human MTD of ET-743 given as a 24-h continuous infusion every 3 weeks is 1800 microg/m2 [J. Clin. Oncol. 19 (2001) 1256]. Since our predicted MTD is within fourfold of the actual MTD (the interspecies variation in tolerated dose due to differences in clearance rates, metabolism pathways and infusion rate) the result confirms the profit of the prediction model. PMID:14599461

Gómez, Susana G; Bueren, Juan A; Faircloth, Glynn; Albella, Beatriz

2003-01-01

86

Allowing patients to decide.  

PubMed

...allowing physicians to withhold life support and resuscitation because they feel it is futile, no matter how beneficent their intentions, would be an unwarranted step backwards toward the type of paternalism modern American society has turned away from. If we agree that all professional ethics must, in some way, be responsive to the society that profession serves, then in these most critical situations, the final decision must rest with the patient. PMID:11643203

Franklin, Cory

1993-01-01

87

Deconvolution of planar scintigrams by maximum entropy.  

PubMed

Planar scintigrams are deconvolved with a point spread function using the maximum entropy method with the aim of improving image quality. The technique requires the specification of several parameters. These are related to the level of noise present in the data and our a priori knowledge of the object imaged. The performance of the technique is tested for a wide range of these parameters using images of a Williams phantom in scattering material and a figure of merit, derived from the detectability of the smallest cold spot, is calculated. For close to optimal values of the parameters a factor of two improvement in the figure is found. A processed bone image shows improved contrast and resolution. Maximum entropy processing could be used to increase image quality or allow comparable image quality with reduced imaging time or patient dose. PMID:7708837

Simpson, D E; Fleming, J S; Aldous, A J; Daniell, G J

1995-01-01

88

Application of the CFU-GM assay to predict acute drug-induced neutropenia: an international blind trial to validate a prediction model for the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of myelosuppressive xenobiotics.  

PubMed

In a previous study of prevalidation, a standard operating procedure (SOP) for two independent in vitro tests (human and mouse) had been developed, to evaluate the potential hematotoxicity of xenobiotics from their direct and the adverse effects on granulocyte-macrophages (CFU-GM). A predictive model to calculate the human maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was set up, by adjusting a mouse-derived MTD for the differential interspecies sensitivity. In this paper, we describe an international blind trial designed to apply this model to the clinical neutropenia, by testing 20 drugs, including 14 antineoplastics (Cytosar-U, 5-Fluorouracil, Myleran, Thioguanine, Fludarabine, Bleomycin, Methotrexate, Gemcitabine, Carmustine, Etoposide, Teniposide, Cytoxan, Taxol, Adriamycin); two antivirals (Retrovir, Zovirax,); three drugs for other therapeutic indications (Cyclosporin, Thorazine, Indocin); and one pesticide (Lindane). The results confirmed that the SOP developed generates reproducible IC90 values with both human and murine GM-CFU. For 10 drugs (Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Etoposide, Fludarabine, 5-Fluorouracil, Myleran, Taxol, Teniposide, Thioguanine, and Thorazine), IC90 values were found within the range of the actual drug doses tested (defined as the actual IC90). For the other 10 drugs (Carmustine, Cyclosporin, Cytosar-U, Cytoxan, Gemcitabine, Indocin, Lindane, Methotrexate, Retrovir, and Zovirax) extrapolation on the regression curve out of the range of the actual doses tested was required to derive IC90 values (extrapolated IC90). The model correctly predicted the human MTD for 10 drugs out of 10 that had "actual IC90 values" and 7 drugs out of 10 for those having only an extrapolated IC90. Two of the incorrect predictions (Gemcitabine and Zovirax) were within 6-fold of the correct MTD, instead of the 4-fold range required by the model, whereas the prediction with Cytosar-U was approximately 10-fold in error. A possible explanation for the failure in the prediction of these three drugs, which are pyrimidine analogs, is discussed. We concluded that our model correctly predicted the human MTD for 20 drugs out of 23, since the other three drugs (Topotecan, PZA, and Flavopiridol) were tested in the prevalidation study. The high percentage of predicitivity (87%), as well as the reproducibility of the SOP testing, confirm that the model can be considered scientifically validated in this study, suggesting promising applications to other areas of research in developing validated hematotoxicological in vitro methods. PMID:12883091

Pessina, A; Albella, B; Bayo, M; Bueren, J; Brantom, P; Casati, S; Croera, C; Gagliardi, G; Foti, P; Parchment, R; Parent-Massin, D; Schoeters, G; Sibiril, Y; Van Den Heuvel, R; Gribaldo, L

2003-10-01

89

A randomized, open-label, phase I/II trial to investigate the maximum tolerated dose of the Polo-like kinase inhibitor BI 2536 in elderly patients with refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia.  

PubMed

Polo-like kinases (Plks) play an important role in cell cycle checkpoint controls and are over-expressed in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). BI 2536, a novel Plk inhibitor, induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis. In this phase I/II trial of BI 2536 in 68 elderly patients with relapsed/refractory AML, three schedules were investigated (day 1, days 1-3, and days 1 + 8). Maximum tolerated dose was 350 and 200 mg in the day 1 and days 1 + 8 schedules, respectively. The day 1-3 schedule appeared equivalent to the day 1 schedule and was discontinued early. BI 2536 exhibited multi-compartmental pharmacokinetic behaviour. The majority of patients showed an increase of bone marrow cells in G2/M with a characteristic pattern of mitotic catastrophe. The overall response rate in the day 1 and day 1 + 8 schedules was 9% (5/54) with 2 complete and 3 partial responses. The majority of drug-related adverse events grade ?3 were haematological. Taken together, Plk inhibition induced cell cycle arrest in AML blasts in vivo and BI 2536 monotherapy showed modest clinical activity in this poor prognosis patient group. PMID:24033250

Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Bug, Gesine; Lübbert, Michael; Krämer, Alwin; Krauter, Jürgen; Valent, Peter; Nachbaur, David; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Ottmann, Oliver G; Fritsch, Holger; Munzert, Gerd; Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Fleischer, Frank; Taube, Tillmann; Döhner, Hartmut

2013-10-01

90

Maximum thrust mode evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

1995-01-01

91

The maximum likelihood degree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum likelihood estimation in statistics leads to the problem of\\u000amaximizing a product of powers of polynomials. We study the algebraic degree of\\u000athe critical equations of this optimization problem. This degree is related to\\u000athe number of bounded regions in the corresponding arrangement of\\u000ahypersurfaces, and to the Euler characteristic of the complexified complement.\\u000aUnder suitable hypotheses, the maximum

Serkan Hosten; Amit Khetan; Bernd Sturmfels

2006-01-01

92

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

93

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...applicable: (1) The design pressure of the weakest element in...service regulators or other pressure limiting devices in series that...172 kPa) gage in segments of cast iron pipe in which there are...spigot joints. (4) The pressure limits to which a joint...

2013-10-01

94

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicable: (1) The design pressure of the weakest element in...service regulators or other pressure limiting devices in series that...172 kPa) gage in segments of cast iron pipe in which there are...spigot joints. (4) The pressure limits to which a joint...

2010-10-01

95

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicable: (1) The design pressure of the weakest element in...service regulators or other pressure limiting devices in series that...172 kPa) gage in segments of cast iron pipe in which there are...spigot joints. (4) The pressure limits to which a joint...

2009-10-01

96

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and ensures ductile fracture and arrest with the...must ensure a ductile fracture and arrest. (3...achieve the pipeline toughness properties of paragraphs...must be used to ensure fracture arrest as described...may form centerline segregation during the...

2010-10-01

97

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and ensures ductile fracture and arrest with the...must ensure a ductile fracture and arrest. (3...achieve the pipeline toughness properties of paragraphs...must be used to ensure fracture arrest as described...may form centerline segregation during the...

2009-10-01

98

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2013-10-01

99

77 FR 56555 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Maximum Allowable Emission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...equipment used for indirect heating. As discussed above...air or other indirect heating of liquids, gases or...coke breeze, gas, fuel oil, biomass and wood...air or other indirect heating of liquids, gases...coke breeze, gas, fuel oil, biomass and...

2012-09-13

100

49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...determined by a root cause analysis, including...

2009-10-01

101

49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...testing. A root cause analysis, including...

2013-10-01

102

49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...determined by a root cause analysis, including...

2010-10-01

103

49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...determined by a root cause analysis, including...

2013-10-01

104

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...boiler has been established, an increase in the pressure settings of its safety valves shall not be granted unless the boiler design meets the requirements of this subchapter in effect at the time the boiler was contracted for or built; but...

2010-10-01

105

77 FR 56591 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Maximum Allowable Emission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...From Fuel Burning Equipment Used for Indirect Heating AGENCY: Environmental Protection...from Fuel Burning Equipment Used for Indirect Heating. The new rule consolidates four...Register.. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephanie Doolan at (913)...

2012-09-13

106

Maximum life spur gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

Savage, M.; Mackulin, M. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

1991-01-01

107

The Maximum Principle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A relatively simple proof of the maximum principle is presented. The main objective was to obtain a proof, similar to that due to Halkin, but replacing the use of Brouwer's fixed point theorem by an easily proven contraction mapping theorem. The first use...

G. F. Bryant D. Q. Mayne

1973-01-01

108

Introduction to maximum entropy  

SciTech Connect

The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Sivia, D.S.

1988-01-01

109

[Status of hemapoiesis in residents of the Techa riverside villages in the period of maximum radiation exposure. Report 2. Influence of exposure dose and dose rate of red bone marrow as well as modifying factors on the frequency of cytopenia and cytosis].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is a retrospective estimation of the influence of dose and dose rate of the red bone marrow chronic radiation exposure in combination with various modifying factors (gender, age, comorbidity) on the frequency of deviations from normal values of the results of peripheral blood investigation in humans exposed on the Techa River. The results of investigation show that humans chronically exposed to radiation can develop marked changes in the cellular composition of peripheral blood characterized by a tendency to cytopenia (signs of the decompensation of hemopoiesis). The tendency to cytopenia can be identified earlier in the lymphoid germ, and later in platelet and erythroid lines. A high lability of granulocytes under the influence of various, often infectious, factors is the cause of the lack of statistically significant differences in terms of frequency of neutropenia. Several non-radiation factors (gender, age, health status) in combination with radiation exposure could have a modifying influence on hematopoiesis, which contributed to the disruption of adaptation processes and the development of conditions characterized by a tendency to cytopenias in exposed individuals. The red bone marrow dose rate reduction resulted in a gradual decrease in the frequency of erythrocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and lymphocytopenia in the group of exposed population. Increased frequencies of erythrocytosis, thrombocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and neutrophilia were observed when the median dose rate was reduced to the level of 0.024 Gy/year (in the year 1956), which could be regarded as activation of regenerative processes in hematopoiesis. PMID:22690575

Akleev, A V; Dimov, G P; Varfolomeeva, T A

2012-01-01

110

Benefits of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) concept in aquatic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not

Thomas H. Hutchinson; Christian Bögi; Matthew J. Winter; J. Willie Owens

2009-01-01

111

45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...allowances Basic public benefit allowance Tax support...program Maximum public benefit allowance Hospitals...30 10 100 Public Health Administration 2 ...Public Refuse Disposal and Water Systems 2 100 2...100 1 This public benefit allowance...

2013-10-01

112

45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...allowances Basic public benefit allowance Tax support...program Maximum public benefit allowance Hospitals...30 10 100 Public Health Administration 2 ...Public Refuse Disposal and Water Systems 2 100 2...100 1 This public benefit allowance...

2009-10-01

113

45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...allowances Basic public benefit allowance Tax support...program Maximum public benefit allowance Hospitals...30 10 100 Public Health Administration 2 ...Public Refuse Disposal and Water Systems 2 100 2...100 1 This public benefit allowance...

2010-10-01

114

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2012-10-01

115

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2011-10-01

116

46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping...Independent Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must:...

2011-10-01

117

46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping...Independent Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must:...

2012-10-01

118

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2012-10-01

119

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2010-10-01

120

46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping...Independent Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must:...

2010-10-01

121

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2011-10-01

122

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2010-10-01

123

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2013-10-01

124

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2013-10-01

125

Assessing allowable take of migratory birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M. L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

2009-01-01

126

BSP\\/CGM Algorithms for Maximum Subsequence and Maximum Subarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The maximum subsequence problem finds the contiguous subsequence of n real numbers with the highest sum. This problem appears in the analysis of DNA or protein sequences. It can be solved sequentially\\u000a in O(n) time. In the 2-D version, given an n × n array A, the maximum subarray of A is the contiguous subarray that has the maximum sum.

Carlos E. R. Alves; Edson Cáceres; Siang W. Song

2004-01-01

127

Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

1983-08-01

128

19 CFR 191.121 - Drawback allowance.  

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Meats Cured With Imported Salt § 191.121 Drawback allowance. Section 313(f) of the Act...allowance of drawback upon the exportation of meats cured with imported...

2014-04-01

129

Maximum Entropy Principle for Transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F.; Dasilva, R.

2008-11-01

130

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06

131

Child allowances, fertility, and chaotic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the dynamics in an overlapping generations model with the provision of child allowances. Fertility is an increasing function of child allowances and there exists a threshold effect of the marginal effect of child allowances on fertility. We show that if the effectiveness of child allowances is sufficiently high, an intermediate-sized tax rate will be enough to generate chaotic dynamics. Besides, a decrease in the inter-temporal elasticity of substitution will prevent the occurrence of irregular cycles.

Chen, Hung-Ju; Li, Ming-Chia

2013-06-01

132

Aortic Dose Constraints when Reirradiating Thoracic Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Improved radiation delivery and planning has allowed, in some instances, for the retreatment of thoracic tumors. We investigated the dose limits of the aorta wherein grade 5 aortic toxicity was observed after reirradiation of lung tumors. Material and Methods In a retrospective analysis, 35 patients were identified, between 1993 and 2008, who received two rounds of external beam irradiation that included the aorta in the radiation fields of both the initial and retreatment plans. We determined the maximum cumulative dose to 1 cm3 of the aorta (the composite dose) for each patient, normalized these doses to 1.8 Gy/fraction, and corrected them for long-term tissue recovery between treatments (NIDR). Results The median time interval between treatments was 30 months (range, 1–185 months). The median follow-up of patients alive at analysis was 42 months (range, 14–70 months). Two of the 35 patients (6%) were identified as having grade 5 aortic toxicities. There was a 25% rate of grade 5 aortic toxicity for patients receiving composite doses ?120.0 Gy (vs. 0% for patients receiving <120.0 Gy) (P=0.047). Conclusions Grade 5 aortic toxicities were observed with composite doses ?120.0 Gy (NIDR ?90.0 Gy) to 1 cm3 of the aorta.

Evans, Jaden D.; Gomez, Daniel R.; Amini, Arya; Rebueno, Neal; Allen, Pamela K.; Martel, Mary K.; Rineer, Justin M.; Ang, K. Kian; McAvoy, Sarah; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Welsh, James W.

2014-01-01

133

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2010-10-01

134

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2012-10-01

135

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2011-10-01

136

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2013-10-01

137

A Maximum Likelihood Stereo Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stereo algorithm is presented that optimizes a maximum likelihood cost function. The maximum likelihood cost function assumes that corresponding features in the left and right images are normally distributed about a common true value and consists of a weighted squared error term if two features are matched or a (fixed) cost if a feature is determined to be occluded.

Ingemar J. Cox; Sunita L. Hingorani; Satish B. Rao; Bruce M. Maggs

1996-01-01

138

Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

2010-01-01

139

Maximum mass of neutron stars - Dependence on the assumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variational approach is used to find the equation of state that maximizes the mass for a neutron star in Brans-Dicke theory. The increase of the maximum mass for neutron stars in general relativity is estimated when slow rotation is allowed. We also calculate the dependence of the maximum mass on the choice of density below which the equation of

R. A. Saenz

1977-01-01

140

Maximum mass of neutron stars: Dependence on the assumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variational approach is used to find the equation of state that maximizes the mass for a neutron star in Brans-Dicke theory. The increase of the maximum mass for neutron stars in general relativity is estimated when slow rotation is allowed. We also calculate the dependence of the maximum mass on the choice of density below which the equation of

R. A. Saenz

1977-01-01

141

20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14 Employees' Benefits...TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as...

2010-04-01

142

20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14 Employees' Benefits...TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as...

2009-04-01

143

Minimum-time thermal dose control of thermal therapies.  

PubMed

The problem of controlling noninvasive thermal therapies is formulated as the problem of directly controlling thermal dose of the target. To limit the damage to the surrounding normal tissue, the constraints on the peak allowable temperatures in the selected spacial locations are imposed. The developed controller has a cascade structure with a linear, constrained, model predictive temperature controller in the secondary loop. The temperature controller manipulates the intensity of the ultrasound transducer with saturation constraints, which noninvasively heats the spatially distributed target. The main nonlinear thermal dose controller dynamically generates the reference temperature trajectories for the temperature controller. The thermal dose controller is designed to force the treatment progression at either the actuation or temperature constraints, which is required to minimize the treatment time. The developed controller is applicable to high and low-intensity treatments, such as thermal ablation and thermoradiotherapy. The developed approach is tested using computer simulations for a one-dimensional model of a tumor with constraints on the maximum allowable temperature in the normal tissue and a constrained power output of the ultrasound transducer. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach is effective at delivering the desired thermal dose in a near minimum time without violating constraints on the maximum allowable temperature in healthy tissue, despite significant plant-model mismatch introduced during numerical simulation. The results of in vitro and in vivo validation are reported elsewhere. PMID:15709656

Arora, Dhiraj; Skliar, Mikhail; Roemer, Robert B

2005-02-01

144

Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011  

NASA Video Gallery

AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

145

44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct costs â(1) Applicant-owned...

2013-10-01

146

40 CFR 74.41 - Identifying allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Submittal of opt-in allowances for auction. (1) An authorized account representative may offer for sale in the spot auction under § 73.70 of this chapter allowances...earlier than the year in which the spot auction is to be held and if the...

2013-07-01

147

Sensitivity of Allowable Cuts to Intensive Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sensitivity analysis of allowable cuts on two BLM master units shows that even-flow allowable cuts depend primarily on: (1) assumed long-term growth potential, (2) period that growth increases must be cumulated before they can be removed from the stands...

R. D. Fight D. L. Schweitzer

1974-01-01

148

19 CFR 191.131 - Drawback allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Drawback allowance. 191.131 Section 191.131 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION...Aircraft Built for Foreign Ownership and Account § 191.131 Drawback allowance. Section 313(g) of the...

2013-04-01

149

Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

2008-01-01

150

Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences  

PubMed Central

This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women.

SCHELLEKENS, JONA

2009-01-01

151

Simulation studies on the effect of absorbers on dose distribution in rotational radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The effect of cylindrical protector dimensions, material and distance from the source on the dose distribution in rotational radiotherapy was studied to assess the potential protection possibilities of small-sized radiosensitive structures, such as spinal cord. The dose distributions were evaluated in terms of dose at the protected region and surface dose, ratio of the dose at the protected region to the maximum dose, and dose gradient. High-density materials, such as lead, tungsten, gold and cerrobend, along with new polymer-metal composite ones were used in simulation studies, performed by an in-house developed Monte Carlo Radiotherapy Simulator. To ensure correct modeling of the composite materials, simulated attenuation data were verified against experimentally measured data. The dependence of the dose at the protected region from the protector diameter and the field size was established. Protectors of higher density and larger diameter provide not only lower dose at the protected region, but also steeper dose gradient and lower ratio of the dose at the protected region to the treatment dose. For the protection of small structures, high-density protectors placed further from the source allow thicker protectors to be used. The surface dose increases insignificantly for the studied protector-surface distances. The results have shown that shielding properties of composite materials are close to those of lead. PMID:19186088

Ivanova, T; Bliznakova, K; Malatara, G; Kardamakis, D; Kolitsi, Z; Pallikarakis, N

2009-12-01

152

Maximum Noise Levels in City Traffic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manual and automatic noise measurements were made along 13 streets in Gothenburg, Sweden to explore sources of maximum noise levels. Noise from different types of vehicles driven in a realistic way in inner city traffic was measured. In summary, the results show that the most important vehicle component as regards the maximum noise level in inner city traffic was a medium-weight truck (delivery truck). Among the higher noise levels measured (>80 dB(A)), this type of vehicle is dominant. This is supported by tests that demonstrated that the noise level of a light truck, driven in a realistic way, exceeds that of cars and is on the same level as heavy trucks. Measures can be taken against the noisiest vehicle types specifically, and the noise load can be limited by introducing noise bans for particular streets in which vehicles that emit greater than a certain noise level would not be allowed use of the street.

Björkman, M.; Rylander, R.

1997-08-01

153

42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances;...

2013-10-01

154

50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Clean Vessel Act. (c) Costs incurred prior to the effective...exception that preliminary costs are allowed only with the...Regional Director. Preliminary costs may include such items as feasibility surveys, engineering design, biological...

2013-10-01

155

5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...allowed for damage to or loss of property as a direct consequence of: (i) Enemy action or threat thereof, or combat, guerilla, brigandage, or other belligerent activity, or unjust confiscation by a foreign power or its nationals; (ii)...

2010-01-01

156

5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...allowed for damage to or loss of property as a direct consequence of: (i) Enemy action or threat thereof, or combat, guerilla, brigandage, or other belligerent activity, or unjust confiscation by a foreign power or its nationals; (ii)...

2009-01-01

157

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those prohibited by §...

2013-01-01

158

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those prohibited by §...

2012-01-01

159

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those prohibited by §...

2014-01-01

160

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those prohibited by §...

2011-01-01

161

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those prohibited by §...

2010-01-01

162

40 CFR 35.6245 - Allowable activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Support Agency Cooperative Agreements § 35.6245 Allowable activities....

2013-07-01

163

Allowable Cover on Corrugated Steel Pipe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the research project was to develop tables of allowable heights of cover for various sizes of prefabricated corrugated steel pipe, pipe arches and field assembled corrugated steel structural plate pipe and pipe arches. Ring compression th...

K. M. Fenwick

1969-01-01

164

Disposition of firocoxib in equine plasma after an oral loading dose and a multiple dose regimen.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if a single loading dose (LD), 3× the label dose of firocoxib oral paste, followed by nine maintenance doses at the current label dose achieves and maintains near steady state concentrations. Six healthy, adult mares were administered 0.3mg/kg of firocoxib on Day 0, and 0.1 mg/kg 24 h later on Day 1, and at 24 h intervals from Day 2 to Day 9, for a total of 10 doses. Blood samples were collected throughout the study. The mean firocoxib maximum plasma concentration and standard deviation was 199±97 ng/mL, 175±44 ng/mL and 183±50 ng/mL after the LD, and first and last maintenance doses, respectively. The minimum mean concentration (C(min)) increased from 100±23 ng/mL after the LD to 132±38 ng/mL at Day 7. Then, the C(min) remained constant until Day 9. The average concentration at steady state (C(avg)) was 150±45 ng/mL, which compares well to the C(avg) (130±36 ng/mL) reported after multiple daily doses at 0.1 mg/kg. The administration of the single LD allowed achievement of the average steady state drug concentrations faster than a multi-dose regimen without a loading dose. After the LD, firocoxib at 0.1 mg/kg every 24 h was able to maintain a relatively constant average drug concentration which should produce less variability in onset of action and efficacy. PMID:24076125

Cox, S; Villarino, N; Sommardahl, C; Kvaternick, V; Zarabadipour, C; Siger, L; Yarbrough, J; Amicucci, A; Reed, K; Breeding, D; Doherty, T

2013-11-01

165

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established...Class 4 locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS...192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the...

2010-10-01

166

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established...Class 4 locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS...192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the...

2011-10-01

167

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and...Apparatus § 84.97 Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...

2010-10-01

168

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and...Apparatus § 84.97 Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...

2009-10-01

169

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established...Class 4 locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS...192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the...

2013-10-01

170

Gaussian Prior for Smoothing Maximum Entropy Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In certain contexts, maximum entropy (ME) modeling can be viewed as maximum likelihood training for exponential models, and like other maximum likelihood methods is prone to overfitting of training data. Several smoothing methods for maximum entropy model...

S. F. Chen R. Rosenfeld

1999-01-01

171

Maximum Acceptable Weight of Lift  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the maximum amount of weight that an individual can be expected to lift comfortably and without strain. Recommendations based on empirical estimates, biomechanical techniques, and psychophysical methods are reviewed, including those of the International Labour Office, the Swiss Accident Insurance Institute, the Danish National Association for Infantile Paralysis, and the U. S. Air Force. The approach used

S. H. Snook; C. H. Irvine

1967-01-01

172

Graphs with maximum connectivity index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a graph and dv the degree (=number of first neighbors) of its vertex v. The connectivity index of G is ?=?(dudv)?1\\/2, with the summation ranging over all pairs of adjacent vertices of G. In a previous paper (Comput. Chem. 23 (1999) 469), by applying a heuristic combinatorial optimization algorithm, the structure of chemical trees possessing extremal (maximum

Gilles Caporossi; Ivan Gutman; Pierre Hansen; Ljiljana Pavlovic

2003-01-01

173

Allowance System: Proposed acid-rain rule  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). The fact sheet summarizes the key components of EPA's proposed Allowance System.

Not Available

1991-12-01

174

Family allowance and family planning in Chile.  

PubMed Central

Family allowances designed to promote maternal and child health and welfare could be self-defeating if they stimulated otherwise unwanted births, as often assumed. That assumption, with its public health and demographic implications, needs testing. An attempt to test it was made in Chile in 1969--1970 through interviews with 945 wives receiving an allowance and 690 non-recipients. Recipients practiced contraception significantly more than did non-recipients. This was not explained by wives' educational attainment or employment, the couples' earnings, or number of living children, but was associated with a 50 per cent greater utilization of professional prenatal care by recipients during the most recent pregnancy; women with such care (regardless of allowance status) were 75 per cent more likely than others to control their fertility. Prenatal care was probably sought more by recipients in part because an additional stipend was provided as soon as pregnancy was confirmed, usually at clinics with integrated family planning. Greater family income, attributable to the allowance, probably also contributed to the recipients' better prenatal attention and to contraceptive practice. Noteworthy, too, was the finding that with the number of living children controlled, contraceptive practice was significantly greater amoung couples who had never lost a child.

Plank, S J

1978-01-01

175

44 CFR 11.73 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...custody of a carrier, an agent or agency of the Government...000.00. (4) Mobile homes. Claims may...structural deficiency of the mobile home and that it was...loss of tires mounted on mobile homes may be allowed...the claimant, their agent, or their...

2013-10-01

176

Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response  

SciTech Connect

The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

1992-01-01

177

Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response  

SciTech Connect

The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

1992-12-31

178

Allowable hydrogen permeation rate from road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an overview of the main results of the European Commission Network of Excellence “HySafe” activity to estimate an allowable hydrogen permeation rate for automotive legal requirements and standards. A slow, long term hydrogen release such as that due to permeation from a vehicle into an inadequately ventilated enclosed structure is a potential risk associated with the use

P. Adams; A. Bengaouer; B. Cariteau; V. Molkov; A. G. Venetsanos

2011-01-01

179

Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of the SO(sub 2) allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SIP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offse...

K. A. Bailey D. W. South K. A. McDermott

1992-01-01

180

The maximum rate of mammal evolution.  

PubMed

How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

2012-03-13

181

75 FR 14442 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services...73 FR 35952) specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RITA tables found in 41 CFR Part 301-17, Appendices A through...

2010-03-25

182

Pharmacodynamics of pulse dosing versus standard dosing: in vitro metronidazole activity against Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.  

PubMed

Pulse dosing is a novel approach to dosing that produces escalating antibiotic levels early in the dosing interval followed by a prolonged dose-free period. Antibiotic is frontloaded by means of four sequential bolus injections, after which antibiotic levels are allowed to diminish until the next dose. This study compares standard thrice-daily dosing and pulse dosing of metronidazole against Bacteroides spp. in an in vitro model. Two American Type Culture Collection Bacteroides fragilis isolates (metronidazole MIC for each organism = 1 mg/liter) were exposed to metronidazole for 48 or 96 h. Human pharmacokinetics were simulated for an oral 500-mg dose given every 8 h (maximum concentration of drug [C(max)] = 12 mg/liter; half-life = 8 h; area under the curve [AUC] = 294 mg . h/liter) and for pulse dosing. Pulses, each producing an increase in metronidazole concentration of 9 mg/liter, were administered at times 0, 2, 4, and 6 h of each 24-h cycle, with a targeted half-life of 8 h (AUC = 347 mg . h/liter). A metronidazole-resistant B. fragilis strain (metronidazole MIC = 32 mg/liter) was exposed to both dosing regimens and, additionally, to a regimen of 1,500 mg administered once daily (C(max) = 36 mg/liter; AUC = 364 mg . h/liter). Furthermore, regimens against one B. fragilis isolate and one B. thetaiotaomicron isolate corresponding to one-fourth and one-eighth of the thrice-daily and pulse dosing regimens, mimicking peak metronidazole concentrations achieved in abscesses, were simulated in 48-h experiments (metronidazole MIC = 1 mg/liter). Time-kill curves were generated for each experiment and analyzed for bactericidal activity, defined as a bacterial burden reduction >/= 3 log(10) CFU/ml. The results of paired (Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test) and nonpaired (Mann-Whitney test) statistical analyses conducted on time to 3 log(10) kill data and area under the kill curve data from each of the thrice-daily dosing experiments versus each of the pulse dosing experiments were considered not significant for a given isolate-dosing regimen combination. The thrice-daily dosing, pulse dosing, and once-daily dosing regimens all exhibited bactericidal activity. Metronidazole administered in standard or pulse dosing fashion was highly active against both susceptible and resistant strains of Bacteroides spp. PMID:15504841

Ibrahim, Khalid H; Gunderson, Brent W; Hermsen, Elizabeth D; Hovde, Laurie B; Rotschafer, John C

2004-11-01

183

Solar maximum: Solar array degradation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

Miller, T.

1985-01-01

184

Allowable levels of take for the trade in Nearctic songbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The take of Nearctic songbirds for the caged-bird trade is an important cultural and economic activity in Mexico, but its sustainability has been questioned. We relied on the theta-logistic population model to explore options for setting allowable levels of take for 11 species of passerines that were subject to legal take in Mexico in 2010. Because estimates of population size necessary for making periodic adjustments to levels of take are not routinely available, we examined the conditions under which a constant level of take might contribute to population depletion (i.e., a population below its level of maximum net productivity). The chance of depleting a population is highest when levels of take are based on population sizes that happen to be much lower or higher than the level of maximum net productivity, when environmental variation is relatively high and serially correlated, and when the interval between estimation of population size is relatively long (?5 years). To estimate demographic rates of songbirds involved in the Mexican trade we relied on published information and allometric relationships to develop probability distributions for key rates, and then sampled from those distributions to characterize the uncertainty in potential levels of take. Estimates of the intrinsic rate of growth (r) were highly variable, but median estimates were consistent with those expected for relatively short-lived, highly fecund species. Allowing for the possibility of nonlinear density dependence generally resulted in allowable levels of take that were lower than would have been the case under an assumption of linearity. Levels of take authorized by the Mexican government in 2010 for the 11 species we examined were small in comparison to relatively conservative allowable levels of take (i.e., those intended to achieve 50% of maximum sustainable yield). However, the actual levels of take in Mexico are unknown and almost certainly exceed the authorized take. Also, the take of Nearctic songbirds in other Latin American and Caribbean countries ultimately must be considered in assessing population-level impacts.

Johnson, Fred A.; Walters, Matthew A. H.; Boomer, G. Scott

2012-01-01

185

[Dose-time optimization in fractionated radiotherapy].  

PubMed

On the basis of an evaluation of different isoeffect correlations for normal tissue reactions supported by a clinical study, a number of correlations for the dose-time optimization of irradiations with equal fractionation intervals are derived from a simple approach for the survival rate of irradiated tumor cells based on a linear quadratic dose-effect function for an exponential cell proliferation. This allows to determine optimum single doses for every given fractionation interval which, applied with the number of fractions tolerated by normal tissue, lead to a maximum reduction of tumor cells. The values of these optimum fractionation parameters depend from cell proliferation and radiosensitivity of the tumoral tissue and vary with respect to a normal tissue tolerance for early and late reactions. The results are described for several fractionation examples. It is shown that, within the tolerance limits of normal tissue, a greater tumor remission is achieved by hyper-fractionated irradiation than by a small number of high-dose irradiations. PMID:3138769

Kriester, A; Kloetzer, K H; Kob, D

1988-08-01

186

Horizontal subsea trees allow frequent deepwater workovers  

SciTech Connect

Horizontal subsea wellheads have found application in the Liuhua oil field in the South China Sea. These trees allow installation and retrieval of downhole equipment through the tree without having to disturb the tree or its external connections to flow lines, service lines, or control umbilicals. This access to the well is important because the Liuhua wells will be produced with electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), which may have relatively short intervals between maintenance, leading to frequent well work. The wells will be completed subsea in about 300 m of water. The large bore, horizontal trees allow all downhole equipment to be pulled without removal of the subsea tree. This wellhead configuration also provides well control and vertical access to downhole equipment through a conventional marine drilling riser and subsea blowout preventer (BOP), eliminating the need for costly specialized completion risers. Another benefit of the horizontal tree is its extremely compact profile with a low number of valves for well control. Valve size and spacing are decoupled from the size and bore spacing of the tubing hanger. The tree`s low profile geometry reduces costs of manufacturing the tree and framework and optimize load transfer to the wellhead.

Krenek, M. [FMC Wellhead Equipment Division, Houston, TX (United States); Hall, G. [Amoco Corp., Shekou (China); Sheng, W.Z. [China Offshore Nanhai East Corp., Shekou (China)

1995-05-01

187

Methadone dose and heroin use during maintenance treatment.  

PubMed

A retrospective study examined the association between methadone dose and in-treatment heroin use as measured by fixed-interval urine testing in a cohort of 62 patients admitted to an Australian maintenance program. Urinalysis and methadone dose data were collected on subjects for a maximum two years and were analysed using Zeger & Liang's (1986) method for modelling longitudinal data. While allowing for patient descriptors and the time period in which urine samples were collected, the relative odds of using heroin were reduced by 2% for every 1 mg increase in the maintenance dose of methadone. It is estimated that the odds of patients maintained on 40 mg of methadone using heroin were 2.2 times those of patients maintained on 80 mg. PMID:8448501

Caplehorn, J R; Bell, J; Kleinbaum, D G; Gebski, V J

1993-01-01

188

Experimental Evaluation of the Impact of Different Head-and-Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning Techniques on Doses to the Skin and Shallow Targets  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate experimentally the impact of different head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning techniques on doses to the skin and shallow targets. Methods and Materials: A semicylindrical phantom was constructed with micro-MOSFET dosimeters (Thomson-Nielson, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) at 0-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-mm depths. The planning target volume (PTV) was pulled back 0, 3, or 5 mm from the body contour. The IMRT plans were created to maximize PTV coverage, with one of the following strategies: (a) aim for a maximum 110% hotspot, with 115% allowed; (b) aims for a maximum 105% hotspot; (c) aims for a maximum 105% hotspot and 50% of skin to get a maximum 70% of the prescribed dose; and (d) aim for 99% of the PTV volume to receive 90-93% of prescribed dose, with a maximum 105% hotspot, and with the dose to the skin structure minimized. Doses delivered using a linear accelerator were measured. Setup uncertainty was simulated by intentionally shifting the phantom in a range of {+-}8 mm, and calculating the delivered dose for a range of systematic and random uncertainties. Results: From lowest to highest skin dose, the planning strategies were in the order of c, d, b, and a, but c showed a tendency to underdose tissues at depth. Delivered doses varied by 10-20%, depending on planning strategy. For typical setup uncertainties, cumulative dose reduction to a point 6 mm deep was <4%. Conclusions: It is useful to use skin as a sensitive structure, but a minimum dose constraint must be used for the PTV if unwanted reductions in dose to nodes near the body surface are to be avoided. Setup uncertainties are unlikely to give excessive reductions in cumulative dose.

Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber and Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: lcourt@lroc.harvard.edu; Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber and Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

2007-10-01

189

RV strings of maximum curvature  

SciTech Connect

To design an effective interceptor for a string of reentry vehicles (RV's) released by a post-boost vehicle (PBV), it is necessary to have information about possible geometries of the string when it reaches a given altitude above the target. The geometry of the string, assumed for simplicity to contain three RV's, is determined by the motion of the PBV which is controlled by varying its thrust direction. Of interest in this study is maximizing the curvature of the string, which is represented by the distance of RV{sub 2} from the line joining RV{sub 1} and RV{sub 3} when RV{sub 1} reaches the intercept attitude, subject to the constraints that all three RV's must land within 3000 ft distance of the target. The maximum curvature problem is formulated as a parameter optimization problem and solved by a nonlinear programming code known as GRG2. The thrust angles are assumed to be piecewise linear, and a total of 21 parameters is used. The maximum curvature is shown to be approximately 2900 ft. 4 refs., 8 figs.

Hull, D.G. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)); Zazworsky, R.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

190

Linear time maximum margin clustering.  

PubMed

Maximum margin clustering (MMC) is a newly proposed clustering method which has shown promising performance in recent studies. It extends the computational techniques of support vector machine (SVM) to the unsupervised scenario. Traditionally, MMC is formulated as a nonconvex integer programming problem which makes it difficult to solve. Several methods have been proposed in the literature to solve the MMC problem based on either semidefinite programming (SDP) or alternating optimization. However, these methods are still time demanding when handling large scale data sets, which limits its application in real-world problems. In this paper, we propose a cutting plane maximum margin clustering (CPMMC) algorithm. It first decomposes the nonconvex MMC problem into a series of convex subproblems by making use of the constrained concave-convex procedure (CCCP), then for each subproblem, our algorithm adopts the cutting plane algorithm to solve it. Moreover, we show that the CPMMC algorithm takes O(sn) time to converge with guaranteed accuracy, where n is the number of samples in the data set and s is the sparsity of the data set, i.e., the average number of nonzero features of the data samples. We also derive the multiclass version of our CPMMC algorithm. Experimental evaluations on several real-world data sets show that CPMMC performs better than existing MMC methods, both in efficiency and accuracy. PMID:20083456

Wang, Fei; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Changshui

2010-02-01

191

Zinc: requirements, bioavailabilities and recommended dietary allowances.  

PubMed

This review has approached zinc requirements, bioavailabilities and recommended dietary allowances from a historical view. For example, a requirement for zinc was first demonstrated for the microorganism Aspergillus niger more than a century ago, although zinc has been recognized as a dietary nutrient for humans only within the last decade. Dietary requirement was defined as that quantity of zinc which must be provided daily in order to meet the metabolic requirement. The degree of bioavailability determines the total dietary zinc which must be consumed by humans to remain in metabolic equilibrium. In regard to recommended dietary allowances (RDA), they are recommended average daily intakes of nutrients that population groups should consume. RDA are not synonymous with requirements. Metabolic requirements (the quantity that must be provided to the circulating blood daily) have been determined previously using radio-isotope studies and have indicated a calculated need of approximately 6 mg for an adult per day. More recently a similar amount (4-6 mg) has been found to be required daily (intravenously) in order to maintain plasma zinc concentrations and daily urinary zinc excretion within normal range in hospitalized subjects. Average zinc intakes of large segments of the U.S. population are receiving levels approaching one-half or less the RDA with no apparent deleterious effects. These subjects include pregnant and lactating women. In addition, the zinc content of breast milk is lower than previous studies indicated. Thus, it appears that the majority of breast-fed infants are receiving no more than 70% of the recommended intake, with a recent study indicating less than 50%. Factors reported to affect bioavailability of zinc from foods are discussed. These include fiber and phytate. It was concluded that no definite conclusion can be reached regarding the overall effect of food fiber on zinc balance. Many of the studies were of short duration, with the longest being 32 days. It is probable that different sources of food fiber may have different effects on zinc balance. The apparent discrepancy in the literature regarding the effect of soy protein on zinc requirement was cited. Lastly, the phytate:zinc molar ratio concept was designed to test it as a predictor of zinc bioavailability to humans. The concept must be expanded to recognize the relevance of the total daily dietary zinc intake. Specifically, impairment of absorption of zinc by phytate would be more critical if the total dietary intake was low since the metabolic requirements might not be met.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6318226

Smith, J C; Morris, E R; Ellis, R

1983-01-01

192

Calculation of dose profiles in stereotactic synchrotron microplanar beam radiotherapy in a tissue-lung phantom.  

PubMed

Synchrotron x-ray beams with high fluence rate and highly collimated may be used in stereotactic radiotherapy of lung tumours. A bundle of converging monochromatic x-ray beams having uniform microscopic thickness i.e. (microplanar beams) are directed to the center of the tumour, delivering lethal dose to the target volume while sparing normal cells. The proposed technique takes advantage of the hypothesised repair mechanism of capillary cells between alternate microbeam zones, which regenerate the lethally irradiated endothelial cells. The sharply dropping lateral dose of a microbeam provides low scattered dose to the off-target interbeam volume. In the target volume the converging bundle of beams are closely spaced, and relatively high primary and secondary electron doses overlap and produce a high dose region between the beams. This higher and lower dose margins in the target volume allows precise targeting. The advantages of stereotactic microbeam radiotherapy will be lost as the dose between microbeams exceeds the tolerance dose of the dose limiting tissues. Therefore, it is essential to optimize the interbeam doses in off-target volume. The lateral and depth doses of 100 keV microplanar beams are investigated for a single beam and an array of converging microplanar beams in a tissue, lung and tissue-lung phantoms. The EGS5 Monte Carlo code is used to calculate dose profiles at different depths and bundles of beams. The maximum dose on the beam axis (peak) and the minimum interbeam dose (valley) are compared at different energies, depths, bundle sizes, heights, widths and beam spacings. The interbeam dose is calculated at different depths and an isodose map of the phantom is obtained. An acceptable energy region is found for tissue and lung microbeam radiotherapy and a stereotactic microbeam radiotherapy model is proposed for a 4 cm diameter and 1 cm thick tumour on the lung phantom. PMID:17508599

Company, F Z

2007-03-01

193

Dose and Dose Rate Monitor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methods are discussed of measuring dose rate or dose using a scintillation counter. A plastic scintillator based on polystyrene with PBD and POPOP activators and coated with ZnS(Ag) was chosen for the projected monitor. The scintillators were cylindri...

O. Novakova J. Ryba V. Slezak B. Svobodova L. Viererbl

1984-01-01

194

The maximum drag reduction asymptote  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addition of a small amount of long chain polymers to a Newtonian solvent can lead to a dramatic drag reduction in turbulent flows. This effect has been extensively studied since its discovery in the late 1940's. The drag reduction at first is proportional to the polymer concentration (Weisenberg number) but then saturates to the maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote. It is commonly believed that drag reduction results from an adjustment of the turbulent flow structure due to the action of the polymers. We here present experimental results of turbulent pipe flows using dilute polyacrylamid solutions at relatively large Weisenberg numbers (˜10). Our results show that for relatively low polymer concentrations transition to turbulence is postponed to higher Reynolds numbers. However when the Weisenberg number is increased further we find that the subcritical transition to turbulence, typical for Newtonian pipe flow disappears. Instead a supercritical instability is found at much lower Reynolds numbers which gives rise to a disordered flow. The observed drag of this disordered flow is identical to the well known MDR asymptote.

Hof, Björn; Samanta, Devranjan; Wagner, Christian

2011-11-01

195

THREE MILE CREEK TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The pupose of this project is to establish the allowable loading of pollutants, or other quantifiable parameters for Threemile Creek. These funds will assist ADEM in the preparation of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) for the reduction and elimination of pollution in Threemile C...

196

Combining Statistical Language Models via the Latent Maximum Entropy Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a unified probabilistic framework for statistical language modeling which can simul- taneously incorporate various aspects of natural language, such as local word interaction, syntactic structure and semantic document information. Our approach is based on a recent statistical inference principle we have proposed—the latent maximum entropy principle—which allows relationships over hidden features to be effec- tively captured in a

Shaojun Wang; Dale Schuurmans; Fuchun Peng; Yunxin Zhao

2005-01-01

197

Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…

Modica, Erasmo

2010-01-01

198

West African palaeosynoptic patterns at the last glacial maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composite method and an atmospheric moisture budget is applied to study the present synoptic summer situation in the West African Sahel. This allows the information of the synoptic scale flow systems at the last glacial maximum to be obtained. Relying on the results of general circulation models and of local geological findings the palaeosynoptic situation was found to consist

M. Peters; G. Tetzlaff

1990-01-01

199

Maximum Neutron Wall Loadings in Beam-Driven Tokamak Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

If a beam-driven D--T tokamak reactor is operated at the maximum density allowed both by pressure limitation and by adequate neutral-beam penetration, the 14-MeV neutron wall loading increases approximately linearly with magnetic field or vertical elongat...

D. L. Jassby H. H. Towner

1976-01-01

200

The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.

Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.

2011-07-01

201

Method for assessing system impact of increasing wind farm sizes above their maximum limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods for determining wind farm maximum size use conservative voltage stability approach based on maximum wind speed occurring simultaneously with peak loading conditions. Wind patterns at a wind farm site may never allow the wind farm to produce its maximum capacity during the hours of heavy loading conditions. In this paper, a new method is proposed to determine wind

Ala A Tamimi; Anil Pahwa; Shelli Starrett

2011-01-01

202

Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are common to all the branching patterns introduced by the reticulate vertices. Thus the score contains an in-built cost for the number of reticulate vertices in the network, and would provide a criterion that is comparable among all networks. Although the problem of finding the parsimony score on the network is believed to be computationally hard to solve, heuristics such as the ones described here would be beneficial in our efforts to find a most parsimonious network.

2012-01-01

203

Effects of Differential Rotation on the Maximum Mass of Neutron Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merger of binary neutron stars is likely to lead to differentially rotating remnants. In this paper, we numerically construct models of differentially rotating neutron stars in general relativity and determine their maximum allowed mass. We model the stars by adopting a polytropic equation of state and tabulate maximum allowed masses as a function of differential rotation and stiffness of

Nicholas D. Lyford; Thomas W. Baumgarte; Stuart L. Shapiro

2003-01-01

204

Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water potential compare well with measured peak transpiration and minimum water potentials across plant types and biomes, suggesting that plant water transport system and stomatal regulation co-evolved to meet peak atmospheric demands, thus sustaining carbon uptake while avoiding tissue damage even in such harsh conditions.

Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

2011-12-01

205

Clinical Trials of a Urethral Dose Measurement System in Brachytherapy Using Scintillation Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on the clinical feasibility of a novel scintillation detector system with fiberoptic readout that measures the urethral dose during high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of the prostate. Methods and Materials: The clinical trial enrolled 24 patients receiving high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment to the prostate. After the first 14 patients, three improvements were made to the dosimeter system design to improve clinical reliability: a dosimeter self-checking facility; a radiopaque marker to determine the position of the dosimeter, and a more robust optical extension fiber. Results: Improvements to the system design allowed for accurate dose measurements to be made in vivo. A maximum measured dose departure of 9% from the calculated dose was observed after dosimeter design improvements. Conclusions: Departures of the measured from the calculated dose, after improvements to the dosimetry system, arise primarily from small changes in patient anatomy. Therefore, we recommend that patient response be correlated with the measured in vivo dose rather than with the calculated dose.

Suchowerska, Natalka, E-mail: natalka@email.cs.nsw.gov.a [Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Jackson, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Lambert, Jamil; Yin, Yong Bai [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hruby, George [Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); McKenzie, David R. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

2011-02-01

206

Dose Calculations for [131I] Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine-Induced Bystander Effects  

PubMed Central

Targeted radiotherapy is a potentially useful treatment for some cancers and may be potentiated by bystander effects. However, without estimation of absorbed dose, it is difficult to compare the effects with conventional external radiation treatment. Methods: Using the Vynckier – Wambersie dose point kernel, a model for dose rate evaluation was created allowing for calculation of absorbed dose values to two cell lines transfected with the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene and treated with [131I]MIBG. Results: The mean doses required to decrease surviving fractions of UVW/NAT and EJ138/NAT cells, which received medium from [131I]MIBG-treated cells, to 25 – 30% were 1.6 and 1.7 Gy respectively. The maximum mean dose rates achieved during [131I]MIBG treatment were 0.09 – 0.75 Gy/h for UVW/NAT and 0.07 – 0.78 Gy/h for EJ138/NAT. These were significantly lower than the external beam gamma radiation dose rate of 15 Gy/h. In the case of control lines which were incapable of [131I]MIBG uptake the mean absorbed doses following radiopharmaceutical were 0.03 – 0.23 Gy for UVW and 0.03 – 0.32 Gy for EJ138. Conclusion: [131I]MIBG treatment for ICCM production elicited a bystander dose-response profile similar to that generated by external beam gamma irradiation but with significantly greater cell death.

Gow, M. D.; Seymour, C. B.; Boyd, M.; Mairs, R. J.; Prestiwch, W. V.; Mothersill, C. E.

2014-01-01

207

Tracked Vehicle Acceleration: Maximum and Minimum Speeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes procedures for conducting acceleration and maximum and minimum speed tests of tracked vehicles. Acceleration and maximum speed are basic measures of vehicle power; they define the ability of a vehicle to execute a change in locatio...

1987-01-01

208

A maximum likelihood framework for protein design  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of protein design is to predict amino-acid sequences compatible with a given target structure. Traditionally envisioned as a purely thermodynamic question, this problem can also be understood in a wider context, where additional constraints are captured by learning the sequence patterns displayed by natural proteins of known conformation. In this latter perspective, however, we still need a theoretical formalization of the question, leading to general and efficient learning methods, and allowing for the selection of fast and accurate objective functions quantifying sequence/structure compatibility. Results We propose a formulation of the protein design problem in terms of model-based statistical inference. Our framework uses the maximum likelihood principle to optimize the unknown parameters of a statistical potential, which we call an inverse potential to contrast with classical potentials used for structure prediction. We propose an implementation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo, in which the likelihood is maximized by gradient descent and is numerically estimated by thermodynamic integration. The fit of the models is evaluated by cross-validation. We apply this to a simple pairwise contact potential, supplemented with a solvent-accessibility term, and show that the resulting models have a better predictive power than currently available pairwise potentials. Furthermore, the model comparison method presented here allows one to measure the relative contribution of each component of the potential, and to choose the optimal number of accessibility classes, which turns out to be much higher than classically considered. Conclusion Altogether, this reformulation makes it possible to test a wide diversity of models, using different forms of potentials, or accounting for other factors than just the constraint of thermodynamic stability. Ultimately, such model-based statistical analyses may help to understand the forces shaping protein sequences, and driving their evolution.

Kleinman, Claudia L; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Bonnard, Cecile; Philippe, Herve; Lartillot, Nicolas

2006-01-01

209

Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect

At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

Han, Eun Young, E-mail: eyhan@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Moros, Eduardo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Corry, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

2012-01-01

210

Allowable exposure limits for carbon dioxide during extravehicular activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent was to review the research pertaining to human exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to recommend allowable exposure limits for extravehicular activity (EVA). Respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems may be adversely affected by chronic low dose CO2 exposure. Ventilation was increased 15 percent with 1 percent CO2 and 50 percent with 2 percent CO2. Chronic exposure to less than 2 percent CO2 led to 20 day cycles of uncompensated and compensated respiratory acidosis. Acid-base changes were small. Histopathologic changes in guinea pig lungs have been noted with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. No changes were seen with exposure to 0.5 percent CO2. Cycling of bone calcium stores with associated changes in blood and urinary calcium levels occurs with long term CO2 exposure. Histologic changes in bone have been noted in guinea pigs exposed to 1 percent CO2. Renal calcification has been noted in guinea pigs with exposure to as low as 0.5 percent CO2. An increase in gastric acidity was noted in subjects with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. Cardiovascular and neurologic function were largely unaffected. A decrease in the incidence of respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal disease was noted in submariners coincident with a decrease in ambient CO2 from 1.2 percent to 0.8-0.9 percent. Oxygen (O2) and CO2 stimulate respiration independently and cumulatively. The addition of CO2 to high dose O2 led to the faster onset of seizure activity in mice. Experiments evaluating the physiologic responses to intermittent, repetitive exposures to low dose CO2 and 100 percent O2 mixtures should be performed. A reduction in the current NASA standard for CO2 exposure during EVA of 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for nominal and 2 percent (15.2 mmHg) for heavy exertion to 0.5 percent (3.8 mmHg) for nominal and 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for heavy exertion may be prudent. At a minimum, the current NASA standard should not be liberalized.

Seter, Andrew J.

1993-01-01

211

The Relaxed Online Maximum Margin Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new incremental algorithm for training linear threshold functions: the Relaxed Online Maximum Margin Algorithm, or ROMMA. ROMMA can be viewed as an approximation to the algorithm that repeatedly chooses the hyperplane that classifies previously seen examples correctly with the maximum margin. It is known that such a maximum-margin hypothesis can be computed by minimizing the length of

Yi Li; Philip M. Long

2002-01-01

212

CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.

Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer

2011-12-01

213

TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS  

SciTech Connect

Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

2007-11-12

214

Generalized relativistic wave equations with intrinsic maximum momentum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wave functions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential is stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied is bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.

Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim

2014-05-01

215

PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

2012-06-05

216

Expansion of guidance for the day 8 initiation dose of paliperidone palmitate to avoid a missed dose  

PubMed Central

Background Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a long-acting injectable formulation of an atypical antipsychotic, paliperidone. Its dose can be expressed in milligram or milligram equivalents (mg eq) of active paliperidone (39, 78, 117, 156, and 234 mg of PP correspond to 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg eq of paliperidone). The recommended initiation dosing regimen for PP is 150 [day 1]/100[day 8] mg eq. Labeling guidance allowed a ± 2 day window for the day 8 injection that provides more flexibility with patient scheduling and avoids missing the day 8 initiation dose. Recently, expansion of the day 8 dosing window from ±2 to ±4 days has been approved in the United States based on results obtained from the model-based simulations and review of safety data presented here. Methods The predicted exposure for the recommended initiation regimen of PP was compared with day 1/day 4, and day 1/day 12 dosing scenarios; each scenario was compared with the highest clinically evaluated initiation regimen (150[day 1]/150[day 8] mg eq) and to the recommended 6 mg/day oral dose of extended-release paliperidone. Results Simulated exposures with PP 150 mg eq on day 1 and 100 mg eq on days 4, 8, or 12 overlap considerably, with ±3 ng/mL variation in median maximum plasma concentrations. Based upon pharmacokinetic bridging/bracketing, the peak concentration with PP 150/100 mg eq [days 1/4] was lower than that with the highest initiation regimen. Exposures for PP 150 mg eq on day 1 and 100 mg eq on days 4, 8, or 12 were maintained close to those of 6 mg of paliperidone extended-release. Conclusion These simulations indicate that using the expanded dosing window of ±4 days has little effect on paliperidone exposure. A review of the overall pattern of treatment-emergent adverse events did not identify any new safety risks associated with the expanded dosing window.

Samtani, Mahesh N; Nuamah, Isaac; Gopal, Srihari; Remmerie, Bart; Kern Sliwa, Jennifer; Alphs, Larry

2013-01-01

217

Periodic reversal of direction allows Myxobacteria to swarm  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria can rapidly traverse surfaces from which they are extracting nutrient for growth. They generate flat, spreading colonies, called swarms because they resemble swarms of insects. We seek to understand how members of any dense swarm spread efficiently while being able to perceive and interfere minimally with the motion of others. To this end, we investigate swarms of the myxobacterium, Myxococcus xanthus. Individual M. xanthus cells are elongated; they always move in the direction of their long axis; and they are in constant motion, repeatedly touching each other. Remarkably, they regularly reverse their gliding directions. We have constructed a detailed cell- and behavior-based computational model of M. xanthus swarming that allows the organization of cells to be computed. By using the model, we are able to show that reversals of gliding direction are essential for swarming and that reversals increase the outflow of cells across the edge of the swarm. Cells at the swarm edge gain maximum exposure to nutrient and oxygen. We also find that the reversal period predicted to maximize the outflow of cells is the same (within the errors of measurement) as the period observed in experiments with normal M. xanthus cells. This coincidence suggests that the circuit regulating reversals evolved to its current sensitivity under selection for growth achieved by swarming. Finally, we observe that, with time, reversals increase the cell alignment, and generate clusters of parallel cells.

Wu, Yilin; Kaiser, A. Dale; Jiang, Yi; Alber, Mark S.

2009-01-01

218

EDITORIAL: Collective dose: kill or cure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term `collective dose' was used in ICRP Publication 22 [1] to mean the product of the number of individuals in a group and the average dose to those individuals. To allow for a continuous variation of the size of the group with time, the definition becomes the integral over time of the product of the mean dose rate in

H. J. Dunster

2000-01-01

219

Multilayer interference absorber of wave energy with allowance for losses in the inoperative layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, the conditions of maximal wave energy absorption in a multilayer interference absorber are calculated with allowance for losses in the inoperative layer surrounding an operating layer. Analytical relations are derived which are useful for selecting synthesis materials with maximum absorption. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use:

Iu. A. Pirogov; A. V. Tikhonravov

1980-01-01

220

Allowing for Correlations between Correlations in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis of Correlation Matrices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical meta-analysis of correlation matrices generally ignores covariances (and hence correlations) between correlation estimates. The authors consider various methods for allowing for covariances, including generalized least squares, maximum marginal likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, illustrated using a 6-dimensional response in a series of…

Prevost, A. Toby; Mason, Dan; Griffin, Simon; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Sutton, Stephen; Spiegelhalter, David

2007-01-01

221

66 FR 38064 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Allowance System for Controlling HCFC Production, Import and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the adjustment for the ODPs of the two chemicals. This calculation does not...advocated maximum flexibility in transfers. Two commenters were in favor of transfers...turnaround time associated with such trades. A major difference in the class II proposed system...narrowly stated exemptions). However, two new and separate sets of allowances--export......

2001-07-20

222

Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment  

SciTech Connect

On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other radionuclides. However, we continually see {sup 137}Cs in the groundwater at all contaminated atolls; the turnover time of the groundwater is about 5 y. The {sup 137}Cs can only get to the groundwater by leaching through the soil column when a portion of the soluble fraction of {sup 137}Cs inventory in the soil is transported to the groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the aquifer. This process is causing a loss of {sup 137}Cs out of the root zone of the plants that provides an environmental loss constant ({lambda}{sub env}) in addition to radiological decay {lambda}{sub rad}. Consequently, there is an effective rate of loss, {lambda}{sub eff} = {lambda}{sub rad} + {lambda}{sub env} that is the sum of the radiological and environmental-loss decay constants. We have had, and continue to have, a vigorous program to determine the rate of the environmental loss process. What we do know at this time is that the loss of {sup 137}Cs over time is greater than the estimate based on radiological decay only, and that the actual dose received by the Utirik people over 30-, 50-, or 70-y will be less than those presented in this report.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

1999-10-06

223

Dose measurements and calculations of small radiation fields for 9-MV x rays  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of dose distribution for square fields with sizes ranging from 1 x 1 to 30 x 30 cm for a 9-MV x-ray beam from a Neptune 10 linear accelerator, manufactured by CGR, are reported. Special attention was paid to field sizes smaller than 4 x 4 cm, used in radiosurgery techniques. To express the dose-monitor units relationship, total, collimator, and phantom scatter correction factors were obtained by experimental measurements. A strong dependence of these factors on the smallest field sizes (<4 x 4 cm) was shown. Measurements of the maximum depth dose d/sub max/, plotted as a function of field size, showed a maximum at about 5 x 5 cm, in good agreement with previous results. d/sub max/ was also measured for the smallest fields, demonstrating that the contaminating electron component of the x-ray beam was not responsible for the d/sub max/ shift. Analysis of the penumbra width of cross dose distributions, as a function of field sizes, allowed us to postulate that the d/sub max/ shift could be due to the phantom scattered photons, which in turn were generated by the collimator scattered photons. Newly derived tissue-maximum ratio and scatter-maximum ratio data were used for dose profile calculations of 2 x 2, 4 x 4, and 10 x 10 cm field sizes. The agreement between experimental and calculated data was found to be +- 2% within the geometrical edges of the fields and +- 6% outside of them. A dose profile from the isocenter of a 2 x 2 cm square field moving through a 360/sup 0/ rotation arc was obtained and compared with that from the center of a /sup 125/I shielded source, as measured by Ling.

Arcovito, G.; Piermattei, A.; D'Abramo, G.; Bassi, F.A.

1985-11-01

224

Adaptive Randomization to Improve Utility-Based Dose-Finding with Bivariate Ordinal Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Summary A sequentially outcome-adaptive Bayesian design is proposed for choosing the dose of an experimental therapy based on elicited utilities of a bivariate ordinal (toxicity, efficacy) outcome. Subject to posterior acceptability criteria to control the risk of severe toxicity and exclude unpromising doses, patients are randomized adaptively among the doses having posterior mean utilities near the maximum. The utility increment used to define near-optimality is non-increasing with sample size. The adaptive randomization uses each dose’s posterior probability of a set of good outcomes, defined by a lower utility cut-off. Saturated parametric models are assumed for the marginal dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy distributions, allowing the possible requirement of monotonicity in dose, and a copula is used to obtain a joint distribution. Prior means are computed by simulation using elicited outcome probabilities, and prior variances are calibrated to control prior effective sample size and obtain a design with good operating characteristics. The method is illustrated by a phase I/II trial of radiation therapy for children with brain stem gliomas.

Nguyen, Hoang Q.

2012-01-01

225

Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed dose thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as dose thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a dose threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold dose after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body doses for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body doses were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the dose thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a maximum value at zero with increasing doses. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types.

Groer, P. G.; Carnes, B. A.

2003-01-01

226

Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario\\/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to

W. E. Jr. Kennedy; B. A. Napier; J. K. Soldat

1983-01-01

227

Reassessing benzene risks using internal doses and Monte-Carlo uncertainty analysis.  

PubMed Central

Human cancer risks from benzene have been estimated from epidemiological data, with supporting evidence from animal bioassay data. This article reexamines the animal-based risk assessments using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of benzene metabolism in animals and humans. Internal doses (total benzene metabolites) from oral gavage experiments in mice are well predicted by the PBPK model. Both the data and the PBPK model outputs are also well described by a simple nonlinear (Michaelis-Menten) regression model, as previously used by Bailer and Hoel [Metabolite-based internal doses used in risk assessment of benzene. Environ Health Perspect 82:177-184 (1989)]. Refitting the multistage model family to internal doses changes the maximum-likelihood estimate (MLE) dose-response curve for mice from linear-quadratic to purely cubic, so that low-dose risk estimates are smaller than in previous risk assessments. In contrast to Bailer and Hoel's findings using interspecies dose conversion, the use of internal dose estimates for humans from a PBPK model reduces estimated human risks at low doses. Sensitivity analyses suggest that the finding of a nonlinear MLE dose-response curve at low doses is robust to changes in internal dose definitions and more consistent with epidemiological data than earlier risk models. A Monte-Carlo uncertainty analysis based on maximum-entropy probabilities and Bayesian conditioning is used to develop an entire probability distribution for the true but unknown dose-response function. This allows the probability of a positive low-dose slope to be quantified: It is about 10%. An upper 95% confidence limit on the low-dose slope of excess risk is also obtained directly from the posterior distribution and is similar to previous q1* values. This approach suggests that the excess risk due to benzene exposure may be nonexistent (or even negative) at sufficiently low doses. Two types of biological information about benzene effects--pharmacokinetic and hematotoxic--are examined to test the plausibility of this finding. A framework for incorporating causally relevant biological information into benzene risk assessment is introduced, and it is shown that both pharmacokinetic and hematotoxic models appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that sufficiently low concentrations of inhaled benzene do not create and excess risk.

Cox, L A

1996-01-01

228

Dose response of various radiation detectors to synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate dosimetry is particularly difficult for low- to medium-energy x-rays as various interaction processes with different dependences on material properties determine the dose distribution in tissue and radiation detectors. Monoenergetic x-rays from synchrotron radiation offer the unique opportunity to study the dose response variation with photon energy of radiation detectors without the compounding effect of the spectral distribution of x-rays from conventional sources. The variation of dose response with photon energies between 10 and 99.6 keV was studied for two TLD materials (LiF:Mg, Ti and LiF:Mg, Cu, P), MOSFET semiconductors, radiographic and radiochromic film. The dose response at synchrotron radiation energies was compared with the one for several superficial/orthovoltage radiation qualities (HVL 1.4 mm Al to 4 mm Cu) and megavoltage photons from a medical linear accelerator. A calibrated parallel plate ionization chamber was taken as the reference dosimeter. The variation of response with x-ray energy was modelled using a two-component model that allows determination of the energy for maximum response as well as its magnitude. MOSFET detectors and the radiographic film were found to overrespond to low-energy x-rays by up to a factor of 7 and 12 respectively, while the radiochromic film underestimated the dose by approximately a factor of 2 at 24 keV. The TLDs showed a slight overresponse with LiF:Mg, Cu, P demonstrating better tissue equivalence than LiF:Mg, Ti (maximum deviation from water less than 25%). The results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of monoenergetic photons for the study of the energy response of radiation detectors. The variations in energy response observed for the MOSFET detectors and GAF chromic film emphasize the need for a correction for individual dosimeters if accurate dosimetry of low- to medium-energy x-rays is attempted.

Kron, Tomas; Duggan, Lisa; Smith, Tony; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Butson, Martin; Kaplan, Greg; Howlett, Steve; Hyodo, Kazuyuki

1998-11-01

229

Circular chromatic index of graphs of maximum degree 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proves that if G is a graph (parallel edges allowed) of maximum degree 3, then ?'c(G) ? 11\\/3 provided that G does not contain H1 or H2 as a subgraph, where H1 and H2 are obtained by subdividing one edge of K3 2 (the graph with three parallel edges between two vertices) and K4, respectively. As ?'c(H1) =

Peyman Afshani; Mahsa Ghandehari; Mahya Ghandehari; Hamed Hatami; Ruzbeh Tusserkaniand; Xuding Zhu

2005-01-01

230

17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net equity. 190.07 Section 190.07 Commodity... BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a)...

2014-04-01

231

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1 Section...940-1 Allowable project costs. Allowable costs include...35.927); (f) Project feasibility and engineering reports; (g) Costs required under the...

2012-07-01

232

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1 Section...940-1 Allowable project costs. Allowable costs include...35.927); (f) Project feasibility and engineering reports; (g) Costs required under the...

2011-07-01

233

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1 Section...940-1 Allowable project costs. Allowable costs include...35.927); (f) Project feasibility and engineering reports; (g) Costs required under the...

2010-07-01

234

42 CFR 136.340 - Provision of continuing education allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Provision of continuing education allowances. 136.340 Section 136...Programs Subdivision J-5-Continuing Education Allowances § 136.340 Provision of continuing education allowances. In order to...

2012-10-01

235

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2013-10-01

236

40 CFR 96.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 96.50 Section...SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature...

2013-07-01

237

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2010-10-01

238

Phase I study of a weekly schedule of a fixed dose of cisplatin and escalating doses of paclitaxel in patients with advanced oesophageal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the toxicities and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a dose-dense schedule with a fixed dose of cisplatin and escalating doses of paclitaxel in patients with metastatic or irresectable squamous cell-, adeno-, or undifferentiated carcinoma of the oesophagus. Patients received paclitaxel over 3 h followed by a 3-h infusion of a fixed dose

M. B Polee; J Verweij; P. D Siersema; H. W Tilanus; T. A. W Splinter; G Stoter; A Van der Gaast

2002-01-01

239

Normality of the maximum principle for nonconvex constrained Bolza problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a Bolza optimal control problem with state constraints. It is well known that under some technical assumptions every strong local minimizer of this problem satisfies first order necessary optimality conditions in the form of a constrained maximum principle. In general, the maximum principle may be abnormal or even degenerate and so does not provide a sufficient information about optimal controls. In the recent literature some sufficient conditions were proposed to guarantee that at least one maximum principle is nondegenerate, cf. [A.V. Arutyanov, S.M. Aseev, Investigation of the degeneracy phenomenon of the maximum principle for optimal control problems with state constraints, SIAM J. Control Optim. 35 (1997) 930-952; F. Rampazzo, R.B. Vinter, A theorem on existence of neighbouring trajectories satisfying a state constraint, with applications to optimal control, IMA 16 (4) (1999) 335-351; F. Rampazzo, R.B. Vinter, Degenerate optimal control problems with state constraints, SIAM J. Control Optim. 39 (4) (2000) 989-1007]. Our aim is to show that actually conditions of a similar nature guarantee normality of every nondegenerate maximum principle. In particular we allow the initial condition to be fixed and the state constraints to be nonsmooth. To prove normality we use J. Yorke type linearization of control systems and show the existence of a solution to a linearized control system satisfying new state constraints defined, in turn, by linearization of the original set of constraints along an extremal trajectory.

Bettiol, Piernicola; Frankowska, Hélène

240

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 1973-96. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and is strong in autumn and winter. Similar to previous studies for other cities, the maximum UHI intensity is more frequently observed in the nighttime than in the daytime, decreases with increasing wind speed, and is pronounced for clear skies. A multiple linear regression analysis is performed to relate the maximum UHI to meteorological elements. Four predictors considered in this study are the maximum UHI intensity for the previous day, wind speed, cloudiness, and relative humidity. The previous-day maximum UHI intensity is positively correlated with the maximum UHI, and the wind speed, cloudiness, and relative humidity are negatively correlated with the maximum UHI intensity. Among the four predictors, the previous-day maximum UHI intensity is the most important. The relative importance among the predictors varies depending on time of day and season. A three-layer back-propagation neural network model with the four predictors as input units is constructed to predict the maximum UHI intensity in Seoul, and its performance is compared with that of a multiple linear regression model. For all test datasets, the neural network model improves upon the regression model in predicting the maximum UHI intensity. The improvement of the neural network model upon the regression model is 6.3% for the unstratified test data, is higher in the daytime (6.1%) than in the nighttime (3.3%), and ranges from 0.8% in spring to 6.5% in winter.

Kim, Yeon-Hee; Baik, Jong-Jin

2002-06-01

241

Estimation of three-dimensional intrinsic dosimetric uncertainties resulting from using deformable image registration for dose mapping  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This article presents a general procedural framework to assess the point-by-point precision in mapped dose associated with the intrinsic uncertainty of a deformable image registration (DIR) for any arbitrary patient. Methods: Dose uncertainty is obtained via a three-step process. In the first step, for each voxel in an imaging pair, a cluster of points is obtained by an iterative DIR procedure. In the second step, the dispersion of the points due to the imprecision of the DIR method is used to compute the spatial uncertainty. Two different ways to quantify the spatial uncertainty are presented in this work. Method A consists of a one-dimensional analysis of the modules of the position vectors, whereas method B performs a more detailed 3D analysis of the coordinates of the points. In the third step, the resulting spatial uncertainty estimates are used in combination with the mapped dose distribution to compute the point-by-point dose standard deviation. The process is demonstrated to estimate the dose uncertainty induced by mapping a 62.6 Gy dose delivered on maximum exhale to maximum inhale of a ten-phase four-dimensional lung CT. Results: For the demonstration lung image pair, the standard deviation of inconsistency vectors is found to be up to 9.2 mm with a mean {sigma} of 1.3 mm. This uncertainty results in a maximum estimated dose uncertainty of 29.65 Gy if method A is used and 21.81 Gy for method B. The calculated volume with dose uncertainty above 10.00 Gy is 602 cm{sup 3} for method A and 1422 cm{sup 3} for method B. Conclusions: This procedure represents a useful tool to evaluate the precision of a mapped dose distribution due to the intrinsic DIR uncertainty in a patient. The procedure is flexible, allowing incorporation of alternative intrinsic error models.

Salguero, Francisco J.; Saleh-Sayah, Nahla K.; Yan Chenyu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, 23298 (United States)

2011-01-15

242

On the maximum mass of neutron stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper limits to the maximum mass of neutron stars with locally isotropic pressure are derived within the framework of general relativity and discussed. The equations of stellar structure for stars with locally anisotropic pressure are derived from the field equations of general relativity, and upper limits to the maximum mass for such stars as derived and discussed. The equations of

D. R. Mikkelsen

1975-01-01

243

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...no minimum civil penalty, except for a minimum...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2013-10-01

244

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $100,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $450 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $100,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2009-10-01

245

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2010-10-01

246

Radiochemical spectral analysis by maximum likelihood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiochemical spectral analysis problem is expressed mathematically. ; Maximum likelihood estimates are derived for the two situations of standard ; spectra well-known and standard spectra imprecise. The maximum likelihood method ; is applied to backward-scattered alpha particle analysis of lunar soil samples ; from the Surveyor V moonlander. The standard spectra are assumed known. (JSR)

W. L. Nicholson; D. L. Jr. Stevens

1975-01-01

247

Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Generalized Rasch Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review various models and techniques that have been proposed for item analysis according to the ideas of Rasch. A general model is proposed that unifies them, and maximum likelihood procedures are discussed for this general model. We show that unconditional maximum likelihood estimation in the functional Rasch model, as proposed by Wright and Haberman, is an important special case.

Jan De Leeuw; Norman Verhelst

1986-01-01

248

Maximum Entropy Pole-Zero Estimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maximum Entropy has been suggested by numerous authors as a good objective measure for optimally modeling the power spectrum of a wide-sense stationary random process. This documents describes a new Maximum Entropy pole-zero spectrum estimation method. Th...

B. R. Musicus A. M. Kabel

1985-01-01

249

41 CFR 301-11.3 - Must my agency pay an allowance (either a per diem allowance or actual expense)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...either a per diem allowance or actual expense)? 301-11.3 Section 301-11.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2013-07-01

250

Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th Edition: The Most Authoritative Source of Information on Nutrient Allowances for Healthy People.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since its introduction in 1943 Recommended Dietary Allowances has become the accepted source of nutrients allowances for healthy people. These Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are used throughout the food and health fields. Additionally, RDAs serve a...

1989-01-01

251

Magnetic field generated resistivity maximum in graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In zero magnetic field, B, the electrical resistivity, rho(O,T) of highly oriented pyrolytic (polycrystalline) graphite drops smoothly with decreasing T, becoming constant below 4 K. However, in a fixed applied magnetic field B, the resistivity rho(B,T) goes through a maximum as a function of T, with larger maximum for larger B. The temperature of the maximum increases with B, but saturates to a constant value near 25 K (exact T depends on sample) at high B. In single crystal graphite a maximum in rho(B,T) as a function of T is also present, but has the effects of Landau level quantization superimposed. Several possible explanations for the rho(B,T) maximum are proposed, but a complete explanation awaits detailed calculations involving the energy band structure of graphite, and the particular scattering mechanisms involved.

Wollam, J. A.; Kreps, L. W.; Rojeski, M.; Vold, T.; Devaty, R.

1976-01-01

252

Maximum oxygen uptake utilising different treadmill protocols.  

PubMed Central

The study compared five treadmill protocols (four utilising a motorised, and one a non-motorised, treadmill) on maximum oxygen uptake. The five male and five female subjects, all actively engaged in training, were assigned the tests in random order. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the five protocols for maximal oxygen uptake, maximum ventilation, maximum heart rate and blood lactate inflection point, relative to maximal oxygen uptake. Significant differences were observed between the 3' protocol with incline increments of 1.5% and all other protocols on time to exhaustion (p = less than 0.01) and maximum blood lactate levels (HLA, p = less than 0.05). The results indicate that the protocols used in this study did not significantly influence the maximum oxygen uptake attained. Images p74-a p74-b p74-c

Davies, B.; Daggett, A.; Jakeman, P.; Mulhall, J.

1984-01-01

253

Patient dose and image quality from mega-voltage cone beam computed tomography imaging.  

PubMed

The evolution of ever more conformal radiation delivery techniques makes the subject of accurate localization of increasing importance in radiotherapy. Several systems can be utilized including kilo-voltage and mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT), CT on rail or helical tomography. One of the attractive aspects of mega-voltage cone-beam CT is that it uses the therapy beam along with an electronic portal imaging device to image the patient prior to the delivery of treatment. However, the use of a photon beam energy in the mega-voltage range for volumetric imaging degrades the image quality and increases the patient radiation dose. To optimize image quality and patient dose in MV-CBCT imaging procedures, a series of dose measurements in cylindrical and anthropomorphic phantoms using an ionization chamber, radiographic films, and thermoluminescent dosimeters was performed. Furthermore, the dependence of the contrast to noise ratio and spatial resolution of the image upon the dose delivered for a 20-cm-diam cylindrical phantom was evaluated. Depending on the anatomical site and patient thickness, we found that the minimum dose deposited in the irradiated volume was 5-9 cGy and the maximum dose was between 9 and 17 cGy for our clinical MV-CBCT imaging protocols. Results also demonstrated that for high contrast areas such as bony anatomy, low doses are sufficient for image registration and visualization of the three-dimensional boundaries between soft tissue and bony structures. However, as the difference in tissue density decreased, the dose required to identify soft tissue boundaries increased. Finally, the dose delivered by MV-CBCT was simulated using a treatment planning system (TPS), thereby allowing the incorporation of MV-CBCT dose in the treatment planning process. The TPS-calculated doses agreed well with measurements for a wide range of imaging protocols. PMID:17388167

Gayou, Olivier; Parda, David S; Johnson, Mark; Miften, Moyed

2007-02-01

254

Radiation dose to workers due to the inhalation of dust during granite fabrication.  

PubMed

There has been very little research conducted to determine internal radiation doses resulting from worker exposure to ionising radiation in granite fabrication shops. To address this issue, we estimated the effective radiation dose of granite workers in US fabrication shops who were exposed to the maximum respirable dust and silica concentrations allowed under current US regulations, and also to concentrations reported in the literature. Radiation doses were calculated using standard methods developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated internal doses were very low, and below both US occupational standards (50 mSv yr(-1)) and limits applicable to the general public (1 mSv yr(-1)). Workers exposed to respirable granite dust concentrations at the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) respirable dust permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg m(-3) over a full year had an estimated radiation dose of 0.062 mSv yr(-1). Workers exposed to respirable granite dust concentrations at the OSHA silica PEL and at the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value for a full year had expected radiation doses of 0.007 mSv yr(-1) and 0.002 mSv yr(-1), respectively. Using data from studies of respirable granite dust and silica concentrations measured in granite fabrication shops, we calculated median expected radiation doses that ranged from <0.001 to 0.101 mSv yr(-1). PMID:24270240

Zwack, L M; McCarthy, W B; Stewart, J H; McCarthy, J F; Allen, J G

2014-03-01

255

Adaptive randomization to improve utility-based dose-finding with bivariate ordinal outcomes.  

PubMed

A sequentially outcome-adaptive Bayesian design is proposed for choosing the dose of an experimental therapy based on elicited utilities of a bivariate ordinal (toxicity, efficacy) outcome. Subject to posterior acceptability criteria to control the risk of severe toxicity and exclude unpromising doses, patients are randomized adaptively among the doses having posterior mean utilities near the maximum. The utility increment used to define near-optimality is nonincreasing with sample size. The adaptive randomization uses each dose's posterior probability of a set of good outcomes, defined by a lower utility cutoff. Saturated parametric models are assumed for the marginal dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy distributions, allowing the possible requirement of monotonicity in dose, and a copula is used to obtain a joint distribution. Prior means are computed by simulation using elicited outcome probabilities, and prior variances are calibrated to control prior effective sample size and obtain a design with good operating characteristics. The method is illustrated by a Phase I/II trial of radiation therapy for children with brainstem gliomas. PMID:22651115

Thall, Peter F; Nguyen, Hoang Q

2012-01-01

256

41 CFR 301-11.6 - Where do I find maximum per diem and actual expense rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...find maximum per diem and actual expense rates? 301-11.6 Section 301-11.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2013-07-01

257

41 CFR 302-6.16 - May I receive a TQSE allowance if I am receiving another subsistence expenses allowance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2012-07-01 true May I receive a TQSE allowance if I am receiving another subsistence expenses allowance? 302-6...General Rules § 302-6.16 May I receive a TQSE allowance if I am receiving another subsistence expenses allowance? No,...

2013-07-01

258

A diversity of responses displayed by a stochastic model of radiation carcinogenesis allowing for cell death.  

PubMed

A stochastic model is presented of carcinogenesis induced by irradiation with arbitrary time-dependent dose rate. The key feature of the model is that it allows for radiation-induced cell killing to compete with the process of tumor promotion. Two versions of the model arise when considering target tissues with slow and rapid replacement of damaged cells. These versions show dissimilar shapes of the dose-response curves in the case of short-term exposure. The model provides a natural explanation of the basic experimental findings documented in the radiobiological literature. PMID:8924720

Yakovlev, A; Polig, E

1996-02-01

259

Improving the Maximum Loading by Optimal Conductor Selection of Radial Distribution Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a method is proposed for improving the maximum allowable loading of radial distribution feeders for different types of load models without violating the maximum current carrying capacity of branch conductors by optimum conductor selection. The conductor, which is determined by the proposed method, will maximize the total savings in cost of conducting material and energy losses by

S. Satyanarayana; T. Ramana; G. K. Rao; S. Sivanagaraju

2006-01-01

260

Laplacian eigenvalues and the maximum cut problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce and study an eigenvalue upper bound?(G) on the maximum cut mc (G) of a weighted graph. The function?(G) has several interesting properties that resemble the behaviour of mc (G). The following results are presented.

Charles Delorme; Svatopluk Poljak

1993-01-01

261

Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The in...

R. N. Silver T. Wallstrom H. F. Martz

1993-01-01

262

Entropy Maximum Principle and Instantaneous Failure Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Shannon entropy for instantaneous failure statistics is defined in terms of an integral over the full epoch of possible failure times. An entropy maximum principle subject only to the normalization of the probability density integral and the existence o...

S. Teitler, A. K. Rajagopal, K. L. Ngai

1984-01-01

263

Maximum a Posteriori Filtering and Smoothing Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents the approximate solution of the non-linear two-point boundary value problem for maximum a posteriori estimation. Filtering, fixed point smoothing, fixed interval smoothing, and fixed lag smoothing algorithms are obtained by the discrete...

A. P. Sage

1969-01-01

264

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...L-2 Second year college undergraduate ...L-3 Third year college undergraduate ...L-4 Fourth year college undergraduate ...1 The maximum money amount in...agency may pay a student-employee a...Office of Personnel Management has...

2010-01-01

265

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...L-2 Second year college undergraduate ...L-3 Third year college undergraduate ...L-4 Fourth year college undergraduate ...1 The maximum money amount in...agency may pay a student-employee a...Office of Personnel Management has...

2009-01-01

266

A dual method for maximum entropy restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.

Smith, C. B.

1979-01-01

267

Dopamine: biphasic dose responses.  

PubMed

The present article indicates that dopamine and/or its agonists induce biphasic dose-response relationships for numerous endpoints. These include locomotion, pain sensitivity, blood pressure, prolactin secretion, oxytocin release, heart rate, memory, and neuronal adenylate cyclase activity. Biphasic responses were reported predominantly with male Sprague-Dawley rats, but also with mice, dogs, monkeys, and humans. Regardless of the model or endpoint the maximum changes from the control were always modest being within the 10 to 80% range. The range of stimulatory responses was quite variable, extending from slightly greater than a factor of 10 for the endpoints such as memory, pain-vocalization, and diastolic blood pressure to the 10(6) range for prolactin release and the 10(8) range for oxytocin release. Mechanistic studies suggested that the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of dopamine are mediated by different receptors or receptor subtypes having opposite actions and different ligand affinities. PMID:11504182

Calabrese, E J

2001-07-01

268

Maximum-confidence discrimination among symmetric qudit states  

SciTech Connect

We study the maximum-confidence (MC) measurement strategy for discriminating among nonorthogonal symmetric qudit states. Restricting to linearly dependent and equally likely pure states, we find the optimal positive operator valued measure (POVM) that maximizes our confidence in identifying each state in the set and minimizes the probability of obtaining inconclusive results. The physical realization of this POVM is completely determined and it is shown that after an inconclusive outcome, the input states may be mapped into a new set of equiprobable symmetric states, restricted, however, to a subspace of the original qudit Hilbert space. By applying the MC measurement again onto this new set, we can still gain some information about the input states, although with less confidence than before. This leads us to introduce the concept of sequential maximum-confidence (SMC) measurements, where the optimized MC strategy is iterated in as many stages as allowed by the input set, until no further information can be extracted from an inconclusive result. Within each stage of this measurement our confidence in identifying the input states is the highest possible, although it decreases from one stage to the next. In addition, the more stages we accomplish within the maximum allowed, the higher will be the probability of correct identification. We will discuss an explicit example of the optimal SMC measurement applied in the discrimination among four symmetric qutrit states and propose an optical network to implement it.

Jimenez, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Casilla 170, Antofagasta (Chile); Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Delgado, A.; Neves, L. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

2011-12-15

269

Maximum, Minimum, and Current Temperature Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure air (and optionally soil) temperature within one hour of solar noon and the maximum and minimum air temperatures for the previous 24 hours. Intended outcomes are that students will learn to read minimum, maximum, and current temperatures using a U-shaped thermometer, understand diurnal and annual temperature variations, and recognize factors that influence atmospheric temperatures. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

270

24 CFR 242.28 - Allowable costs for consultants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Allowable costs for consultants. 242...Requirements § 242.28 Allowable costs for consultants. Consulting...expected revenues, and costs; site analysis; architectural and engineering design; and such other...

2013-04-01

271

Analyzing Allowance Program Administrative Costs: Account Structures and Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This note describes the data base and methodology used in analyzing housing allowance program administrative costs in HUD's Housing Assistance Supply Experiment (HASE). Cost and workload data were provided by the housing allowance offices (HAOs) of Brown ...

G. T. Kingsley P. M. Schlegel

1979-01-01

272

46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

2010-10-01

273

46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

2011-10-01

274

46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

2012-10-01

275

49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7 ...COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise...

2013-10-01

276

45 CFR 2400.50 - Allowances and Summer Institute costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowances and Summer Institute costs. 2400.50 Section 2400.50 Public Welfare...REQUIREMENTS Graduate Study § 2400.50 Allowances and Summer Institute costs. At the Foundation's...

2013-10-01

277

40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will...

2013-07-01

278

Dose rate effects on total dose damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total ionizing dose tests have been performed on MOS n-channel and p-channel devices at various dose rates. These tests were made at two test temperatures, 23 C and 125 C, and at two widely differing dose rates. The threshold shifts at the various dose rates and temperatures are compared. The total threshold shifts are separated into the contributions from interface

Joseph L. Azarewicz

1986-01-01

279

When is high-dose intravenous iron repletion needed? Assessing new treatment options  

PubMed Central

High doses of intravenous iron have a role in the treatment of a number of clinical situations associated with iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and blood loss. In the presence of functioning erythropoiesis, iron supplementation alone may be adequate to replenish iron stores and restore blood loss. Where hormone replacement with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent is required, iron adequacy will optimize treatment. Intravenous iron offers a rapid means of iron repletion and is superior to oral iron in many circumstances, especially in the presence of anemia of chronic disease, where it appears to overcome the block to absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and immobilization of stored iron. The clinical situations where high doses of iron are commonly required are reviewed. These include nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, obstetrics, menorrhagia, and anemia associated with cancer and its treatment. The literature indicates that high doses of iron are required, with levels of 1500 mg in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease and up to 3600 mg in inflammatory bowel disease. New formulations of intravenous iron have recently been introduced that allow clinicians to administer high doses of iron in a single administration. Ferumoxytol is available in the US, has a maximum dose of 510 mg iron in a single administration, but is limited to use in chronic kidney disease. Ferric carboxymaltose can be rapidly administered in doses of 15 mg/kg body weight, up to a ceiling dose of 1000 mg. A test dose is not required, and it can be used more widely across a spectrum of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia indications. The latest introduction is iron isomaltoside 1000. Again, a test dose is not required, and it can be delivered rapidly as an infusion (in an hour), allowing even higher doses of iron to be administered in a single infusion, ie, 20 mg/kg body weight with no ceiling. This will allow clinicians to achieve high-dose repletion more frequently as a single administration. Treatment options for iron repletion have taken a major leap forward in the past two years, especially to meet the demand for high doses given as a single administration.

Gozzard, David

2011-01-01

280

17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net equity. 190.07 Section 190.07 Commodity...COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a)...

2010-04-01

281

17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net equity. 190.07 Section 190.07 Commodity...COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a)...

2011-04-01

282

17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net equity. 190.07 Section 190.07 Commodity...COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a)...

2012-04-01

283

45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43 Public Welfare...Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher...

2013-10-01

284

Ten utilities receive acid rain bonus allowances from EPA  

SciTech Connect

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently awarded 1,349 acid rain bonus allowances to ten utilities for energy efficiency and renewable energy measures. An allowance licensesthee emission of one ton of sulfur dioxide. A limited number of allowances are allocated to utilities to ensure that emissions will be cut to less than 9 million tons per year.

NONE

1995-12-31

285

48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting and allowable cost. 2152.231-70...Provisions and Clauses 2152.231-70 Accounting and allowable cost. As prescribed...270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost (OCT 2005)...

2013-10-01

286

40 CFR 73.27 - Special allowance reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations...through 1999 will be distributed to the designated representative...b)(3), will be distributed to the designated representative...and thereafter will be distributed to the designated representative...unit's Allowance Tracking System Account according...

2013-07-01

287

Low-dosage Maximum-A-Posteriori Focusing and Stigmation.  

PubMed

Radiation damage is often an issue during high-resolution imaging, making low-dose focusing and stigmation essential, in particular when no part of the sample can be "sacrificed" for this. An example is serial block-face electron microscopy, where the imaging resolution must be kept optimal during automated acquisition that can last months. Here, we present an algorithm, which we call "Maximum-A-Posteriori Focusing and Stigmation (MAPFoSt)," that was designed to make optimal use of the available signal. We show that MAPFoSt outperforms the built-in focusing algorithm of a commercial scanning electron microscope even at a tenfold reduced total dose. MAPFoSt estimates multiple aberration modes (focus and the two astigmatism coefficients) using just two test images taken at different focus settings. Using an incident electron dose density of 2,500 electrons/pixel and a signal-to-noise ratio of about one, all three coefficients could be estimated to within <7% of the depth of focus, using 19 detected secondary electrons per pixel. A generalization to higher-order aberrations and to other forms of imaging in both two and three dimensions appears possible. PMID:23380003

Binding, Jonas; Mikula, Shawn; Denk, Winfried

2013-02-01

288

MaxOcc: a web portal for maximum occurrence analysis.  

PubMed

The MaxOcc web portal is presented for the characterization of the conformational heterogeneity of two-domain proteins, through the calculation of the Maximum Occurrence that each protein conformation can have in agreement with experimental data. Whatever the real ensemble of conformations sampled by a protein, the weight of any conformation cannot exceed the calculated corresponding Maximum Occurrence value. The present portal allows users to compute these values using any combination of restraints like pseudocontact shifts, paramagnetism-based residual dipolar couplings, paramagnetic relaxation enhancements and small angle X-ray scattering profiles, given the 3D structure of the two domains as input. MaxOcc is embedded within the NMR grid services of the WeNMR project and is available via the WeNMR gateway at http://py-enmr.cerm.unifi.it/access/index/maxocc . It can be used freely upon registration to the grid with a digital certificate. PMID:22639196

Bertini, Ivano; Ferella, Lucio; Luchinat, Claudio; Parigi, Giacomo; Petoukhov, Maxim V; Ravera, Enrico; Rosato, Antonio; Svergun, Dmitri I

2012-08-01

289

A Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-Field Type  

SciTech Connect

We study the optimal control of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of mean-field type, where the coefficients are allowed to depend on some functional of the law as well as the state of the process. Moreover the cost functional is also of mean-field type, which makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. Under the assumption of a convex action space a maximum principle of local form is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. These are also shown to be sufficient under additional assumptions. This maximum principle differs from the classical one, where the adjoint equation is a linear backward SDE, since here the adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE. As an illustration, we apply the result to the mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

Andersson, Daniel, E-mail: danieand@math.kth.se; Djehiche, Boualem, E-mail: boualem@math.kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics (Sweden)

2011-06-15

290

Maximum magnitudes in aftershock sequences in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, Båth's Law, the b-value in Gutenberg–Richter Law (G–R Law) in the form of the 1/? relationship, and both the a- and b-values in the G–R Law were introduced in order to estimate maximum aftershock magnitudes of earthquake sequences in the Taiwan region. The averaged difference of magnitude between the mainshock and the maximum aftershock is 1.20, and is consistent with Båth's Law, however, with a large uncertainty. The large uncertainty implies that the difference may result from a variable controlled by other factors, such as the aftershocks number of an earthquake sequence and magnitude threshold for mainshock. With 1/?, since 86% of the earthquake sequences with a M ? 6.0 mainshock follow this relationship, the upper bound of the maximum magnitude can be estimated for an earthquake sequence with a large mainshock. The a- and b-values in the G–R Law was also considered by evaluating maximum aftershock magnitudes. As there are low residuals between the model and the observations, the results suggest that the G–R Law is a good index for maximum aftershock magnitude determinations. In order to evaluate the temporal decays of maximum aftershock magnitudes, modified Omori's Law was introduced. Using the approaches mentioned above, the maximum magnitudes and the temporal evolution of an earthquake sequence could be modeled. Among them, the model of the G–R Law has the best fit with observations for most of earthquake sequences. It shows its feasibility. The results of this work may benefit seismic hazards mitigation in the form of rapid re-evaluations for short-term seismic hazards immediately following devastating earthquakes.

Chan, Chung-Han; Wu, Yih-Min

2013-09-01

291

Dose and Dose Risk Caused by Natural Phenomena - Proposed Powder Metallurgy Core Manufacturing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The offsite radiological effects from high velocity straight winds, tornadoes, and earthquakes have been estimated for a proposed facility for manufacturing enriched uranium fuel cores by powder metallurgy. Projected doses range up to 30 mrem/event to the maximum offsite individual for high winds and up to 85 mrem/event for very severe earthquakes. Even under conservative assumptions on meteorological conditions, the maximum offsite dose would be about 20 per cent of the DOE limit for accidents involving enriched uranium storage facilities. The total dose risk is low and is dominated by the risk from earthquakes. This report discusses this test.

Holmes, W.G.

2001-08-16

292

HADOC: a computer code for calculation of external and inhalation doses from acute radionuclide releases  

SciTech Connect

The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.

Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.

1981-04-01

293

Population pharmacokinetics of docetaxel during phase I studies using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling and nonparametric maximum-likelihood estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Docetaxel, a novel anticancer agent, was given to 26 patients by short i.v. infusion (1–2 h) at various dose levels (70–115 mg\\/m2, the maximum tolerated dose) during 2 phase I studies. Two population analyses, one using NONMEM (nonlinear mixed-effect modeling) and the other using NPML (nonparametric maximum-likelihood), were performed sequentially to determine the structural model; estimate the mean population parameters,

M. C. Launay-Iliadis; R. Bruno; V. Cosson; J. C. Vergniol; D. Oulid-Aissa; M. Marty; M. Clavel; M. Aapro; N. Bail; A. Iliadis

1995-01-01

294

40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I controlled substances...OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.10 Availability...

2009-07-01

295

40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances...OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.20 Availability...

2010-07-01

296

40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances...OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.20 Availability...

2013-07-01

297

40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I controlled substances...OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.10 Availability...

2013-07-01

298

40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances...OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.20 Availability...

2009-07-01

299

40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I controlled substances...OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.10 Availability...

2010-07-01

300

Estimation of Maximum Earthquakes in Northeast India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We attempt to estimate possible maximum earthquakes in the northeast Indian region for four seismic source zones, namely EHZ, MBZ, EBZ, and SHZ, which encapsulates the various seismogenic structures of the region and also for combined source zones taken as a single seismic source regime. The latter case exhibits a high maximum earthquake estimate of MW 9.4 (±0.85) through Bayesian interpretation of frequency magnitude distribution with Gamma function implicating a moderate deviation from the standard Gutenberg Richter model at the higher magnitudes. However, tapering Gutenberg Richter models with corner magnitudes at MW 8.01, 8.7 and 9.1, respectively indicated maximum values corresponding to MW 8.4, 9.0, and 9.3. The former approach was applied to each of the source zones wherein the data are presented in parts according to the data completeness, thereof. EHZ, MBZ, EBZ and SHZ are seen with maximum earthquakes of MW 8.35 (±0.59), 8.79 (±0.31), 8.20 (±0.50), and 8.73 (±0.70), respectively. The maximum possible earthquakes estimated for each individual zone are seen to be lower than that estimated for the single regime. However, the pertaining return periods estimated for the combined zone are far less than those estimated for the demarcated ones.

Thingbaijam, K. K. S.; Nath, S. K.

2008-05-01

301

Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

2014-06-01

302

Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

McGarr, A.

2014-02-01

303

Vitamin C Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Volunteers: Evidence for a Recommended Dietary Allowance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determinants of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin C include the relationship between vitamin C dose and steady-state plasma concentration, bioavailability, urinary excretion, cell concentration, and potential adverse effects. Because current data are inadequate, an in-hospital depletion-repletion study was conducted. Seven healthy volunteers were hospitalized for 4-6 months and consumed a diet containing <5 mg of vitamin C daily.

Mark Levine; Cathy Conry-Cantilena; Yaohui Wang; Richard W. Welch; Philip W. Washko; Kuldeep R. Dhariwal; Jae B. Park; Alexander Lazarev; James F. Graumlich; Jean King; Louis R. Cantilena

1996-01-01

304

Integral T-Shaped Phantom-Dosimeter System to Measure Transverse and Longitudinal Dose Distributions Simultaneously for Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry  

PubMed Central

A T-shaped fiber-optic phantom-dosimeter system was developed using square scintillating optical fibers, a lens system, and a CMOS image camera. Images of scintillating light were used to simultaneously measure the transverse and longitudinal distributions of absorbed dose of a 6 MV photon beam with field sizes of 1 × 1 and 3 × 3 cm2. Each optical fiber has a very small sensitive volume and the sensitive material is water equivalent. This allows the measurements of cross-beam profile as well as the percentage depth dose of small field sizes. In the case of transverse dose distribution, the measured beam profiles were gradually become uneven and the beam edge had a gentle slope with increasing depth of the PMMA phantom. In addition, the maximum dose values of longitudinal dose distribution for 6 MV photon beam with field sizes of 1 × 1 and 3 × 3 cm2 were found to be at a depth of approximately 15 mm and the percentage depth dose of both field sizes were nearly in agreement at the skin dose level. Based on the results of this study, it is anticipated that an all-in-one phantom-dosimeter can be developed to accurately measure beam profiles and dose distribution in a small irradiation fields prior to carrying out stereotactic radiosurgery.

Yoo, Wook Jae; Moon, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyoung Won; Han, Ki-Tek; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeon, Dayeong; Park, Jang-Yeon; Park, Byung Gi; Lee, Bongsoo

2012-01-01

305

Maximum likelihood method for cross-correlations with astrophysical sources  

SciTech Connect

We generalize the maximum likelihood-type method used to study cross-correlations between a catalog of candidate astrophysical sources and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), to allow for differing source luminosities. The new method is applicable to any sparse dataset such as UHE gamma rays or astrophysical neutrinos. Performance of the original and generalized techniques is evaluated in simulations of various scenarios. Applying the new technique to data, we find an excess correlation of about nine events between HiRes UHECRs and known BLLacs, with a 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} probability of such a correlation arising by chance.

Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R, E-mail: rj486@nyu.edu, E-mail: gf25@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2008-06-15

306

Gigantic Maximum of Nanoscale Noncontact Friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report measurements of noncontact friction between surfaces of NbSe2 and SrTiO3 and a sharp Pt-Ir tip that is oscillated laterally by a quartz tuning fork cantilever. At 4.2 K, the friction coefficients on both the metallic and insulating materials show a giant maximum at the tip-surface distance of several nanometers. The maximum is strongly correlated with an increase in the spring constant of the cantilever. These features can be understood phenomenologically by a distance-dependent relaxation mechanism with distributed time scales.

Saitoh, Kohta; Hayashi, Kenichi; Shibayama, Yoshiyuki; Shirahama, Keiya

2010-12-01

307

Estimating Maximum Discharge of Geothermal Wells  

SciTech Connect

We cannot tell how 'good' a well is unless we can estimate the maximum flow possible under such ideal conditions as complete permeability a t the production horizon and boiling point throughout the depth of the reservoir. Calculated Lip pressures for vertical wide-open discharge under these conditions are surprisingly independent of the kind of fluid tapped by the well, whether dry saturated steam or saturated hot water. The status of an actual well can be established by comparing the measured Lip pressure with the calculated theoretical maximum. Discharges are simply determined from the values of Lip pressure and supply fluid enthalpy.

James, Russell

1980-12-16

308

Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy  

SciTech Connect

A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets.

Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

1993-11-01

309

Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

Summhammer, Johann

1994-01-01

310

Dose verification of single shot gamma knife applications using VIPAR polymer gel and MRI.  

PubMed

This work describes an experimental procedure with potential to assess the overall accuracy associated with gamma knife clinical applications, from patient imaging and dosimetry planning to patient positioning and dose delivery using the automated positioning system of a Leksell Gamma Knife model C. The VIPAR polymer gel-MRI dosimetry method is employed due to its inherent three-dimensional feature and linear dose response over the range of gamma knife applications. Different polymer gel vials were irradiated with single shot gamma knife treatment plans using each of the four available collimator helmets to deliver a maximum dose of 30 Gy. Percentage relative dose results are presented not only in the form of one-dimensional profiles but also planar isocontours and isosurfaces in three dimensions. Experimental results are compared with corresponding Gammaplan treatment planning system calculations as well as acceptance test radiochromic film measurements. A good agreement, within the experimental uncertainty, is observed between measured and expected dose distributions. This experimental uncertainty is of the order of one imaging pixel in the MRI gel readout session (<1 mm) and allows for the verification of single shot gamma knife applications in terms of acceptance specifications for precision in beam alignment and accuracy. Averaging net R(2) results in the dose plateau of the 4 mm and 18 mm collimator irradiated gel vials, which were MR scanned in the same session, provides a crude estimate of the 4 mm output factor which agrees within errors with the default value of 0.870. PMID:15798319

Karaiskos, P; Petrokokkinos, L; Tatsis, E; Angelopoulos, A; Baras, P; Kozicki, M; Papagiannis, P; Rosiak, J M; Sakelliou, L; Sandilos, P; Vlachos, L

2005-03-21

311

Dose verification of single shot gamma knife applications using VIPAR polymer gel and MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes an experimental procedure with potential to assess the overall accuracy associated with gamma knife clinical applications, from patient imaging and dosimetry planning to patient positioning and dose delivery using the automated positioning system of a Leksell Gamma Knife model C. The VIPAR polymer gel-MRI dosimetry method is employed due to its inherent three-dimensional feature and linear dose response over the range of gamma knife applications. Different polymer gel vials were irradiated with single shot gamma knife treatment plans using each of the four available collimator helmets to deliver a maximum dose of 30 Gy. Percentage relative dose results are presented not only in the form of one-dimensional profiles but also planar isocontours and isosurfaces in three dimensions. Experimental results are compared with corresponding Gammaplan treatment planning system calculations as well as acceptance test radiochromic film measurements. A good agreement, within the experimental uncertainty, is observed between measured and expected dose distributions. This experimental uncertainty is of the order of one imaging pixel in the MRI gel readout session (<1 mm) and allows for the verification of single shot gamma knife applications in terms of acceptance specifications for precision in beam alignment and accuracy. Averaging net R2 results in the dose plateau of the 4 mm and 18 mm collimator irradiated gel vials, which were MR scanned in the same session, provides a crude estimate of the 4 mm output factor which agrees within errors with the default value of 0.870.

Karaiskos, P.; Petrokokkinos, L.; Tatsis, E.; Angelopoulos, A.; Baras, P.; Kozicki, M.; Papagiannis, P.; Rosiak, J. M.; Sakelliou, L.; Sandilos, P.; Vlachos, L.

2005-03-01

312

Impediments to markets for SO{sub 2} emission allowances  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1990 imposed tighter limits on allowed emissions from electric utilities. The CAA also introduced an innovative SO{sub 2} market mechanism to help lower the cost of compliance. The annual Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) auctions of emission allowances intended to help usher in the market mechanisms for trading allowances. In that respect, the results have been mixed. A full fledged market for emission allowances has been slow to emerge. Starting with a detailed study of the EPA auctions to date, this paper analyzes and discusses some of the reasons for this slow development.

Walsh, M. [Chicago Board of Trade, IL (United States)] [Chicago Board of Trade, IL (United States); Ramesh, V.C.; Ghosh, K. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1996-05-01

313

75 FR 54069 - U.S. Paralympics Monthly Assistance Allowance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Eligibility, Individuals with disabilities, Monthly assistance allowance, Overpayment, Oversight, Physically challenged athletes, Service-connected disabilities, Sport event, Travel and transportation expenses, U.S. Paralympics training...

2010-09-03

314

42 CFR 61.37 - Stipends, allowances, and benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.37 Stipends, allowances, and benefits. (a) Stipends....

2013-10-01

315

Essays on the United States sulfur dioxide allowance market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, I study the U.S. SO2 allowance market. The first chapter conducts an empirical study of electric utility behavior under the SO2 allowance market. The probit models find that the uncertainty of PUC regulations may have caused them to shun the SO2 allowance market in favor of a strategy of fuel blending/switching while utilities responded to the allowance market efficiently. This implies that the allowance price would have been higher without PUC regulations. Local environmental regulations are also found to be responsible for the unexpectedly low allowance price. However, there is no evidence that the rate of return regulation has affected the fuel switching decision. In chapter 2, a competitive dynamic equilibrium of the SO2 allowance market is characterized and is numerically solved for several policy experiments. First, the competitive dynamic equilibrium with banking is solved. The allowance price is expected to go up to 302.60 dollars at the end of Phase II when the emission decreases to the Phase II target level. Cost savings from direct control is estimated to be 78% (18.1 billion dollars). Next, a competitive dynamic equilibrium of the allowance market without banking is examined. The cost saving from the banking is found to be 780.0 million dollars (13.34% cost saving). Another finding is that the investment behavior in the markets with and without banking are quite different despite the same SO2 emission reduction in the long run.

Arimura, Toshihide

316

24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

2010-04-01

317

24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

2012-04-01

318

24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

2011-04-01

319

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2009-07-01

320

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2013-07-01

321

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2010-07-01

322

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13...DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum...

2013-07-01

323

40 CFR 141.65 - Maximum residual disinfectant levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant levels. 141.65 Section 141.65 Protection...Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.65 Maximum residual...

2013-07-01

324

Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.  

PubMed

This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient. PMID:22298238

Satory, P R

2012-03-01

325

Maximum Fillet Stresses in Breech Ring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of fillet geometry and wall thickness on maximum fillet stresses was investigated in the 105mm M137 Howitzer breech ring. The NASTRAN finite element analysis of three fillet geometries and two wall thicknesses shows that an elliptical fillet is...

Y. F. Cheng

1972-01-01

326

Maximum versus meaningful discrimination in scale response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues for the use of the number of response categories that are meaningful to respondents as a criterion in designing attribute rating scales in marketing in contrast to a focus in past research on using scales to maximize the discrimination elicited from respondents. Whereas scales eliciting a maximum level of discrimination may be more reliable than scales eliciting

Madhubalan Viswanathan; Seymour Sudman; Michael Johnson

2004-01-01

327

Maximum Entropy Estimation for Survey sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calibration methods have been widely studied in survey sampling over the last decades. Viewing calibration as an inverse problem, we extend the calibration technique by using a maximum entropy method. Finding the optimal weights is achieved by considering random weights and looking for a discrete distribution which maximizes an entropy under the calibration constraint. This method points a new frame

Fabrice Gamboa; Jean-Michel Loubes; Paul Rochet

2009-01-01

328

Maximum Sunspot Numbers and Active Days  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameters associated with solar minimum have been studied to relate them to solar activity at solar maximum so that one could possibly predict behaviors of an upcoming solar cycle. The number of active days has been known as a reliable indicator of solar activity around solar minimum. Active days are days with sunspots reported on the solar disk. In this work, we have explored the relationship between the sunspot numbers at solar maximum and the characteristics of the monthly number of active days. Specifically, we have statistically examined how the maximum monthly sunspot number of a given solar cycle is correlated with the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days for the corresponding solar cycle. We have calculated the linear correlation coefficient r and the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient rs for data sets prepared under various conditions. Even though marginal correlations are found, they turn out to be insufficiently significant (r ~ 0.3). Nonetheless, we have confirmed that the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days is less steep when solar cycles belonging to the "Modern Maximum" are considered compared with rests of solar cycles. We conclude, therefore, that the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days is indeed dependent on the solar activity at its maxima, but that this simple relationship should be insufficient as a valid method to predict the following solar activity amplitude.

Chang, Heon-Young

2013-09-01

329

Maximum output of an OTEC power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper theoretically investigates the effects of the temperature and flowrate of cold seawater on the net output of an OTEC plant. Parameters of pipe length, pipe diameter, seawater depth, and the flowrate of seawater are considered. It shows that a maximum output of the net work exists at a certain flowrate of cooling seawater. The output work is higher

Rong-Hua Yeh; Tar-Zen Su; Min-Shong Yang

2005-01-01

330

Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.

Veerachary, Mummadi

331

Heliospheric Magnetic Field Structure At Solar Maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) from the relative simplicity at solar minimum has been charted by the Ulysses spacecraft through the ascending phase of the solar cycle through the recent maximum activity epoch. The changes that occurred in solar and coronal magnetic fields from 1997 to 2001 are reflected in a com- plex way in the evolution

A. Balogh; E. J. Smith; R. J. Forsyth; G. H. Jones; D. J. McComas

2002-01-01

332

Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise

A. Jannetta; J. C. Jackson; C. J. Kotre; I. P. Birch; K. J. Robson; R. Padgett

2004-01-01

333

Predicting maximum lake depth from surrounding topography.  

PubMed

Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset - Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945

Hollister, Jeffrey W; Milstead, W Bryan; Urrutia, M Andrea

2011-01-01

334

Multiple target tracking using maximum likelihood principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a method (tracking algorithm (TAL)) based on the maximum likelihood (ML) principle for multiple target tracking in near-field using outputs from a large uniform linear array of passive sensors. The targets are assumed to be narrowband signals and modeled as sample functions of a Gaussian stochastic process. The phase delays of these signals are expressed as functions of both

A. Satish; Rangasami L. Kashyap

1995-01-01

335

Entropy Maximum Principle and Relaxation Phenomena.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Shannon (epoch) entropy is defined in terms of an integral over the full temporal epoch of relaxation. A maximum entropy principle yields a linear exponential as a fundamental form for relaxation to equilibrium. It is observed that the time scale of mea...

A. K. Rajagopal, S. Teitler, K. L. Ngai

1984-01-01

336

Maximum entropy image restoration in astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical basis and applications of the Maximum Entropy Method of inference for obtaining the most probable nonnegative image consistent with astronomical data are detailed. The generalized image restoration problem is reviewed, noting the effects of atmospheric blurring and the practice of representing images as a Fourier series. The problem is encountered in both single aperture and synthesis observations, and

Ramesh Narayan; Rajaram Nityananda

1986-01-01

337

The Maximum Sinkage of a Ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ship moving steadily forward in shallow water of constant depth h is usually subject to downward forces and hence squat, which is a potentially dangerous sinkage or increase in draft. Sinkage increases with ship speed, until it reaches a maximum at just below the critical speed p gh. Here we use both a linear transcritical shallow-water equation and a

T. P. Gourlay; E. O. Tuck

338

Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

Texas Child Care, 1995

1995-01-01

339

Climate Change Impacts on Probable Maximum Precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation of the potential impacts of anthropogenic forcing of the climate system on extreme weather events relies heavily on the direct output of global and regional climate models, combined perhaps with extreme value statistical techniques. In this study, we use these tools along with physical and theoretical considerations to examine the potential impacts on Probable Maximum Precipitation estimates. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) is the theoretically greatest depth of precipitation for a given duration that is physically possible over a particular drainage basin at a particular time of year. PMP values are used in the design of long-lived structures with lifetimes of many decades, such as dams. Climate change is an unavoidable consideration on those time scales. Many studies have documented an upward temporal trend in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events. As the globe warms in response to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, there is the potential for further changes in precipitation extremes. There are reasons why warming could lead to increased PMP values. One, the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship indicates that the saturation water vapor pressure increases with temperature; thus, precipitation-producing systems could have more "fuel" to precipitate. Two, warming may lead to an increase in the length of the convective season, when most of the extreme precipitation events occur. The methodology for estimation of PMP values has changed little over the last 30-40 years. The basic approach is to consider the factors that contribute to heavy precipitation and then consider the potential precipitation rates if all of those factors were simultaneously maximized. Convergence and vertical motion is one factor. Past work has assumed that there no empirical or satisfactory theoretical basis for assigning maximum values to this factor. The approach has been to use observed rainfall in notable storms as an indirect measure of maximum convergence and vertical motion. Notable storms are chosen to indicate the likely occurrence of near-maximum values. A second central factor is moisture availability. Observational data are used to determine maximum levels of moisture availability. Where topographic effects are important, wind maximization is a third factor. We are examining these factors in present-day and future simulations from global and regional climate models. Initial results strongly indicate the possibility for large future increases in maximum moisture, by about the same amount as increases in mean moisture content. This would lead directly to substantial increases in PMP values. Given the potential catastrophic consequences of dam failure, these findings should be considered carefully in future design activities.

Kunkel, K.; Easterling, D. R.

2011-12-01

340

Implementation of dose superimposition to introduce multiple doses for a mathematical absorption model (transit compartment model).  

PubMed

A mathematical absorption model (e.g. transit compartment model) is useful to describe complex absorption process. However, in such a model, an assumption has to be made to introduce multiple doses that a prior dose has been absorbed nearly completely when the next dose is administered. This is because the drug input cannot be determined from drug depot compartment through integration of the differential equation system and has to be analytically calculated. We propose a method of dose superimposition to introduce multiple doses; thereby eliminating the assumption. The code for implementing the dose superimposition in WinNonlin and NONMEM was provided. For implementation in NONMEM, we discussed a special case (SC) and a general case (GC). In a SC, dose superimposition was implemented solely using NM-TRAN abbreviated code and the maximum number of the doses that can be administered for any subject must be pre-defined. In a GC, a user-supplied function (FUNCA) in FORTRAN code was defined to perform dose superimposition to remove the restriction that the maximum number of doses must be pre-defined. PMID:22555854

Shen, Jun; Boeckmann, Alison; Vick, Andrew

2012-06-01

341

The Incidence of Late Rectal Bleeding in High-Dose Conformal Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer using EUD- and Dose-Volume Based NTCP Models  

PubMed Central

Purpose Accurate modelling of rectal complications based on DVH data is necessary to allow safe dose escalation in radiotherapy of prostate cancer. We applied different EUD- and dose-volume based NTCP models to rectal wall DVHs and follow-up data of 319 prostate cancer patients in order to identify the dosimetric factors most predictive for grade 2 or higher rectal bleeding. Materials and Methods Data of 319 patients, treated at the William Beaumont Hospital with 3D-CRT under an adaptive radiotherapy protocol, were used for this study. The following models were considered: (1) Lyman model and (2) logit-formula with DVH reduced to generalized EUD, (3) serial reconstruction unit (RU) model, (4) Poisson-EUD-model, (5) mean dose- and (6) cutoff dose-logistic regression model. The parameters and their confidence intervals were determined using maximum likelihood estimation. Results 51 patients (16.0%) showed grade 2 or higher bleeding. As assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, the Lyman- and Logit-EUD, serial RU and Poisson-EUD model fitted the data very well. Rectal wall mean dose did not correlate to grade 2 or higher bleeding. For the cutoff dose model, the volume receiving more than 73.7 Gy showed most significant correlation to bleeding. However, this model fitted the data worse than the EUD-based models. Conclusions Our study clearly confirms a volume effect for late rectal bleeding. This can be described very well by the EUD-like models, where the serial RU- and Poisson-EUD model can describe the data with only two parameters. Dose-volume based cutoff-dose models performed worse.

M, Sohn; Yan, Di; Liang, Jian; Meldolesi, Elisa; Vargas, Carlos; Alber, Markus

2007-01-01

342

Radiation dose assessment for the biota of terrestrial ecosystems in the shoreline zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant cooling pond.  

PubMed

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature. PMID:21878760

Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Hinton, Thomas G; Coughlin, Daniel; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

2011-10-01

343

Allowable Trajectory Variations for Space Shuttle Orbiter Entry-Aeroheating CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-number criteria are developed for acceptable variations in Space Shuttle Orbiter entry trajectories for use in computational aeroheating analyses. The criteria determine if an existing computational fluid dynamics solution for a particular trajectory can be extrapolated to a different trajectory. The criteria development begins by estimating uncertainties for seventeen types of computational aeroheating data, such as boundary layer thickness, at exact trajectory conditions. For each type of datum, the allowable uncertainty contribution due to trajectory variation is set to be half of the value of the estimated exact-trajectory uncertainty. Then, for the twelve highest-priority datum types, Reynolds-number relations between trajectory variation and output uncertainty are determined. From these relations the criteria are established for the maximum allowable trajectory variations. The most restrictive criterion allows a 25% variation in Reynolds number at constant Mach number between trajectories.

Wood, William A.; Alter, Stephen J.

2008-01-01

344

Allowing the lesser of two evils: bribery or extortion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rewards to prevent enforcement agents from accepting bribes create incentives for extortion. We present a model where a supervisor who can engage in bribery and extortion can still be useful in providing incentive. We show that bribery may be allowed, but extortion is never tolerated in the optimal design of organizations. Allowing extortion penalizes good behavior which increases incentive cost;

FAHAD KHALIL; JACQUES LAWARRÉE; SUNGHO YUN

345

14 CFR 156.5 - Project cost allowability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project cost allowability. 156.5 Section...GRANT PILOT PROGRAM § 156.5 Project cost allowability. (a) A participating...grant funds for reimbursement of project costs that would not be eligible...

2013-01-01

346

14 CFR 156.5 - Project cost allowability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project cost allowability. 156.5 Section...GRANT PILOT PROGRAM § 156.5 Project cost allowability. (a) A participating...grant funds for reimbursement of project costs that would not be eligible...

2012-01-01

347

14 CFR 156.5 - Project cost allowability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project cost allowability. 156.5 Section...GRANT PILOT PROGRAM § 156.5 Project cost allowability. (a) A participating...grant funds for reimbursement of project costs that would not be eligible...

2010-01-01

348

14 CFR 156.5 - Project cost allowability.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project cost allowability. 156.5 Section...GRANT PILOT PROGRAM § 156.5 Project cost allowability. (a) A participating...grant funds for reimbursement of project costs that would not be eligible...

2014-01-01

349

14 CFR 156.5 - Project cost allowability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project cost allowability. 156.5 Section...GRANT PILOT PROGRAM § 156.5 Project cost allowability. (a) A participating...grant funds for reimbursement of project costs that would not be eligible...

2011-01-01

350

50 CFR 665.72 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665.72 Section 665.72 Wildlife and...Groundfish Fisheries § 665.72 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing...

2009-10-01

351

50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665.211 Section 665.211 Wildlife...Hawaii Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing...

2010-10-01

352

46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or...

2010-10-01

353

46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or...

2011-10-01

354

46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or...

2012-10-01

355

29 CFR 779.260 - Trade-in allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trade-in allowances. 779.260 Section 779...Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.260 Trade-in allowances. Where merchandise is taken in trade when a sale is made, the annual gross...

2013-07-01

356

46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or...

2013-10-01

357

46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in the tank under design conditions,...

2013-10-01

358

46 CFR 327.6 - Notice of allowance or disallowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Administrative Action and Litigation. § 327.6 Notice of allowance or disallowance. MarAd shall give prompt notice in writing of the allowance or disallowance of each claim, in whole or in part, by mail to the last known address of,...

2013-10-01

359

Multi-site, multivariate weather generator using maximum entropy bootstrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather generators are increasingly becoming viable alternate models to assess the effects of future climate change scenarios on water resources systems. In this study, a new multisite, multivariate maximum entropy bootstrap weather generator (MEBWG) is proposed for generating daily weather variables, which has the ability to mimic both, spatial and temporal dependence structure in addition to other historical statistics. The maximum entropy bootstrap (MEB) involves two main steps: (1) random sampling from the empirical cumulative distribution function with endpoints selected to allow limited extrapolation and (2) reordering of the random series to respect the rank ordering of the original time series (temporal dependence structure). To capture the multi-collinear structure between the weather variables and between the sites, we combine orthogonal linear transformation with MEB. Daily weather data, which include precipitation, maximum temperature and minimum temperature from 27 years of record from the Upper Thames River Basin in Ontario, Canada, are used to analyze the ability of MEBWG based weather generator. Results indicate that the statistics from the synthetic replicates were not significantly different from the observed data and the model is able to preserve the 27 CLIMDEX indices very well. The MEBWG model shows better performance in terms of extrapolation and computational efficiency when compared to multisite, multivariate K-nearest neighbour model.

Srivastav, Roshan K.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

2014-05-01

360

Planning Consequences of the Maximum dB(A) CONCEPT—A Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum noise concept based on the noisiest event represents a new principle to control the effects of an environmental pollutant in the urban area. The report describes these newly developed dose descriptors for the relation between exposure and effects and presents examples for practical actions to control noise exposure.

RYLANDER, R.; BJÖRKMAN, M.

2002-02-01

361

Batch maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation with process noise for tracking applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation with process noise is now more than thirty-five years old, and its use in multiple target tracking has long been considered to be too computationally intensive for real-time applications. While this may still be true for general usage, it is ideally suited for special needs such as bias estimation, track

Aubrey B. Poore; Benjamin J. Slocumb; Brian J. Suchomel; Fritz H. Obermeyer; Shawn M. Herman; Sabino M. Gadaleta

2004-01-01

362

Batch maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation with process noise for tracking applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation with process noise is now more than thirty-five years old, and its use in multiple target tracking has long been considered to be too computationally intensive for real-time applications. While this may still be true for general usage, it is ideally suited for special needs such as bias estimation, track

Aubrey B. Poore; Benjamin J. Slocumb; Brian J. Suchomel; Fritz H. Obermeyer; Shawn M. Herman; Sabino M. Gadaleta

2003-01-01

363

Batch Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) Estimation with Process Noise for Tracking Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Batch maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation with process noise is now more than thirty-five years old, and its use in multiple target tracking has long been considered to be too computationally intensive for real-time applicati...

A. B. Poore B. J. Slocumb B. J. Suchomel F. H. Obermeyer S. M. Herman

2003-01-01

364

Failure-probability driven dose painting  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy.Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%.Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity.

Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Berthelsen, Anne K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Bentzen, Søren M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

2013-08-15

365

Finding maximum colorful subtrees in practice.  

PubMed

In metabolomics and other fields dealing with small compounds, mass spectrometry is applied as a sensitive high-throughput technique. Recently, fragmentation trees have been proposed to automatically analyze the fragmentation mass spectra recorded by such instruments. Computationally, this leads to the problem of finding a maximum weight subtree in an edge-weighted and vertex-colored graph, such that every color appears, at most once in the solution. We introduce new heuristics and an exact algorithm for this Maximum Colorful Subtree problem and evaluate them against existing algorithms on real-world and artificial datasets. Our tree completion heuristic consistently scores better than other heuristics, while the integer programming-based algorithm produces optimal trees with modest running times. Our fast and accurate heuristic can help determine molecular formulas based on fragmentation trees. On the other hand, optimal trees from the integer linear program are useful if structure is relevant, for example for tree alignments. PMID:23509858

Rauf, Imran; Rasche, Florian; Nicolas, François; Böcker, Sebastian

2013-04-01

366

Radiation Doses in Perspective  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation Doses in Perspective Health Effects Main Page Exposure ... Sources Doses from Common Radiation Sources Average U.S. Radiation Doses and Sources All of us are exposed ...

367

Maximum drag reduction simulation using rodlike polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of maximum drag reduction (MDR) in channel flow using constitutive equations for suspensions of noninteracting rods predict a few-fold larger turbulent kinetic energy than in experiments using rodlike polymers. These differences are attributed to the neglect of interactions between polymers in the simulations. Despite these inconsistencies the simulations correctly reproduce the essential features of MDR, with universal profiles of the mean flow and the shear stress budgets that do not depend on the polymer concentration.

Gillissen, J. J. J.

2012-10-01

368

Maximum likelihood drift estimation for multiscale diffusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of parameter estimation using maximum likelihood for fast\\/slow systems of stochastic differential equations. Our aim is to shed light on the problem of model\\/data mismatch at small scales. We consider two classes of fast\\/slow problems for which a closed coarse-grained equation for the slow variables can be rigorously derived, which we refer to as averaging and

A. Papavasiliou; G. A. Pavliotis; A. M. Stuart

2009-01-01

369

Maximum Likelihood Drift Estimation for Multiscale Diffusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of parameter estimation using maximum likelihood for fast\\/slow systems of stochastic differential equations. Our aim is to shed light on the problem of model\\/data mismatch at small scales. We consider two classes of fast\\/slow problems for which a closed coarse-grained equation for the slow variables can be rigorously derived, which we refer to as averaging and

A. Papavasiliou; G. A. Pavliotis; A. M. Stuart

2008-01-01

370

Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.

Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.

371

Critical thermal maximum of seven estuarine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical thermal maximum (CTM) and loss of righting response (LRR) were determined in seven estuarine fishes. The critical thermal maxima (CTM) ranged from 39.5°C to 44.5°C for fishes acclimated to 28°C. Lates calcarifer and Liza dussumeri had the highest CTM (44.5°C) and Siganus javus had the lowest CTM (39.5°C). The rate of change of CTM due to thermal acclimation was

S. Rajaguru

2002-01-01

372

Maximum entropy production - Full steam ahead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of a principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP, or less ambiguously MaxEP) to planetary climate is discussed. This idea suggests that if sufficiently free of dynamical constraints, the atmospheric and oceanic heat flows across a planet may conspire to maximize the generation of mechanical work, or entropy. Thermodynamic and information-theoretic aspects of this idea are discussed. These issues are also discussed in the context of dust devils, convective vortices found in strongly-heated desert areas.

Lorenz, Ralph D.

2012-05-01

373

The maximum bias of robust covariances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the maximum asymptotic bias of two classes of robust estimates of the dispersion matrix V of a p-dimensional random vector x, under a contamination model of the form , where P is the distribution of x,P0 is a spherical distribution, and ?(x0) is a point mass at x0. Estimators VQ,? of the first class minimize the

Yohai J. Victor; Maronna A. Ricardo

1990-01-01

374

Maximum Mass of a Neutron Star  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of Einstein's theory of relativity, the principle of causality, and Le Chatelier's principle, it is here established that the maximum mass of the equilibrium configuration of a neutron star cannot be larger than 3.2M[m?]. The extremal principle given here applies as well when the equation of state of matter is unknown in a limited range of densities.

Clifford E. Rhoades; Remo Ruffini

1974-01-01

375

Maximum Correntropy Criterion for Robust Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a sparse correntropy framework for computing robust sparse representations of face images for recognition. Compared with the state-of-the-art l 1 norm-based sparse representation classifier (SRC), which assumes that noise also has a sparse representation, our sparse algorithm is developed based on the maximum correntropy criterion, which is much more insensitive to outliers. In order to

Ran He; Wei-Shi Zheng; Bao-Gang Hu

2011-01-01

376

Identifying Semantic Roles Using Maximum Entropy Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, a supervised learning method of semantic role labeling is presented. It is based on maximum entropy conditional probability models. This method acquires the linguistic knowledge from an annotated corpus and this knowledge is represented in the form of\\u000a features. Several types of features have been analyzed for a few words selected from sections of the Wall Street

Paloma Moreda; Manuel Fernández; Manuel Palomar; Armando Suárez

2004-01-01

377

40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection...Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density...

2013-07-01

378

"SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

Schmitt, Raymond

2014-05-01

379

50 CFR 86.44 - What are my allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Funding Availability § 86.44 What are my allowable costs? (a) The State may spend grant funds...

2013-10-01

380

40 CFR 35.936-20 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...announcement, selection, negotiation, and cost review and analysis in connection with procurement of architectural or engineering services are allowable, even when...the grant. Legal and engineering costs which a grantee is required to...

2013-07-01

381

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Allowable costs include: (a) Costs of salaries, benefits, and...35.940-2(g); (b) Costs under construction contracts...f) Project feasibility and engineering reports; (g) Costs required under the...

2013-07-01

382

50 CFR 84.47 - What are allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that we can allow preliminary costs, but only with the approval of...Regional Director. Preliminary costs may include costs necessary for preparing the grant...such as feasibility surveys, engineering design, biological...

2013-10-01

383

75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sequence 4] Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide...agencies subject to the FTR to enhance travel cost savings and reduce greenhouse gas...guidance will improve management of agency travel programs, save money on travel...

2010-10-14

384

Allowable Exposure Limits for Carbon Dioxide during Extravehicular Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intent was to review the research pertaining to human exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to recommend allowable exposure limits for extravehicular activity (EVA). Respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems may be adversely affected by chronic ...

A. J. Seter

1993-01-01

385

76 FR 14282 - U.S. Paralympics Monthly Assistance Allowance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...participation in paralympic sports causes veterans or other paralympic athletes to become poor citizens, and the commenter does not supply...allowance, Over payment, Oversight, Physically challenged athletes, Service- connected disabilities, Sport event, Travel...

2011-03-16

386

9 CFR 50.22 - Claims not allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.22 Claims not allowed. The Department will not...

2009-01-01

387

32 CFR 534.3 - Allowable expenses for witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...service and for the necessary travel incident thereto, including return travel, to the allowances prescribed...investigate and report upon the facts connected with the death of...limitations prescribed in the Travel Expense Act of 1949 (63...

2013-07-01

388

Why Households Apply for Housing Allowances. Housing Assistance Supply Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report analyzes survey data from a Housing Assistance Supply Experiment to determine the influence of household characteristics and program features on the decision to enroll in a housing allowance program. The voluntary program provided eligible hou...

J. C. Wendt

1982-01-01

389

New Biomarker May Allow Earlier Diagnosis of Mesothelioma  

MedlinePLUS

Special Report New Biomarker May Allow Earlier Diagnosis of Mesothelioma CT scan of the chest showing a malignant mesothelioma (Image by ... suggest that this protein may be a promising new biomarker for diagnosing the disease and possibly informing ...

390

9 CFR 53.10 - Claims not allowed.  

...eradication of such disease. (e) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the destruction of fish due to infectious salmon anemia (ISA) unless the claimants have agreed in writing to participate fully in the cooperative ISA control program...

2014-01-01

391

30 CFR 1206.159 - Determination of processing allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(B) of this section. Allowable capital costs are generally those costs for depreciable fixed assets (including costs of delivery and installation of capital equipment) which are an integral part of the processing...

2013-07-01

392

30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(B) of this section. Allowable capital costs are generally those for depreciable fixed assets (including costs of delivery and installation of capital equipment) which are an integral part of the wash...

2013-07-01

393

30 CFR 1206.461 - Determination of transportation allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(B) of this section. Allowable capital costs are generally those for depreciable fixed assets (including costs of delivery and installation of capital equipment) which are an integral part of the...

2013-07-01

394

30 CFR 1206.262 - Determination of transportation allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(B) of this section. Allowable capital costs are generally those for depreciable fixed assets (including costs of delivery and installation of capital equipment) which are an integral part of the...

2013-07-01

395

30 CFR 1206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(B) of this section. Allowable capital costs are generally those for depreciable fixed assets (including costs of delivery and installation of capital equipment) which are an integral part of the wash...

2013-07-01

396

30 CFR 1206.57 - Determination of transportation allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(B) of this section. Allowable capital costs are generally those for depreciable fixed assets (including costs of delivery and installation of capital equipment) which are an integral part of the...

2013-07-01

397

9 CFR 50.22 - Claims not allowed.  

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.22 Claims not allowed. The Department will...

2014-01-01

398

9 CFR 50.22 - Claims not allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.22 Claims not allowed. The Department will...

2011-01-01

399

9 CFR 50.22 - Claims not allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.22 Claims not allowed. The Department will...

2010-01-01

400

9 CFR 50.22 - Claims not allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.22 Claims not allowed. The Department will...

2012-01-01

401

Test methods and design allowables for fibrous composites. Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics discussed include extreme\\/hostile environment testing, establishing design allowables, and property\\/behavior specific testing. Papers are presented on environmental effects on the high strain rate properties of graphite\\/epoxy composite, the low-temperature performance of short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, the abrasive wear behavior of unidirectional and woven graphite fiber\\/PEEK, test methods for determining design allowables for fiber reinforced composites, and statistical methods for calculating

Chamis

1989-01-01

402

Parameterization of solar flare dose  

SciTech Connect

A critical aspect of missions to the moon or Mars will be the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare event can be very dangerous if astronauts are not adequately shielded because flares can deliver a very high dose in a short period of time. The goal of this research was to parameterize solar flare dose as a function of time to see if it was possible to predict solar flare occurrence, thus providing a warning time. This would allow astronauts to take corrective action and avoid receiving a dose greater than the recommended limit set by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP).

Lamarche, A.H. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Poston, J.W. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

403

Analysis of multiple-dose bioequivalence studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In multiple-dose bioequivalence studies, it is possible at steady state to take repeated measurements of pharmacokinetic variables, such as area under the curve (AUC) and the maximum concentration (CMAX) of the blood concentration-time profile, within each period of a crossover design. We develop a bivariate random effects model for such a situation in a 2 × 2 crossover design using

Vernon M. Chinchilli; James D Esinhart; William H. Barr

1994-01-01

404

An algorithm for kilovoltage x-ray dose calculations with applications in kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs.  

PubMed

A new model-based dose calculation algorithm is presented for kilovoltage x-rays and is tested for the cases of calculating the radiation dose from kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT) and 2D planar projected radiographs. This algorithm calculates the radiation dose to water-like media as the sum of primary and scattered dose components. The scatter dose is calculated by convolution of a newly introduced, empirically parameterized scatter dose kernel with the primary photon fluence. Several approximations are introduced to increase the scatter dose calculation efficiency: (1) the photon energy spectrum is approximated as monoenergetic; (2) density inhomogeneities are accounted for by implementing a global distance scaling factor in the scatter kernel; (3) kernel tilting is ignored. These approximations allow for efficient calculation of the scatter dose convolution with the fast Fourier transform. Monte Carlo simulations were used to obtain the model parameters. The accuracy of using this model-based algorithm was validated by comparing with the Monte Carlo method for calculating dose distributions for real patients resulting from radiotherapy image guidance procedures including volumetric kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs. For all patients studied, mean dose-to-water errors for kV-CBCT are within 0.3% with a maximum standard deviation error of 4.1%. Using a medium-dependent correction method to account for the effects of photoabsorption in bone on the dose distribution, mean dose-to-medium errors for kV-CBCT are within 3.6% for bone and 2.4% for soft tissues. This algorithm offers acceptable accuracy and has the potential to extend the applicability of model-based dose calculation algorithms from megavoltage to kilovoltage photon beams. PMID:24694756

Pawlowski, Jason M; Ding, George X

2014-04-21

405

Estimating maximum performance: effects of intraindividual variation.  

PubMed

Researchers often estimate the performance capabilities of animals using a small number of trials per individual. This procedure inevitably underestimates maximum performance, but few studies have examined the magnitude of this effect. In this study we explored the effects of intraindividual variation and individual sample size on the estimation of locomotor performance parameters. We measured sprint speed of the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis at two temperatures (20 degrees C and 35 degrees C), obtaining 20 measurements per individual. Speed did not vary temporally, indicating no training or fatigue effects. About 50% of the overall variation in speed at each temperature was due to intraindividual variation. While speed was repeatable, repeatability decreased slightly with increasing separation between trials. Speeds at 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C were positively correlated, indicating repeatability across temperatures as well. We performed statistical sampling experiments in which we randomly drew a subset of each individual's full set of 20 trials. As expected, the sample's maximum speed increased with the number of trials per individual; for example, five trials yielded an estimate averaging 89% of the true maximum. The number of trials also influenced the sample correlation between mean speeds at 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C; for example, five trials yielded a correlation coefficient averaging 90% of the true correlation. Therefore, intraindividual variation caused underestimation of maximal speed and the correlation between speeds across temperatures. These biases declined as the number of trials per individual increased, and depended on the magnitude of intraindividual variation, as illustrated by running sampling experiments that used modified data sets. PMID:18375858

Adolph, Stephen C; Pickering, Trevor

2008-04-01

406

34 CFR 609.41 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 609.41 What are allowable costs and what...

2013-07-01

407

Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

2014-04-01

408

The 2009 Perseid Maximum - Photographic Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An astronomical camp was organized by Comet and Meteors Workshop during the 2009 Perseids maximum. 69 meteors were photographed during four consecutive nights. We found that photographic Perseid radiant was very compact and located at alpha=48.7 deg, delta=58.6 deg. Our main goal was the determination of the radiant from single station photographic observations, however we also calculated two double station trajectories using additional data which were send to us by casual photographic observer from other parts of Poland. Dozens of radio reflections were observed with simple radio receiver, some of them were identified with photographic images.

Zolcadek, P.; Wisniewski, M.; Polakowski, K.; Wala, E.; Walczak, K.; Poleski, R.

2010-01-01

409

Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

410

Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

1991-01-01

411

The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun'rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.

Smith, E. J.; Marsden, R. G.; Balogh, A.; Gloeckler, G.; Geiss, J.; McComas, D. J.; McKibben, R. B.; MacDowall, R. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Krupp, N.; Krueger, H.; Landgraf, M.

2003-01-01

412

Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking.  

PubMed

We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter. PMID:24827278

Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M

2014-04-01

413

Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56-87.5 Gy; 1.5-2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade {>=}2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4-37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512-67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm{sup 3} of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966-24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267-17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future prospective trials with high-dose radiation therapy for unresectable lung cancer.

Amini, Arya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Yang Jinzhong; Williamson, Ryan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McBurney, Michelle L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Erasmus, Jeremy [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Karhade, Mandar; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-03-01

414

MILDOS - A Computer Program for Calculating Environmental Radiation Doses from Uranium Recovery Operations  

SciTech Connect

The MILDOS Computer Code estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This code is multi-purposed and can be used to evaluate population doses for NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. Emissions of radioactive materials from fixed point source locations and from area sources are modeled using a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model, which utilizes user-provided wind frequency data. Mechanisms such as deposition of particulates, resuspension. radioactive decay and ingrowth of daughter radionuclides are included in the transport model. Annual average air concentrations are computed, from which subsequent impacts to humans through various pathways are computed. Ground surface concentrations are estimated from deposition buildup and ingrowth of radioactive daughters. The surface concentrations are modified by radioactive decay, weathering and other environmental processes. The MILDOS Computer Code allows the user to vary the emission sources as a step function of time by adjustinq the emission rates. which includes shutting them off completely. Thus the results of a computer run can be made to reflect changing processes throughout the facility's operational lifetime. The pathways considered for individual dose commitments and for population impacts are: • Inhalation • External exposure from ground concentrations • External exposure from cloud immersion • Ingestioo of vegetables • Ingestion of meat • Ingestion of milk • Dose commitments are calculated using dose conversion factors, which are ultimately based on recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These factors are fixed internally in the code, and are not part of the input option. Dose commitments which are available from the code are as follows: • Individual dose commitments for use in predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations (Radon and short-lived daughters are excluded) • Total individual dose commitments (impacts from all available radionuclides are considered) • Annual population dose commitments (regional, extraregional, total and cummulative). This model is primarily designed for uranium mill facilities, and should not be used for operations with different radionuclides or processes.

Strange, D. L.; Bander, T. J.

1981-04-01

415

An Improved Maximum Neural Network with Stochastic Dynamics Characteristic for Maximum Clique Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through analyzing the dynamics characteristic of maximum neural network with an added vertex, we find that the solution quality is mainly determined by the added vertex weights. In order to increase maximum neural network ability, a stochastic nonlinear self-feedback and flexible annealing strategy are embedded in maximum neural network, which makes the network more powerful to escape local minima and be independent of the initial values. Simultaneously, we present that solving ability of maximum neural network is dependence on problem. We introduce a new parameter into our network to improve the solving ability. The simulation in k random graph and some DIMACS clique instances in the second DIMACS challenge shows that our improved network is superior to other algorithms in light of the solution quality and CPU time.

Yang, Gang; Tang, Zheng; Dai, Hongwei

416

An EM Algorithm for Fitting a 4-Parameter Logistic Model to Binary Dose-Response Data  

PubMed Central

This article is motivated by the need of biological and environmental scientists to fit a popular nonlinear model to binary dose-response data. The 4-parameter logistic model, also known as the Hill model, generalizes the usual logistic regression model to allow the lower and upper response asymptotes to be greater than zero and less than one, respectively. This article develops an EM algorithm, which is naturally suited for maximum likelihood estimation under the Hill model after conceptualizing the problem as a mixture of subpopulations in which some subjects respond regardless of dose, some fail to respond regardless of dose, and some respond with a probability that depends on dose. The EM algorithm leads to a pair of functionally independent 2-parameter optimizations and is easy to program. Not only can this approach be computationally appealing compared to simultaneous optimization with respect to all four parameters, but it also facilitates estimating covariances, incorporating predictors, and imposing constraints. This article is motivated by, and the EM algorithm is illustrated with, data from a toxicology study of the dose effects of selenium on the death rates of flies. Other biological and environmental applications, as well as medical and agricultural applications, are also described briefly. Computer code for implementing the EM algorithm is available as supplemental material online.

Dinse, Gregg E.

2010-01-01

417

Benchmark Dose Modeling  

EPA Science Inventory

Finite doses are employed in experimental toxicology studies. Under the traditional methodology, the point of departure (POD) value for low dose extrapolation is identified as one of these doses. Dose spacing necessarily precludes a more accurate description of the POD value. ...

418

Test methods and design allowables for fibrous composites. Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed include extreme/hostile environment testing, establishing design allowables, and property/behavior specific testing. Papers are presented on environmental effects on the high strain rate properties of graphite/epoxy composite, the low-temperature performance of short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, the abrasive wear behavior of unidirectional and woven graphite fiber/PEEK, test methods for determining design allowables for fiber reinforced composites, and statistical methods for calculating material allowables for MIL-HDBK-17. Attention is also given to a test method to measure the response of composite materials under reversed cyclic loads, a through-the-thickness strength specimen for composites, the use of torsion tubes to measure in-plane shear properties of filament-wound composites, the influlence of test fixture design on the Iosipescu shear test for fiber composite materials, and a method for monitoring in-plane shear modulus in fatigue testing of composites.

Chamis, Christos C. (editor)

1989-01-01

419

Probably maximum flood of the Sava River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Power Plant Krško (NEK) situated on the left bank of the Save River close to the border of Croatia. Probably Maximum Flood, on the location of the NEK could result in combination of probably maximum precipitation, sequential storm before PMP or snowmelt on the Sava River watershed. Mediterranean climate characterises very high precipitation and temporary high snow pack. The HBV-96 model as Integrated Hydrological Modelling System (IHMS) used for modelling. Model was calibrated and verification for daily time step at first for time period 1190-2006. Calibration and verification for hourly time step was done for period 1998-1999. The stream routing parameters were calibrated for flood event in years 1998 and 2007 and than verification for flood event in 1990. Discharge routing data analysis shown that possible inundation of Ljubljana and Savinja valley was not properly estimated. The flood areas are protected with levees and water does not spread over flooded areas in events used for calibration. Inundated areas in Ljubljana valley and Savinja valley are protected by levees and model could not simulate properly inundation of PMF. We recalibrate parameters controlled inundation on those areas for the worst scenario. Calculated PMF values drop down tramendosly after recalibration.

Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej; Raj, Mojca Å.

2010-05-01

420

Maximum Correntropy Criterion for Robust Face Recognition.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a sparse correntropy framework for computing robust sparse representations of face images for recognition. Compared with the state-of-the-art $l^1$-norm based sparse representation classifier (SRC), which assumes that noise also has a sparse representation, our sparse algorithm is developed based on the maximum correntropy criterion, which is much more insensitive to outliers. In order to develop a more tractable and practical approach, we in particular impose non-negativity constraint on the variables in the maximum correntropy criterion, and develop a half-quadratic optimization technique to approximately maximize the objective function in an alternating way, so that the complex optimization problem is reduced to learning a sparse representation through a weighted linear least squares problem with non-negativity constraint at each iteration. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is more robust and efficient in dealing with the occlusion and corruption problems in face recognition, as compared to the related state-of-the-art methods. In particular, it shows that the proposed method can improve both recognition accuracy and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, while the computational cost is much lower than the SRC algorithms. PMID:21135440

He, Ran; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Hu, Bao-Gang

2010-11-30

421

Georgia fishery study: implications for dose calculations. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Fish consumption will contribute a major portion of the estimated individual and population doses from L-Reactor liquid releases and Cs-137 remobilization in Steel Creek. It is therefore important that the values for fish consumption used in dose calculations be as realistic as possible. Since publication of the L-Reactor Environmental Information Document (EID), data have become available on sport fishing in the Savannah River. These data provide SRP with a site-specific sport fish harvest and consumption values for use in dose calculations. The Georgia fishery data support the total population fish consumption and calculated dose reported in the EID. The data indicate, however, that both the EID average and maximum individual fish consumption have been underestimated, although each to a different degree. The average fish consumption value used in the EID is approximately 3% below the lower limit of the fish consumption range calculated using the Georgia data. Maximum fish consumption in the EID has been underestimated by approximately 60%, and doses to the maximum individual should also be recalculated. Future dose calculations should utilize an average adult fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr, and a maximum adult fish consumption value of 34 kg/yr. Consumption values for the teen and child age groups should be increased proportionally: (1) teen average = 8.5; maximum = 25.9 kg/yr; and (2) child average = 3.6; maximum = 11.2 kg/yr. 8 refs.

Turcotte, M.D.S.

1983-08-05

422

Effect of sulfonylurea dose escalation on hemoglobin A1c in Veterans Affairs patients with type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfonylureas are often titrated to maximum doses despite evidence that their efficacy plateaus above half-maximum doses.\\u000a The aim of this study was to determine the impact of doubling the dose of glyburide and glipizide to high doses on hemoglobin\\u000a A1c (HbA1c) in Veterans Affairs patients with type 2 diabetes. A retrospective review of 131 patient cases with prescriptions\\u000a for high-dose

Kathryn M. HurrenEmily; Emily P. Bartley; Jessica L. O’Neill; David L. Ronis

423

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 Section 183.35 Navigation...SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Loading...35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity...

2010-07-01

424

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2010-07-01

425

20 CFR 429.203 - When is a claim allowable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...action or inaction of you, your agent, the members of your family...the custody of a carrier, an agent or agency of the Government. (3) Mobile homes. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of, mobile homes and their contents...

2013-04-01

426

Gaining Empowerment Allows Results [G.E.A.R.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gaining Empowerment Allows Results (G.E.A.R.) is a parent-run organization for families facing challenges due to children with emotional and behavioral health concerns. These parents are able to network with other families and learn about resources for their family. A wide range of services include telephone support, monthly family support groups,…

Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2011

2011-01-01

427

50 CFR 665.605 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PACIFIC Western Pacific Coral Reef Ecosystem Fisheries § 665.605 Allowable gear...gear restrictions. (a) Coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following...vehicles/submersibles. (b) Coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of...

2009-10-01

428

30 CFR 206.157 - Determination of transportation allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pipelines; (5) Gas Research Institute (GRI) fees. The GRI conducts research, development, and commercialization...programs on natural gas related topics for the benefit of the U.S. gas industry and gas customers. GRI fees are allowable provided such fees...

2010-07-01

429

30 CFR 206.157 - Determination of transportation allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pipelines; (5) Gas Research Institute (GRI) fees. The GRI conducts research, development, and commercialization...programs on natural gas related topics for the benefit of the U.S. gas industry and gas customers. GRI fees are allowable provided such fees...

2009-07-01

430

Disability and Supported Employment: Impact on Employment, Income, and Allowances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we examine supported employment and its impact on the level of employment, disposable income, and sum of allowances, targeting a group of individuals with disabilities. We have particularly focused on individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Supported employment is a vocational rehabilitation service with an empowerment approach…

Germundsson, Per; Gustafsson, Johanna; Lind, Martin; Danermark, Berth

2012-01-01

431

EPA allocates emission allowances for phase II plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) last month issued a final rule allocating acid rain emission allowances for use after 2000 by most United States power plants. The rule sets the stage for significant pollution reduction through the emission trading system established by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The rule complements EPA's comprehensive, final acid rain rule for SO[sub

Burkhart

1993-01-01

432

Education Maintenance Allowances: The Impact on Further Education. FEDA Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September 1999, a pilot program of Education Maintenance Allowances (EMAs) was introduced in 15 local education authorities (LEAs) in England to provide payments to students aged 16-19 who are from low-income families and who are attending full-time courses in schools and colleges. Participants are entitled to 2 years' support and must be…

Fletcher, Mick

433

The Impact of Education Maintenance Allowances. LSDA Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) program was developed and offered in 3-year pilot projects that were designed to test whether extra funds would encourage more of England's young people from low-income families to participate in full-time education and training, stay on course for the duration of the program, and achieve their…

Fletcher, Mick; Clay, Sara

434

48 CFR 752.7028 - Differential and allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to regular employees of the Contractor, it shall be payable...same period of time. The Contractor will be reimbursed for payments...quarters allowance for rent and utilities if such facilities...the Mission Director. The Contractor will be reimbursed for...

2013-10-01

435

Improved memory word line configuration allows high storage density  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plated wire memory word drive line allows high storage density, good plated wire transmission and a simplified memory plane configuration. A half-turn word drive line with a magnetic keeper is used. The ground plane provides the return path for both the word current and the plated wire transmission line.

1966-01-01

436

U.S. Allows Atlantic Scallop Dredging, Limits Groundfishery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the National Marine Fisheries Service ignored advice from fishery scientists and environmental organizations by granting final approval to a measure that allows scallop dredging in ecologically sensitive areas off New England and the Mid-Atlantic. This news brief, from Environment News Service, describes the recent turn of events, including the anticipated impacts on already threatened groundfish stocks.

2001-01-01

437

Item Response Theory Models Applied to Data Allowing Examinee Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of conditions is presented for the validity of inference for Item Response Theory (IRT) models applied to data collected from examinations that allow students to choose a subset of items. Common low-dimensional IRT models estimated by standard methods do not resolve the difficult problems posed by choice-based data. (SLD)

Bradlow, Eric T.; Thomas, Neal

1998-01-01

438

New Approach Allows Integration Of Biosensors Into Electronics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article on the website of The Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) discusses a new approach which allows integration of biosensors into electronics. The article illustrates that direct attachment of carbon nanotubes makes silicon substrates conduct even in the presence of a normally insulating oxide layer.

Quinton, Jamie; Shapter, Joe

2010-06-03

439

9 CFR 50.14 - Claims not allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.14 Claims...compensation for livestock destroyed because of tuberculosis will not be allowed in any of the following...claimant's herd have not been tested for tuberculosis under APHIS or State...

2010-01-01

440

9 CFR 50.14 - Claims not allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.14 Claims...compensation for livestock destroyed because of tuberculosis will not be allowed in any of the following...claimant's herd have not been tested for tuberculosis under APHIS or State...

2011-01-01

441

9 CFR 50.14 - Claims not allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.14 Claims...compensation for livestock destroyed because of tuberculosis will not be allowed in any of the following...claimant's herd have not been tested for tuberculosis under APHIS or State...

2012-01-01

442

9 CFR 50.14 - Claims not allowed.  

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.14 Claims...compensation for livestock destroyed because of tuberculosis will not be allowed in any of the following...claimant's herd have not been tested for tuberculosis under APHIS or State...

2014-01-01

443

Vitamin C Allowance for Seamen Consuming Qualitatively Differing Diets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of the allowance of vitamin C to seamen in the Arctic shows that, already, after a month after cessation of giving vitamin C supplements, the ascorbic acid level in the blood and its excretion in the urine was significantly reduced in the seamen...

G. I. Bondarev K. K. Golikov K. A. Laricheva

1975-01-01

444

West African palaeosynoptic patterns at the last glacial maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composite method and an atmospheric moisture budget is applied to study the present synoptic summer situation in the West African Sahel. This allows the information of the synoptic scale flow systems at the last glacial maximum to be obtained. Relying on the results of general circulation models and of local geological findings the palaeosynoptic situation was found to consist of the same constituents as today's given pattern. In both time slices the strength of the midtropospheric African Easterly Jet determines the intensity and frequency of the Sahelian synoptic disturbances: the Easterly Waves and the Squall Lines. The glacial rainfall intensity of the Squall Lines, the most effective rain-bearing system of the Sahel, is calculated to be 2/3 of the modern one. Additionally, only half the number of Squall Lines propagated across the West African continent per summer month. Thus the glacial rainfall amount of the Sahel was roughly 30% of the value observed today.

Peters, M.; Tetzlaff, G.

1990-03-01

445

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes.  

PubMed

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the coevolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady-state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand "dune-building" species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the timescale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches. Higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species, which shifts foredune formation landward and thus leads to larger foredunes. In this scenario, plants play a much more active role in modifying their habitat and altering coastal vulnerability than previously thought. PMID:24101481

Durán, Orencio; Moore, Laura J

2013-10-22

446

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the co-evolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand `dune-building' species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the time scale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches: higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species which shifts foredune formation landwards and thus leads to larger foredunes.

Duran Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2014-05-01

447

Midnight density maximum in the thermosphere from the CHAMP observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

midnight temperature maximum (MTM) is generally believed to occur over the equatorial region, while a few recent studies suggested the extension of the MTM to middle and high latitudes. In this paper, we investigate the latitudinal variations of nighttime thermospheric density on the basis of the accelerometer measurement onboard the CHAMP satellite during 2002-2009. The sampling of the CHAMP satellite allows for observation of a statistical average of the midnight density maximum (MDM). From these observations, it was found that the MDM of the thermosphere, a manifestation of the MTM, occurs in all seasons at both low and high solar activities, but its features vary significantly with season and solar activity. The peak of the MDM over the equatorial region occurs at ~01:00 LT under the low solar activity condition, whereas it happens about 1-2 h earlier at high solar activity. We observe extension of the MDM from the equatorial region to southern midlatitudes, especially under the low solar activity condition.

Ruan, Haibing; Lei, Jiuhou; Dou, Xiankang; Wan, Weixing; Liu, Yong C.-M.

2014-05-01

448

The 1988 Solar Maximum Mission event list  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1988 pointed observations is presented. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) gamma ray spectrometer; (2) hard x ray burst spectrometer; (3) flat crystal spectrometers; (4) bent crystal spectrometer; (5) ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter; and (6) coronagraph/polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts, or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observation. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

1992-01-01

449

The Maximum Age of Trapezium Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We sought to determine the maximum age of Trapezium systems by studying possible trapezium systems that were selected independently of their occurrence in H II regions. We started with the unpublished catalog by Allen, Tapia, & Parrao of all the known visual systems having three or more stars in which the maximum separation is less than 3.0 times the minimum separation. Their catalog has 968 such systems whose most frequent primary type is F, which does not describe young systems. With a CCD on the Kitt Peak 0.9 m telescope we obtained UBV frames for 265 systems accessible with our equipment on Kitt Peak. The frames were used to obtain UBV photometry for about 1500 stars with an accuracy of +/-0.04 mag between V=7 and 14 mag. Also these frames were used to obtain astrometry with an accuracy of +/-0.015d in position angle and +/-0.01" in separation. For the brightest star in each system we obtained a spectral type to determine the distance and reddening to the system. The measures were used to determine physical membership from stars that (1) fit a single color-magnitude diagram, (2) fit a common color-color diagram, and (3) show no astrometric motion compared to visual measures made (mostly) a century ago. Combining the results with spectroscopic data for 20 additional Allen et al. systems by Abt, we found that 126 systems had only optical companions to the primaries, 116 systems contained only a single physical pair, 13 were hierarchical systems with 3-6 members and having separation ratios of more than a factor of 10, two were small clusters, and only 28 fitted the criteria of Trapezium systems. However, as shown by Ambartsumian, about 9% of the hierarchical systems should appear to be Trapezium systems in projection. Those, like other hierarchical systems, have a broad distribution of primary spectral types. We isolated 14 systems that seem to be true Trapezium systems. They have primary types of B3 or earlier, indicating a maximum age of about 5×107 yr. This upper limit is consistent with the estimate made by Allen & Poveda for an age of several million years for these dynamically unstable systems. These Trapezia are also large with a median radius of 0.2 pc and a maximum radius of 2.6 pc. We asked why the sample of 285 possible Trapezium systems yielded only 14 true ones, despite the attempt made by Allen et al. to eliminate optical companions with a ``1% filter,'' i.e., demanding that each companion have less than a 1% chance of being a field star of that magnitude within a circle of its radius from the primary. The explanation seems to be that the double star catalogs are based mostly on BD magnitudes that, fainter than V=12 mag, are systematically too faint by 1 mag.

Abt, Helmut A.; Corbally, Christopher J.

2000-10-01

450

The 1980 solar maximum mission event listing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is contained on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1980 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer, (4) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (6) Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter, and (7) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from Sun center are also included.

Speich, D. M.; Nelson, J. J.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

1991-01-01

451

Genetic algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear image restoration techniques induce erroneous detail around sharp intensity changes. Thus, considerable work has centered on nonlinear methods, which incorporate constraints to reduce the artifacts generated in the restoration. In our paper, we examine the applicability of genetic algorithms to solving optimization problems posed by nonlinear image recovery techniques, particularly by maximum entropy restoration. Each point in the solution space is a feasible image, with the pixels as decision variables. Search is multiobjective: the entropy of the estimate must be maximized, subject to constraints dependent on the observed data and image degradation model. We use Pareto techniques to achieve this combined requirement, and problem-oriented knowledge to direct the search. Typical issues for genetic algorithms are addressed: chromosomal representation, genetic operators, selection scheme, and initialization.

Toma, Cristian E.; Datcu, Mihai P.

1994-06-01

452

The 1989 Solar Maximum Mission event list  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1989 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (4) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter, and (6) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Satellite (GOES) X-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

1992-01-01

453

Maximum power flux of auroral kilometric radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distant observations of intense auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) are discussed in light of the increased maximum AKR power flux registered by the 3D radio-mapping instrument on ISEE 3. Only AKR events that contain the highest frequency signals are selected, and during spacecraft rotation the spacecraft antenna gain is employed to increase the dynamic range of the instrument. The technique is found to result in the screening of false signals created by instrument overloading as well as the detection of genuine second-harmonic AKR signals while the spacecraft was 17 R(E) from earth. A very strong power flux of fundamental AKR is also reported, exceeding 3 x 10 to the -13th W/sq m/Hz at 360 kHz. The most intense source-region values detected by Isis I and Viking measurements are compared to the strong signal, and the signal is concluded to be the combined signal of a number of sources.

Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph

1991-08-01

454

Maximum neighborhood margin discriminant projection for classification.  

PubMed

We develop a novel maximum neighborhood margin discriminant projection (MNMDP) technique for dimensionality reduction of high-dimensional data. It utilizes both the local information and class information to model the intraclass and interclass neighborhood scatters. By maximizing the margin between intraclass and interclass neighborhoods of all points, MNMDP cannot only detect the true intrinsic manifold structure of the data but also strengthen the pattern discrimination among different classes. To verify the classification performance of the proposed MNMDP, it is applied to the PolyU HRF and FKP databases, the AR face database, and the UCI Musk database, in comparison with the competing methods such as PCA and LDA. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our MNMDP in pattern classification. PMID:24701144

Gou, Jianping; Zhan, Yongzhao; Wan, Min; Shen, Xiangjun; Chen, Jinfu; Du, Lan

2014-01-01

455

Approximate maximum likelihood decoding of block codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximate maximum likelihood decoding algorithms, based upon selecting a small set of candidate code words with the aid of the estimated probability of error of each received symbol, can give performance close to optimum with a reasonable amount of computation. By combining the best features of various algorithms and taking care to perform each step as efficiently as possible, a decoding scheme was developed which can decode codes which have better performance than those presently in use and yet not require an unreasonable amount of computation. The discussion of the details and tradeoffs of presently known efficient optimum and near optimum decoding algorithms leads, naturally, to the one which embodies the best features of all of them.

Greenberger, H. J.

1979-01-01

456

Maximum Neighborhood Margin Discriminant Projection for Classification  

PubMed Central

We develop a novel maximum neighborhood margin discriminant projection (MNMDP) technique for dimensionality reduction of high-dimensional data. It utilizes both the local information and class information to model the intraclass and interclass neighborhood scatters. By maximizing the margin between intraclass and interclass neighborhoods of all points, MNMDP cannot only detect the true intrinsic manifold structure of the data but also strengthen the pattern discrimination among different classes. To verify the classification performance of the proposed MNMDP, it is applied to the PolyU HRF and FKP databases, the AR face database, and the UCI Musk database, in comparison with the competing methods such as PCA and LDA. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our MNMDP in pattern classification.

Zhan, Yongzhao; Shen, Xiangjun; Du, Lan

2014-01-01

457

Environmental gamma dose rates and influencing factors in buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental gamma radiation measured in buildings in Dhaka shows a cosinusoidal variation of indoor dose rate with time mainly due to seasonally varied ventilation and air exchange rates of the houses. In connection, the nature and characteristics of the buildings were also discussed. As expected, a maximum dose rate was found in winter and a minimum in summer. The variations

M. Idrish Miah

2004-01-01

458

Maximum magnitude in the Lower Rhine Graben  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating Mmax, the assumed magnitude of the largest future earthquakes expected on a fault or in an area, involves large uncertainties. No theoretical basis exists to infer Mmax because even where we know the long-term rate of motion across a plate boundary fault, or the deformation rate across an intraplate zone, neither predict how strain will be released. As a result, quite different estimates can be made based on the assumptions used. All one can say with certainty is that Mmax is at least as large as the largest earthquake in the available record. However, because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, larger earthquakes than anticipated often occur. Estimating Mmax is especially challenging within plates, where deformation rates are poorly constrained, large earthquakes are rarer and variable in space and time, and often occur on previously unrecognized faults. We explore this issue for the Lower Rhine Graben seismic zone where the largest known earthquake, the 1756 Düren earthquake, has magnitude 5.7 and should occur on average about every 400 years. However, paleoseismic studies suggest that earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. What to assume for Mmax is crucial for critical facilities like nuclear power plants that should be designed to withstand the maximum shaking in 10,000 years. Using the observed earthquake frequency-magnitude data, we generate synthetic earthquake histories, and sample them over shorter intervals corresponding to the real catalog's completeness. The maximum magnitudes appearing most often in the simulations tend to be those of earthquakes with mean recurrence time equal to the catalog length. Because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, we expect larger earthquakes than observed to date to occur. In a next step, we will compute hazard maps for different return periods based on the synthetic catalogs, in order to determine the influence of underestimating Mmax.

Vanneste, Kris; Merino, Miguel; Stein, Seth; Vleminckx, Bart; Brooks, Eddie; Camelbeeck, Thierry

2014-05-01

459

Low-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Oral Bioavailability of Dichloroacetate in Naive and GST-zeta Depleted Rats  

SciTech Connect

Pharmacokinetics of dichloroacetate (DCA) in naive and glutathione-S-transferase-zeta (GSTzeta) depleted rats was studied at doses approaching human daily exposure levels. In vitro metabolism of DCA by rat and human liver cytosol was also compared. Jugular vein cannulated male Fischer-344 rats were administered (i.v or gavage) with graded doses of DCA ranging from 0.05-20 mg/kg and time-course blood samples collected from the cannula. GSTzeta was depleted by exposing rats to DCA (0.2 g/L DCA) in drinking water for 7 days. Elimination of DCA by naive rats was so rapid that only the 1-20 mg/kg i.v. and 5 and 20 mg/kg gavage doses provided plasma concentrations above the method detection limit. GSTzeta depletion slowed DCA elimination from plasma allowing kinetic analysis of doses as low as 0.05 mg/kg. DCA elimination was strongly dose-dependent in the naive rats with total body clearance declining with increasing dose. In the GSTzeta depleted rats, the pharmacokinetics became line ar at doses No.1 mg/kg. All oral doses were rapidly absorbed without any lag time. At higher oral doses (?5 mg/kg in GSTzeta depleted and?20 mg/kg in naive), secondary peaks in the plasma concentration appeared long after the completion of the initial absorption phase. Virtually all the dose was eliminated through metabolic clearance; the rate of urinary elimination of DCA was < 1 ml h-1kg-1. A maximum of 1.0?0.3% dose was recovered in urine within 24 h in the GSTzeta depleted rats dosed i.v. with 20 mg/kg. The rate of in vitro metabolism of DCA by human cytosol was statistically similar to the GSTzeta depleted rats (p > 0.3), which supported the use of GSTzeta depleted rats as a model for assessing kinetics of DCA in humans. Oral bioavailability of DCA was 0-13% in naive and 14-75% in GSTzeta depleted rats. Oral bioavailability of DCA to humans through consumption of drinking water was predicted to be a maximum of 0.05%.

Saghir, Shakil A. (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Schultz, Irv R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-01-01

460

Graphically-enabled integration of bioinformatics tools allowing parallel execution.  

PubMed Central

Rapid analysis of large amounts of genomic data is of great biological as well as medical interest. This type of analysis will greatly benefit from the ability to rapidly assemble a set of related analysis programs and to exploit the power of parallel computing. TurboGenomics, which is a software package currently in its alpha-testing phase, allows integration of heterogeneous software components to be done graphically. In addition, the tool is capable of making the integrated components run in parallel. To demonstrate these abilities, we use the tool to develop a Web-based application that allows integrated access to a set of large-scale sequence data analysis programs used by a transposon-insertion based yeast genome project. We also contrast the differences in building such an application with and without using the TurboGenomics software.

Cheung, K. H.; Miller, P.; Sherman, A.; Weston, S.; Stratmann, E.; Schultz, M.; Snyder, M.; Kumar, A.

2000-01-01

461

New studies of allowed pion and muon decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building on the rare pion and muon decay results of the PIBETA experiment, the PEN collaboration has undertaken a precise measurement of B?e2?Re/??, the ?+ --> e+?(?) decay branching ratio, at the Paul Scherrer Institute, to reduce the present 40× experimental precision lag behind theory to ~6 - 7×. Because of large helicity suppression, Re/?? is uniquely sensitive to contributions from non-(V - A) physics, making this decay a particularly suitable subject of study. Even at current precision, the experimental value of B?e2 provides the most accurate test of lepton universality available. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has accumulated over 2 × 107 ?e2 events; a comprehensive maximum-likelihood analysis is currently under way. The new data will also lead to improved precision of the earlier PIBETA results on radiative ? and ? decays.

Po?ani?, D.; Palladino, A.; Alonzi, L. P.; Baranov, V. A.; Bertl, W.; Bychkov, M.; Bystritsky, Yu. M.; Frlež, E.; Kalinnikov, V. A.; Khomutov, N. V.; Korenchenko, A. S.; Korenchenko, S. M.; Korolija, M.; Kozlowski, T.; Kravchuk, N. P.; Kuchinsky, N. A.; Lehman, M. C.; Mekterovi?, D.; Munyangabe, E.; Mzhavia, D.; Robmann, P.; Rozhdestvensky, A. M.; Shkarovskiy, S. N.; Straumann, U.; Supek, I.; Truöl, P.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; van der Schaaf, A.; Velicheva, E. P.; Volnykh, V. P.

2013-10-01

462

Permittivity of complex oxide crystals with allowance for spatial dispersion  

SciTech Connect

The temporal and spatial dispersions of the permittivity of complex oxide crystals, which have numerous branches of dipole active oscillations, is considered. Formulas for calculating the susceptibility spectra of complex oxides in the terahertz region with allowance for both types of dispersion are obtained in the resonance approximation of photon-phonon interaction using quantum Green's functions. The calculation results are used to discuss the well-known experimental data.

Mastropas, Z. P., E-mail: mastrozin@mail.ru; Myasnikov, E. N. [Southern Federal University, Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Southern Federal University, Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation)

2013-02-15

463

A Model for CSCL Allowing Tailorability: Implementation in the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We describe in this paper a model for Computer Supported Collaborative Learning and the corresponding architecture. This model\\u000a has been designed to take into account the variety of educational activities and cultures. It offers primitives to endusers,\\u000a mainly the teachers, allowing them to describe a collaborative activity and to regulate it (i.e. modify it dynamycally). It\\u000a has been implemented within

Christian Martel; Christine Ferraris; Bernard Caron; Thibault Carron; Ghislaine Chabert; Christophe Courtin; Laurence Gagnière; Jean-charles Marty; Laurence Vignollet

2004-01-01

464

Testing for density dependence allowing for weather effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test for density dependence in time-series data allowing for weather effects is presented. The test is based on a discrete\\u000a time autoregressive model for changes in population density with a covariate for the effects of weather. The distribution\\u000a of the test statistic on the null hypothesis of density independence is obtained by parametric bootstrapping. A computer simulation\\u000a exercise is

Peter Rothery; Ian Newton; Lois Dale; Tomasz Wesolowski

1997-01-01

465

Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.  

SciTech Connect

This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

2011-05-01

466

Web browser applet allows visualization of three-dimensional models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, machine-independent Java Applet, a program that runs in a browser, downloads both byte code and three-dimensional models from a remote Web site and displays them on a local computer. The code is a few hundred kilobytes in size and allows the viewer to control a two-dimensional view of a three-dimensional array, which can be represented by files as small as one byte per node. This code allows both the angle of view and the color map to be controlled by the user.Representation of three-dimensional models by two-dimensional images is aided by the use of four-dimensional color maps. A three-dimensional color map shows each model value as a specific color, usually as a redgreen- blue (RGB) triplet. A four-dimensional color map associates each value with a four-component set-RGBA—where the A represents alpha, the transparency. This additional component allows vision through parts of the model—the reference or "uninteresting" parts—to the anomalous or "interesting" parts. But this is not a complete solution, since it does not provide depth perception.

Dorman, LeRoy M.; Gehringer, Douglas D.

467

Acetaminophen accumulation in pediatric patients after repeated therapeutic doses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Acetaminophen serum concentrations were studied in 21 infants and children with fever. The maximum serum concentrations ranged from 9.96 to 19.6 µg\\/ml after a single dose of 12–14 mg\\/kg and 13.9 to 40.1 µg\\/ml after a single dose of 22–27 mg\\/kg. Ten patients were restudied at steadystate after repeat doses had been given every 4 or 8 h for 1

M. C. Nahata; D. A. Powell; D. E. Durrell; M. A. Miller

1984-01-01

468

X-ray CT dose in normoxic polyacrylamide gel dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the effects of x-ray CT dose in CT imaged normoxic polyacrylamide (nPAG) gel dosimeters. The investigation is partitioned into three sections. First, the CT dose absorbed in nPAG is quantified under a range of typical gel CT imaging protocols. It is found that the maximum absorbed CT dose occurs for volumetric imaging and is in the

P. Baxter; A. Jirasek; M. Hilts

2007-01-01

469

Maximum Likelihood Identification Using Kalman Filtering - Least Squares Estimations: A Comparison for the Estimation of Stability Derivatives Considering Gust Disturbances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Starting from the force and moment equations of the longitudinal motion on an aircraft, a state space model is derived which allows consideration of measurement bias, gust disturbances and nonlinear effect. The maximum likelihood identification procedure ...

G. Schulz

1975-01-01

470

Effects of yarn crimping on braided composite design allowables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Braided composite materials are currently being evaluated for wing skin stiffeners on commercial aircraft. These carbon-fiber/epoxy materials allow for low-cost manufacturing while maintaining high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. The proposed braid architecture consists of axial carbon fiber yarns and braider carbon fiber yarns making 60 deg to 70 deg angles with respect to the axial yarns. These 2-D triaxial braids are produced as long, continuous tubes, which are flattened, cut, and stacked to produce the desired part thickness and shape. When infiltrated with epoxy resin and cured under a compaction pressure, the fiber yarns become crimped, allowing for higher fiber packing. Although high fiber packing is desirable, yarn crimping (especially in the axial fiberyarns) is undesirable. Significant axial yarn crimp angles (greater than 10 deg) have been measured in braided composites. Comparable levels of crimping have been found to produce significant compressive strength reductions in laminated composites consisting of planar fiber sheets. Thus, axial yarn crimping is suspected of producing significant reductions in compressive strength allowables for braided composites. The objective of this research is to quantify the reduction in compressive strength as a function of axial yarn crimp severity. Since crimp severity can be reduced by lowering the compaction pressure during curing, the resulting compressive strengths may be used to determine optimum processing conditions. A 'cure-on-the-loom' manufacturing process was developed to produce braided composites with controlled levels of crimping. This method allowed for controlled levels of tension to be placed on the axial yarns and maintained during the curing process. With increasing tension, the crimp severity in the axial yarns was reduced. Thus, varying crimp severities were produced ranging from conventional levels (greater than 10 deg) to virtually straight axial yarns. Test results indicate that a 30% increase in compressive strength is obtainable by eliminating axial yarn crimping. Further compression testing is underway to quantify the relationship between crimp severity and compressive strength. Additional testing is planned to investigate the effect of crimping on the open-hole compressive strength, often considered a more significant design allowable.

Adams, Dan

1995-01-01

471

Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping  

DOEpatents

Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

Hogden, John E. (Santa Fe, NM)

2000-01-01

472

Effects of Differential Rotation on the Maximum Mass of Neutron Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merger of binary neutron stars is likely to lead to differentially\\u000arotating remnants. In this paper we numerically construct models of\\u000adifferentially rotating neutron stars in general relativity and determine their\\u000amaximum allowed mass. We model the stars adopting a polytropic equation of\\u000astate and tabulate maximum allowed masses as a function of differential\\u000arotation and stiffness of the

Nicholas D. Lyford; Thomas W. Baumgarte; Stuart L. Shapiro

2002-01-01

473

Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution.

Schlaefer, Alexander [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany); Viulet, Tiberiu [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)] [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)

2013-12-15

474

Maximum windmill efficiency in finite time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fraction of the kinetic energy of the wind impinging on the rotor-swept area that a wind turbine can convert to useful power has been shown by Betz in an idealized laminar-flow model to have an upper limit of 16/27 or 59% approximately [I. H. Shames, Mechanics of Fluids, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982), pp. A26-A31]. This figure is known as Betz number. Other studies [A. Rauh and W. Seelret, Appl. Energy 17, 15 (1984)] suggested that this figure should be considered as a guideline. In this paper, a new model is introduced and its efficiency at maximum power output is derived. The derived value is shown to be a function of the Betz number B and given by the formula ?mp=1-1-B. This value is 36.2%, which agrees well with those of actually operating wind turbines. As a guideline, the wind turbine efficiency can be considered to be within the range of the two numbers of merit, the Betz number and ?mp.

Huleihil, Mahmoud

2009-05-01

475

Mammography segmentation with maximum likelihood active contours.  

PubMed

We present a computer-aided approach to segmenting suspicious lesions in digital mammograms, based on a novel maximum likelihood active contour model using level sets (MLACMLS). The algorithm estimates the segmentation contour that best separates the lesion from the background using the Gamma distribution to model the intensity of both regions (foreground and background). The Gamma distribution parameters are estimated by the algorithm. We evaluate the performance of MLACMLS on real mammographic images. Our results are compared to those of two leading related methods: The adaptive level set-based segmentation method (ALSSM) and the spiculation segmentation using level sets (SSLS) approach, and show higher segmentation accuracy (MLACMLS: 86.85% vs. ALSSM: 74.32% and SSLS: 57.11%). Moreover, our results are qualitatively compared with those of the Active Contour Without Edge (ACWOE) and show a better performance. Further, the suitability of using ML as the objective function as opposed to the KL divergence and to the energy functional of the ACWOE is also demonstrated. Our algorithm is also shown to be robust to the selection of a required single seed point. PMID:22831774

Rahmati, Peyman; Adler, Andy; Hamarneh, Ghassan

2012-08-01

476

Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio perceived by the observer. Images of the TORMAM mammographic image quality phantom were recorded using the standard magnification settings of 1.8 magnification/fine focus and also at 1.8 magnification/broad focus and 3.0 magnification/fine focus; the latter two arrangements would normally give rise to unacceptable geometric blurring. Measured point-spread functions were used in conjunction with the MEM image processing to de-blur these images. The results are presented as comparative images of phantom test features and as observer scores for the raw and processed images. Visualization of high resolution features and the total image scores for the test phantom were improved by the application of the MEM processing. It is argued that this successful demonstration of image de-blurring in noisy radiological images offers the possibility of weakening the link between focal spot size and geometric blurring in radiology, thus opening up new approaches to system optimization.

Jannetta, A.; Jackson, J. C.; Kotre, C. J.; Birch, I. P.; Robson, K. J.; Padgett, R.

2004-11-01

477

PAML 4: phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood.  

PubMed

PAML, currently in version 4, is a package of programs for phylogenetic analyses of DNA and protein sequences using maximum likelihood (ML). The programs may be used to compare and test phylogenetic trees, but their main strengths lie in the rich repertoire of evolutionary models implemented, which can be used to estimate parameters in models of sequence evolution and to test interesting biological hypotheses. Uses of the programs include estimation of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates (d(N) and d(S)) between two protein-coding DNA sequences, inference of positive Darwinian selection through phylogenetic comparison of protein-coding genes, reconstruction of ancestral genes and proteins for molecular restoration studies of extinct life forms, combined analysis of heterogeneous data sets from multiple gene loci, and estimation of species divergence times incorporating uncertainties in fossil calibrations. This note discusses some of the major applications of the package, which includes example data sets to demonstrate their use. The package is written in ANSI C, and runs under Windows, Mac OSX, and UNIX systems. It is available at -- (http://abacus.gene.ucl.ac.uk/software/paml.html). PMID:17483113

Yang, Ziheng

2007-08-01

478

Maximum Margin Clustering of Hyperspectral Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, large margin methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are supposed to be the state-of-the-art of supervised learning methods for classification of hyperspectral data. However, the results of these algorithms mainly depend on the quality and quantity of available training data. To tackle down the problems associated with the training data, the researcher put effort into extending the capability of large margin algorithms for unsupervised learning. One of the recent proposed algorithms is Maximum Margin Clustering (MMC). The MMC is an unsupervised SVMs algorithm that simultaneously estimates both the labels and the hyperplane parameters. Nevertheless, the optimization of the MMC algorithm is a non-convex problem. Most of the existing MMC methods rely on the reformulating and the relaxing of the non-convex optimization problem as semi-definite programs (SDP), which are computationally very expensive and only can handle small data sets. Moreover, most of these algorithms are two-class classification, which cannot be used for classification of remotely sensed data. In this paper, a new MMC algorithm is used that solve the original non-convex problem using Alternative Optimization method. This algorithm is also extended for multi-class classification and its performance is evaluated. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the algorithm has acceptable results for hyperspectral data clustering.

Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.

2013-09-01

479

Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution.  

PubMed

An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio perceived by the observer. Images of the TORMAM mammographic image quality phantom were recorded using the standard magnification settings of 1.8 magnification/fine focus and also at 1.8 magnification/broad focus and 3.0 magnification/fine focus; the latter two arrangements would normally give rise to unacceptable geometric blurring. Measured point-spread functions were used in conjunction with the MEM image processing to de-blur these images. The results are presented as comparative images of phantom test features and as observer scores for the raw and processed images. Visualization of high resolution features and the total image scores for the test phantom were improved by the application of the MEM processing. It is argued that this successful demonstration of image de-blurring in noisy radiological images offers the possibility of weakening the link between focal spot size and geometric blurring in radiology, thus opening up new approaches to system optimization. PMID:15584533

Jannetta, A; Jackson, J C; Kotre, C J; Birch, I P; Robson, K J; Padgett, R

2004-11-01

480

Finding maximum JPEG image block code size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of JPEG baseline coding. It aims to determine the minimum storage needed to buffer the JPEG Huffman code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Since DC is coded separately, and the encoder represents each AC coefficient by a pair of run-length/AC coefficient level, the net problem is to perform an efficient search for the optimal run-level pair sequence. We formulate it as a two-dimensional, nonlinear, integer programming problem and solve it using a branch-and-bound based search method. We derive two types of constraints to prune the search space. The first one is given as an upper-bound for the sum of squares of AC coefficients of a block, and it is used to discard sequences that cannot represent valid DCT blocks. The second type constraints are based on some interesting properties of the Huffman code table, and these are used to prune sequences that cannot be part of optimal solutions. Our main result is that if the default JPEG compression setting is used, space of minimum of 346 bits and maximum of 433 bits is sufficient to buffer the AC code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Our implementation also pruned the search space extremely well; the first constraint reduced the initial search space of 4 nodes down to less than 2 nodes, and the second set of constraints reduced it further by 97.8%.

Lakhani, Gopal

2012-07-01