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1

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2011-10-01

2

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2010-10-01

3

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2012-10-01

4

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2014-10-01

5

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2013-10-01

6

46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section 151...Definitions § 151.03-37 Maximum allowable working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section...

2011-10-01

7

46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section 151...Definitions § 151.03-37 Maximum allowable working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section...

2010-10-01

8

[Local anesthetics--maximum recommended doses].  

PubMed

"Maximum doses" determined up to now do not take account of such important pharmacokinetic and toxicological data as: 1) the dependence of blood levels measured on the technique of regional anaesthesia, 2) and the raised toxicity of a local anaesthetic solution containing adrenaline following inadvertent intravascular (intravenous) injection. A maximum dose recommendation differs according to the technique of local anaesthesia for A: subcutaneous injection, B: injection in regions of high absorption, C: single injection (perineural, e.g. plexus), D: protracted injection (catheter, combined techniques), E: injection into vasoactive regions (near to the spinal cord, spinal, epidural, sympathetic). This sequential categorization also underscores the need to select appropriate techniques as well as concomitant monitoring according to the technique of administration and to the expected and possible plasma level curve. The "maximum recommended doses" (in mg) of mepivacaine for use with the above five different techniques of regional anaesthesia are (doses together with the vasoconstrictor adrenaline are in brackets): A: 400 (500), B: 200, C: 400 (500), D: 500, E: 1-25 ml; those for lidocaine: A: 400 (500), B: 200, C: 400 (500), D: 500, E: 1-25 ml, for prilocaine: A: 600, B: 300, C: 600, D: 700, E: 1-25 ml, for bupivacaine: A: 150, B: 75, C: 150, D: 200, E: 1-25 ml, for etidocaine: A: 300, B: 150, C: 300, D: 300, E: up to 25 ml (no spinal anaesthesia). These "recommended maximum doses" are low for zones of raised absorption and higher for techniques of protracted injection. For prilocaine, bupivacaine and etidocaine, the "maximum recommended doses" are the same regardless of whether or not the solutions contain adrenaline. The preparation containing adrenaline is limited by the total adrenaline content (0.25 mg). The dose spectrum must be specified for all injections carried out close to the spinal cord because of the specific risk: even very tiny volumes can have an intensive effect and they involve high risks. The values specified for techniques C and D also restrict the overall dose for the techniques specified under E when high doses are necessary. The amount of the repetition dose of bupivacaine can be reliably given as 30 mg/h. Recommended maximum doses given here relate to normal conditions (70 kg body weight). They must be varied individually depending on the body weight and condition of the patient. Recommended maximum doses are of orientative significance, they do not constitute a maximum dose. There is no quantitative limit for ropivaccine because the recommended techniques do not allow higher volumes of this long acting local anaesthetic. PMID:9324365

Niesel, H C

1997-01-01

9

14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Maximum allowable weights. 375.23 Section 375...23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft...on maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft type,...

2010-01-01

10

30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. 36.44 Section 36.44... § 36.44 Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. (a) When an engine is delivered...shall be accepted. The maximum fuel : air ratio determined from the...

2010-07-01

11

30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. 36.44 Section 36.44... § 36.44 Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. (a) When an engine is delivered...shall be accepted. The maximum fuel : air ratio determined from the...

2011-07-01

12

42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable and nominal charges. 447.54 Section 447.54 Public...Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal charges. Except as provided at §§...

2010-10-01

13

43 CFR 418.38 - Maximum allowable diversion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Implementation § 418.38 Maximum allowable diversion. (a) The MAD established in this part is based on...

2012-10-01

14

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to this request, the NRC first developed criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants, published in its 1992 report Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. Since then, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations has been reviewing NASA's documentation of chemical-specific SMAC's as described in the Introduction to this volume. This report is the third volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994 and the second in 1996.

1996-01-01

15

Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMAC's for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee.

1994-01-01

16

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants, and to review SMACs for various space-craft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee On Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMACs for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMACs for approximately 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the SMAC reports for 12 chemical contaminants that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee. This report is the second volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994.

1996-01-01

17

Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle  

SciTech Connect

For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the so called maximum allowable (or critical) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. This is the condition at which vapor blanketing is expected to be initiated. Phenomenological considerations demonstrate why the maximum allowable heat flux would be expected to be less than for single tubes. Hydrodynamic theory is applied to extend the results of Lienhard and Dhir to large submerged bundles and the consequent correlation is compared to the correlation of Palen and Small and the limited data available for saturated conditions. To date the main conclusion is that estimates of q{double_prime}{sub chf} are highly uncertain for this configuration.

McEligot, D.M. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1996-12-31

18

Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle  

SciTech Connect

For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes}) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration.

McEligot, D.M.

1995-08-14

19

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report, prepared by the Committee on Toxicology of the National Research Council's Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, is in response to a request from NASA for guidelines to develop spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for space-station contaminants. SMACs are used to provide guidance on allowable chemical exposures during normal operations and emergency situations. Short-term SMACs refer to concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not compromise the performance of specific tasks during emergency conditions lasting up to 24 hours. Long-term SMACs are intended to avoid adverse health effects (either immediate or delayed) and to avoid degradation in crew performance with continuous exposure in a closed space-station environment for as long as 180 days.

1996-01-01

20

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52.01-55... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an...

2014-10-01

21

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2010-10-01

22

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2011-10-01

23

5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate...DIFFERENTIALS Uniform Allowances § 591.104 Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate...established under § 591.103. (b) A higher initial maximum uniform...

2010-01-01

24

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52...01-55 Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been...

2010-10-01

25

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54...Stamping § 54.10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a) The maximum allowable working pressure for a vessel is the...

2011-10-01

26

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54...Stamping § 54.10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a) The maximum allowable working pressure for a vessel is the...

2010-10-01

27

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52...01-55 Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been...

2011-10-01

28

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.112 Section 192.112 Transportation...alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. For a new or existing pipeline segment...alternative maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) calculated under §...

2011-10-01

29

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52.01-55... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an...

2013-10-01

30

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.112 Section 192.112 Transportation...alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. For a new or existing pipeline segment...alternative maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) calculated under §...

2012-10-01

31

46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55 Section 52.01-55... Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an...

2012-10-01

32

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.112 Section 192.112 Transportation...alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. For a new or existing pipeline segment...alternative maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) calculated under §...

2014-10-01

33

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2014-10-01

34

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2012-10-01

35

49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230.25 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum...

2013-10-01

36

42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Provisions Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge... (3)(i) For Federal FY 2009, any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service...the maximum deductible, coinsurance or co-payment charge for each admission...

2011-10-01

37

10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other professional, consulting or similar fees and service charges. (3) Printing...allowable costs include the following: (1) Fees and commissions charged to the applicant, including finder's fees, for obtaining Federal funds....

2010-01-01

38

77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...transmission pipelines that if the pipeline pressure exceeds maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus the build-up allowed...

2012-12-21

39

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54.10-5...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and...10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a)...

2014-10-01

40

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2012-10-01

41

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2011-10-01

42

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2014-10-01

43

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2012-10-01

44

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2010-10-01

45

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2013-10-01

46

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2010-10-01

47

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2014-10-01

48

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54.10-5...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and...10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a)...

2012-10-01

49

49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192...623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems....

2011-10-01

50

46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). 54.10-5...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and...10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98). (a)...

2013-10-01

51

49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

2013-10-01

52

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.611 Section 192.611 Transportation...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding...established maximum allowable operating pressure of a segment of pipeline is not...

2013-10-01

53

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.611 Section 192.611 Transportation...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding...established maximum allowable operating pressure of a segment of pipeline is not...

2010-10-01

54

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.611 Section 192.611 Transportation...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding...established maximum allowable operating pressure of a segment of pipeline is not...

2014-10-01

55

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.611 Section 192.611 Transportation...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding...established maximum allowable operating pressure of a segment of pipeline is not...

2011-10-01

56

49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.611 Section 192.611 Transportation...revision of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding...established maximum allowable operating pressure of a segment of pipeline is not...

2012-10-01

57

Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves  

SciTech Connect

In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between the yield of dicentric chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The dicentric yields follow the Poisson distribution, and the expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose for low LET radiation. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been obtained by Kellerer and Rossi using the theory of dual radiation action. The yield of elementary lesions is kappa(..gamma..d + g(t, tau)d/sup 2/), where t is the time and d is dose. The coefficient of the d/sup 2/ term is determined by the recovery function and the temporal mode of irradiation. Two special cases of practical interest are split-dose and continuous exposure experiments, and the resulting models are intrinsically nonlinear in the parameters. A general purpose maximum likelihood estimation procedure is described and illustrated with numerical examples from both experimental designs. Poisson regression analysis is used for estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression diagnostics. Results are discussed in the context of exposure assessment procedures for both acute and chronic human radiation exposure.

Frome, E.L; DuFrain, R.J.

1983-10-01

58

Guidelines for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for Space Station contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing to launch a manned space station by the year 1996. Because of concerns about the health, safety, and functioning abilities of the crews, NASA has requested that the National Research Council (NRC) through the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST) provide advice on toxicological matters for the space-station program. The Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants was established by the Committee on Toxicology (COT) to address NASA's concerns. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) are defined as the maximum concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not cause adverse health effects, significant discomfort, or degradation in crew performance.

1992-01-01

59

Pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled particles and the maximum tolerated dose.  

PubMed Central

Chronic inhalation bioassays in rodents are used to assess pulmonary carcinogenicity for purposes of hazard identification and potentially for risk characterization. The influence of high experimental doses on tumor development has been recognized for some time and has led to the concept of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for dose selection, with the highest dose being at the MTD. Exposure at the MTD should ensure that the animals are sufficiently challenged while at the same time the animal's normal longevity is not altered from effects other than carcinogenicity. A characteristic of exposure-dose-response relationships for chronically inhaled particles is that lung tumors are significantly increased only at high exposure levels, and that lung tumors are seen in rats only but not in mice or hamsters. This lung tumor response in rats is thought to be secondary to persistent alveolar inflammation, indicating that the MTD may have been exceeded. Thus, mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity may be dose dependent and may not operate at lower doses that humans normally experience. Despite awareness of this problem, carcinogenicity bioassays that evaluate particulate compounds in rodents have not always been designed with the MTD concept in mind. This is due to several problems associated with determining an appropriate MTD for particle inhalation studies. One requirement for the MTD is that some toxicity should be observed. However, it is difficult to define what degree of toxic response is indicative of the MTD. For particle inhalation studies, various noncancer end points in addition to mortality and body weight gain have been considered as indicators of the MTD, i.e., pulmonary inflammation, increased epithelial cell proliferation, increased lung weight, impairment of particle clearance function, and significant histopathological findings at the end of a subchronic study. However, there is no general agreement about quantification of these end points to define the MTD. To determine whether pulmonary responses are indicative of the MTD, we suggest defining an MTD based on results of a multidose subchronic and chronic inhalation study with a known human particulate carcinogen, e.g., asbestos or crystalline silica. Quantification of effects in such a study using the noncancer end points listed above would identify a dose level without significant signs of toxicity at the end of the subchronic study. If this dose level still results in significant lung tumor incidence at the end of the chronic study. We will have a sound basis for characterizing the MTD and justifying its use in future particle inhalation studies. Also, a better understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of particle-induced lung tumors is needed to support the MTD concept. PMID:9400749

Oberdörster, G

1997-01-01

60

Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses  

SciTech Connect

Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

Marter, W.L.

1990-11-01

61

41 CFR 302-6.101 - May my agency reduce my TQSE allowance below the “maximum allowable amount”?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...allowance below the âmaximum allowable amountâ? 302-6.101 Section 302-6.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 6-ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE...

2011-07-01

62

41 CFR 302-6.101 - May my agency reduce my TQSE allowance below the “maximum allowable amount”?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...allowance below the âmaximum allowable amountâ? 302-6.101 Section 302-6.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 6-ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE...

2010-07-01

63

Heterogeneity-corrected vs -uncorrected critical structure maximum point doses in breast balloon brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) ? 0.930 (R{sup 2} = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) ? 0.955 (R{sup 2} = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor.

Kim, Leonard, E-mail: kimlh@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2013-07-01

64

Toxicological approach to setting spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for carbon monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are exposure limits for airborne chemicals used by NASA in spacecraft. The aim of these SMACs is to protect the spacecrew against adverse health effects and performance decrements that would interfere with mission objectives. Because of the 1 and 24 hr SMACs are set for contingencies, minor reversible toxic effects that do not affect mission objectives are acceptable. The 7, 30, or 180 day SMACs are aimed at nominal operations, so they are established at levels that would not cause noncarcinogenic toxic effects and more than one case of tumor per 1000 exposed individuals over the background. The process used to set the SMACs for carbon monoxide (CO) is described to illustrate the approach used by NASA. After the toxicological literature on CO was reviewed, the data were summarized and separated into acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity data. CO's toxicity depends on the formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood, reducing the blood's oxygen carrying capacity. The initial task was to estimate the COHb levels that would not produce toxic effects in the brain and heart.

Wong, K. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

1992-01-01

65

49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or greater than 40 percent must be excavated...carbon dioxide to 3 percent by volume; (B...per million cubic feet of gas; and ...per hundred cubic feet (8 ppm) of gas...connection or power input problem that can be remediated...a maximum of 104 percent of the maximum...

2010-10-01

66

49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or greater than 40 percent must be excavated...carbon dioxide to 3 percent by volume; (B...per million cubic feet of gas; and ...per hundred cubic feet (8 ppm) of gas...connection or power input problem that can be remediated...a maximum of 104 percent of the maximum...

2011-10-01

67

49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or greater than 40 percent must be excavated...carbon dioxide to 3 percent by volume; (B...per million cubic feet of gas; and ...per hundred cubic feet (8 ppm) of gas...connection or power input problem that can be remediated...a maximum of 104 percent of the maximum...

2013-10-01

68

49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...or greater than 40 percent must be excavated...carbon dioxide to 3 percent by volume; (B...per million cubic feet of gas; and ...per hundred cubic feet (8 ppm) of gas...connection or power input problem that can be remediated...a maximum of 104 percent of the maximum...

2014-10-01

69

49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or greater than 40 percent must be excavated...carbon dioxide to 3 percent by volume; (B...per million cubic feet of gas; and ...per hundred cubic feet (8 ppm) of gas...connection or power input problem that can be remediated...a maximum of 104 percent of the maximum...

2012-10-01

70

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for 10 seconds. The test pressure may include a combination of internal test pressure and the allowance for end...tested at the mill at a test pressure corresponding to a hoop stress...degrees Celsius) or the higher temperature allowed in...

2013-10-01

71

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person may operate a segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds...pressure after considering the history of the segment, particularly...

2013-10-01

72

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person may operate a segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds...pressure after considering the history of the segment, particularly...

2010-10-01

73

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person may operate a segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds...pressure after considering the history of the segment, particularly...

2014-10-01

74

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person may operate a segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds...pressure after considering the history of the segment, particularly...

2011-10-01

75

49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person may operate a segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds...pressure after considering the history of the segment, particularly...

2012-10-01

76

Bayesian designs of phase II oncology trials to select maximum effective dose assuming monotonic dose-response relationship  

PubMed Central

Background For many molecularly targeted agents, the probability of response may be assumed to either increase or increase and then plateau in the tested dose range. Therefore, identifying the maximum effective dose, defined as the lowest dose that achieves a pre-specified target response and beyond which improvement in the response is unlikely, becomes increasingly important. Recently, a class of Bayesian designs for single-arm phase II clinical trials based on hypothesis tests and nonlocal alternative prior densities has been proposed and shown to outperform common Bayesian designs based on posterior credible intervals and common frequentist designs. We extend this and related approaches to the design of phase II oncology trials, with the goal of identifying the maximum effective dose among a small number of pre-specified doses. Methods We propose two new Bayesian designs with continuous monitoring of response rates across doses to identify the maximum effective dose, assuming monotonicity of the response rate across doses. The first design is based on Bayesian hypothesis tests. To determine whether each dose level achieves a pre-specified target response rate and whether the response rates between doses are equal, multiple statistical hypotheses are defined using nonlocal alternative prior densities. The second design is based on Bayesian model averaging and also uses nonlocal alternative priors. We conduct simulation studies to evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed designs, and compare them with three alternative designs. Results In terms of the likelihood of drawing a correct conclusion using similar between-design average sample sizes, the performance of our proposed design based on Bayesian hypothesis tests and nonlocal alternative priors is more robust than that of the other designs. Specifically, the proposed Bayesian hypothesis test-based design has the largest probability of being the best design among all designs under comparison and the smallest probability of being an inadequate design, under sensible definitions of the best design and an inadequate design, respectively. Conclusions The use of Bayesian hypothesis tests and nonlocal alternative priors under ordering constraints between dose groups results in a robust performance of the design, which is thus superior to other common designs. PMID:25074481

2014-01-01

77

The effect of maximum-allowable payload temperature on the mass of a multimegawatt space-based platform  

SciTech Connect

Calculations were performed to determine the mass of a space-based platform as a function of the maximum-allowed operating temperature of the electrical equipment within the platform payload. Two computer programs were used in conjunction to perform these calculations. The first program was used to determine the mass of the platform reactor, shield, and power conversion system. The second program was used to determine the mass of the main and secondary radiators of the platform. The main radiator removes the waste heat associated with the power conversion system and the secondary radiator removes the waste heat associated with the platform payload. These calculations were performed for both Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with two different types of payload cooling systems: a pumped-loop system (a heat exchanger with a liquid coolant) and a refrigerator system. The results indicate that increases in the maximum-allowed payload temperature offer significant platform mass savings for both the Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with either the pumped-loop or refrigerator payload cooling systems. Therefore, with respect to platform mass, the development of high temperature electrical equipment would be advantageous. 3 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

Dobranich, D.

1987-08-01

78

41 CFR 302-7.16 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished or...RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL...

2010-07-01

79

Fludarabine Allows Dose Reduction for Total Body Irradiation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine, in the setting of total body irradiation (TBI) for the preparation of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), whether TBI dose can be reduced without compromising the efficacy of a regimen consisting of fludarabine and radiotherapy; and whether there is any increased risk of pulmonary toxicity due to the radiosensitizing effect of fludarabine. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies received TBI-based conditioning regimens in preparation for allogeneic HSCT. Twenty-three patients received 12 Gy in 4 daily fractions in combination with cyclophosphamide, either alone or with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Twenty-nine patients received 9 Gy in 3 fractions in conjunction with fludarabine and melphalan. Clinical and radiation records were reviewed to determine engraftment, pulmonary toxicity (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria), transplant-related mortality, recurrence of primary disease, and overall survival. Results: The two groups of patients had comparable pretransplant clinical characteristics. For the 12-Gy and 9-Gy regimens, the engraftment (89% and 93%; p = 0.82), freedom from life-threatening pulmonary events (65% and 79%; p = 0.33), freedom from relapse (60% and 73%; p = 0.24), and overall survival (26% and 47%; p = 0.09) were not statistically different. Conclusions: The addition of fludarabine and melphalan seems to allow the dose of TBI to be lowered to 9 Gy without loss of engraftment or antitumor efficacy.

Kornguth, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States)]. E-mail: dkorngut@mdanderson.org; Mahajan, Anita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Woo, Shiao [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Chan, Ka Wah [Division of Pediatrics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Antolak, John [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States); Ha, Chul S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX (United States)

2007-07-15

80

41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for travel expenses paid by a non-Federal source? 304-3.11 Section 304-3.11 Public Contracts and Property Management...EXPENSES 3-EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY General § 304-3.11 Am I limited to the maximum...

2011-07-01

81

41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for travel expenses paid by a non-Federal source? 304-3.11 Section 304-3.11 Public Contracts and Property Management...EXPENSES 3-EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY General § 304-3.11 Am I limited to the maximum...

2012-07-01

82

41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual expense, or conference...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for travel expenses paid by a non-Federal source? 304-3.11 Section 304-3.11 Public Contracts and Property Management...EXPENSES 3-EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY General § 304-3.11 Am I limited to the maximum...

2013-07-01

83

Evaluation of Defined Daily Dose, percentage of British National Formulary maximum and chlorpromazine equivalents in antipsychotic drug utilization  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study was carried out to investigate and compare the three methods for calculating total antipsychotic dose among outpatients with schizophrenia attending primary psychiatric health care centers. The three methods were: Defined Daily Doses (DDDs), chlorpromazine equivalents (CPZeq) and percentages of the British National Formulary (BNF) maximum. Methodology Antipsychotic drug dosing data for 250 patients with schizophrenia were investigated by calculating Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients. Factors associated with antipsychotic dose, expressed as DDDs, CPZeq and percentages of the BNF maximum recommended daily dose, were investigated by means of linear regression analysis. Results Spearman’s correlation showed that there is a significant relationship between all pairs of the three dosing methods. In all three methods, coherence was strongest when dealing with first generation antipsychotics (FGA). Linear regression analyses showed a high degree of coherence between antipsychotic doses expressed as DDDs, CPZeq and percentages of the BNF maximum recommended daily dose. Conclusion All three tested methods are reliable and coherent for calculating antipsychotic dosing. PMID:24648824

Sweileh, Waleed M.; Odeh, Jihad Bani; Shraim, Naser Y.; Zyoud, Sa’ed H.; Sawalha, Ansam F.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.

2013-01-01

84

Does EU legislation allow the use of the Benchmark Dose (BMD) approach for risk assessment?  

PubMed

Hazard characterisation is largely based on an approach of (statistically) comparing dose groups with the controls in order to derive points of departure such as no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs). This approach suggests the absence of any relevant effect at the NOAEL. The NOAEL approach has been debated for decades. A recent Scientific Opinion by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that the Benchmark Dose (BMD) approach should be preferred over the NOAEL approach for deriving human (health-based) limit or guidance values. Nonetheless, the BMD approach is used infrequently within European regulatory frameworks. The reason for this may lie in legislation or guidelines requiring the use of the NOAEL approach. In this context, various EU regulatory frameworks were examined on such demands. Interestingly, no single legislation was identified containing statutory requirements in conflict with the use of the BMD approach. PMID:23871753

Brandon, E F A; Bulder, A S; van Engelen, J G M; Mahieu, C M; Mennes, W C; Pronk, M E J; Rietveld, A G; van de Ven, B M; Ten Voorde, S E C G; Wolterink, G; Slob, W; Zeilmaker, M J; Bessems, J G M

2013-11-01

85

Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities  

SciTech Connect

Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle ({alpha}{sub max}) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining {alpha}{sub max}, which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t{sub E}) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL{sub e}) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that {alpha}{sub max} increases for increasing TVL{sub e} (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t{sub E}, with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation.

Fondevila, Damian; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Monica; Dosoretz, Bernardo [Vidt Centro Medico, Vidt 1924, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-05-15

86

Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities.  

PubMed

Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (alpha(max)) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining alpha(max), which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t(E)) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL(e)) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that alpha(max) increases for increasing TVL(e) (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t(E), with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation. PMID:18561656

Fondevila, Damián; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Mónica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

2008-05-01

87

Performance Comparison of various Maximum Likelihood Nonlinear Mixed-effects Estimation Methods for Dose-  

E-print Network

preclinical and clinical trials. Within drug development, NLMEM were initially used for pharmacokinetic (PK with dose-response analyses. On top of the structural mathematical model fit to PK or/and PD observations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Sustained long-term hematologic efficacy of hydroxyurea at maximum tolerated dose in children with sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyurea improves hematologic pa- rameters for children with sickle cell dis- ease (SCD), but its long-term efficacy at maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been determined. Between 1995 and 2002, hydroxyurea therapy was initiated for 122 pediatric patients with SCD including 106 with homozygous sickle cell anemia (HbSS), 7 with sickle hemoglobin C (HbSC), 7 with sickle\\/-thalassemia (HbS\\/ -thalassemia (6

Sherri A. Zimmerman; William H. Schultz; Jacqueline S. Davis; Chrisley V. Pickens; Nicole A. Mortier; Thad A. Howard; Russell E. Ware

2003-01-01

89

A multi-head intradermal electroporation device allows for tailored and increased dose DNA vaccine delivery to the skin.  

PubMed

The identification of an effective and tolerable delivery method is a necessity for the success of DNA vaccines in the clinic. This article describes the development and validation of a multi-headed intradermal electroporation device which would be applicable for delivering multiple DNA vaccine plasmids simultaneously but spatially separated. Reporter gene plasmids expressing green and red fluorescent proteins were used to demonstrate the impact of spatial separation on DNA delivery to increase the number of transfected cells and avoid interference through visible expression patterns. To investigate the impact of plasmid interference on immunogenicity, a disease target was investigated where issues with multi-valent vaccines had been previously described. DNA-based Hantaan and Puumala virus vaccines were delivered separately or as a combination and the effect of multi-valence was determined by appropriate assays. While a negative impact was observed for both antigenic vaccines when delivered together, these effects were mitigated when the vaccine was delivered using the multi-head device. We also demonstrate how the multi-head device facilitates higher dose delivery to the skin resulting in improved immune responses. This new multi-head platform device is an efficient, tolerable and non-invasive method to deliver multiple plasmid DNA constructs simultaneously allowing the tailoring of delivery sites for combination vaccines. Additionally, this device would allow the delivery of multi-plasmid vaccine formulations without risk of impacted immune responses through interference. Such a low-cost, easy to use device platform for the delivery of multi-agent DNA vaccines would have direct applications by the military and healthcare sectors for mass vaccination purposes. PMID:25839221

McCoy, Jay R; Mendoza, Janess M; Spik, Kristin W; Badger, Catherine; Gomez, Alan F; Schmaljohn, Connie S; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Broderick, Kate E

2015-03-01

90

Estimation of the maximum allowable loading amount of COD in Luoyuan Bay by a 3-D COD transport and transformation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid economic and social developments in the Luoyuan and Lianjiang counties of Fujian Province, China, raise certain environment and ecosystem issues. The unusual phytoplankton bloom and eutrophication, for example, have increased in severity in Luoyuan Bay (LB). The constant increase of nutrient loads has largely caused the environmental degradation in LB. Several countermeasures have been implemented to solve these environmental problems. The most effective of these strategies is the reduction of pollutant loadings into the sea in accordance with total pollutant load control (TPLC) plans. A combined three-dimensional hydrodynamic transport-transformation model was constructed to estimate the marine environmental capacity of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The allowed maximum loadings for each discharge unit in LB were calculated with applicable simulation results. The simulation results indicated that the environmental capacity of COD is approximately 11×104 t year-1 when the water quality complies with the marine functional zoning standards for LB. A pollutant reduction scheme to diminish the present levels of mariculture- and domestic-based COD loadings is based on the estimated marine COD environmental capacity. The obtained values imply that the LB waters could comply with the targeted water quality criteria. To meet the revised marine functional zoning standards, discharge loadings from discharge units 1 and 11 should be reduced to 996 and 3236 t year-1, respectively.

Wu, Jialin; Li, Keqiang; Shi, Xiaoyong; Liang, Shengkang; Han, Xiurong; Ma, Qimin; Wang, Xiulin

2014-08-01

91

41 CFR 304-3.11 - Am I limited to the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem or actual expense) prescribed in...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for travel expenses paid by a non-Federal source? 304-3.11 Section 304-3.11 Public Contracts and Property Management...EXPENSES 3-EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY General § 304-3.11 Am I limited to the maximum...

2014-07-01

92

Silica nanoparticles administered at the maximum tolerated dose induce genotoxic effects through an inflammatory reaction while gold nanoparticles do not.  

PubMed

While the collection of genotoxicity data and insights into potential mechanisms of action for nano-sized particulate materials (NPs) are steadily increasing, there is great uncertainty whether current standard assays are suitable to appropriately characterize potential risks. We investigated the effects of NPs in an in vivo Comet/micronucleus (MN) combination assay and in an in vitro MN assay performed with human blood. We also incorporated additional endpoints into the in vivo study in an effort to delineate primary from secondary mechanisms. Amorphous silica NPs (15 and 55 nm) were chosen for their known reactivity, while gold nano/microparticles (2, 20, and 200 nm) were selected for their wide size range and lower reactivity. DNA damage in liver, lung and blood cells and micronuclei in circulating reticulocytes were measured after 3 consecutive intravenous injections to male Wistar rats at 48, 24 and 4h before sacrifice. Gold nano/microparticles were negative for MN induction in vitro and in vivo, and for the induction of DNA damage in all tissues. Silica particles, however, caused a small but reproducible increase in DNA damage and micronucleated reticulocytes when tested at their maximum tolerated dose (MTD). No genotoxic effects were observed at lower doses, and the in vitro MN assay was also negative. We hypothesize that silica NPs initiate secondary genotoxic effects through release of inflammatory cell-derived oxidants, similar to that described for crystalline silica (quartz). Such a mechanism is supported by the occurrence of increased neutrophilic infiltration, necrosis, and apoptotic cells in the liver, and induction of inflammatory markers TNF-? and IL-6 in plasma at the MTDs. These results were fairly consistent between silica NPs and the quartz control, thereby strengthening the argument that silica NPs may act in a similar, thresholded manner. The observed profile is supportive of a secondary genotoxicity mechanism that is driven by inflammation. PMID:22504169

Downs, Thomas R; Crosby, Meredith E; Hu, Ting; Kumar, Shyam; Sullivan, Ashley; Sarlo, Katherine; Reeder, Bob; Lynch, Matt; Wagner, Matthew; Mills, Tim; Pfuhler, Stefan

2012-06-14

93

Re-Assessing the Maximum Allowed Infrared (IR) Power for Enchanced Layering in a Conduction Dominated Cryogenic NIF-Scale Hohlraum  

SciTech Connect

Recent measurements of the infrared (IR) absorption coefficient of CH and CD capsules differ significantly from earlier estimated values from thin flat samples. The optimum wavelength for IR enhanced layering of DT and D{sub 2} ice layers inside of a NIF scale hohlraum depends on the relative ice and capsule absorption coefficients. This update of a previous memo shows the maximum ice heating with IR as a function of ice and capsule absorption instead of at discrete wavelengths. Also discussed is the leverage of other parameters, such as the IR absorption of the hohlraum wall and thermal conductivities of the support rods and exchange gas. The most likely capsule and ice absorption values limit the IR heating to between 2-7 Q{sub DT}. We find most leverage of the IR heating comes from increasing the ice to capsule absorption ratio. As before, this is the conduction only limit to IR, with convection potentially playing a large role.

Kozioziemski, B J

2003-08-11

94

Measurement of maximum skin dose in interventional radiology and cardiology and challenges in the set-up of European alert thresholds.  

PubMed

To help operators acknowledge patient dose during interventional procedures, EURADOS WG-12 focused on measuring patient skin dose using XR-RV3 gafchromic films, thermoluminescent detector (TLD) pellets or 2D TL foils and on investigating possible correlation to the on-line dose indicators such as fluoroscopy time, Kerma-area product (KAP) and cumulative air Kerma at reference point (CK). The study aims at defining non-centre-specific European alert thresholds for skin dose in three interventional procedures: chemoembolization of the liver (CE), neuroembolization (NE) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Skin dose values of >3 Gy (ICRP threshold for skin injuries) were indeed measured in these procedures confirming the need for dose indicators that correlate with maximum skin dose (MSD). However, although MSD showed fairly good correlation with KAP and CK, several limitations were identified challenging the set-up of non-centre-specific European alert thresholds. This paper presents preliminary results of this wide European measurement campaign and focuses on the main challenges in the definition of European alert thresholds. PMID:25316909

Farah, J; Trianni, A; Carinou, E; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Clairand, I; Dabin, J; De Angelis, C; Domienik, J; Jarvinen, H; Kopec, R; Majer, M; Malchair, F; Negri, A; Novák, L; Siiskonen, T; Vanhavere, F; Kneževi?, Ž

2015-04-01

95

Methodology used to compute maximum potential doses from ingestion of edible plants and wildlife found on the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the assumptions, dose factors, consumption rates, and methodology used to evaluate potential radiation doses to persons who may eat contaminated wildlife or contaminated plants collected from the Hanford Site. This report includes a description of the number and variety of wildlife and edible plants on the Hanford Site, methods for estimation of the quantities of these items consumed and conversion of intake of radionuclides to radiation doses, and example calculations of radiation doses from consumption of plants and wildlife. Edible plants on the publicly accessible margins of the shoreline of the Hanford Site and Wildlife that move offsite are potential sources of contaminated food for the general public. Calculations of potential radiation doses from consumption of agricultural plants and farm animal products are made routinely and reported annually for those produced offsite, using information about concentrations of radionuclides, consumption rates, and factors for converting radionuclide intake into dose. Dose calculations for onsite plants and wildlife are made intermittently when appropriate samples become available for analysis or when special studies are conducted. Consumption rates are inferred from the normal intake rates of similar food types raised offsite and from the edible weight of the onsite product that is actually available for harvest. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

1990-10-01

96

On dose distribution comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In radiotherapy practice, one often needs to compare two dose distributions. Especially with the wide clinical implementation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, software tools for quantitative dose (or fluence) distribution comparison are required for patient-specific quality assurance. Dose distribution comparison is not a trivial task since it has to be performed in both dose and spatial domains in order to be clinically relevant. Each of the existing comparison methods has its own strengths and weaknesses and there is room for improvement. In this work, we developed a general framework for comparing dose distributions. Using a new concept called maximum allowed dose difference (MADD), the comparison in both dose and spatial domains can be performed entirely in the dose domain. Formulae for calculating MADD values for various comparison methods, such as composite analysis and gamma index, have been derived. For convenience in clinical practice, a new measure called normalized dose difference (NDD) has also been proposed, which is the dose difference at a point scaled by the ratio of MADD to the predetermined dose acceptance tolerance. Unlike the simple dose difference test, NDD works in both low and high dose gradient regions because it considers both dose and spatial acceptance tolerances through MADD. The new method has been applied to a test case and a clinical example. It was found that the new method combines the merits of the existing methods (accurate, simple, clinically intuitive and insensitive to dose grid size) and can easily be implemented into any dose/intensity comparison tool.

Jiang, Steve B.; Sharp, Greg C.; Neicu, Toni; Berbeco, Ross I.; Flampouri, Stella; Bortfeld, Thomas

2006-02-01

97

Pharmacokinetic and Maximum Tolerated Dose Study of Micafungin in Combination with Fluconazole versus Fluconazole Alone for Prophylaxis of Fungal Infections in Adult Patients Undergoing a Bone Marrow or Peripheral Stem Cell Transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dose escalation study, 74 adult cancer patients undergoing bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation received fluconazole (400 mg\\/day) and either normal saline (control) (12 subjects) or mica- fungin (12.5 to 200 mg\\/day) (62 subjects) for up to 4 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of micafungin was not reached, based on the development of Southwest Oncology

J. Hiemenz; P. Cagnoni; D. Simpson; S. Devine; N. Chao; J. Keirns; W. Lau; D. Facklam; D. Buell

2005-01-01

98

Approach to calculating upper bounds on maximum individual doses from the use of contaminated well water following a WIPP repository breach. Report EEG-9  

SciTech Connect

As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report.

Spiegler, P.

1981-09-01

99

Pharmacokinetic and Maximum Tolerated Dose Study of Micafungin in Combination with Fluconazole versus Fluconazole Alone for Prophylaxis of Fungal Infections in Adult Patients Undergoing a Bone Marrow or Peripheral Stem Cell Transplant  

PubMed Central

In this dose escalation study, 74 adult cancer patients undergoing bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation received fluconazole (400 mg/day) and either normal saline (control) (12 subjects) or micafungin (12.5 to 200 mg/day) (62 subjects) for up to 4 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of micafungin was not reached, based on the development of Southwest Oncology Group criteria for grade 3 toxicity; drug-related toxicities were rare. Commonly occurring adverse events considered related to micafungin were headache (6.8%), arthralgia (6.8%), hypophosphatemia (4.1%), insomnia (4.1%), maculopapular rash (4.1%), and rash (4.1%). Pharmacokinetic profiles for micafungin on days 1 and 7 were similar. The mean half-life was approximately 13 h, with little variance after repeated or increasing doses. Mean maximum concentrations of the drug in serum and areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h were approximately proportional to dose. There was no clinical or kinetic evidence of interaction between micafungin and fluconazole. Five of 12 patients (42%) in the control group and 14 of 62 (23%) in the micafungin-plus-fluconazole groups had a suspected fungal infection during treatment which resulted in empirical treatment with amphotericin B. The combination of micafungin and fluconazole was found to be safe in this high-risk patient population. The MTD of micafungin was not reached even at doses up to 200 mg/day for 4 weeks. The pharmacokinetic profile of micafungin in adult cancer patients with blood or marrow transplants is consistent with the profile in healthy volunteers, and the area under the curve is proportional to dose. PMID:15793107

Hiemenz, J.; Cagnoni, P.; Simpson, D.; Devine, S.; Chao, N.; Keirns, J.; Lau, W.; Facklam, D.; Buell, D.

2005-01-01

100

Pharmacokinetic and maximum tolerated dose study of micafungin in combination with fluconazole versus fluconazole alone for prophylaxis of fungal infections in adult patients undergoing a bone marrow or peripheral stem cell transplant.  

PubMed

In this dose escalation study, 74 adult cancer patients undergoing bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation received fluconazole (400 mg/day) and either normal saline (control) (12 subjects) or micafungin (12.5 to 200 mg/day) (62 subjects) for up to 4 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of micafungin was not reached, based on the development of Southwest Oncology Group criteria for grade 3 toxicity; drug-related toxicities were rare. Commonly occurring adverse events considered related to micafungin were headache (6.8%), arthralgia (6.8%), hypophosphatemia (4.1%), insomnia (4.1%), maculopapular rash (4.1%), and rash (4.1%). Pharmacokinetic profiles for micafungin on days 1 and 7 were similar. The mean half-life was approximately 13 h, with little variance after repeated or increasing doses. Mean maximum concentrations of the drug in serum and areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h were approximately proportional to dose. There was no clinical or kinetic evidence of interaction between micafungin and fluconazole. Five of 12 patients (42%) in the control group and 14 of 62 (23%) in the micafungin-plus-fluconazole groups had a suspected fungal infection during treatment which resulted in empirical treatment with amphotericin B. The combination of micafungin and fluconazole was found to be safe in this high-risk patient population. The MTD of micafungin was not reached even at doses up to 200 mg/day for 4 weeks. The pharmacokinetic profile of micafungin in adult cancer patients with blood or marrow transplants is consistent with the profile in healthy volunteers, and the area under the curve is proportional to dose. PMID:15793107

Hiemenz, J; Cagnoni, P; Simpson, D; Devine, S; Chao, N; Keirns, J; Lau, W; Facklam, D; Buell, D

2005-04-01

101

Metronomic chemotherapy: An attractive alternative to maximum tolerated dose therapy that can activate anti-tumor immunity and minimize therapeutic resistance.  

PubMed

The administration of chemotherapy at reduced doses given at regular, frequent time intervals, termed 'metronomic' chemotherapy, presents an alternative to standard maximal tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy. The primary target of metronomic chemotherapy was originally identified as endothelial cells supporting the tumor vasculature, and not the tumor cells themselves, consistent with the emerging concept of cancer as a systemic disease involving both tumor cells and their microenvironment. While anti-angiogenesis is an important mechanism of action of metronomic chemotherapy, other mechanisms, including activation of anti-tumor immunity and a decrease in acquired therapeutic resistance, have also been identified. Here we present evidence supporting a mechanistic explanation for the improved activity of cancer chemotherapy when administered on a metronomic, rather than an MTD schedule and discuss the implications of these findings for further translation into the clinic. PMID:25541061

Kareva, Irina; Waxman, David J; Lakka Klement, Giannoula

2015-03-28

102

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to ensure an adequate water supply for all water right holders whose...irrigation use on the Project in that year. It is...not on the percent of water supply available. (4) The table Expected Project Distribution...

2014-10-01

103

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to ensure an adequate water supply for all water right holders whose...irrigation use on the Project in that year. It is...not on the percent of water supply available. (4) The table Expected Project Distribution...

2010-10-01

104

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to ensure an adequate water supply for all water right holders whose...irrigation use on the Project in that year. It is...not on the percent of water supply available. (4) The table Expected Project Distribution...

2012-10-01

105

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to ensure an adequate water supply for all water right holders whose...irrigation use on the Project in that year. It is...not on the percent of water supply available. (4) The table Expected Project Distribution...

2011-10-01

106

43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to ensure an adequate water supply for all water right holders whose...irrigation use on the Project in that year. It is...not on the percent of water supply available. (4) The table Expected Project Distribution...

2013-10-01

107

Maximum Confidence Quantum Measurements  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of discriminating between states of a specified set with maximum confidence. For a set of linearly independent states unambiguous discrimination is possible if we allow for the possibility of an inconclusive result. For linearly dependent sets an analogous measurement is one which allows us to be as confident as possible that when a given state is identified on the basis of the measurement result, it is indeed the correct state.

Sarah Croke; Erika Andersson; Stephen M. Barnett; Claire R. Gilson; John Jeffers

2006-04-05

108

Maximum Likelihood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This material introduces the basic theory of maximum likelihood estimation by discussing the likelihood function, the log likelihood function, and maximizing these functions using calculus. Several exercises ask students to derive certain estimators, while others have students compare the behavior of those estimators with other possibilities through the use of various JAVA applets. The applets use the same control features: the sliders set the parameter values, the Â?Stop #Â? drop down menu sets the number of samples taken, the Â?Update #Â? drop down menu sets how often the graph and tables update during the experiment, the single arrow takes one sample, the double arrow runs the full experiment, the square stops the experiment, and the back arrow resets the applet. This page is one lesson from the Virtual Laboratories in Statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

109

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED  

E-print Network

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED Batteries, toner, ink cartridges & cell phones and recycling is an important part of that effort. Below is a guide to on-campus recycling at RSMAS: Visit http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/msgso/ for map of recycling bin locations. NOTE: This is not an exhaustive list. If unauthorized items are found

Miami, University of

110

76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Record Evidence, and Integrity Management Risk Identification, Assessment, Prevention...regulations, to perform detailed threat and risk analyses that integrate accurate data and...Pressure (MOP), and to utilize these risk analyses in the identification of...

2011-01-10

111

Statistical modeling of the hormetic dose zone and the toxic potency completes the quantitative description of hormetic dose responses.  

PubMed

Quantifying the characteristics of hormesis provides valuable insights into this low-dose phenomenon and helps to display and capture its variability. A prerequisite to do so is a statistical procedure allowing quantification of general hormetic features, namely the maximum stimulatory response, the dose range of hormesis, and the distance from the maximum stimulation to the dose where hormesis disappears. Applying extensions of a hormetic dose-response model that is well-established in plant biology provides a direct estimation of several quantities, except the hormetic dose range. Another dose range that is difficult to model directly is the distance between the dose where hormesis disappears and the dose giving 50% inhibition, known as toxic potency. The present study presents 2 further model extensions allowing for a direct quantification of the hormetic dose range and the toxic potency. Based on this, a 4-step mathematical modeling approach is demonstrated to quantify various dose-response quantities, to compare these quantities among treatments, and to interrelate hormesis features. Practical challenges are exemplified, and possible remedies are identified. The software code to perform the analysis is provided as Supplemental Data to simplify adoption of the modeling procedure. Because numerous patterns of hormesis are observed in various sciences, it is clear that the proposed approach cannot cope with all patterns; however, it should be possible to analyze a great range of hormesis patterns. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1169-1177. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25523646

Belz, Regina G; Piepho, Hans-Peter

2015-05-01

112

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

2010-07-01

113

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

2013-07-01

114

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

2014-07-01

115

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

2011-07-01

116

40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...I—Essential Use Allowances for Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or...

2012-07-01

117

Allowance tracking workstation  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and EPA`s Acid Rain Program unleashed an accountability monster on electric utilities. A software product was developed through establishment of a virtual corporation between ten (10) utilities and a software developer. The product has the ability to address different informational and transactional needs of the various departmental users within a utility, tracking and recording allowances, and producing various internal and external reports.

Martin, J.L. [Indianapolis Power and Light Co., IN (United States)

1995-12-31

118

Maximum modular graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modularity has been explored as an important quantitative metric for community and cluster detection in networks. Finding the maximum modularity of a given graph has been proven to be NP-complete and therefore, several heuristic algorithms have been proposed. We investigate the problem of finding the maximum modularity of classes of graphs that have the same number of links and/or nodes and determine analytical upper bounds. Moreover, from the set of all connected graphs with a fixed number of links and/or number of nodes, we construct graphs that can attain maximum modularity, named maximum modular graphs. The maximum modularity is shown to depend on the residue obtained when the number of links is divided by the number of communities. Two applications in transportation networks and data-centers design that can benefit of maximum modular partitioning are proposed.

Trajanovski, S.; Wang, H.; Van Mieghem, P.

2012-07-01

119

Dose-Limiting Toxicity After Hypofractionated Dose-Escalated Radiotherapy in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Local failure rates after radiation therapy (RT) for locally advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain high. Consequently, RT dose intensification strategies continue to be explored, including hypofractionation, which allows for RT acceleration that could potentially improve outcomes. The maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) with dose-escalated hypofractionation has not been adequately defined. Patients and Methods Seventy-nine patients with NSCLC were enrolled on a prospective single-institution phase I trial of dose-escalated hypofractionated RT without concurrent chemotherapy. Escalation of dose per fraction was performed according to patients' stratified risk for radiation pneumonitis with total RT doses ranging from 57 to 85.5 Gy in 25 daily fractions over 5 weeks using intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The MTD was defined as the maximum dose with ? 20% risk of severe toxicity. Results No grade 3 pneumonitis was observed and an MTD for acute toxicity was not identified during patient accrual. However, with a longer follow-up period, grade 4 to 5 toxicity occurred in six patients and was correlated with total dose (P = .004). An MTD was identified at 63.25 Gy in 25 fractions. Late grade 4 to 5 toxicities were attributable to damage to central and perihilar structures and correlated with dose to the proximal bronchial tree. Conclusion Although this dose-escalation model limited the rates of clinically significant pneumonitis, dose-limiting toxicity occurred and was dominated by late radiation toxicity involving central and perihilar structures. The identified dose-response for damage to the proximal bronchial tree warrants caution in future dose-intensification protocols, especially when using hypofractionation. PMID:24145340

Cannon, Donald M.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Adkison, Jarrod B.; Khuntia, Deepak; Traynor, Anne M.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Chappell, Richard J.; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Mohindra, Pranshu; Bentzen, Søren M.; Cannon, George M.

2013-01-01

120

The Maximum Size of Dynamic Data Structures  

E-print Network

This paper develops two probabilistic methods that allow the analysis of the maximum data structure size encountered during a sequence of insertions and deletions in data structures such as priority queues, dictionaries, ...

Kenyon-Mathieu, Claire M.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

1991-10-01

121

Three-dose-cohort designs in cancer phase I trials.  

PubMed

Traditional designs for phase I clinical trials assign the same dose to patients in the same cohort. In this paper, we present a new class of designs for cancer phase I trials which initially rapidly escalate by allowing multiple doses (usually 3) to be assigned to each cohort of patients. The class of designs, called the LMH-CRM (an extension of the continual reassessment method (CRM) by administering different percentiles of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), denoted 'low', 'medium', 'high'), is proven to be consistent and coherent (a commonsense property of phase I trials for dose escalation and de-escalation). Three designs (slow, moderate and fast) are derived based on different dose-escalation restrictions. Simulation results show that moderate and fast LMH-CRM combine the advantages of the CRM with one patient per cohort and three patients per cohort: it accurately estimates the MTD; controls overall toxicity rates; and is time efficient. PMID:17764082

Huang, Bo; Chappell, Rick

2008-05-30

122

Cervix cancer brachytherapy: high dose rate.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer, although less common in industrialized countries, is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer death. In developing countries, these cancers are often discovered at a later stage in the form of locally advanced tumour with a poor prognosis. Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment is mainly based on a chemoradiotherapy followed by uterovaginal brachytherapy ending by a potential remaining tumour surgery or in principle for some teams. The role of irradiation is crucial to ensure a better local control. It has been shown that the more the delivered dose is important, the better the local results are. In order to preserve the maximum of organs at risk and to allow this dose escalation, brachytherapy (intracavitary and/or interstitial) has been progressively introduced. Its evolution and its progressive improvement have led to the development of high dose rate brachytherapy, the advantages of which are especially based on the possibility of outpatient treatment while maintaining the effectiveness of other brachytherapy forms (i.e., low dose rate or pulsed dose rate). Numerous innovations have also been completed in the field of imaging, leading to a progress in treatment planning systems by switching from two-dimensional form to a three-dimensional one. Image-guided brachytherapy allows more precise target volume delineation as well as an optimized dosimetry permitting a better coverage of target volumes. PMID:25151650

Miglierini, P; Malhaire, J-P; Goasduff, G; Miranda, O; Pradier, O

2014-10-01

123

The Last Glacial Maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing

Peter U. Clark; Arthur S. Dyke; Jeremy D. Shakun; Anders E. Carlson; Jorie Clark; Barbara Wohlfarth; Jerry X. Mitrovica; Steven W. Hostetler; A. Marshall McCabe

2009-01-01

124

Maximum life spur gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

Savage, M.; Mackulin, M. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

1991-01-01

125

Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

2010-01-01

126

Last Glacial Maximum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short lecture on CLIMAP project (see PowerPoint) 20 minutes Powerpoint (PowerPoint 444kB Nov7 10) Group activity - Reading for CLIMAP study assumptions, 20 minutes to read, 20 minutes for discussion Student Handout (Microsoft Word 50kB Nov7 10) Students break into groups (4 per group is good division of work) with 2 students per paper. Split the assumptions between students. Each group skims the CLIMAP papers for the assumptions (modern and/or LGM) used in the CLIMAP model-based reconstruction of the LGM. In the groups, students compare the assumptions between papers. Resources: CLIMAP (1976), The surface of the ice-age earth, Science, 191(4232), 1131-1137 and CLIMAP (1984), The last interglacial ocean, Quaternary Research, 21(2), 123. Class Discussion - Summarize assumptions used in CLIMAP studies. Group activity Exploring CLIMAP LGM Reconstructions, 40 minutes for model data, 20 minutes for discussion (Could be modified with as a "jigsaw" activity with a larger class). Learn more about the jigsaw teaching method. Students work on this activity in pairs; one person will create LGM maps, the other modern. Students should sit together with their computer monitors close together to compare. The students will use the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library to access the CLIMAP reconstruction and produce maps using the tools available on this web site. In a web browser, go to http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/ This is the main page for the CLIMAP Model output for the LGM 18,000 BP. In the middle of the page is the label "Datasets and variables" with two data sets below http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.LGM/ and http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.MOD/. Each student clicks on the link they are assigned to. There are several data sets listed for each period and the students will examine each data set and compare the LGM and Modern. As a class, go through each data set allowing pairs to compare the maps then summarize the results as a class. The worksheet has a table for the students and the PowerPoint has table for summarizing. Class Discussion - Summarize differences between modern and LGM in the CLIMAP model output. Discuss how the assumptions of the CLIMAP model studies may have influenced the results. Extra activities The students can explore the data further using the data selection and filters in the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library. For the two SST data sets, click on "Data Selection" and narrow the data to the just the tropics (23.5º N-S). Click on "Filters" then select XY next to "Average over." The next window gives you the average over the tropics close to the top of the page. In the next class, the students repeat the Readings exercise by reading the COHMAP and MARGO papers to see how the scientific knowledge has progressed since the original CLIMAP studies. COHMAP Members, (1988), Climatic Changes of the Last 18,000 Years: Observations and Model Simulations, Science, 241(4869), 1043-1052. MARGO (2009), Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum, Nature Geoscience, 2(2), 127-132.

Kristine DeLong

127

Maximum Entropy Image Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional digital image reconstruction is an important imaging process in many of the physical sciences. If the data are insufficient to specify a unique reconstruction, an additional criterion must be introduced, either implicitly or explicitly before the best estimate can be computed. Here we use a principle of maximum entropy, which has proven useful in other contexts, to design a

Stephen J. Wernecke; Larry R. D'addario

1977-01-01

128

Maximum Power Point  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to find the maximum power point (MPP) of a photovoltaic (PV) panel in order to optimize its efficiency at creating solar power. They also learn about real-world applications and technologies that use this technique, as well as Ohm's law and the power equation, which govern a PV panel's ability to produce power.

2014-09-18

129

Benchmarking for maximum value.  

PubMed

Speaking at the most recent Healthcare Estates conference, Ed Baldwin, of international built asset consultancy EC Harris LLP, examined the role of benchmarking and market-testing--two of the key methods used to evaluate the quality and cost-effectiveness of hard and soft FM services provided under PFI healthcare schemes to ensure they are offering maximum value for money. PMID:19344004

Baldwin, Ed

2009-03-01

130

Maximum likelihood pitch estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for estimating the pitch period of voiced speech sounds is developed based on a maximum likelihood (ML) formulation. It is capable of resolution finer than one sampling period and is shown to perform better in the presence of noise than the cepstrum method.

J. Wise; J. Caprio; T. Parks

1976-01-01

131

Maximum-Likelihood Parameter-Estimation Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient version of maximum-likelihood algorithm devised for calculating normal-mode frequencies and damping parameters of vibrating system from experimental data where both process noise and measurement noise present. Method applicable in vibration analysis of such complicated structures as vehicles, aircraft, and spacecraft. New algorithm simplification of existing maximum-likelihood formulation using Kalman filter that allows for both process and measurement noise.

Eldred, D. B.; Hamidi, M.; Rodriguez, G.

1986-01-01

132

Experimental estimates of peak skin dose and its relationship to the CT dose index using the CTDI head phantom  

PubMed Central

A straightforward method is presented to estimate peak skin doses (PSDs) delivered by computed tomography (CT) scanners. The measured PSD values are related to the well-known volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), displayed on the console of CT scanners. PSD measurement estimates were obtained, in four CT units, by placing radiochromic film on the surface of a CTDI head phantom. Six different X-ray tube currents including the maximum allowed value were used to irradiate the phantom. PSD and CTDIvol were independently measured and later related to the CTDIvol value displayed on the console. A scanner-specific relationship was found between the measured PSD and the associated CTDIvol displayed on the console. The measured PSD values varied between 27 and 136 mGy among all scanners when the routine head scan parameters were used. The results of this work allow relating the widely used CTDIvol to an actual radiation dose delivered to the skin of a patient. PMID:23864642

de las Heras, Hugo; Minniti, Ronaldo; Wilson, Sean; Mitchell, Chad; Skopec, Marlene; Brunner, Claudia C.; Chakrabarti, Kish

2013-01-01

133

Illinois Withholding Allowance Worksheet Step 1: Figure your basic personal allowances (including allowances for dependents)  

E-print Network

Illinois Withholding Allowance Worksheet Step 1: Figure your basic personal allowances (including to which you are entitled. 3 _______________ 4 If you want to have additional Illinois Income Tax withheld additional Illinois Income Tax withheld from your pay, you may reduce the number of additional allowances

Bordenstein, Seth

134

Disposition of firocoxib in equine plasma after an oral loading dose and a multiple dose regimen.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if a single loading dose (LD), 3× the label dose of firocoxib oral paste, followed by nine maintenance doses at the current label dose achieves and maintains near steady state concentrations. Six healthy, adult mares were administered 0.3mg/kg of firocoxib on Day 0, and 0.1 mg/kg 24 h later on Day 1, and at 24 h intervals from Day 2 to Day 9, for a total of 10 doses. Blood samples were collected throughout the study. The mean firocoxib maximum plasma concentration and standard deviation was 199±97 ng/mL, 175±44 ng/mL and 183±50 ng/mL after the LD, and first and last maintenance doses, respectively. The minimum mean concentration (C(min)) increased from 100±23 ng/mL after the LD to 132±38 ng/mL at Day 7. Then, the C(min) remained constant until Day 9. The average concentration at steady state (C(avg)) was 150±45 ng/mL, which compares well to the C(avg) (130±36 ng/mL) reported after multiple daily doses at 0.1 mg/kg. The administration of the single LD allowed achievement of the average steady state drug concentrations faster than a multi-dose regimen without a loading dose. After the LD, firocoxib at 0.1 mg/kg every 24 h was able to maintain a relatively constant average drug concentration which should produce less variability in onset of action and efficacy. PMID:24076125

Cox, S; Villarino, N; Sommardahl, C; Kvaternick, V; Zarabadipour, C; Siger, L; Yarbrough, J; Amicucci, A; Reed, K; Breeding, D; Doherty, T

2013-11-01

135

Health Insurance Definitions Allowable Charge  

E-print Network

Health Insurance Definitions Allowable Charge: Also referred to as the Allowed Amount, Approved considered payment-in-full by an insurance company and an associated network of healthcare providers. If the doctor is a member of your health insurance company's network of providers, he or she may be required

Buehrer, R. Michael

136

The last glacial maximum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

2009-01-01

137

The Last Glacial Maximum.  

PubMed

We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level approximately 14.5 ka. PMID:19661421

Clark, Peter U; Dyke, Arthur S; Shakun, Jeremy D; Carlson, Anders E; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; McCabe, A Marshall

2009-08-01

138

76 FR 5733 - Clothing Allowance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...clothing allowances for each qualifying prosthetic or orthopedic appliance worn or used...wears or uses more than one qualifying prosthetic or orthopedic appliance, physician-prescribed...service-connected disability, wears or uses a prosthetic or orthopedic appliance...

2011-02-02

139

49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...quality control (1) There must be an internal quality management program at all mills involved in producing steel... (2) A mill inspection program or internal quality management program must include (i) and either (ii)...

2010-10-01

140

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Maximum Allowable Gasket Seating Surface Degradation  

E-print Network

. The sponsor will likely be able to extend the time between repairs and reduce downtime in nuclear power plants subgroups to do parallel work. The design team developed a testing apparatus to simulate power plant control tests were conducted on the testing apparatus to ensure accuracy Simulated pitting

Demirel, Melik C.

141

77 FR 56555 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Maximum Allowable Emission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...specific types of ``clean burning'' fuels and an alternative method of demonstrating compliance...Emission of Particulate Matter from Fuel Burning Equipment Used for Indirect...Emission of Particulate Matter from Fuel Burning Equipment Used for...

2012-09-13

142

Timer selection for satisfying the maximum allowable delay using performance model of profibus token passing protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the Fieldbus has become an indispensable component for many automated systems. In the Fieldbus system, real-time data containing sensor values and control commands have a tendency to rapidly lose their value as time elapses after its creation. In order to deliver these data in time, the fieldbus network should be designed to have a short delay compared to the

Kyung Chang Lee; Hyun Hee Kim; Suk Lee; Man Hyung Lee

2004-01-01

143

GLOSSARY OF TERMS Balance Billing Out-of-network reimbursements are based on a maximum allowable  

E-print Network

Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) ­ is a federal law that, among other things, requires employers plan is deemed to be creditable if it: 1) Provides coverage for brand and generic prescriptions; 2

144

77 FR 57985 - National Organic Program (NOP); Amendment to the National List of Allowed and Prohibited...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...one substance on the National List, methionine, to reduce the maximum levels of synthetic methionine allowed in organic poultry production...final rule permits the use of synthetic methionine at the following maximum levels per...

2012-09-19

145

77 FR 5717 - National Organic Program; Proposed Amendment to the National List of Allowed and Prohibited...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...one substance on the National List, methionine, to reduce the maximum levels currently...rule would permit the use of synthetic methionine at the following maximum levels per...currently allowable forms of synthetic methionine and seeks comments on these...

2012-02-06

146

Experimental Evaluation of the Impact of Different Head-and-Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning Techniques on Doses to the Skin and Shallow Targets  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate experimentally the impact of different head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning techniques on doses to the skin and shallow targets. Methods and Materials: A semicylindrical phantom was constructed with micro-MOSFET dosimeters (Thomson-Nielson, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) at 0-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-mm depths. The planning target volume (PTV) was pulled back 0, 3, or 5 mm from the body contour. The IMRT plans were created to maximize PTV coverage, with one of the following strategies: (a) aim for a maximum 110% hotspot, with 115% allowed; (b) aims for a maximum 105% hotspot; (c) aims for a maximum 105% hotspot and 50% of skin to get a maximum 70% of the prescribed dose; and (d) aim for 99% of the PTV volume to receive 90-93% of prescribed dose, with a maximum 105% hotspot, and with the dose to the skin structure minimized. Doses delivered using a linear accelerator were measured. Setup uncertainty was simulated by intentionally shifting the phantom in a range of {+-}8 mm, and calculating the delivered dose for a range of systematic and random uncertainties. Results: From lowest to highest skin dose, the planning strategies were in the order of c, d, b, and a, but c showed a tendency to underdose tissues at depth. Delivered doses varied by 10-20%, depending on planning strategy. For typical setup uncertainties, cumulative dose reduction to a point 6 mm deep was <4%. Conclusions: It is useful to use skin as a sensitive structure, but a minimum dose constraint must be used for the PTV if unwanted reductions in dose to nodes near the body surface are to be avoided. Setup uncertainties are unlikely to give excessive reductions in cumulative dose.

Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber and Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: lcourt@lroc.harvard.edu; Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber and Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

2007-10-01

147

Running title: Maximum discrimination HMMs Maximum Discrimination Hidden Markov Models  

E-print Network

Running title: Maximum discrimination HMMs Maximum Discrimination Hidden Markov Models of Sequence for building hidden Markov models (HMMs) of protein or nucleic acid primary sequence consensus. The method. Keywords: hidden Markov model, database searching, sequence consensus, sequence weighting #12; Introduction

Eddy, Sean

148

Generalized Maximum Entropy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

2005-01-01

149

Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

1983-08-01

150

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06

151

Maximum Entropy Principle for Transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F.; DaSilva, R.

2008-11-01

152

77 FR 12216 - National Organic Program; Proposed Amendment to the National List of Allowed and Prohibited...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...reduce the maximum levels for synthetic methionine currently allowed in organic poultry...reduce the maximum levels of synthetic methionine that may be provided to organic poultry...Board to permit the use of synthetic methionine at the following maximum levels...

2012-02-29

153

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2007 Site environmental report8-  

E-print Network

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2007 Site environmental report8- DRAFT Brookhaven National that the overall radiological dose impact to members of the public, workers, visitors, and the environment is "As radiological dose to the public is calculated at the site boundary as the "maximum" dose that could be received

154

A Maximum Likelihood Stereo Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stereo algorithm is presented that optimizes a maximum likelihood cost function. The maximum likelihood cost function assumes that corresponding features in the left and right images are normally distributed about a common true value and consists of a weighted squared error term if two features are matched or a (fixed) cost if a feature is determined to be occluded.

Ingemar J. Cox; Sunita L. Hingorani; Satish B. Rao; Bruce M. Maggs

1996-01-01

155

Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect

At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

Han, Eun Young, E-mail: eyhan@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Moros, Eduardo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Corry, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

2012-01-01

156

Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach [4], Cai et al. [5, 6] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation [6] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entrop-yarea law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p( ?, a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p = ?? through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

Awad, Adel; Ali, Ahmed Farag

2014-06-01

157

PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

2012-06-05

158

Maximum likelihood as a common computational framework in tomotherapy.  

PubMed

Tomotherapy is a dose delivery technique using helical or axial intensity modulated beams. One of the strengths of the tomotherapy concept is that it can incorporate a number of processes into a single piece of equipment. These processes include treatment optimization planning, dose reconstruction and kilovoltage/megavoltage image reconstruction. A common computational technique that could be used for all of these processes would be very appealing. The maximum likelihood estimator, originally developed for emission tomography, can serve as a useful tool in imaging and radiotherapy. We believe that this approach can play an important role in the processes of optimization planning, dose reconstruction and kilovoltage and/or megavoltage image reconstruction. These processes involve computations that require comparable physical methods. They are also based on equivalent assumptions, and they have similar mathematical solutions. As a result, the maximum likelihood approach is able to provide a common framework for all three of these computational problems. We will demonstrate how maximum likelihood methods can be applied to optimization planning, dose reconstruction and megavoltage image reconstruction in tomotherapy. Results for planning optimization, dose reconstruction and megavoltage image reconstruction will be presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are analysed. Future directions for this work are also suggested. PMID:9832016

Olivera, G H; Shepard, D M; Reckwerdt, P J; Ruchala, K; Zachman, J; Fitchard, E E; Mackie, T R

1998-11-01

159

Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

2011-08-01

160

Evaluation of Rectal Dose During High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high doses being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the dose delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the dose delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured dose to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference point dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the dose, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated maximum dose and the measured dose was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated maximum dose was typically higher than the measured dose. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal dose for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the dose delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated dose.

Sha, Rajib Lochan [Department of Radiation Physics, Indo-American Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Hyderabad (India); Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India); Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India); Rao, Ramakrishna [Department of Radiation Physics, MNJ Institute of Oncology and Regional Cancer Center, Hyderabad (India); Muralidhar, Kanaparthy R. [Department of Radiation Physics, Indo-American Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Hyderabad (India); Kudchadker, Rajat J., E-mail: rkudchad@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2011-01-01

161

Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed dose thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as dose thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a dose threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold dose after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body doses for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body doses were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the dose thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a maximum value at zero with increasing doses. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types.

Groer, P. G.; Carnes, B. A.

2003-01-01

162

Maximum entropy signal restoration with linear programming  

SciTech Connect

Dantzig's bounded-variable method is used to express the maximum entropy restoration problem as a linear programming problem. This is done by approximating the nonlinear objective function with piecewise linear segments, then bounding the variables as a function of the number of segments used. The use of a linear programming approach allows equality constraints found in the traditional Lagrange multiplier method to be relaxed. A robust revised simplex algorithm is used to implement the restoration. Experimental results from 128- and 512-point signal restorations are presented.

Mastin, G.A.; Hanson, R.J.

1988-05-01

163

Assessing allowable take of migratory birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

2009-01-01

164

42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public Health...HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs...

2010-10-01

165

42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public Health...HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs...

2011-10-01

166

20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits...RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee...

2010-04-01

167

20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits...RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee...

2011-04-01

168

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2010-10-01

169

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2011-10-01

170

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2010-10-01

171

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2011-10-01

172

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2013-10-01

173

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2013-10-01

174

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2014-10-01

175

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2014-10-01

176

46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping...Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the...

2012-10-01

177

46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428...Membrane Tanks § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses that are specially approved by...

2012-10-01

178

Verification of percentage depth dose of MAGICA polymer gel dosimeter with electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work investigation of the normoxic MAGICA polymer gel dosimeter has been undertaken. Using MRI, the formulation to give the maximum change in the transverse relaxation rate R2 was determined to be 8% gelatin, 0.5% agarose, 9% methacrylic acid, 0.0352% ascorbic acid, 0.0015% CuSO4.5H2O, 0.002% hydroquinone and 82.3% HPLC(Water).When the preparation of final polymer gel solution is completed, it is transferred into phantoms and allowed to set by storage in a refrigerator at about 4C°. The optimal post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both determined to be 1 day. The R2-dose response was linear to 4000cGy. The response of the MAGICA gel is very similar in the lower dose region and The R2-dose response for doses less than 250cGy is not exact. The R2-dose response of the MAGICA polymer gel dosimeter is linear between 500 to 1750 cGy with R2-dose sensitivities of 0.0020 and 0.0023S-1 cGy-1 when imaged at 1and 8 days post-irradiation respectively. In this study, the percentage depth dose (PDD) of MAGICA polymer gel dosimeter is determined and different phantoms of MAGICA gels was irradiated to 1000cGy of doses by 6, 8, 12 and 18MeV electrons and The maximum percentage depth dose (PDD) is located at the depths of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3cm.

Adinehvand, K.; Aghamiri, M. R.; Zahmatkesh, M. H.; Akhlaghpor, S. H.

2009-05-01

179

44 CFR 208.41 - Administrative allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.41 Administrative allowance. (a) The administrative allowance is intended...

2010-10-01

180

The maximum rate of mammal evolution.  

PubMed

How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

2012-03-13

181

Dose to medium versus dose to water as an estimator of dose to sensitive skeletal tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to determine whether dose to medium, Dm, or dose to water, Dw, provides a better estimate of the dose to the radiosensitive red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSC) in spongiosa, or cancellous bone. This is addressed in the larger context of the ongoing debate over whether Dm or Dw should be specified in Monte Carlo calculated radiotherapy treatment plans. The study uses voxelized, virtual human phantoms, FAX06/MAX06 (female/male), incorporated into an EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations during simulated irradiation by a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta SL25 accelerator. Head and neck, chest and pelvis irradiations are studied. FAX06/MAX06 include precise modelling of spongiosa based on µCT images, allowing dose to RBM and BSC to be resolved from the dose to bone. Modifications to the FAX06/MAX06 user codes are required to score Dw and Dm in spongiosa. Dose uncertainties of ~1% (BSC, RBM) or ~0.5% (Dm, Dw) are obtained after up to 5 days of simulations on 88 CPUs. Clinically significant differences (>5%) between Dm and Dw are found only in cranial spongiosa, where the volume fraction of trabecular bone (TBVF) is high (55%). However, for spongiosa locations where there is any significant difference between Dm and Dw, comparisons of differential dose volume histograms (DVHs) and average doses show that Dw provides a better overall estimate of dose to RBM and BSC. For example, in cranial spongiosa the average Dm underestimates the average dose to sensitive tissue by at least 5%, while average Dw is within ~1% of the average dose to sensitive tissue. Thus, it is better to specify Dw than Dm in Monte Carlo treatment plans, since Dw provides a better estimate of dose to sensitive tissue in bone, the only location where the difference is likely to be clinically significant.

Walters, B. R. B.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I.

2010-08-01

182

Original article Approximate restricted maximum  

E-print Network

, the estimation of a genetic (co-)variance component involves the trace of the product of the inverse variances. Several examples are presented to illustrate the method. variance and covariance components de Maximum de Vraisemblance Restreint (REML), l'estimation des composantes de (co)variance génétique

Boyer, Edmond

183

Original article Restricted maximum likelihood  

E-print Network

to transform the constrained optimisation problem imposed in estimating covariance components-free algorithm. restricted maximum likelihood / derivative / algorithm / variance component esti- mation Résumé'optimisation avec contrainte que soulève l'estimation des composantes de variance en un problème sans contrainte, ce

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore.

Mottershead, C.T.

1985-10-01

185

Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Mottershead, C.T.

1985-01-01

186

TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library (USDA) offers this excellent resource on TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads), with links to dozens of relevant and current publications. From basic questions and answers to current policies regarding TMDLs, this collection of resources is well worth browsing.

187

Maximum Margin Clustering Made Practical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the success of large margin methods in supervised learning, maximum margin clustering (MMC) is a recent approach that aims at extending large margin methods to unsupervised learning. However, its optimization problem is nonconvex and existing MMC methods all rely on reformulating and relaxing the nonconvex optimization problem as semidefinite programs (SDP). Though SDP is convex and standard solvers

Kai Zhang; Ivor W. Tsang; James T. Kwok

2009-01-01

188

Radiation dose to workers due to the inhalation of dust during granite fabrication.  

PubMed

There has been very little research conducted to determine internal radiation doses resulting from worker exposure to ionising radiation in granite fabrication shops. To address this issue, we estimated the effective radiation dose of granite workers in US fabrication shops who were exposed to the maximum respirable dust and silica concentrations allowed under current US regulations, and also to concentrations reported in the literature. Radiation doses were calculated using standard methods developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated internal doses were very low, and below both US occupational standards (50 mSv yr(-1)) and limits applicable to the general public (1 mSv yr(-1)). Workers exposed to respirable granite dust concentrations at the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) respirable dust permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg m(-3) over a full year had an estimated radiation dose of 0.062 mSv yr(-1). Workers exposed to respirable granite dust concentrations at the OSHA silica PEL and at the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value for a full year had expected radiation doses of 0.007 mSv yr(-1) and 0.002 mSv yr(-1), respectively. Using data from studies of respirable granite dust and silica concentrations measured in granite fabrication shops, we calculated median expected radiation doses that ranged from <0.001 to 0.101 mSv yr(-1). PMID:24270240

Zwack, L M; McCarthy, W B; Stewart, J H; McCarthy, J F; Allen, J G

2014-03-01

189

Dose audit failures and dose augmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standards EN 552 and ISO 11137, covering radiation sterilization, are technically equivalent in their requirements for the selection of the sterilization dose. Dose Setting Methods 1 and 2 described in Annex B of ISO 11137 can be used to meet these requirements for the selection of the sterilization dose. Both dose setting methods require a dose audit every 3 months to determine the continued validity of the sterilization dose. This paper addresses the subject of dose audit failures and investigations into their cause. It also presents a method to augment the sterilization dose when the number of audit positives exceeds the limits imposed by ISO 11137.

Herring, C.

1999-01-01

190

77 FR 34218 - Clothing Allowance; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to more than one clothing allowance. Proposed paragraph (a)(2)(ii) explained that a veteran who uses more than one prosthetic or orthopedic appliance or medication would be eligible for a clothing allowance for each such appliance or medication...

2012-06-11

191

28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR...1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are...

2010-07-01

192

33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229 Compensation allowable. The amount of compensation allowable is...

2010-07-01

193

33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235 Compensation allowable. The amount of compensation allowable...

2012-07-01

194

33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241 Compensation allowable. The amount of compensation allowable is...

2011-07-01

195

33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235 Compensation allowable. The amount of compensation allowable...

2013-07-01

196

33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241 Compensation allowable. The amount of compensation allowable is...

2014-07-01

197

33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241 Compensation allowable. The amount of compensation allowable is...

2010-07-01

198

33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241 Compensation allowable. The amount of compensation allowable is...

2012-07-01

199

33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235 Compensation allowable. The amount of compensation allowable...

2010-07-01

200

BGIM : Maximum Likelihood Estimation Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Shaun Purcell of the Social, Genetic and Development Pyschiatry Research Centre, this set of pages is an introduction to the maximum likelihood estimation. It discusses the likelihood and log-likelihood functions and the process of optimizing. The author breaks the page down in this way: introduction, model-fitting, MLE in practice, likelihood ratio test, MLE analysis of twin data and MLE analysis of linkage data. The author offers further reading for extra study of this statistical method.

Purcell, Shaun

201

Solar maximum: Solar array degradation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

Miller, T.

1985-01-01

202

Child allowances, fertility, and chaotic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the dynamics in an overlapping generations model with the provision of child allowances. Fertility is an increasing function of child allowances and there exists a threshold effect of the marginal effect of child allowances on fertility. We show that if the effectiveness of child allowances is sufficiently high, an intermediate-sized tax rate will be enough to generate chaotic dynamics. Besides, a decrease in the inter-temporal elasticity of substitution will prevent the occurrence of irregular cycles.

Chen, Hung-Ju; Li, Ming-Chia

2013-06-01

203

41 CFR 301-11.7 - What determines my maximum per diem reimbursement rate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determines my maximum per diem reimbursement rate? 301-11.7 Section 301-11.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

204

STATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCE  

E-print Network

(Page 1 of 4) Row 3 The indoor lighting power allowance using the Tailored Method of compliance shallSTATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCE CEC-LTG-3C (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Forms August 2009 INDOOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCE LTG-3C Project

205

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2011-10-01

206

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2013-10-01

207

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2014-10-01

208

46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping...Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B...bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following...

2012-10-01

209

75 FR 51919 - National Organic Program; Amendment to the National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...one substance on the National List, methionine, to extend its use in organic poultry...following maximum levels of synthetic methionine per ton of feed: Laying chickens...to extend the allowance for synthetic methionine beyond October 1, 2012, to...

2010-08-24

210

HADOC: a computer code for calculation of external and inhalation doses from acute radionuclide releases  

SciTech Connect

The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.

Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.

1981-04-01

211

Maximum entropy bootstrap of climate time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification and estimation of trends is a fundamental task in the analysis of climate time series. Even more important than estimating a trend is assessing its significance, which is far from a trivial task, due to the serial dependence in the time series, which invalidates most methods based on independent data. The issue is particularly crucial in the case of short records, as often happens in palaeoclimate time series. Bootstrap is an appealing non-parametric alternative for assessing the significance of estimated linear trends. However, bootstrapping is also more delicate in the case of time series than in the case of independent data, since the temporal structure of the series should be preserved in the bootstrap samples. Furthermore, bootstrap procedures often assume stationarity, an assumption which is not verified by most climate time series. Maximum entropy bootstrap (Vinod, 2006) allows to preserve the basic temporal structure of the original time series in the bootstrap replicates without assuming stationary behavior. In this work maximum entropy bootstrap is applied to assess the significance of trends estimated from short (~17 years) records of satellite measurements of the height of the sea surface.

Barbosa, Susana

2010-05-01

212

Child allowances, fertility, and chaotic dynamics.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the dynamics in an overlapping generations model with the provision of child allowances. Fertility is an increasing function of child allowances and there exists a threshold effect of the marginal effect of child allowances on fertility. We show that if the effectiveness of child allowances is sufficiently high, an intermediate-sized tax rate will be enough to generate chaotic dynamics. Besides, a decrease in the inter-temporal elasticity of substitution will prevent the occurrence of irregular cycles. PMID:23822471

Chen, Hung-Ju; Li, Ming-Chia

2013-06-01

213

Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.silva.rodriguez@sergas.es; Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain) [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Sánchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Víctor [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain)] [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Cortés, Julia; Garrido, Miguel [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia, Spain and Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain)] [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia, Spain and Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Pombar, Miguel [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain)] [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Ruibal, Álvaro [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain) [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Fundación Tejerina, 28003, Madrid (Spain)

2014-05-15

214

Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.  

PubMed

This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient. PMID:22298238

Satory, P R

2012-03-01

215

Discriminative Training and Maximum Entropy Models for Statistical Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for statistical machine translation of natural languages based on direct maximum entropy mod- els, which contains the widely used sour- ce-channel approach as a special case. All knowledge sources are treated as feature functions, which depend on the source language sentence, the target language sentence and possible hidden variables. This approach allows a baseline machine translation

Franz Josef Och; Hermann Ney

2002-01-01

216

43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62 Public...ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ...Post-Award Requirements § 12.62 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of...

2010-10-01

217

28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS...ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

2011-07-01

218

43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62 Public...ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ...Post-Award Requirements § 12.62 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of...

2011-10-01

219

Maximum performance tests of speech production.  

PubMed

The maximum performance tests of speech production are those tests that examine the upper limits of performance for selected speech tasks. Among the most commonly used maximum performance tests are the following: maximum duration of phonation, maximum fricative duration, maximum phonation volume, maximum expiratory pressure, fundamental frequency range, maximum sound pressure level, maximum occluding force of the articulators, and diadochokinetic (maximum repetition) rate. Many clinicians use at least some of these tasks as part of an assessment protocol. These tests are analogous to strength, range, or speed tests in clinical neurology. Given the widespread use of these tests and a rather scattered literature on normative values obtained for them, a survey of the data base seemed in order. This paper summarizes the published normative data, discusses the adequacy of these data for clinical application, and recommends interpretive guidelines to enhance the usefulness of maximum performance tests. PMID:3312817

Kent, R D; Kent, J F; Rosenbek, J C

1987-11-01

220

System for Memorizing Maximum Values  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either liner or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

221

Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences  

PubMed Central

This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

SCHELLEKENS, JONA

2009-01-01

222

RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

SciTech Connect

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

223

Radiation dose assessment for the biota of terrestrial ecosystems in the shoreline zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant cooling pond.  

PubMed

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature. PMID:21878760

Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Hinton, Thomas G; Coughlin, Daniel; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

2011-10-01

224

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and...Apparatus § 84.97 Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...

2011-10-01

225

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and...Apparatus § 84.97 Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...

2012-10-01

226

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and...Apparatus § 84.97 Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...

2014-10-01

227

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and...Apparatus § 84.97 Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...

2013-10-01

228

Glossary of Terms Balance Billing Out-of-network reimbursements are based on a maximum allowable fee  

E-print Network

(COBRA) ­ is a federal law that, among other things, requires employers to offer continued health to be creditable if it: 1. Provides coverage for brand and generic prescriptions; 2. Provides reasonable access

229

Niel Dose Dependence for Solar Cells Irradiated with Electrons and Protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of solar cells degradation and the prediction of its end-of-life performance is of primary importance in the preparation of a space mission. In the present work, we investigate the reduction of solar-cells' maximum power resulting from irradiations with electrons and protons. Both GaAs single junction and GalnP/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells were studied. The results obtained indicate how i) the dominant radiation damaging mechanism is due to atomic displacements, ii) the relative maximum power degradation is almost independent of the type of incoming particle, i.e., iii) to a first approximation, the fitted semi-empirical function expressing the decrease of maximum power depends only on the absorbed NIEL dose, and iv) the actual displacement threshold energy value (Ed = 21 eV) accounts for annealing treatments, mostly due to self-annealing induced effects. Thus, for a given type of solar cell, a unique maximum power degradation curve can be determined as a function of the absorbed NIEL dose. The latter expression allows one to predict the performance of those solar cells in space radiation environment.

Baur, C.; Gervasi, M.; Nieminen, P.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.; Tacconi, M.

2014-06-01

230

NIEL Dose Dependence for Solar Cells Irradiated with Electrons and Protons  

E-print Network

The investigation of solar cells degradation and the prediction of its end-of-life performance is of primary importance in the preparation of a space mission. In the present work, we investigate the reduction of solar-cells' maximum power resulting from irradiations with electrons and protons. Both GaAs single junction and GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells were studied. The results obtained indicate how i) the dominant radiation damaging mechanism is due to atomic displacements, ii) the relative maximum power degradation is almost independent of the type of incoming particle, i.e., iii) to a first approximation, the fitted semi-empirical function expressing the decrease of maximum power depends only on the absorbed NIEL dose, and iv) the actual displacement threshold energy value (Ed=21 eV) accounts for annealing treatments, mostly due to self-annealing induced effects. Thus, for a given type of solar cell, a unique maximum power degradation curve can be determined as a function of the absorbed NIEL dose. The latter expression allows one to predict the performance of those solar cells in space radiation environment.

C. Baur; M. Gervasi; P. Nieminen; S. Pensotti; P. G. Rancoita; M. Tacconi

2014-02-10

231

Independent dose calculations for commissioning, quality assurance and dose reconstruction of PBS proton therapy.  

PubMed

Pencil beam scanning proton therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose distributions by delivering several thousand pencil beams. These beams have to be individually optimised and accurately delivered requiring a significant quality assurance workload.In this work we describe a toolkit for independent dose calculations developed at Paul Scherrer Institut which allows for dose reconstructions at several points in the treatment workflow. Quality assurance based on reconstructed dose distributions was shown to be favourable to pencil beam by pencil beam comparisons for the detection of delivery uncertainties and estimation of their effects. Furthermore the dose reconstructions were shown to have a sensitivity of the order of or higher than the measurements currently employed in the clinical verification procedures.The design of the independent dose calculation tool allows for a high modifiability of the dose calculation parameters (e.g. depth dose profiles, angular spatial distributions) allowing for a safe environment outside of the clinical treatment planning system for investigating the effect of such parameters on the resulting dose distributions and thus distinguishing between different contributions to measured dose deviations.The presented system could potentially reduce the amount of patient-specific quality assurance measurements which currently constitute a bottleneck in the clinical workflow. PMID:25779992

Meier, G; Besson, R; Nanz, A; Safai, S; Lomax, A J

2015-04-01

232

Independent dose calculations for commissioning, quality assurance and dose reconstruction of PBS proton therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pencil beam scanning proton therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose distributions by delivering several thousand pencil beams. These beams have to be individually optimised and accurately delivered requiring a significant quality assurance workload. In this work we describe a toolkit for independent dose calculations developed at Paul Scherrer Institut which allows for dose reconstructions at several points in the treatment workflow. Quality assurance based on reconstructed dose distributions was shown to be favourable to pencil beam by pencil beam comparisons for the detection of delivery uncertainties and estimation of their effects. Furthermore the dose reconstructions were shown to have a sensitivity of the order of or higher than the measurements currently employed in the clinical verification procedures. The design of the independent dose calculation tool allows for a high modifiability of the dose calculation parameters (e.g. depth dose profiles, angular spatial distributions) allowing for a safe environment outside of the clinical treatment planning system for investigating the effect of such parameters on the resulting dose distributions and thus distinguishing between different contributions to measured dose deviations. The presented system could potentially reduce the amount of patient-specific quality assurance measurements which currently constitute a bottleneck in the clinical workflow.

Meier, G.; Besson, R.; Nanz, A.; Safai, S.; Lomax, A. J.

2015-04-01

233

Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference between the dynamic dose and 4D dose as a function of number of deliveries and/or total deliver time was also established.

Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2012-12-15

234

Failure-probability driven dose painting  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed. Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy. Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%. Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity. PMID:23927314

Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Berthelsen, Anne K.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena; Bentzen, Søren M.

2013-01-01

235

Failure-probability driven dose painting  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy.Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%.Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity.

Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Berthelsen, Anne K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Bentzen, Søren M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

2013-08-15

236

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those prohibited by §...

2010-01-01

237

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those prohibited by §...

2014-01-01

238

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those prohibited by §...

2013-01-01

239

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those prohibited by §...

2012-01-01

240

15 CFR 922.183 - Allowed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.183 Allowed activities. (a) All activities except those prohibited by §...

2011-01-01

241

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...damage to, or loss of, property may be allowed when caused by: (i) Marine, air disaster, enemy action or threat thereof, or other extraordinary risks incurred incident to the performance of official duties by the claimant; and...

2010-10-01

242

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...damage to, or loss of, property may be allowed when caused by: (i) Marine, air disaster, enemy action or threat thereof, or other extraordinary risks incurred incident to the performance of official duties by the claimant; and...

2012-10-01

243

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...damage to, or loss of, property may be allowed when caused by: (i) Marine, air disaster, enemy action or threat thereof, or other extraordinary risks incurred incident to the performance of official duties by the claimant; and...

2013-10-01

244

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...damage to, or loss of, property may be allowed when caused by: (i) Marine, air disaster, enemy action or threat thereof, or other extraordinary risks incurred incident to the performance of official duties by the claimant; and...

2011-10-01

245

45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...damage to, or loss of, property may be allowed when caused by: (i) Marine, air disaster, enemy action or threat thereof, or other extraordinary risks incurred incident to the performance of official duties by the claimant; and...

2014-10-01

246

24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...quarters or other authorized places. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire, flood, hurricane, other natural disaster, theft, or other unusual occurrence, while such property is located at: (i) Quarters...

2011-04-01

247

50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE...WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable...eligible under either the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration or...

2010-10-01

248

45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS...The allowability of costs incurred by nonprofit organizations (except for those listed...Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for Nonprofit Organizations” and paragraph...

2011-10-01

249

45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS...The allowability of costs incurred by nonprofit organizations (except for those listed...Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for Nonprofit Organizations” and paragraph...

2013-10-01

250

45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS...The allowability of costs incurred by nonprofit organizations (except for those listed...Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for Nonprofit Organizations” and paragraph...

2012-10-01

251

45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS...The allowability of costs incurred by nonprofit organizations (except for those listed...Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for Nonprofit Organizations” and paragraph...

2010-10-01

252

45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS...The allowability of costs incurred by nonprofit organizations (except for those listed...Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for Nonprofit Organizations” and paragraph...

2014-10-01

253

38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...f), wears or uses one qualifying prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including...disabilities, wears or uses one qualifying prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including...an annual clothing allowance for each prosthetic or orthopedic appliance...

2012-07-01

254

44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an...

2010-10-01

255

32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...terms and conditions may in rare cases authorize a determination of allowable costs that are in accordance with uniform cost accounting standards and comply with cost principles acceptable to the Department of...

2010-07-01

256

5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND...cost of public transportation service) representative of those...for lodging, meals, other services, and miscellaneous expenses...and quality of vehicle, and climate conditions, and...

2010-01-01

257

5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND...cost of public transportation service) representative of those...for lodging, meals, other services, and miscellaneous expenses...and quality of vehicle, and climate conditions, and...

2011-01-01

258

5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND...cost of public transportation service) representative of those...for lodging, meals, other services, and miscellaneous expenses...and quality of vehicle, and climate conditions, and...

2012-01-01

259

5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND...cost of public transportation service) representative of those...for lodging, meals, other services, and miscellaneous expenses...and quality of vehicle, and climate conditions, and...

2014-01-01

260

33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation allowable. (a) The amount of compensation...

2012-07-01

261

33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223 Compensation allowable. (a) The amount of compensation...

2014-07-01

262

33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211 Compensation allowable. (a) The amount of compensation...

2014-07-01

263

33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211 Compensation allowable. (a) The amount of compensation...

2011-07-01

264

33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation allowable. The amount of compensation...

2011-07-01

265

33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation allowable. The amount of compensation...

2014-07-01

266

33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation allowable. (a) The amount of compensation...

2011-07-01

267

33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation allowable. The amount of compensation...

2013-07-01

268

15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-01-01

269

7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-01-01

270

10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the entity...Circular A-87, “Cost Principles for State and Local...

2010-01-01

271

13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-01-01

272

40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-07-01

273

24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-04-01

274

45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

275

45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

276

21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-04-01

277

22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-04-01

278

20 CFR 437.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-04-01

279

10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-01-01

280

45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

281

45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

282

36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-07-01

283

14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-01-01

284

14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative...Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-01-01

285

45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

286

45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

287

49 CFR 18.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-10-01

288

32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-07-01

289

28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

2010-07-01

290

7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL...allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with the...

2010-01-01

291

Maximum entropy production in daisyworld  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

2012-05-01

292

Radiation Dose Chart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an illustration of the ionizing radiation dose a person can absorb from various sources. It provides a visual comparison of doses ranging from 0.1 microsieverts (from eating a banana) to a fatal dose of 8 sieverts.

Randall Munroe

293

Allowable levels of take for the trade in Nearctic songbirds.  

PubMed

The take of Nearctic songbirds for the caged-bird trade is an important cultural and economic activity in Mexico, but its sustainability has been questioned. We relied on the theta-logistic population model to explore options for setting allowable levels of take for 11 species of passerines that were subject to legal take in Mexico in 2010. Because estimates of population size necessary for making-periodic adjustments to levels of take are not routinely available, we examined the conditions under which a constant level of take might contribute to population depletion (i.e., a population below its level of maximum net productivity). The chance of depleting a population is highest when levels of take are based on population sizes that happen to be much lower or higher than the level of maximum net productivity, when environmental variation is relatively high and serially correlated, and when the interval between estimation of population size is relatively long (> or = 5 years). To estimate demographic rates of songbirds involved in the Mexican trade we relied on published information and allometric relationships to develop probability distributions for key rates, and then sampled from those distributions to characterize the uncertainty in potential levels of take. Estimates of the intrinsic rate of growth (r) were highly variable, but median estimates were consistent with those expected for relatively short-lived, highly fecund species. Allowing for the possibility of nonlinear density dependence generally resulted in allowable levels of take that were lower than would have been the case under an assumption of linearity. Levels of take authorized by the Mexican government in 2010 for the 11 species we examined were small in comparison to relatively conservative allowable levels of take (i.e., those intended to achieve 50% of maximum sustainable yield). However, the actual levels of take in Mexico are unknown and almost certainly exceed the authorized take. Also, the take of Nearctic songbirds in other Latin American and Caribbean countries ultimately must be considered in assessing population-level impacts. PMID:22827122

Johnson, Fred A; Walters, Matthew A H; Boomer, G Scott

2012-06-01

294

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1  

E-print Network

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1 Brookhaven National Laboratory routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any potential radiological dose to the public, BNL workers radiological dose to the public is calculated as the maximum dose to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed

Homes, Christopher C.

295

Expansion of guidance for the day 8 initiation dose of paliperidone palmitate to avoid a missed dose  

PubMed Central

Background Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a long-acting injectable formulation of an atypical antipsychotic, paliperidone. Its dose can be expressed in milligram or milligram equivalents (mg eq) of active paliperidone (39, 78, 117, 156, and 234 mg of PP correspond to 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg eq of paliperidone). The recommended initiation dosing regimen for PP is 150 [day 1]/100[day 8] mg eq. Labeling guidance allowed a ± 2 day window for the day 8 injection that provides more flexibility with patient scheduling and avoids missing the day 8 initiation dose. Recently, expansion of the day 8 dosing window from ±2 to ±4 days has been approved in the United States based on results obtained from the model-based simulations and review of safety data presented here. Methods The predicted exposure for the recommended initiation regimen of PP was compared with day 1/day 4, and day 1/day 12 dosing scenarios; each scenario was compared with the highest clinically evaluated initiation regimen (150[day 1]/150[day 8] mg eq) and to the recommended 6 mg/day oral dose of extended-release paliperidone. Results Simulated exposures with PP 150 mg eq on day 1 and 100 mg eq on days 4, 8, or 12 overlap considerably, with ±3 ng/mL variation in median maximum plasma concentrations. Based upon pharmacokinetic bridging/bracketing, the peak concentration with PP 150/100 mg eq [days 1/4] was lower than that with the highest initiation regimen. Exposures for PP 150 mg eq on day 1 and 100 mg eq on days 4, 8, or 12 were maintained close to those of 6 mg of paliperidone extended-release. Conclusion These simulations indicate that using the expanded dosing window of ±4 days has little effect on paliperidone exposure. A review of the overall pattern of treatment-emergent adverse events did not identify any new safety risks associated with the expanded dosing window. PMID:23723704

Samtani, Mahesh N; Nuamah, Isaac; Gopal, Srihari; Remmerie, Bart; Kern Sliwa, Jennifer; Alphs, Larry

2013-01-01

296

[Decision process of Notification Value by the Dose Index Registry system in X-ray computed tomography].  

PubMed

A new technical standard for X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been published by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) that allows the Alert Value and Notification Value for cumulative dose to be configurable by CT systems operators in conjunction with the XR-25 (Dose check) standard. In this study, a decision method of the Notification Values for reducing the radiation dose was examined using the dose index registry (DIR) system, during 122 continuous days from August 1, 2012 to November 30, 2012. CT images were obtained using the Discovery CT 750HD (GE Healthcare) and the dose index was calculated using the DoseWatch DIR system. The CT dose index-volume (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) were output from the DIR system in comma-separated value (CSV) file format for each examination protocol. All data were shown as a schematic boxplot using statistical processing software. The CTDIvol of a routine chest examination showed the following values (maximum: 23.84 mGy; minimum: 2.55 mGy; median: 7.60 mGy; 75% tile: 10.01 mGy; 25% tile: 6.54 mGy). DLP showed the following values (maximum: 944.56 mGy·cm; minimum: 97.25 mGy·cm; median: 307.35 mGy·cm; 75% tile: 406.87 mGy·cm; 25% tile: 255.75 mGy·cm). These results indicate that the 75% tile of CTDIvol and DLP as an initial value proved to be safe and efficient for CT examination and operation. We have thus established one way of determining the Notification Value from the output of the DIR system. Transfer back to the protocol of the CT and automated processing each numeric value in the DIR system is desired. PMID:24464059

Shinozaki, Masafumi; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa; Sasaki, Toru

2014-01-01

297

An algorithm for kilovoltage x-ray dose calculations with applications in kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model-based dose calculation algorithm is presented for kilovoltage x-rays and is tested for the cases of calculating the radiation dose from kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT) and 2D planar projected radiographs. This algorithm calculates the radiation dose to water-like media as the sum of primary and scattered dose components. The scatter dose is calculated by convolution of a newly introduced, empirically parameterized scatter dose kernel with the primary photon fluence. Several approximations are introduced to increase the scatter dose calculation efficiency: (1) the photon energy spectrum is approximated as monoenergetic; (2) density inhomogeneities are accounted for by implementing a global distance scaling factor in the scatter kernel; (3) kernel tilting is ignored. These approximations allow for efficient calculation of the scatter dose convolution with the fast Fourier transform. Monte Carlo simulations were used to obtain the model parameters. The accuracy of using this model-based algorithm was validated by comparing with the Monte Carlo method for calculating dose distributions for real patients resulting from radiotherapy image guidance procedures including volumetric kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs. For all patients studied, mean dose-to-water errors for kV-CBCT are within 0.3% with a maximum standard deviation error of 4.1%. Using a medium-dependent correction method to account for the effects of photoabsorption in bone on the dose distribution, mean dose-to-medium errors for kV-CBCT are within 3.6% for bone and 2.4% for soft tissues. This algorithm offers acceptable accuracy and has the potential to extend the applicability of model-based dose calculation algorithms from megavoltage to kilovoltage photon beams.

Pawlowski, Jason M.; Ding, George X.

2014-04-01

298

Using EPA`s allowance tracking system to assess the allowance market  

SciTech Connect

The development of a credible framework for analyzing private allowance transfers recorded in EPA`s Allowance Tracking System (ATS) is essential for effective assessment of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market. The ATS began recording transfers of allowances in March, 1994, and since then has served as an automated record of allowance holdings and transfers of ownership. Though primarily concerned with determining compliance, the ATS contains details of private allowance transfers representing what is believed to be a significant portion of overall SO{sub 2} allowance market activity. This paper will analyze these private transfers recorded in ATS and will develop relevant categories for classification purposes. The resulting categorization will enable consistent analysis of the SO{sub 2} allowance market and provide substantial insight into the level and type of allowance trading activity under the Acid Rain Program.

Dean, M.; Kruger, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31

299

Interactive Learning During Solar Maximum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project is to develop and distribute e-educational material for space science during times of solar activity that emphasizes underlying basic science principles of solar disturbances and their effects on Earth. This includes materials such as simulations, animations, group projects and other on-line materials to be used by students either in high school or at the introductory college level. The on-line delivery tool originally intended to be used is known as Interactive Multimedia Education at a Distance (IMED), which is a web-based software system used at UCLA for interactive distance learning. IMED is a password controlled system that allows students to access text, images, bulletin boards, chat rooms, animation, simulations and individual student web sites to study science and to collaborate on group projects.

Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Curtis, Steven (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

300

Evaluation of robustness of maximum likelihood cone-beam CT reconstruction with total variation regularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to evaluate an iterative maximum likelihood (ML) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction with total variation (TV) regularization with respect to the robustness of the algorithm due to data inconsistencies. Three different and (for clinical application) typical classes of errors are considered for simulated phantom and measured projection data: quantum noise, defect detector pixels and projection matrix errors. To quantify those errors we apply error measures like mean square error, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and streak indicator. These measures are derived from linear signal theory and generalized and applied for nonlinear signal reconstruction. For quality check, we focus on resolution and CT-number linearity based on a Catphan phantom. All comparisons are made versus the clinical standard, the filtered backprojection algorithm (FBP). In our results, we confirm and substantially extend previous results on iterative reconstruction such as massive undersampling of the number of projections. Errors of projection matrix parameters of up to 1° projection angle deviations are still in the tolerance level. Single defect pixels exhibit ring artifacts for each method. However using defect pixel compensation, allows up to 40% of defect pixels for passing the standard clinical quality check. Further, the iterative algorithm is extraordinarily robust in the low photon regime (down to 0.05 mAs) when compared to FPB, allowing for extremely low-dose image acquisitions, a substantial issue when considering daily CBCT imaging for position correction in radiotherapy. We conclude that the ML method studied herein is robust under clinical quality assurance conditions. Consequently, low-dose regime imaging, especially for daily patient localization in radiation therapy is possible without change of the current hardware of the imaging system.

Stsepankou, D.; Arns, A.; Ng, S. K.; Zygmanski, P.; Hesser, J.

2012-10-01

301

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2014-04-01

302

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2013-04-01

303

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2011-04-01

304

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2010-04-01

305

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2012-04-01

306

Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Generalized Rasch Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximum likelihood procedures are presented for a general model to unify the various models and techniques that have been proposed for item analysis. Unconditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Wright and Haberman, and conditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Rasch and Andersen, are shown as important special cases. (JAZ)

de Leeuw, Jan; Verhelst, Norman

1986-01-01

307

MILDOS - A Computer Program for Calculating Environmental Radiation Doses from Uranium Recovery Operations  

SciTech Connect

The MILDOS Computer Code estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This code is multi-purposed and can be used to evaluate population doses for NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. Emissions of radioactive materials from fixed point source locations and from area sources are modeled using a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model, which utilizes user-provided wind frequency data. Mechanisms such as deposition of particulates, resuspension. radioactive decay and ingrowth of daughter radionuclides are included in the transport model. Annual average air concentrations are computed, from which subsequent impacts to humans through various pathways are computed. Ground surface concentrations are estimated from deposition buildup and ingrowth of radioactive daughters. The surface concentrations are modified by radioactive decay, weathering and other environmental processes. The MILDOS Computer Code allows the user to vary the emission sources as a step function of time by adjustinq the emission rates. which includes shutting them off completely. Thus the results of a computer run can be made to reflect changing processes throughout the facility's operational lifetime. The pathways considered for individual dose commitments and for population impacts are: • Inhalation • External exposure from ground concentrations • External exposure from cloud immersion • Ingestioo of vegetables • Ingestion of meat • Ingestion of milk • Dose commitments are calculated using dose conversion factors, which are ultimately based on recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These factors are fixed internally in the code, and are not part of the input option. Dose commitments which are available from the code are as follows: • Individual dose commitments for use in predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations (Radon and short-lived daughters are excluded) • Total individual dose commitments (impacts from all available radionuclides are considered) • Annual population dose commitments (regional, extraregional, total and cummulative). This model is primarily designed for uranium mill facilities, and should not be used for operations with different radionuclides or processes.

Strange, D. L.; Bander, T. J.

1981-04-01

308

42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances...HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances...entitled to such of the following benefits as are authorized for...

2010-10-01

309

29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the claimant, his or her agent, the members of his or her...the custody of a carrier, an agent or agency of the Government, or the claimant. (3) Mobile homes. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of, mobile homes and their contents...

2012-07-01

310

29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the claimant, his or her agent, the members of his or her...the custody of a carrier, an agent or agency of the Government, or the claimant. (3) Mobile homes. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of, mobile homes and their contents...

2010-07-01

311

29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the claimant, his or her agent, the members of his or her...the custody of a carrier, an agent or agency of the Government, or the claimant. (3) Mobile homes. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of, mobile homes and their contents...

2011-07-01

312

Mobile Communications Device Allowances Frequently Asked Questions  

E-print Network

Mobile Communications Device Allowances Frequently Asked Questions Q: Why is NC State University-saving measure and to provide more flexibility for employees who must carry a mobile communications device/Smart phone that uses Active Sync in order to communicate with our e-mail server. Many carriers require data

313

20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...costs, and may be paid for attendance at no more than six meeting...Allowances may not be paid for attendance in excess of ten dollars per... (iii) The grantee shall define which expenses may be reimbursed...the result of actual meeting attendances or in performance of...

2010-04-01

314

40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT...allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance...EPA will limit its participation in the salary rate (excluding overhead) paid to...

2010-07-01

315

Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response  

SciTech Connect

The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

1992-01-01

316

Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response  

SciTech Connect

The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

1992-12-31

317

TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS  

SciTech Connect

Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

2007-11-12

318

Penalized maximum likelihood for multivariate Gaussian mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we first consider the parameter estimation of a multivariate random process distribution using multivariate Gaussian mixture law. The labels of the mixture are allowed to have a general probability law which gives the possibility to modelize a temporal structure of the process under study. We generalize the case of univariate Gaussian mixture in [1] to show that the likelihood is unbounded and goes to infinity when one of the covariance matrices approaches the boundary of singularity of the non negative definite matrices set. We characterize the parameter set of these singularities. As a solution to this degeneracy problem, we show that the penalization of the likelihood by an Inverse Wishart prior on covariance matrices results to a penalized or maximum a posteriori criterion which is bounded. Then, the existence of positive definite matrices optimizing this criterion can be guaranteed. We also show that with a modified EM procedure or with a Bayesian sampling scheme, we can constrain covariance matrices to belong to a particular subclass of covariance matrices. Finally, we study degeneracies in the source separation problem where the characterization of parameter singularity set is more complex. We show, however, that Inverse Wishart prior on covariance matrices eliminates the degeneracies in this case too.

Snoussi, Hichem; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

2002-05-01

319

Maximum likelihood inference of reticulate evolutionary histories.  

PubMed

Hybridization plays an important role in the evolution of certain groups of organisms, adaptation to their environments, and diversification of their genomes. The evolutionary histories of such groups are reticulate, and methods for reconstructing them are still in their infancy and have limited applicability. We present a maximum likelihood method for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories while accounting simultaneously for incomplete lineage sorting. Additionally, we propose methods for assessing confidence in the amount of reticulation and the topology of the inferred evolutionary history. Our method obtains accurate estimates of reticulate evolutionary histories on simulated datasets. Furthermore, our method provides support for a hypothesis of a reticulate evolutionary history inferred from a set of house mouse (Mus musculus) genomes. As evidence of hybridization in eukaryotic groups accumulates, it is essential to have methods that infer reticulate evolutionary histories. The work we present here allows for such inference and provides a significant step toward putting phylogenetic networks on par with phylogenetic trees as a model of capturing evolutionary relationships. PMID:25368173

Yu, Yun; Dong, Jianrong; Liu, Kevin J; Nakhleh, Luay

2014-11-18

320

Benchmark Dose Modeling  

EPA Science Inventory

Finite doses are employed in experimental toxicology studies. Under the traditional methodology, the point of departure (POD) value for low dose extrapolation is identified as one of these doses. Dose spacing necessarily precludes a more accurate description of the POD value. ...

321

Stochastic Maximum Principle for Optimal Control of SPDEs  

SciTech Connect

We prove a version of the maximum principle, in the sense of Pontryagin, for the optimal control of a stochastic partial differential equation driven by a finite dimensional Wiener process. The equation is formulated in a semi-abstract form that allows direct applications to a large class of controlled stochastic parabolic equations. We allow for a diffusion coefficient dependent on the control parameter, and the space of control actions is general, so that in particular we need to introduce two adjoint processes. The second adjoint process takes values in a suitable space of operators on L{sup 4}.

Fuhrman, Marco, E-mail: marco.fuhrman@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)] [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy); Hu, Ying, E-mail: ying.hu@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite Rennes 1, IRMAR (France)] [Universite Rennes 1, IRMAR (France); Tessitore, Gianmario, E-mail: gianmario.tessitore@unimib.it [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Matematica e Applicazioni (Italy)] [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Matematica e Applicazioni (Italy)

2013-10-15

322

Mars surface radiation exposure for solar maximum conditions and 1989 solar proton events.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Langley heavy-ion/nucleon and the high-energy nucleon transport codes are used to predict the propagation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) and solar flare protons through the carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars. Particle fluences and the resulting doses are estimated on the surface of Mars for GCR's during solar maximum conditions and the August, September, and October 1989 solar proton events. Surface doses are estimated with both a low-density and a high-density carbon dioxide model of the atmosphere for altitudes of 0, 4, 8, and 12 km above the surface. A solar modulation function is incorporated to estimate the GCR dose variation between solar minimum and maximum conditions over the 11-year solar cycle. By using current Mars mission scenarios, doses to the skin, eye, and blood-forming organs are predicted for short- and long-duration stay times on the Martian surface throughout the solar cycle.

Simonsen, L. C.; Nealy, J. E.

1993-02-01

323

An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island  

SciTech Connect

We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

1994-07-01

324

41 CFR 301-11.6 - Where do I find maximum per diem and actual expense rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...find maximum per diem and actual expense rates? 301-11.6 Section 301-11.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

325

Vitamin C pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers: evidence for a recommended dietary allowance.  

PubMed Central

Determinants of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin C include the relationship between vitamin C dose and steady-state plasma concentration, bioavailability, urinary excretion, cell concentration, and potential adverse effects. Because current data are inadequate, an in-hospital depletion-repletion study was conducted. Seven healthy volunteers were hospitalized for 4-6 months and consumed a diet containing <5 mg of vitamin C daily. Steady-state plasma and tissue concentrations were determined at seven daily doses of vitamin C from 30 to 2500 mg. Vitamin C steady-state plasma concentrations as a function of dose displayed sigmoid kinetics. The steep portion of the curve occurred between the 30- and 100-mg daily dose, the current RDA of 60 mg daily was on the lower third of the curve, the first dose beyond the sigmoid portion of the curve was 200 mg daily, and complete plasma saturation occurred at 1000 mg daily. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes saturated at 100 mg daily and contained concentrations at least 14-fold higher than plasma. Bioavailability was complete for 200 mg of vitamin C as a single dose. No vitamin C was excreted in urine of six of seven volunteers until the 100-mg dose. At single doses of 500 mg and higher, bioavailability declined and the absorbed amount was excreted. Oxalate and urate excretion were elevated at 1000 mg of vitamin C daily compared to lower doses. Based on these data and Institute of Medicine criteria, the current RDA of 60 mg daily should be increased to 200 mg daily, which can be obtained from fruits and vegetables. Safe doses of vitamin C are less than 1000 mg daily, and vitamin C daily doses above 400 mg have no evident value. PMID:8623000

Levine, M; Conry-Cantilena, C; Wang, Y; Welch, R W; Washko, P W; Dhariwal, K R; Park, J B; Lazarev, A; Graumlich, J F; King, J; Cantilena, L R

1996-01-01

326

Simulation of Dose to Surrounding Normal Structures in Tangential Breast Radiotherapy Due to Setup Error  

SciTech Connect

Setup error plays a significant role in the final treatment outcome in radiotherapy. The effect of setup error on the planning target volume (PTV) and surrounding critical structures has been studied and the maximum allowed tolerance in setup error with minimal complications to the surrounding critical structure and acceptable tumor control probability is determined. Twelve patients were selected for this study after breast conservation surgery, wherein 8 patients were right-sided and 4 were left-sided breast. Tangential fields were placed on the 3-dimensional-computed tomography (3D-CT) dataset by isocentric technique and the dose to the PTV, ipsilateral lung (IL), contralateral lung (CLL), contralateral breast (CLB), heart, and liver were then computed from dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The planning isocenter was shifted for 3 and 10 mm in all 3 directions (X, Y, Z) to simulate the setup error encountered during treatment. Dosimetric studies were performed for each patient for PTV according to ICRU 50 guidelines: mean doses to PTV, IL, CLL, heart, CLB, liver, and percentage of lung volume that received a dose of 20 Gy or more (V20); percentage of heart volume that received a dose of 30 Gy or more (V30); and volume of liver that received a dose of 50 Gy or more (V50) were calculated for all of the above-mentioned isocenter shifts and compared to the results with zero isocenter shift. Simulation of different isocenter shifts in all 3 directions showed that the isocentric shifts along the posterior direction had a very significant effect on the dose to the heart, IL, CLL, and CLB, which was followed by the lateral direction. The setup error in isocenter should be strictly kept below 3 mm. The study shows that isocenter verification in the case of tangential fields should be performed to reduce future complications to adjacent normal tissues.

Prabhakar, Ramachandran [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Department of Nuclear Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Department of Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: prabhakar_smr@hotmail.com; Rath, Goura K.; Julka, Pramod K.; Ganesh, Tharmar; Haresh, K.P.; Joshi, Rakesh C.; Senthamizhchelvan, S.; Thulkar, Sanjay; Pant, G.S. [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Department of Nuclear Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Department of Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

2008-04-01

327

Multiple Test Procedures for Identifying the Maximum Ajit C. Tamhane, Charles W. Dunnett, John W. Green and Je rey D.  

E-print Network

Pont Agricultural Products Division. #12; Abstract We consider dose response studies for safety assessment of crop, toxicologists must weigh the evidence and come to an overall assessment of safe levels of product use. SimilarMultiple Test Procedures for Identifying the Maximum Safe Dose Ajit C. Tamhane, Charles W. Dunnett

Tamhane, Ajit C.

328

A study evaluating the dependence of the patient dose on the CT dose change in a SPECT/CT scan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assessed ways of reducing the patient dose by examining the dependence of the patient dose on the CT (computed tomography) dose in a SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography)/CT scan. To measure the patient dose, we used Precedence 16 SPECT/CT along with a phantom for the CT dose measurement (CT dose phantom kit for adult's head and body, Model 76-414-4150), a 100-mm ionization chamber (CT Ion Chamber) and an X-ray detector (Victoreen Model 4000M+). In addition, the patient dose was evaluated under conditions similar to those for an actual examination using an ImPACT (imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) dosimetry calculator in the Monte Carlo simulation method. The experimental method involved the use of a CT dose phantom to measure the patient dose under different CT conditions (kVp and mAs) to determine the CTDI (CT dose index) under each condition. An ImPACT dosimetry calculator was also used to measure CTDIw (CT dose index water ), CTDIv (CT dose index volume ), DLP (dose-length product), and effective dose. According to the patient dose measurements using the CT dose phantom, the CTDI showed an approximately 54 fold difference between when the maximum (140 kVp and 250 mAs) and the minimum dose (90 kVp and 25 mAs) was used. The CTDI showed a 4.2 fold difference between the conditions (120 kVp and 200 mAs) used mainly in a common CT scan and the conditions (120 kVp and 50 mAs) used mainly in a SPECT/CT scan. According to the measurement results using the dosimetry calculator, the effective dose showed an approximately 35 fold difference between the conditions for the maximum and the minimum doses, as in the case with the CT dose phantom. The effective dose showed a 4.1 fold difference between the conditions used mainly in a common CT scan and those used mainly in a SPECT/CT scan. This study examined the patient dose by reducing the CT dose in a SPECT/CT scan. As various examinations can be conducted due to the development of equipment, the patient faces increasing medical exposure. At this juncture, radiation workers and equipment manufacturers are required to make efforts to obtain as much medical information as possible while using the minimum radiation dose.

Kim, Woo-Hyun; Kim, Ho-Sung; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Jae-Woo

2012-07-01

329

SNFS allows for dynamic file space allocation  

SciTech Connect

Simulated network file server (SNFS) replaces or supplements data migration. Stubs allow executables to appear to be where users expect them; actual executables reside in sub-directories in the scratch area (/usr/tmp). SNFS transparently checks for a file in /usr/tmp. If it exists, SNFS executes it, otherwise, SNFS retrieves it from archival storage (CFS), installs it in /usr/tmp, and then executes it. Space allocated for utilities can be significantly reduced. Since /usr/tmp files are periodically purged, only frequently used software remains on disk and such space is dynamically managed. SNFS also eases installation of software on multiple machines SNFS runs with Secure Mode UNICOS and Multi-Level Security (MLS).

Pfaff, R.T.; Siciliano, C.L.B.

1992-12-01

330

Maximum Likelihood Estimates of Age Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative merits of maxinmm likeli- hood estimates of age factors were ex- amined with 24,636 lactations from regis- tered Holsteins in Iowa Dairy Herd Im- provement Association herds. A table con- taining maximum-likellhood estimates of age effects on milk and fat yield was pre- sented. Maximum likelihood (ML) factors were compared to gross and paired com- parison factors. Gross

R. H. Miller; W. R. Harvey; K. A. Tabler; B. T. McDaniel; E. L. Corley

1966-01-01

331

Maximum likelihood training of probabilistic neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum likelihood method is presented for training probabilistic neural networks (PNN's) using a Gaussian kernel, or Parzen window. The proposed training algorithm enables general nonlinear discrimination and is a generalization of Fisher's method for linear discrimination. Important features of maximum likelihood training for PNN's are: 1) it economizes the well known Parzen window estimator while preserving feedforward NN architecture,

Roy L. Streit; Tod E. Luginbuhl

1994-01-01

332

20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Family maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...attains age 62, has a period of disability...to more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity on...attains age 62, has a period of disability...multiple of $0.10, it will be...

2010-04-01

333

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...no minimum civil penalty, except for a minimum...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2013-10-01

334

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2011-10-01

335

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...no minimum civil penalty, except for a minimum...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2014-10-01

336

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2012-10-01

337

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2010-10-01

338

Maximum Margin Discriminant Analysis based Face Recognition  

E-print Network

Maximum Margin Discriminant Analysis based Face Recognition Korn´el Kov´acs1 , Andr´as Kocsor1 Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Kende u. 13-17, 1111 Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Face ­ Maximum Margin Discriminant Analysis (MMDA) ­ to solve face recog- nition problems. MMDA is a feature

Szepesvari, Csaba

339

Preventing Portfolio Losses by Hedging Maximum Drawdown  

E-print Network

possible market timing, meaning buying the asset at its local maximum and selling it at a subsequent local Introduction Market drops are traditionally protected by buying put or lookback options. The payoff of a put asset increases, and thus it is desirable to buy them when the market reaches its maximum. This leads

Vecer, Jan

340

Preventing Portfolio Losses by Hedging Maximum Drawdown  

E-print Network

possible market timing, meaning buying the asset at its local maximum and selling it at a subsequent local Introduction Market drops are traditionally protected by buying put or lookback options. The payo# of a put asset increases, and thus it is desirable to buy them when the market reaches its maximum. This leads

Vecer, Jan

341

Effective dose and organ doses due to gas bremsstrahlung from electron storage rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bremsstrahlung on residual gas is an important source of beam losses in electron-positron storage rings. The bremsstrahlung photons are emitted in a narrow cone in the forward direction, which produces a "hot spot" of dose at the end of a straight section. Estimates of radiation hazard due to gas bremsstrahlung have so far been performed by calculating the maximum dose equivalent (MADE) or similar quantities. However, the use of quantities conceived for broad parallel beams in the case of very narrow beams significantly overestimates the organ doses and effective dose. In this paper a more sophisticated computational model was used to calculate the values of effective dose and absorbed doses in various organs due to gas bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by 0.1-10 GeV electrons. The bremsstrahlung photons generated by the interaction of a monoenergetic electron beam in a 1 m long air target were made to impinge on a selected organ of an hermaphrodite anthropomorphic mathematical model placed at 1 and 10 m distances from the end of the target. Organ dose and effective dose were calculated for five representative organs, namely right eye, ovaries, breast, testes and thyroid. Fits to the calculated values are given, as well as the dependence of photon fluence and dosimetric quantities on various parameters. The results are compared with previous estimates based on MADE and with values of ambient dose equivalent.

Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Silari, Marco; Ulrici, Luisa

2001-01-01

342

The impact of chemotherapy dose density and dose intensity on breast cancer outcome: what have we learned?  

PubMed

Optimising chemotherapy dose density and dose intensity are strategies aimed at improving outcomes in adjuvant therapy for patients with breast cancer. There are, in theory, at least five models allowing the delivery of a higher overall drug dose intensity. These are reviewed in this article and vary according to three main variables: the dose per course, the interval between doses and the total cumulative dose. Cyclophosphamide, anthracyclines and taxanes are among the most active agents for the treatment of breast cancer and, as such, they have been or are currently the focus of prospective, randomised clinical trials testing some of these dose-intensity models in the adjuvant setting. The results of recent trials suggest that anthracyclines, but not cyclophosphamide, are associated with better outcomes if used at higher doses per course and at higher cumulative doses. However, care has to be taken with premenopausal women where an increased dose of anthracycline per course but a reduced cumulative dose appears to produce a worse outcome. Moreover, decreasing the interval between doses, for anthracyclines and cyclophosphamide, does not seem to provide, so far, additional benefits for women with locally advanced breast cancer. This approach is not feasible with docetaxel, since an increase in dose density induces unwanted side-effects. These results represent our current state of knowledge, but clinical trials are being performed to evaluate further the effect of dose intensity, dose density and cumulative dose of key therapeutic agents on patient outcomes. PMID:10785603

Piccart, M J; Biganzoli, L; Di Leo, A

2000-04-01

343

Radiation dose and safety: informatics standards and tools.  

PubMed

Quality and safety improvements in radiology and medical imaging are substantially affected by radiation dose and its relationship to image quality and patient safety. Because radiation dose has many definitions and meanings, familiarity with and understanding of the basic nuances are important; modalities in general use radiation dose metrics that differ from patient radiation dose. Dose metric data differ among CT, interventional imaging, and digital radiography modalities. Informatics standards and tools assist in the extraction, collation, and analysis of these data and are described here. An informatics infrastructure can provide a pathway to automatically track and record dose metrics individually at the patient level and collectively through a regional or national radiation dose registry. Comparison of reference dose benchmarks to local and national practice values allows personnel at a given institution to objectively evaluate and optimize imaging procedures in regard to radiation dose metrics. Ultimately, enhanced patient care and safety are achieved. PMID:25467906

Morin, Richard L; Seibert, J Anthony; Boone, John M

2014-12-01

344

34 CFR 656.30 - What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF EDUCATION NATIONAL RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES What Conditions Must Be Met By a Grantee? § 656.30 What are allowable costs and limitations on...

2010-07-01

345

42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...

2011-10-01

346

42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...

2013-10-01

347

42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...

2014-10-01

348

A. Advertising and Signs Exterior signage is allowed for students sponsored activities, clubs and events to  

E-print Network

A. Advertising and Signs Exterior signage is allowed for students sponsored activities, clubs and events to promote student participation. 1. Student organizations may use exterior signs to advertise. A maximum of three wood signs may be posted for advertising an activity, club or event. 4. All signs must

Wu, Shin-Tson

349

Maximum-confidence discrimination among symmetric qudit states  

SciTech Connect

We study the maximum-confidence (MC) measurement strategy for discriminating among nonorthogonal symmetric qudit states. Restricting to linearly dependent and equally likely pure states, we find the optimal positive operator valued measure (POVM) that maximizes our confidence in identifying each state in the set and minimizes the probability of obtaining inconclusive results. The physical realization of this POVM is completely determined and it is shown that after an inconclusive outcome, the input states may be mapped into a new set of equiprobable symmetric states, restricted, however, to a subspace of the original qudit Hilbert space. By applying the MC measurement again onto this new set, we can still gain some information about the input states, although with less confidence than before. This leads us to introduce the concept of sequential maximum-confidence (SMC) measurements, where the optimized MC strategy is iterated in as many stages as allowed by the input set, until no further information can be extracted from an inconclusive result. Within each stage of this measurement our confidence in identifying the input states is the highest possible, although it decreases from one stage to the next. In addition, the more stages we accomplish within the maximum allowed, the higher will be the probability of correct identification. We will discuss an explicit example of the optimal SMC measurement applied in the discrimination among four symmetric qutrit states and propose an optical network to implement it.

Jimenez, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Casilla 170, Antofagasta (Chile); Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Delgado, A.; Neves, L. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

2011-12-15

350

17 CFR 240.17i-7 - Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment... Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment...Appendix A). (b) Allowance for market risk. The supervised investment bank...

2011-04-01

351

17 CFR 240.17i-7 - Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment... Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment...Appendix A). (b) Allowance for market risk. The supervised investment bank...

2010-04-01

352

Estimating the seasonal maximum light use efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light use efficiency (LUE) is a key parameter in estimating gross primary production (GPP) based on global Earth-observation satellite data and model calculations. In current LUE-based GPP estimation models, the maximum LUE is treated as a constant for each biome type. However, the maximum LUE varies seasonally. In this study, seasonal maximum LUE values were estimated from the maximum incident LUE versus the incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the fraction of absorbed PAR. First, an algorithm to estimate maximum incident LUE was developed to estimate GPP capacity using a light response curve. One of the parameters required for the light response curve was estimated from the linear relationship of the chlorophyll index and the GPP capacity at a high PAR level of 2000 (µmolm-2s-1), and was referred to as" the maximum GPP capacity at 2000". The relationship was determined for six plant functional types: needleleaf deciduous trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needleleaf evergreen trees, broadleaf evergreen trees, C3 grass, and crops. The maximum LUE values estimated in this study displayed seasonal variation, especially those for deciduous broadleaf forest, but also those for evergreen needleleaf forest.

Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Soyama, Noriko; Daigo, Motomasa

2014-11-01

353

Allowable exposure limits for carbon dioxide during extravehicular activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent was to review the research pertaining to human exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to recommend allowable exposure limits for extravehicular activity (EVA). Respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems may be adversely affected by chronic low dose CO2 exposure. Ventilation was increased 15 percent with 1 percent CO2 and 50 percent with 2 percent CO2. Chronic exposure to less than 2 percent CO2 led to 20 day cycles of uncompensated and compensated respiratory acidosis. Acid-base changes were small. Histopathologic changes in guinea pig lungs have been noted with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. No changes were seen with exposure to 0.5 percent CO2. Cycling of bone calcium stores with associated changes in blood and urinary calcium levels occurs with long term CO2 exposure. Histologic changes in bone have been noted in guinea pigs exposed to 1 percent CO2. Renal calcification has been noted in guinea pigs with exposure to as low as 0.5 percent CO2. An increase in gastric acidity was noted in subjects with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. Cardiovascular and neurologic function were largely unaffected. A decrease in the incidence of respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal disease was noted in submariners coincident with a decrease in ambient CO2 from 1.2 percent to 0.8-0.9 percent. Oxygen (O2) and CO2 stimulate respiration independently and cumulatively. The addition of CO2 to high dose O2 led to the faster onset of seizure activity in mice. Experiments evaluating the physiologic responses to intermittent, repetitive exposures to low dose CO2 and 100 percent O2 mixtures should be performed. A reduction in the current NASA standard for CO2 exposure during EVA of 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for nominal and 2 percent (15.2 mmHg) for heavy exertion to 0.5 percent (3.8 mmHg) for nominal and 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for heavy exertion may be prudent. At a minimum, the current NASA standard should not be liberalized.

Seter, Andrew J.

1993-01-01

354

Biological detection of reduction in dose at the surface of volume sources containing beta emitters.  

PubMed

Dosimetry theory related to volume sources containing uniformly distributed beta-emitting radionuclides predicts a rapid drop in dose at the outer surface to approximately one half of the maximum dose within the volume. The purpose of this study was to determine if this reduction in surface dose could be observed using a measurable biological endpoint. In this study rats were injected with radiocolloids of either 198Au, 113In-m or 99Tc-m, to produce liver irradiation from their decay, or their livers were treated with external X-irradiation. After irradiation, a portion of the liver was surgically removed to stimulate cell division in the liver remnant revealing radiation damage in the form of chromosomal aberrations. The percentages of dividing cells with bridges were scored in the outer edges (0.45 mm) of the tissue sections and were compared to levels obtained from the central portion of the liver lobe. No significant difference was observed with X-irradiation or from 99Tc-m irradiation. However, irradiation with 198-Au and 113In-m (which emit large numbers of energetic electrons) produced significantly fewer aberrations in the outer layer when compared to the central portion. These differences in the distribution of biological damage allowed us to detect the predicted dose reduction at the surface of volume sources containing beta emitters. PMID:1153515

Witcofski, R L; Smith, E M; Pizzarello, D J

1975-03-01

355

Teaching for maximum learning: The Philippine experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author tells about how the achievement level of Filipono grade school children is being improved through teaching for maximum learning. To promote teaching for maximum learning, it was imperative to identify minimum learning competencies in the new curriculum for each grade level, retrain teachers for teaching for maximum learning, develop appropriate instructional materials, improve the quality of supervision of instruction, install a multi-level (national to school) testing system and redress inequities in the distribution of human and material resources. This systematic approach to solving the problem of low quality of educational outcomes has resulted in a modest but steady improvement in the achievement levels of school children.

Sutaria, Minda C.

1990-06-01

356

Occupational radiation doses to the extremities and the eyes in interventional radiology and cardiology procedures  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine occupational dose levels in interventional radiology and cardiology procedures. Methods The study covered a sample of 25 procedures and monitored occupational dose for all laboratory personnel. Each individual wore eight thermoluminescent dosemeters next to the eyes, wrists, fingers and legs during each procedure. Radiation protection shields used in each procedure were recorded. Results The highest doses per procedure were recorded for interventionists at the left wrist (average 485 ?Sv, maximum 5239 ?Sv) and left finger (average 324 ?Sv, maximum 2877 ?Sv), whereas lower doses were recorded for the legs (average 124 ?Sv, maximum 1959 ?Sv) and the eyes (average 64 ?Sv, maximum 1129 ?Sv). Doses to the assisting nurses during the intervention were considerably lower; the highest doses were recorded at the wrists (average 26 ?Sv, maximum 41 ?Sv) and legs (average 18 ?Sv, maximum 22 ?Sv), whereas doses to the eyes were minimal (average 4 ?Sv, maximum 16 ?Sv). Occupational doses normalised to kerma area product (KAP) ranged from 11.9 to 117.3 ?Sv/1000 cGy cm2 and KAP was poorly correlated to the interventionists' extremity doses. Conclusion Calculation of the dose burden for interventionists considering the actual number of procedures performed annually revealed that dose limits for the extremities and the lenses of the eyes were not exceeded. However, there are cases in which high doses have been recorded and this can lead to exceeding the dose limits when bad practices are followed and the radiation protection tools are not properly used. PMID:21172967

Efstathopoulos, E P; Pantos, I; Andreou, M; Gkatzis, A; Carinou, E; Koukorava, C; Kelekis, N L; Brountzos, E

2011-01-01

357

A rare opportunity: Observing the 2011 Quadrantid maximum from Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After more than ten years of waiting, fine observing conditions in Austria during the 2011 Quadrantid maximum allowed collecting a reasonable amount of data even by a single observer. During 5.45 hours of effective observing time 188 Quadrantids were recorded on January 3/4. Calculations of the population index yielded values varying between r = 1.89 ± 0.21 and 2.48 ± 0.43 (mean r = 2.08 ± 0.14) whereas the activity profile shows a peak ZHR of 88 ± 13 between 02h00m and 03h00m UT, most likely at 02h50m to 02h55m ± 15m UT (Solar Longitude = 283°23 ± 0°01; eq. 2000.0), about 1.7 hour later (difference in solar longitude = +0°07) than predicted. An impression of the maximum night together with a summary of the results is given.

Weiland, Thomas

2012-10-01

358

Maximum work extraction and implementation costs for nonequilibrium Maxwell's demons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the maximum amount of work extractable in finite time by a demon performing continuous measurements on a quadratic Hamiltonian system subjected to thermal fluctuations, in terms of the information extracted from the system. The maximum work demon is found to apply a high-gain continuous feedback involving a Kalman-Bucy estimate of the system state and operates in nonequilibrium. A simple and concrete electrical implementation of the feedback protocol is proposed, which allows for analytic expressions of the flows of energy, entropy, and information inside the demon. This let us show that any implementation of the demon must necessarily include an external power source, which we prove both from classical thermodynamics arguments and from a version of Landauer's memory erasure argument extended to nonequilibrium linear systems.

Sandberg, Henrik; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Newton, Nigel J.; Mitter, Sanjoy K.

2014-10-01

359

Low-dose megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography for lung tumors using a high-efficiency image receptor  

SciTech Connect

We report on the capabilities of a low-dose megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) system. The high-efficiency image receptor consists of a photodiode array coupled to a scintillator composed of individual CsI crystals. The CBCT system uses the 6 MV beam from a linear accelerator. A synchronization circuit allows us to limit the exposure to one beam pulse [0.028 monitor units (MU)] per projection image. 150-500 images (4.2-13.9 MU total) are collected during a one-minute scan and reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm. Anthropomorphic and contrast phantoms are imaged and the contrast-to-noise ratio of the reconstruction is studied as a function of the number of projections and the error in the projection angles. The detector dose response is linear (R{sup 2} value 0.9989). A 2% electron density difference is discernible using 460 projection images and a total exposure of 13 MU (corresponding to a maximum absorbed dose of about 12 cGy in a patient). We present first patient images acquired with this system. Tumors in lung are clearly visible and skeletal anatomy is observed in sufficient detail to allow reproducible registration with the planning kV CT images. The MV CBCT system is shown to be capable of obtaining good quality three-dimensional reconstructions at relatively low dose and to be clinically usable for improving the accuracy of radiotherapy patient positioning.

Sillanpaa, Jussi; Chang Jenghwa; Mageras, Gikas; Yorke, Ellen; Arruda, Fernando De; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Munro, Peter; Seppi, Edward; Pavkovich, John; Amols, Howard [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Ginzton Technology Center, Varian Medical Systems, Mountain View, California 94043 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States)

2006-09-15

360

3D inpatient dose reconstruction from the PET-CT imaging of {sup 90}Y microspheres for metastatic cancer to the liver: Feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The introduction of radioembolization with microspheres represents a significant step forward in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease to the liver. This technique uses semiempirical formulae based on body surface area or liver and target volumes to calculate the required total activity for a given patient. However, this treatment modality lacks extremely important information, which is the three-dimensional (3D) dose delivered by microspheres to different organs after their administration. The absence of this information dramatically limits the clinical efficacy of this modality, specifically the predictive power of the treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a 3D dose calculation technique that is based on the PET imaging of the infused microspheres.Methods: The Fluka Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the voxel dose kernel for {sup 90}Y source with voxel size equal to that of the PET scan. The measured PET activity distribution was converted to total activity distribution for the subsequent convolution with the voxel dose kernel to obtain the 3D dose distribution. In addition, dose-volume histograms were generated to analyze the dose to the tumor and critical structures.Results: The 3D inpatient dose distribution can be reconstructed from the PET data of a patient scanned after the infusion of microspheres. A total of seven patients have been analyzed so far using the proposed reconstruction method. Four patients underwent treatment with SIR-Spheres for liver metastases from colorectal cancer and three patients were treated with Therasphere for hepatocellular cancer. A total of 14 target tumors were contoured on post-treatment PET-CT scans for dosimetric evaluation. Mean prescription activity was 1.7 GBq (range: 0.58–3.8 GBq). The resulting mean maximum measured dose to targets was 167 Gy (range: 71–311 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 70% of target (D70) was 68 Gy (range: 25–155 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 90% of target (D90) was 53 Gy (range: 13–125 Gy).Conclusions: A three-dimensional inpatient dose reconstruction method has been developed that is based on the PET/CT data of a patient treated with {sup 90}Y microspheres. It allows for a complete description of the absorbed dose by the tumor and critical structures. It represents the first step in building predictive models for treatment outcomes for patients receiving this therapeutic modality as well as it allows for better analysis of patients' dose response and will ultimately improve future treatment administration.

Fourkal, E.; Veltchev, I.; Lin, M.; Meyer, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States); Koren, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York 10011 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York 10011 (United States); Doss, M.; Yu, J. Q. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)] [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)

2013-08-15

361

The Minimum Cannot Become the Maximum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author shares his concerns about minimal competency testing, fearing that the minimum may become the maximum. He discusses this fear based on examples from the English curriculum--Language, Writing, and Literature. (KC)

Bushman, John H.

1980-01-01

362

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2014-01-01

363

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2013-01-01

364

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2011-01-01

365

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2012-01-01

366

Approximating Maximum Diameter-Bounded Subgraphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper studies the maximum diameter-bounded subgraph problem (MaxDBS for short) which is defined as follows: Given an n-vertex graph G and a fixed integer d???1, the goal is to find its largest subgraph of the diameter d. If d?=?1, the problem is identical to the maximum clique problem and thus it is NP{\\\\cal NP}-hard to approximate MaxDBS to within

Yuichi Asahiro; Eiji Miyano; Kazuaki Samizo

2010-01-01

367

Maximum, Minimum, and Current Temperature Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure air (and optionally soil) temperature within one hour of solar noon and the maximum and minimum air temperatures for the previous 24 hours. Intended outcomes are that students will learn to read minimum, maximum, and current temperatures using a U-shaped thermometer, understand diurnal and annual temperature variations, and recognize factors that influence atmospheric temperatures. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

368

Peripheral dose measurements for 6 and 18 MV photon beams on a linear accelerator with multileaf collimator  

SciTech Connect

Peripheral dose (PD) to critical structures outside treatment volume is of clinical importance. The aim of the current study was to estimate PD on a linear accelerator equipped with multileaf collimator (MLC). Dose measurements were carried out using an ionization chamber embedded in a water phantom for 6 and 18 MV photon beams. PD values were acquired for field sizes from 5x5 to 20x20 cm{sup 2} in increments of 5 cm at distances up to 24 cm from the field edge. Dose data were obtained at two collimator orientations where the measurement points are shielded by MLC and jaws. The variation of PD with the source to skin distance (SSD), depth, and lateral displacement of the measurement point was evaluated. To examine the dependence of PD upon the tissue thickness at the entrance point of the beam, scattered dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters placed on three anthropomorphic phantoms simulating 5- and 10-year-old children and an average adult patient. PD from 6 MV photons varied from 0.13% to 6.75% of the central-axis maximum dose depending upon the collimator orientation, extent of irradiated area, and distance from the treatment field. The corresponding dose range from 18 MV x rays was 0.09% to 5.61%. The variation of PD with depth and with lateral displacements up to 80% of the field dimension was very small. The scattered dose from both photon beams increased with the increase of SSD or tissue thickness along beam axis. The presented dosimetric data set allows the estimation of scattered dose outside the primary beam.

Mazonakis, Michalis; Zacharopoulou, Fotini; Varveris, Haralambos; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion (Greece); Department of Radiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 71409 Iraklion (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 71409 Iraklion (Greece)

2008-10-15

369

Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. {sup 131}I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided.

Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

370

Dose profile variation with voltage in head CT scans using radiochromic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The voltage source used in an X-ray tube is an important part of defining the generated beam spectrum energy profile. The X-ray spectrum energy defines the X-ray beam absorption as well as the characteristics of the energy deposition in an irradiated object. Although CT scanners allow one to choose between four different voltage values, most of them employ a voltage of 120 kV in their scanning protocols, regardless of the patient characteristics. Based on this fact, this work investigated the deposited dose in a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cylindrical head phantom. The entire volume was irradiated twice. Two CT scanning protocols were used with two different voltage values: 100 and 120 kV. The phantom volume was irradiated, and radiochromic films were employed to record dose profiles. Measurements were conducted with a calibrated pencil ionization chamber, which was positioned in the center and in four peripheral bores of the head PMMA phantom, to calibrate the radiochromic films. The central slice was then irradiated. This procedure allowed us to find the conversion factors necessary to obtain dose values recorded in the films. The data obtained allowed us to observe the dose variation profile inside the phantom head as well as in the peripheral and central regions. The peripheral region showed higher dose values than those of the central region for scans using both voltage values: approximately 31% higher for scanning with 120 kV and 25% higher with 100 kV. Doses recorded with the highest voltage are significantly higher, approximately 50% higher in the peripheral region and 40% higher in the central region. A longitudinal variation could be observed, and the maximum dose was recorded at the peripheral region, at the midpoint of the longitudinal axis. The obtained results will most likely contribute to the dissemination of proper procedure as well as to optimize dosimetry and tests of quality control in CT because the choice of protocols with different voltage values can be a way to optimize the CT scans.

Mourão, A. P.; Alonso, T. C.; DaSilva, T. A.

2014-02-01

371

The measurement of maximum cylinder pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work presented in this report was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine a suitable method for measuring the maximum pressures occurring in aircraft engine cylinders. The study and development of instruments for the measurement of maximum cylinder pressures has been conducted in connection with carburetor and oil engine investigations on a single cylinder aircraft-type engine. Five maximum cylinder-pressure devices have been designed, and tested, in addition to the testing of three commercial indicators. Values of maximum cylinder pressures are given as obtained with various indicators for the same pressures and for various kinds and values of maximum cylinder pressures, produced chiefly by variation of the injection advance angle in high-speed oil engine. The investigations indicate that the greatest accuracy in determining maximum cylinder pressures can be obtained with an electric, balanced-pressure, diaphragm or disk-type indicator so constructed as to have a diaphragm or disk of relatively large area and minimum seat width and mass.

Hicks, Chester W

1929-01-01

372

Effect of Breathing Motion on Radiotherapy Dose Accumulation in the Abdomen Using Deformable Registration  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effect of breathing motion and dose accumulation on the planned radiotherapy dose to liver tumors and normal tissues using deformable image registration. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one free-breathing stereotactic liver cancer radiotherapy patients, planned on static exhale computed tomography (CT) for 27-60 Gy in six fractions, were included. A biomechanical model-based deformable image registration algorithm retrospectively deformed each exhale CT to inhale CT. This deformation map was combined with exhale and inhale dose grids from the treatment planning system to accumulate dose over the breathing cycle. Accumulation was also investigated using a simple rigid liver-to-liver registration. Changes to tumor and normal tissue dose were quantified. Results: Relative to static plans, mean dose change (range) after deformable dose accumulation (as % of prescription dose) was -1 (-14 to 8) to minimum tumor, -4 (-15 to 0) to maximum bowel, -4 (-25 to 1) to maximum duodenum, 2 (-1 to 9) to maximum esophagus, -2 (-13 to 4) to maximum stomach, 0 (-3 to 4) to mean liver, and -1 (-5 to 1) and -2 (-7 to 1) to mean left and right kidneys. Compared to deformable registration, rigid modeling had changes up to 8% to minimum tumor and 7% to maximum normal tissues. Conclusion: Deformable registration and dose accumulation revealed potentially significant dose changes to either a tumor or normal tissue in the majority of cases as a result of breathing motion. These changes may not be accurately accounted for with rigid motion.

Velec, Michael, E-mail: michael.velec@rmp.uhn.on.c [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Moseley, Joanne L. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Eccles, Cynthia L.; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.; Dawson, Laura A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

2011-05-01

373

Neutron dose equivalent meter  

DOEpatents

A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)

1996-01-01

374

Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Reduces the Dose to Normal Tissue Compared With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy or Passive Scattering Proton Therapy and Enables Individualized Radical Radiotherapy for Extensive Stage IIIB Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Virtual Clinical Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare dose volume histograms of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) with those of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) for the treatment of stage IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to explore the possibility of individualized radical radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose volume histograms designed to deliver IMRT at 60 to 63 Gy, PSPT at 74 Gy, and IMPT at the same doses were compared and the use of individualized radical radiotherapy was assessed in patients with extensive stage IIIB NSCLC (n = 10 patients for each approach). These patients were selected based on their extensive disease and were considered to have no or borderline tolerance to IMRT at 60 to 63 Gy, based on the dose to normal tissue volume constraints (lung volume receiving 20 Gy [V20] of <35%, total mean lung dose <20 Gy; spinal cord dose, <45 Gy). The possibility of increasing the total tumor dose with IMPT for each patient without exceeding the dose volume constraints (maximum tolerated dose [MTD]) was also investigated. Results: Compared with IMRT, IMPT spared more lung, heart, spinal cord, and esophagus, even with dose escalation from 63 Gy to 83.5 Gy, with a mean MTD of 74 Gy. Compared with PSPT, IMPT allowed further dose escalation from 74 Gy to a mean MTD of 84.4 Gy (range, 79.4-88.4 Gy) while all parameters of normal tissue sparing were kept at lower or similar levels. In addition, IMPT prevented lower-dose target coverage in patients with complicated tumor anatomies. Conclusions: IMPT reduces the dose to normal tissue and allows individualized radical radiotherapy for extensive stage IIIB NSCLC.

Zhang Xiaodong; Li Yupeng; Pan Xiaoning; Xiaoqiang, Li; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.or [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2010-06-01

375

Mobile Communication Device Allowance Authorization Form Revised: April 2011 MOBILE COMMUNICATION DEVICE ALLOWANCE AUTHORIZATION FORM  

E-print Network

Mobile Communication Device Allowance Authorization Form Revised: April 2011 MOBILE COMMUNICATION.edu/policy/itc/FINAL%20Policy%20on%20Mobile%20Comm%20Devices.htm I have read the Mobile Communication Devices Policy list your CURRENT PLAN features: Mobile service provider Name: ________ Monthly Charge: $ Device

Dyer, Bill

376

Improving dynamic tomography, through Maximum a posteriori estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct study of pore-scale fluid displacements, and other dynamic (i.e. time-dependent) processes is not feasible with conventional X-ray micro computed tomography (?CT). We have previously verified that a priori knowledge of the underlying physics can be used to conduct high-resolution, time-resolved imaging of continuous, complex processes, at existing X-ray ?CT facilities. In this paper we present a maximum a posteriori (MAP) model of the dynamic tomography problem, which allows us to easily adapt and generalise our previous dynamic ?CT approach to systems with more complex underlying physics.

Myers, Glenn R.; Geleta, Matthew; Kingston, Andrew M.; Recur, Benoit; Sheppard, Adrian P.

2014-09-01

377

Partition model for estimating radiation doses from yttrium-90 microspheres in treating hepatic tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

A uniform distribution of yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres throughout the entire liver has always been assumed for dose calculation in treating hepatic tumours. A simple mathematical model was formulated which allows estimation of the activities of a therapeutic dose of90Y microspheres partitioned between the lungs, the tumour and the normal liver, and hence the radiation doses to them. The doses to

S. Ho; W. Y. Lau; T. W. T. Leung; M. Chan; Y. K. Ngar; P. J. Johnson; A. K. C. Li

1996-01-01

378

46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section 154.556...Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum...

2011-10-01

379

46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section 154.556...Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum...

2010-10-01

380

Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

McGarr, A.

2014-02-01

381

Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information  

E-print Network

Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

2014-04-29

382

Cancer chemoprevention by dietary chlorophylls: a 12,000-animal dose-dose matrix biomarker and tumor study.  

PubMed

Recent pilot studies found natural chlorophyll (Chl) to inhibit carcinogen uptake and tumorigenesis in rodent and fish models, and to alter uptake and biodistribution of trace (14)C-aflatoxin B1 in human volunteers. The present study extends these promising findings, using a dose-dose matrix design to examine Chl-mediated effects on dibenzo(def,p)chrysene (DBC)-induced DNA adduct formation, tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and changes in gene regulation in the trout. The dose-dose matrix design employed an initial 12,360 rainbow trout, which were treated with 0-4000ppm dietary Chl along with 0-225ppm DBC for up to 4weeks. Dietary DBC was found to induce dose-responsive changes in gene expression that were abolished by Chl co-treatment, whereas Chl alone had no effect on the same genes. Chl co-treatment provided a dose-responsive reduction in total DBC-DNA adducts without altering relative adduct intensities along the chromatographic profile. In animals receiving DBC alone, liver tumor incidence (as logit) and tumor multiplicity were linear in DBC dose (as log) up to their maximum-effect dose, and declined thereafter. Chl co-treatment substantially inhibited incidence and multiplicity at DBC doses up to their maximum-effect dose. These results show that Chl concentrations encountered in Chl-rich green vegetables can provide substantial cancer chemoprotection, and suggest that they do so by reducing carcinogen bioavailability. However, at DBC doses above the optima, Chl co-treatments failed to inhibit tumor incidence and significantly enhanced multiplicity. This finding questions the human relevance of chemoprevention studies carried out at high carcinogen doses that are not proven to lie within a linear, or at least monotonic, endpoint dose-response range. PMID:22079312

McQuistan, Tammie J; Simonich, Michael T; Pratt, M Margaret; Pereira, Cliff B; Hendricks, Jerry D; Dashwood, Roderick H; Williams, David E; Bailey, George S

2012-02-01

383

Maximum First Transfer and Dilution Volumes for 241SY101  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the solution to the following problem: what is the maximum waste transfer and dilution quantities and locations which can be allowed in the first transfer of waste from SY-101 given the following constraints? (1) The crust must float on the submerged waste (waste becomes less dense when diluted, eventually allowing crust to sink); (2) No credit is taken for the top dilution; (3) Addition of water to the bulk slurry through the transfer pump must be able to refloat the crust base to above 295 inches; (4) The margin between refloating to 295 inches and crust sinking must be at least 10,000 gallons; (5) The crust can't be thinned to less than 60 inches thick.

BARTON, W.B.

1999-10-28

384

{sup 222}Rn alpha dose to organs other than lung  

SciTech Connect

The alpha dose to cells in tissues or organs other theft the lung has been calculated using the solubility coefficients for {sup 222} Rn measured in human tissue. The annual alpha dose equivalent f rom {sup 222} Rn and decay products in most tissues is a maximum of 30% of the annual average natural background dose equivalent (1 mSv) for external and internally deposited nuclides. The dose to the small population of lymphocytes located in or under the bronchial epithelium is a special case and their annual dose equivalent is essentially the same as that to basal cells in bronchial epithelium (200 mSv) for continuous exposure to 200 Bq M{sup {minus}3}. The significance of this dose is uncertain because the only excess cancer observed in follow up studies of underground miners with high {sup 222} Rn exposure is bronchogenic carcinoma.

Harley, N.H.; Robbins, E.S.

1991-12-31

385

[sup 222]Rn alpha dose to organs other than lung  

SciTech Connect

The alpha dose to cells in tissues or organs other theft the lung has been calculated using the solubility coefficients for [sup 222] Rn measured in human tissue. The annual alpha dose equivalent f rom [sup 222] Rn and decay products in most tissues is a maximum of 30% of the annual average natural background dose equivalent (1 mSv) for external and internally deposited nuclides. The dose to the small population of lymphocytes located in or under the bronchial epithelium is a special case and their annual dose equivalent is essentially the same as that to basal cells in bronchial epithelium (200 mSv) for continuous exposure to 200 Bq M[sup [minus]3]. The significance of this dose is uncertain because the only excess cancer observed in follow up studies of underground miners with high [sup 222] Rn exposure is bronchogenic carcinoma.

Harley, N.H.; Robbins, E.S.

1991-01-01

386

BENCHMARK DOSE SOFTWARE (BMDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has announced the latest update to the Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) tool which is used to facilitate the application of benchmark dose (BMD) methods to EPA hazardous pollutant risk assessments. This latest version (1.4.1b) contains seventeen (17) different models that ar...

387

Dialysis dose and frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. From the beginning of the dialysis era, the issue of optimal dialysis dose and frequency has been a central topic in the delivery of dialysis treatment. Methods. We undertook a discussion to achieve a consensus on key points relating to dialysis dose and frequency, focusing on the relationships with clinical and patient outcomes. Results. Traditionally, dialysis adequacy has been

Francesco Locatelli; Umberto Buoncristiani; Bernard Canaud; Hans Kohler; Thierry Petitclerc; Pietro Zucchelli; Ospedale A. Manzoni; CHU Montpellier; Schwerpunkt Nephrologie

2004-01-01

388

Maximum likelihood clustering with dependent feature trees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decomposition of mixture density of the data into its normal component densities is considered. The densities are approximated with first order dependent feature trees using criteria of mutual information and distance measures. Expressions are presented for the criteria when the densities are Gaussian. By defining different typs of nodes in a general dependent feature tree, maximum likelihood equations are developed for the estimation of parameters using fixed point iterations. The field structure of the data is also taken into account in developing maximum likelihood equations. Experimental results from the processing of remotely sensed multispectral scanner imagery data are included.

Chittineni, C. B. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

389

Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

Summhammer, Johann

1994-01-01

390

Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of eliglustat tartrate (Genz-112638) after single doses, multiple doses, and food in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Three phase 1 studies of eliglustat tartrate (Genz-112638), an oral inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase under development for treating Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1), evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers after escalating single doses (n = 99), escalating multiple doses (n = 36), and food (n = 24). Eliglustat tartrate was well tolerated at single doses ? 20 mg/kg and multiple doses ? 200 mg bid, with 50 mg bid producing plasma concentrations in the predicted therapeutic range. No serious adverse events occurred. Mild to moderate events of nausea, dizziness, and vomiting increased in frequency with escalating single and multiple doses. Single doses ? 10 mg/kg caused mild increases in electrocardiogram PR, QRS, and QT/QTc intervals. Single-dose pharmacokinetics showed dose linearity but not proportionality. Maximum plasma concentrations occurred at ~2 hours, followed by a monophasic decline with a ~6-hour terminal half-life. Unchanged drug in 8-hour urine collections was <1.5% of administered doses. Food did not significantly affect the rate or extent of absorption. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics was nonlinear, showing higher than expected plasma drug concentrations. Steady state was reached ~60 hours after bid dosing. Higher drug exposure occurred in slower CYP2D6 metabolizers. Based on favorable results in healthy participants, a phase 2 trial of eliglustat tartrate was initiated in GD1 patients. PMID:20864621

Peterschmitt, M Judith; Burke, Amy; Blankstein, Larry; Smith, Sharon E; Puga, Ana Cristina; Kramer, William G; Harris, James A; Mathews, David; Bonate, Peter L

2011-05-01

391

Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and maximum entropy production in the Earth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth system is maintained in a unique state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, as, for instance, reflected in the high concentration of reactive oxygen in the atmosphere. The myriad of processes that transform energy, that result in the motion of mass in the atmosphere, in oceans, and on land, processes that drive the global water, carbon, and other biogeochemical cycles, all have in common that they are irreversible in their nature. Entropy production is a general consequence of these processes and measures their degree of irreversibility. The proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) states that systems are driven to steady states in which they produce entropy at the maximum possible rate given the prevailing constraints. In this review, the basics of nonequilibrium thermodynamics are described, as well as how these apply to Earth system processes. Applications of the MEP principle are discussed, ranging from the strength of the atmospheric circulation, the hydrological cycle, and biogeochemical cycles to the role that life plays in these processes. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and the MEP principle have potentially wide-ranging implications for our understanding of Earth system functioning, how it has evolved in the past, and why it is habitable. Entropy production allows us to quantify an objective direction of Earth system change (closer to vs further away from thermodynamic equilibrium, or, equivalently, towards a state of MEP). When a maximum in entropy production is reached, MEP implies that the Earth system reacts to perturbations primarily with negative feedbacks. In conclusion, this nonequilibrium thermodynamic view of the Earth system shows great promise to establish a holistic description of the Earth as one system. This perspective is likely to allow us to better understand and predict its function as one entity, how it has evolved in the past, and how it is modified by human activities in the future.

Kleidon, Axel

2009-02-01

392

Multiple target tracking using maximum likelihood principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a method (tracking algorithm (TAL)) based on the maximum likelihood (ML) principle for multiple target tracking in near-field using outputs from a large uniform linear array of passive sensors. The targets are assumed to be narrowband signals and modeled as sample functions of a Gaussian stochastic process. The phase delays of these signals are expressed as functions of both

A. Satish; Rangasami L. Kashyap

1995-01-01

393

Dynamic Programming, Maximum Principle and Vintage Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an application of the Dynamic Programming (DP) and of the Maximum Principle (MP) to solve an optimization over time when the production function is linear in the stock of capital (Ak model). Two views of capital are considered. In one, which is embraced by the great majority of macroeconomic models, capital is homogeneous and depreciates at a constant

Giorgio Fabbri; Maurizio Iacopetta

2007-01-01

394

Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography  

PubMed Central

Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset – Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945

Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Milstead, W. Bryan; Urrutia, M. Andrea

2011-01-01

395

Integrated photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-power low-cost highly efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to be integrated into a photovoltaic (PV) panel is proposed. This can result in a 25% energy enhancement compared to a standard photovoltaic panel, while performing functions like battery voltage regulation and matching of the PV array with the load. Instead of using an externally connected MPPT, it is proposed

Johan H. R. Enslin; Mario S. Wolf; D. B. Snyman; Wernher Swiegers

1997-01-01

396

REDUCTION OF RESTRICTED MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD FOR  

E-print Network

maximum likelihood (REML) estimator of the dispersion matrix for random coeÃ?cient models is rewritten) estimators are widely used to estimate the free parameters in the dispersion matrix for mixed models to be Gaussian random variables. Thus the kth individual, y k , is a Gaussian random variable with the block

397

REDUCTION OF RESTRICTED MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD FOR  

E-print Network

maximum likelihood (REML) estimator of the dispersion matrix for random coefficient models is rewritten (REML) estimators are widely used to estimate the free parameters in the dispersion matrix for mixed , . . . T N ) and eT = (eT 1 , . . . eT N ). We also require y, and e to be Gaussian random variables. Thus

398

On Using Unsatisfiability for Solving Maximum Satisfiability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum Satisfiability (M AXSAT) is a well-known optimization pro- blem, with several practical applications. The most widely known MAXSAT algo- rithms are ineffective at solving hard problems instances f rom practical applica- tion domains. Recent work proposed using efficient Boolean S atisfiability (SAT) solvers for solving the MAXSAT problem, based on identifying and eliminating unsatisfiable subformulas. However, these algorithms do

Joao Marques-Silva; Jordi Planes

2007-01-01

399

Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle  

E-print Network

The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kiyoharu Kawana

2014-09-23

400

Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle  

E-print Network

The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kiyoharu Kawana

2015-03-28

401

Pointing at Maximum Power for PV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams measure voltage and current in order to determine the power output of a photovoltaic (PV) panel. They vary the resistance in a simple circuit connected to the panel to demonstrate the effects on voltage, current, and power output. After collecting data, they calculate power for each resistance setting, creating a graph of current vs. voltage, and indentifying the maximum power point.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

402

Hurricane Maximum Intensity: Past and Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane intensity forecasting has lagged far behind the forecasting of hurricane track. In an effort to improve the understanding of the hurricane intensity dilemma, several attempts have been made to compute an upper bound on the intensity of tropical cyclones. This paper investigates the strides made into determining the maximum intensity of hurricanes. Concentrating on the most recent attempts to

J. Parks Camp; Michael T. Montgomery

2001-01-01

403

Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements. PMID:19111437

Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W

2010-05-01

404

Muscle coordination of maximum-speed pedaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation based on a forward dynamical musculoskeletal model was computed from an optimal control algorithm to understand uni- and bi-articular muscle coordination of maximum-speed startup pedaling. The muscle excitations, pedal reaction forces, and crank and pedal kinematics of the simulation agreed with measurements from subjects. Over the crank cycle, uniarticular hip and knee extensor muscles provide 55% of the

Christine C. Raasch; Felix E. Zajac; Baoming Ma; William S. Levine

1997-01-01

405

Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

1922-01-01

406

Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

2015-03-01

407

Maximum entropy analysis of hydraulic pipe networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) method is developed to infer mean external and internal flow rates and mean pressure gradients (potential differences) in hydraulic pipe networks, without or with sufficient constraints to render the system deterministic. The proposed method substantially extends existing methods for the analysis of flow networks (e.g. Hardy-Cross), applicable only to deterministic networks.

Waldrip, Steven H.; Niven, Robert K.; Abel, Markus; Schlegel, Michael

2014-12-01

408

Maximum entropy models for speech confidence estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we implement a confidence estimation system based on a Naive Bayes classifier, by using the maximum entropy paradigm. The model takes information from various sources including a set of scores which have proved to be useful in confidence estimation tasks. Two different approaches are modeled. First a basic model which takes advantages of smoothing techniques used in

Claudio Estienne; Alberto Sanchís; Alfons Juan; Enrique Vidal

2008-01-01

409

Maximum Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a physical picture, an expression for the maximum possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)

Medhekar, Sarang

1991-01-01

410

: runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress  

E-print Network

: runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress fe,i : elastic limit strength of each specimen 750 uniaxial tensile fatigue stress. Interests in tensile fatigue strength and behaviour come from the fact.g. cantilever of bridge deck slab). Tensile Fatigue behaviour of UHPFRC Doctoral student: Tohru Makita

411

Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars  

SciTech Connect

Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.

Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. (Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, PL-00-716 Warsaw (Poland))

1990-07-15

412

Maximum Frictional Charge Generation on Polymer Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum amount of charge that a given surface area can hold is limited by the surrounding environmental conditions such as the atmospheric composition, pressure, humidity, and temperature. Above this charge density limit, the surface will discharge to the atmosphere or to a nearby conductive surface that is at a different electric potential. We have performed experiments using the MECA

Carlos Calle; Ellen Groop; James Mantovani; Martin Buehler

2001-01-01

413

The maximum intelligible range of the human voice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the acoustics of the spoken voice at high levels and the maximum number of people that could hear such a voice unamplified in the open air. In particular, it examines an early auditory experiment by Benjamin Franklin which sought to determine the maximum intelligible crowd for the Anglican preacher George Whitefield in the eighteenth century. Using Franklin's description of the experiment and a noise source on Front Street, the geometry and diffraction effects of such a noise source are examined to more precisely pinpoint Franklin's position when Whitefield's voice ceased to be intelligible. Based on historical maps, drawings, and prints, the geometry and material of Market Street is constructed as a computer model which is then used to construct an acoustic cone tracing model. Based on minimal values of the Speech Transmission Index (STI) at Franklin's position, Whitefield's on-axis Sound Pressure Level (SPL) at 1 m is determined, leading to estimates centering around 90 dBA. Recordings are carried out on trained actors and singers to determine their maximum time-averaged SPL at 1 m. This suggests that the greatest average SPL achievable by the human voice is 90-91 dBA, similar to the median estimates for Whitefield's voice. The sites of Whitefield's largest crowds are acoustically modeled based on historical evidence and maps. Based on Whitefield's SPL, the minimal STI value, and the crowd's background noise, this allows a prediction of the minimally intelligible area for each site. These yield maximum crowd estimates of 50,000 under ideal conditions, while crowds of 20,000 to 30,000 seem more reasonable when the crowd was reasonably quiet and Whitefield's voice was near 90 dBA.

Boren, Braxton

414

Different Dose Rate Radiation Effects on Linear CCDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charge coupled devices (CCD) have been tested at widely differing dose rates to examine the radiation tolerance dependence on the dose rates. The test results show a maximum tolerance of CCDs at 10.2 rad(Si)\\/sec, a slight reduction in tolerance at 34.8 rad(Si)\\/sec and a quite precipitous roll off when moving down to 1 rad(Si)\\/sec and 0.1 rad(Si)\\/sec. The degradation of

Wang Zujun; Tang Benqi; Xiao Zhigang; Liu Minbo; Zhang Yong; Huang Shaoyan; Chen Wei; Liu Yinong

2010-01-01

415

Calculation of total effective dose equivalent and collective dose in the event of a LOCA in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant.  

PubMed

In this research, total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and collective dose (CD) are calculated for the most adverse potential accident in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant from the viewpoint of radionuclides release to the environment. Calculations are performed using a Gaussian diffusion model and a slightly modified version of AIREM computer code to adopt for conditions in Bushehr. The results are comparable with the final safety analysis report which used DOZAM code. Results of our calculations show no excessive dose in populated regions. Maximum TEDE is determined to be in the WSW direction. CD in the area around the nuclear power plant by a distance of 30 km (138 man Sv) is far below the accepted limits. Thyroid equivalent dose is also calculated for the WSW direction (maximum 25.6 mSv) and is below the limits at various distances from the reactor stack. PMID:16785243

Raisali, G; Davilu, H; Haghighishad, A; Khodadadi, R; Sabet, M

2006-01-01

416

40 CFR 35.940-5 - Disputes concerning allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Disputes concerning allowable costs. 35.940-5 Section...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.940-5...concerning allowable costs. The grantee should...questions relating to cost allowability or...

2011-07-01

417

40 CFR 35.940-5 - Disputes concerning allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Disputes concerning allowable costs. 35.940-5 Section...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.940-5...concerning allowable costs. The grantee should...questions relating to cost allowability or...

2014-07-01

418

40 CFR 35.940-5 - Disputes concerning allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Disputes concerning allowable costs. 35.940-5 Section...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.940-5...concerning allowable costs. The grantee should...questions relating to cost allowability or...

2012-07-01

419

40 CFR 35.940-5 - Disputes concerning allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disputes concerning allowable costs. 35.940-5 Section...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.940-5...concerning allowable costs. The grantee should...questions relating to cost allowability or...

2013-07-01

420

40 CFR 35.940-5 - Disputes concerning allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Disputes concerning allowable costs. 35.940-5 Section...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.940-5...concerning allowable costs. The grantee should...questions relating to cost allowability or...

2010-07-01

421

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2011-10-01

422

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.940-1 Allowable project costs. Allowable...specifically for the project; (m) A reasonable...laboratory chemicals and supplies necessary to...

2014-07-01

423

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.940-1 Allowable project costs. Allowable...specifically for the project; (m) A reasonable...laboratory chemicals and supplies necessary to...

2012-07-01

424

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.940-1 Allowable project costs. Allowable...specifically for the project; (m) A reasonable...laboratory chemicals and supplies necessary to...

2013-07-01

425

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.940-1 Allowable project costs. Allowable...specifically for the project; (m) A reasonable...laboratory chemicals and supplies necessary to...

2011-07-01

426

20 CFR 218.30 - Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance. 218.30...Beginning Date § 218.30 Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance. (a) General...an employee receives a separation, displacement or dismissal allowance from...

2011-04-01

427

48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

2010-10-01

428

48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable Cost. 1652.216-71...of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed...cost analysis (experience rated). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR...

2011-10-01

429

42 CFR 489.31 - Allowable charges: Blood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable charges: Blood. 489.31 Section 489.31 Public...PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL Allowable Charges § 489.31 Allowable charges: Blood. (a) Limitations on charges....

2010-10-01

430

46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154...Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion allowance if the cargo tank:...

2010-10-01

431

Deriving star formation histories: inverting Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams through a variational calculus maximum likelihood method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method for solving maximum likelihood problems through variational calculus, and apply it to the case of recovering an unknown star formation history, SFR(t), from the resulting Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. This approach allows a totally non-parametric solution, which has the advantage of requiring no initial assumptions about SFR(t). As a full maximum likelihood statistical model is used,

X. Hernandez; David Valls-Gabaud; Gerard Gilmore

1999-01-01

432

Three-dose–cohort designs in cancer phase I trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional designs for phase I clinical trials assign the same dose to patients in the same cohort. In this paper, we present a new class of Bayesian designs for cancer Phase I trials by allowing multiple doses to be assigned to each cohort of patients. The class of designs, called the LMH-CRM (an extension of the continual reassessment method (CRM)

Bo Huang; Rick Chappell

2008-01-01

433

A real time dose monitoring and dose reconstruction tool for patient specific VMAT QA and delivery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a real time dose monitoring and dose reconstruction tool to identify and quantify sources of errors during patient specific volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery and quality assurance. Methods: The authors develop a VMAT delivery monitor tool called linac data monitor that connects to the linac in clinical mode and records, displays, and compares real time machine parameters with the planned parameters. A new measure, called integral error, keeps a running total of leaf overshoot and undershoot errors in each leaf pair, multiplied by leaf width, and the amount of time during which the error exists in monitor unit delivery. Another tool reconstructs Pinnacle{sup 3} Trade-Mark-Sign format delivered plan based on the saved machine logfile and recalculates actual delivered dose in patient anatomy. Delivery characteristics of various standard fractionation and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) VMAT plans delivered on Elekta Axesse and Synergy linacs were quantified. Results: The MLC and gantry errors for all the treatment sites were 0.00 {+-} 0.59 mm and 0.05 {+-} 0.31 Degree-Sign , indicating a good MLC gain calibration. Standard fractionation plans had a larger gantry error than SBRT plans due to frequent dose rate changes. On average, the MLC errors were negligible but larger errors of up to 6 mm and 2.5 Degree-Sign were seen when dose rate varied frequently. Large gantry errors occurred during the acceleration and deceleration process, and correlated well with MLC errors (r= 0.858, p= 0.0004). PTV mean, minimum, and maximum dose discrepancies were 0.87 {+-} 0.21%, 0.99 {+-} 0.59%, and 1.18 {+-} 0.52%, respectively. The organs at risk (OAR) doses were within 2.5%, except some OARs that showed up to 5.6% discrepancy in maximum dose. Real time displayed normalized total positive integral error (normalized to the total monitor units) correlated linearly with MLC (r= 0.9279, p < 0.001) and gantry errors (r= 0.742, p= 0.005). There is a strong correlation between total integral error and PTV mean (r= 0.683, p= 0.015), minimum (r= 0.6147, p= 0.033), and maximum dose (r= 0.6038, p= 0.0376). Conclusions: Errors may exist during complex VMAT planning and delivery. Linac data monitor is capable of detecting and quantifying mechanical and dosimetric errors at various stages of planning and delivery.

Tyagi, Neelam; Yang Kai; Gersten, David; Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, 3601 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)

2012-12-15

434

Shear force allowance in lumbar spine under follower load in neutral standing posture.  

PubMed

It has been shown experimentally that the load carrying capacity of the spine significantly increases when compressive loads are carried along the follower load (FL) direction. However, it is necessary to modify the current FL concept because a certain amount of shear force is produced during activities in daily life. In this study, a clinically allowable range of shear force was investigated using the modified FL concept. The shear force allowance was defined as the maximum ratio of the shear force to the follower force at each vertebral body center. Then, it was shown that the appropriate shear force allowance was within approximately 0.2 ~ 0.5 from the investigation of the follower forces, the shear forces, and the muscle force coordination. The predicted shear force allowance indicated that the resultant joint force is directed to a certain inside region between a half vertebral body and whole vertebral body. PMID:21361256

Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Lee, Sukyoung

2010-01-01

435

Sludge source term (PUREX process radionuclide dose impact)  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the radionuclide dose impact of the PUREX process waste stream. The radionuclide ingestion and inhalation pathways are analyzed. Two spent fuel assemblies processed in the Separation facilities are analyzed, the Mark 31A and Mark 31B. The individual radionuclide significance to dose is evaluated in terms of dose percentage. Comparing the radionuclide individual dose value allows the determination of those radionuclides whose dose impact is significant. The results of this analysis demonstrate that a limited number of radionuclides contribute 1% or more to the total dose and that the major contributor to the sludge source dose is strontium. The results obtained permit reducing the list of radionuclides to be considered in the development of source terms to support the High Level Waste Safety Analysis Report.

Aponte, C.I.

1994-06-28

436

Radiotherapy dose calculations in the presence of hip prostheses  

SciTech Connect

The high density and atomic number of hip prostheses for patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy challenge our ability to accurately calculate dose. A new clinical dose calculation algorithm, Monte Carlo, will allow accurate calculation of the radiation transport both within and beyond hip prostheses. The aim of this research was to investigate, for both phantom and patient geometries, the capability of various dose calculation algorithms to yield accurate treatment plans. Dose distributions in phantom and patient geometries with high atomic number prostheses were calculated using Monte Carlo, superposition, pencil beam, and no-heterogeneity correction algorithms. The phantom dose distributions were analyzed by depth dose and dose profile curves. The patient dose distributions were analyzed by isodose curves, dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and tumor control probability/normal tissue complication probability (TCP/NTCP) calculations. Monte Carlo calculations predicted the dose enhancement and reduction at the proximal and distal prosthesis interfaces respectively, whereas superposition and pencil beam calculations did not. However, further from the prosthesis, the differences between the dose calculation algorithms diminished. Treatment plans calculated with superposition showed similar isodose curves, DVHs, and TCP/NTCP as the Monte Carlo plans, except in the bladder, where Monte Carlo predicted a slightly lower dose. Treatment plans calculated with either the pencil beam method or with no heterogeneity correction differed significantly from the Monte Carlo plans.

Keall, Paul J.; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Jeraj, Robert; Mohan, Radhe

2003-06-30

437

Ibuprofen dosing for children  

MedlinePLUS

Taking ibuprofen can help children feel better when they have colds or minor injuries. As with all drugs, it is important to give children the correct dose. Ibuprofen is safe when taken as directed. But taking ...

438

Calculate Your Radiation Dose  

MedlinePLUS

... Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Calculate Your Radiation Dose Health Effects Main Page Exposure Pathways Calculate ... of the US do you live in? Internal radiation (in your body): From food and water, (e. ...

439

Donut-Shaped High-Dose Configuration for Proton Beam Radiation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The authors report on the conception and first clinical application of a donut-shaped high-dose configuration for proton therapy (PT). This approach allows one to intensify target volume dose coverage for targets encompassing a critical, dose-limiting structure—like here, the cauda equina—, whilst delivering minimal dose to other healthy structures surrounding the target, thereby reducing the integral dose. Methods and Results:

Hans Peter Rutz; Antony J. Lomax

2005-01-01

440

41 CFR 301-11.3 - Must my agency pay an allowance (either a per diem allowance or actual expense)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...either a per diem allowance or actual expense)? 301-11.3 Section 301-11.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

441

41 CFR 302-6.16 - May I receive a TQSE allowance if I am receiving another subsistence expenses allowance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...receiving another subsistence expenses allowance? 302-6.16 Section 302-6.16 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 6-ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE...

2012-07-01

442

41 CFR 302-6.16 - May I receive a TQSE allowance if I am receiving another subsistence expenses allowance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...receiving another subsistence expenses allowance? 302-6.16 Section 302-6.16 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 6-ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE...

2013-07-01

443

Evaluation of approximate methods to estimate maximum inelastic displacement demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Six approximate methods to estimate the maximum inelastic displacement demand of single-degree-of- freedom systems are evaluated. In all methods, the maximum displacement demand of inelastic systems is estimated from the maximum displacement demand of linear elastic systems. Of the methods evalu- ated herein, four are based on equivalent linearization in which the maximum deformation is estimated as the maximum

Eduardo Miranda

2002-01-01

444

Maximum-entropy description of animal movement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

Fleming, Chris H.; Suba??, Yi?it; Calabrese, Justin M.

2015-03-01

445

Finding maximum colorful subtrees in practice.  

PubMed

In metabolomics and other fields dealing with small compounds, mass spectrometry is applied as a sensitive high-throughput technique. Recently, fragmentation trees have been proposed to automatically analyze the fragmentation mass spectra recorded by such instruments. Computationally, this leads to the problem of finding a maximum weight subtree in an edge-weighted and vertex-colored graph, such that every color appears, at most once in the solution. We introduce new heuristics and an exact algorithm for this Maximum Colorful Subtree problem and evaluate them against existing algorithms on real-world and artificial datasets. Our tree completion heuristic consistently scores better than other heuristics, while the integer programming-based algorithm produces optimal trees with modest running times. Our fast and accurate heuristic can help determine molecular formulas based on fragmentation trees. On the other hand, optimal trees from the integer linear program are useful if structure is relevant, for example for tree alignments. PMID:23509858

Rauf, Imran; Rasche, Florian; Nicolas, François; Böcker, Sebastian

2013-04-01

446

Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed of dewetting. For all radii, we find the maximum speed occurs at vanishing apparent contact angle. To further investigate the transition, we numerically determine the bifurcation diagram for steady menisci. It is found that the meniscus profiles on thick fibers are smooth, even when there is a film deposited between the bath and the contact line, while profiles on thin fibers exhibit strong oscillations. We discuss how this could lead to different experimental scenarios of film deposition.

Shing Chan, Tak; Gueudré, Thomas; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

2011-11-01

447

Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy  

E-print Network

Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

Visser, Matt

2012-01-01

448

Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy  

E-print Network

Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

Matt Visser

2013-04-07

449

MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS  

PubMed Central

A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator. PMID:25419259

Snijders, Tom A.B.; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael

2014-01-01

450

Maximum entropy production and the fluctuation theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the author used an information theoretical formulation of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics (MaxEnt) to derive the fluctuation theorem (FT) concerning the probability of second law violating phase-space paths. A less rigorous argument leading to the variational principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) was also given. Here a more rigorous and general mathematical derivation of MEP from MaxEnt is presented, and

R C Dewar

2005-01-01

451

Maximum likelihood estimation in pooled sample tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pooled sample tests, firstly used on the classification problem (identifying all individuals with some characteristic), may also be applied to estimate the prevalence rate. Moreover, the pooled sample methods may attain greater efficiency when applied to estimate some prevalence rate, since it is no longer necessary to perform any individual test. We develop a maximum likelihood computational algorithm for the prevalence rate estimation, and we analyze its performance.

Martins, João Paulo; Felgueiras, Miguel; Santos, Rui

2014-10-01

452

Maximum A Posteriori Estimation of Time Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-delay estimation (TDE) is an important topic of array signal processing for applications such as source localization and beam-forming. With a pair of sensors, the generalized cross correlation (GCC) method is widely used for TDE and the maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation can be considered as a GCC prefilter. Unfortunately, the ML estimation suffers from performance degradation due to the limitation of

Bowon Lee; T. Kalker

2007-01-01

453

Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.

Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.

454

Random graph processes with maximum degree $2$  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that a process begins with n isolated vertices, to which\\u000aedges are added randomly one by one so that the maximum degree of the induced\\u000agraph is always at most 2. In a previous article, the authors showed that as $n\\u000a\\\\to \\\\infty$, with probability tending to 1, the result of this process is a\\u000agraph with n edges.

A. Ruci?ski; N. C. Wormald

1997-01-01

455

An ESS maximum principle for matrix games.  

PubMed

Previous work has demonstrated that for games defined by differential or difference equations with a continuum of strategies, there exists a G-function, related to individual fitness, that must take on a maximum with respect to a virtual variable v whenever v is one of the vectors in the coalition of vectors which make up the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). This result, called the ESS maximum principle, is quite useful in determining candidates for an ESS. This principle is reformulated here, so that it may be conveniently applied to matrix games. In particular, we define a matrix game to be one in which fitness is expressed in terms of strategy frequencies and a matrix of expected payoffs. It is shown that the G-function in the matrix game setting must again take on a maximum value at all the strategies which make up the ESS coalition vector. The reformulated maximum principle is applicable to both bilinear and nonlinear matrix games. One advantage in employing this principle to solve the traditional bilinear matrix game is that the same G-function is used to find both pure and mixed strategy solutions by simply specifying an appropriate strategy space. Furthermore we show how the theory may be used to solve matrix games which are not in the usual bilinear form. We examine in detail two nonlinear matrix games: the game between relatives and the sex ratio game. In both of these games an ESS solution is determined. These examples not only illustrate the usefulness of this approach to finding solutions to an expanded class of matrix games, but aids in understanding the nature of the ESS as well. PMID:11120647

Vincent, T L; Cressman, R

2000-11-01

456

Maximum concentration for ideal asymmetrical radiation concentrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new relation between the maximum geometric concentration factor C and the angular acceptance interval for asymmetrical ideal non-imaging concentrators is proposed. A generalization of the well-known relation for the two-dimensional case, sin?c=1\\/C where ?c is the acceptance half-angle, results in the proposed relation sin?2?sin?1=2\\/C, where ?1 and ?2 are the angles of the acceptance interval limits relative to the

S. Nordlander

2005-01-01

457

The maximum mass of a neutron star.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of neutron star maximum mass is revisited. In particular we show that when the dynamical processes occuring in the first few seconds after the neutron star birth are considered, the concept of neutron star maximum mass, as introduced by Oppenheimer and Volkoff, is partially inadequate. We show that both the maximum mass concept and the final stages of the evolution of massive stars depend on the composition of the neutron star material. In particular, we find two different scenarios depending on the absence or presence of negatively charged hadrons among the constituents. In the first scenario, we show that the Oppenheimer Volkoff mass M_OV_ does not represent the boundary between the value of the masses of neutron stars and black holes. In fact, we find a mass range in which both a neutron star and a black hole may exist. In the second scenario we show that, contrary to the standard view, it is possible to have a supernova explosion (accompained by nucleosynthesis and neutrino emission) followed by the delayed formation of a black hole. The latter mechamism could explain the lack of any observational evidence for a neutron star in the remnant of the supernova 1987A.

Bombaci, I.

1996-01-01

458

Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR.  

PubMed

Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system. PMID:17701276

Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W; Gryk, Michael R; Hoch, Jeffrey C

2007-10-01

459

"SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

Schmitt, Raymond

2014-05-01

460

Continuity of the Maximum-Entropy Inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the inverse problem of inferring the state of a finite-level quantum system from expected values of a fixed set of observables, by maximizing a continuous ranking function. We have proved earlier that the maximum-entropy inference can be a discontinuous map from the convex set of expected values to the convex set of states because the image contains states of reduced support, while this map restricts to a smooth parametrization of a Gibbsian family of fully supported states. Here we prove for arbitrary ranking functions that the inference is continuous up to boundary points. This follows from a continuity condition in terms of the openness of the restricted linear map from states to their expected values. The openness condition shows also that ranking functions with a discontinuous inference are typical. Moreover it shows that the inference is continuous in the restriction to any polytope which implies that a discontinuity belongs to the quantum domain of non-commutative observables and that a geodesic closure of a Gibbsian family equals the set of maximum-entropy states. We discuss eight descriptions of the set of maximum-entropy states with proofs of accuracy and an analysis of deviations.

Stephan, Weis

2014-09-01

461

Budget constraint and vaccine dosing: a mathematical modelling exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing the number of vaccine doses may potentially improve overall efficacy. Decision-makers need information about choosing the most efficient dose schedule to maximise the total health gain of a population when operating under a constrained budget. The objective of this study is to identify the most efficient vaccine dosing schedule within a fixed vaccination budget from a healthcare payer perspective. Methods An optimisation model is developed in which maximizing the disease reduction is the functional objective and the constraint is the vaccination budget. The model allows variation in vaccination dosing numbers, in cost difference per dose, in vaccine coverage rate, and in vaccine efficacy. We apply the model using the monovalent rotavirus vaccine as an example. Results With a fixed budget, a 2-dose schedule for vaccination against rotavirus infection with the monovalent vaccine results in a larger reduction in disease episodes than a 3-dose scheme with the same vaccine under most circumstances. A 3-dose schedule would only be better under certain conditions: a cost reduction of >26% per dose, combined with vaccine efficacy improvement of ?5% and a target coverage rate of 75%. Substantial interaction is observed between cost reduction per dose, vaccine coverage rate, and increased vaccine efficacy. Sensitivity analysis shows that the conditions required for a 3-dose strategy to be better than a 2-dose strategy may seldom occur when the budget is fixed. The model does not consider vaccine herd effect, precise timing for additional doses, or the effect of natural immunity development. Conclusions Under budget constraint, optimisation modelling is a helpful tool for a decision-maker selecting the most efficient vaccination dosing schedule. The low dosing scheme could be the optimal option to consider under the many scenarios tested. The model can be applied under many different circumstances of changing dosing schemes with single or multiple vaccines. PMID:24450591

2014-01-01

462

Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates  

SciTech Connect

The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

2013-09-25

463

Atmospheric aerosol measurements of 238U and 232Th at Fernald, Ohio, and implications on inhalation dose calculations.  

PubMed

Measurements of the aerosol size distribution of 238U and 232Th at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fernald Environmental Management Project site were made to improve the inhalation dose calculations to off-site individuals. For approximately 1 y an 8-stage cascade impactor was co-located with a high volume sampler and operated at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site to collect aerosol samples. During most of the year, the site was dominated by giant particles with more than 70% of the mass of 238U above 15 microm. The seasonal average of the activity median aerodynamic diameter, based on the impactor samples, which excluded particles >15 microm, for both uranium and thorium was approximately 6.5 microm. These numbers reflect the activities at the site and the domination of the resuspension processes. During most sampling periods the size distribution was bimodal. Thorium concentrations were comparable to the uranium concentrations during the late spring and summer period and decreased to approximately 25% of the 238U concentration in the late summer. Fernald Environmental Management Project is required to calculate the maximum allowable dose from airborne emissions, excluding radon, to meet NESHAP compliance. These calculations assume an AMAD of 1 microm. We found that if you combine size distribution information with the latest ICRP 66 lung model you reduce the estimated dose by a factor of 7. Inclusion of the size distribution of radionuclides at any sampling site would substantially improve the dose estimates to the population. PMID:12467297

Leifer, Robert Z; Jacob, Ethel M; Marschke, Stephen F; Praniti, David M

2002-12-01

464

Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimation.  

PubMed

Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimators represent a fundamental further advance over standard targeted maximum likelihood estimators of a pathwise differentiable parameter of a data generating distribution in a semiparametric model, introduced in van der Laan, Rubin (2006). The targeted maximum likelihood approach involves fluctuating an initial estimate of a relevant factor (Q) of the density of the observed data, in order to make a bias/variance tradeoff targeted towards the parameter of interest. The fluctuation involves estimation of a nuisance parameter portion of the likelihood, g. TMLE has been shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed (CAN) under regularity conditions, when either one of these two factors of the likelihood of the data is correctly specified, and it is semiparametric efficient if both are correctly specified. In this article we provide a template for applying collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (C-TMLE) to the estimation of pathwise differentiable parameters in semi-parametric models. The procedure creates a sequence of candidate targeted maximum likelihood estimators based on an initial estimate for Q coupled with a succession of increasingly non-parametric estimates for g. In a departure from current state of the art nuisance parameter estimation, C-TMLE estimates of g are constructed based on a loss function for the targeted maximum likelihood estimator of the relevant factor Q that uses the nuisance parameter to carry out the fluctuation, instead of a loss function for the nuisance parameter itself. Likelihood-based cross-validation is used to select the best estimator among all candidate TMLE estimators of Q(0) in this sequence. A penalized-likelihood loss function for Q is suggested when the parameter of interest is borderline-identifiable. We present theoretical results for "collaborative double robustness," demonstrating that the collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimator is CAN even when Q and g are both mis-specified, providing that g solves a specified score equation implied by the difference between the Q and the true Q(0). This marks an improvement over the current definition of double robustness in the estimating equation literature. We also establish an asymptotic linearity theorem for the C-DR-TMLE of the target parameter, showing that the C-DR-TMLE is more adaptive to the truth, and, as a consequence, can even be super efficient if the first stage density estimator does an excellent job itself with respect to the target parameter. This research provides a template for targeted efficient and robust loss-based learning of a particular target feature of the probability distribution of the data within large (infinite dimensional) semi-parametric models, while still providing statistical inference in terms of confidence intervals and p-values. This research also breaks with a taboo (e.g., in the propensity score literature in the field of causal inference) on using the relevant part of likelihood to fine-tune the fitting of the nuisance parameter/censoring mechanism/treatment mechanism. PMID:20628637

van der Laan, Mark J; Gruber, Susan

2010-01-01

465

Cord Dose Specification and Validation for Stereotactic Body Radiosurgery of Spine  

SciTech Connect

Effective dose to a portion of the spinal cord in treatment segment, rather than the maximum point dose in the cord surface, was set as the dose limit in stereotactic-body radiosurgery (SBRS) of spine. Such a cord dose specification is sensitive to the volume size and position errors. Thus, we used stereotactic image guidance to minimize phantom positioning errors and compared the results of a 0.6-cm{sup 3} Farmer ionization chamber and a 0.01-cm{sup 3} compact ionization chamber to determine the detector size effect on 9 SBRS cases. The experimental errors ranging from 2% to 7% were estimated by the deviation of the mean dose in plans to the chamber with spatial displacements of 0.5 mm. The mean and measured doses for the large chamber to individual cases were significantly ({approx}17%) higher than the doses with the compact chamber placed at the same point. Our experimental results shown that the mean doses to the volume of interest could represent the measured cord doses. For the 9 patients, the mean doses to 10% of the cord were about 10 Gy, while the maximum cord doses varied from 11.6 to 17.6 Gy. The mean dose, possibly correlated with the cord complication, provided us an alternative and reliable cord dose specification in SBRS of spine.

Li Shidong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: Shidong.Li@thus.temple.edu; Liu Yan; Chen Qing; Jin Jianyue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States) Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2009-01-01

466

A global maximum power point tracking DC-DC converter  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the design, and validation of a maximum power point tracking DC-DC converter capable of following the true global maximum power point in the presence of other local maximum. It does this without the ...

Duncan, Joseph, 1981-

2005-01-01

467

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2014-01-01

468

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2013-01-01

469

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2012-01-01

470

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2011-01-01

471

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2011-07-01

472

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2013-07-01

473

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2014-07-01

474

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2010-07-01

475

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2012-07-01

476

High dose chloral hydrate sedation for children undergoing CT.  

PubMed

Chloral hydrate is commonly used to sedate children before CT. However, no prospective study has been published of the safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate at high dose levels for children undergoing CT. We define high dose levels of oral chloral hydrate to be 80-100 mg/kg, with a maximum total dose of 2 g. High dose chloral hydrate sedation was administered orally to 295 children for 326 CT examinations. Adverse reactions occurred in 7% of the children, with vomiting being the most common (4.3% of children). Hyperactivity and respiratory symptoms each occurred in less than 2% of children. Prolonged sedation ( greater than 2 h) was not encountered in our series. Sedation was successful in producing motion free CT examinations, so that in 303 (93%) of the cases, no repeat CT scans were needed. We conclude that high dose oral chloral hydrate provides safe and effective sedation for children undergoing CT. PMID:2026812

Greenberg, S B; Faerber, E N; Aspinall, C L

1991-01-01

477

Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (DoSEN) are an early-stage space technology research project that combines two advanced complementary radiation detection concepts with fundamental advantages over traditional dosimetry. DoSEN measures not only the energy but also the charge distribution (including neutrons) of energetic particles that affect human (and robotic) health in a way not presently possible with current dosimeters. For heavy ions and protons, DoSEN provides a direct measurement of the lineal energy transfer (LET) spectra behind shielding material. For LET measurements, DoSEN contains stacks of thin-thick Si detectors similar in design to those used for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation. With LET spectra, we can now directly break down the observed spectrum of radiation into its constituent heavy-ion components and through biologically based quality factors that provide not only doses and dose rates but also dose equivalents, associated rates, and even organ doses. DoSEN also measures neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV, which requires enough sensitive mass to fully absorb recoil particles that the neutrons produce. DoSEN develops the new concept of combining these independent measurements and using the coincidence of LET measurements and neutron detection to significantly reduce backgrounds in each measurement. The background suppression through the use of coincidence allows for significant reductions in size, mass, and power needed to provide measurements of dose, neutron dose, dose equivalents, LET spectra, and organ doses. Thus, we introduce the DoSEN concept: a promising low-mass instrument that detects the full spectrum of energetic particles, heavy ions, and neutrons to determine biological impact of radiation in space.

Schwadron, Nathan; Bancroft, Chris; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James; Smith, Sonya; Spence, Harlan; Mazur, Joe; Zeitlin, Cary

2013-10-01

478

Comparison of 2D and 3D Imaging and Treatment Planning for Postoperative Vaginal Apex High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate bladder and rectal doses using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D treatment planning for vaginal cuff high-dose rate (HDR) in endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2007 were evaluated. Seventy-one and 20 patients underwent 2D and 3D planning, respectively. Each patient received six fractions prescribed at 0.5 cm to the superior 3 cm of the vagina. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) doses were calculated for 2D patients. Maximum and 2-cc doses were calculated for 3D patients. Organ doses were normalized to prescription dose. Results: Bladder maximum doses were 178% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were no different than ICRU doses (p = 0.22). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 59% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Rectal maximum doses were 137% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 87% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 64% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final bladder dose to within 10% for 44%, 59%, 83%, 82%, and 89% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 45%, 55%, 80%, 85%, and 85% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 37%, 68%, 79%, 79%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final rectal dose to within 10% for 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 75% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 68%, 95%, 84%, 84%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Conclusions: Doses to organs at risk vary depending on the calculation method. In some cases, final dose accuracy appears to plateau after the third fraction, indicating that simulation and planning may not be necessary in all fractions. A clinically relevant level of accuracy should be determined and further research conducted to address this issue.

Russo, James K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Armeson, Kent E. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Richardson, Susan, E-mail: srichardson@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

2012-05-01

479

75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of the Hazardous Material Transportation Laws and Regulations AGENCY: Federal Railroad...Federal hazardous material transportation laws or a regulation, special permit, or approval issued under those laws. The aggravated maximum penalty is...

2010-07-27

480

41 CFR 302-7.2 - What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored... § 302-7.2 What is the maximum weight of HHG that may be transported or stored at Government expense? The maximum weight allowance of HHG that may be...

2010-07-01

481

Exenatide dosing in alpacas.  

PubMed

In order to investigate whether exenatide could be used to stimulate glucose clearance and insulin secretion in alpacas without causing colic signs, six healthy adult alpacas were injected once a day with increasing subcutaneous doses. A follow-up intravenous glucose injection was given to induce hyperglycemia, and serial blood samples were collected to measure plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids. The exenatide doses used were saline control (no drug), and 0.02, 0.05, or 0.1 mcg/kg injected subcutaneously. Alpacas had significantly lower plasma glucose concentrations and higher insulin concentrations on all treatment days compared with the control day, but the increase in insulin was significantly greater and lasted significantly longer when the alpacas received the two higher dosages. Two of the alpacas developed mild colic signs at the 0.05 mcg/kg dose and were not evaluated at the highest dose. Based on these findings, the 0.05 mcg/kg dose appears to offer the greatest stimulation of insulin secretion and glucose clearance without excessive risk or severity of complications. PMID:24479825

Cebra, C K; Smith, C C; Stang, B V; Tornquist, S J

2014-08-01

482

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: A Case for Dose Escalation and Organ at Risk Toxicity Reduction  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Radiation therapy for retroperitoneal sarcoma remains challenging because of proximity to surrounding organs at risk (OAR). We report the use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of retroperitoneal sarcomas to minimize dose to OAR while concurrently optimizing tumor dose coverage. Patients and methods: From January 2000 to October 2002, 10 patients (average age 56 years) with retroperitoneal sarcoma and one with inguinal sarcoma were treated with radiation at Emory University. Prescription dose to the planning treatment volume (PTV) was commonly 50.4 at 1.8 Gy/fraction. CT simulation was used in each patient, three patients were treated with 3D-conformal treatment (3D-CRT), and the remaining eight received multi-leaf collimator-based (MLC) IMRT. IMRT treatment fields ranged from eight to 11 and average volume treated was 3498 cc. Optimal 3D-CRT plans were generated and compared with IMRT with respect to tumor coverage and OAR dose toxicity. Dose volume histograms were compared for both the 3D-CRT and IMRT plans. Results: Mean dose to small bowel decreased from 36 Gy with 3D-CRT to 27 Gy using IMRT, and tumor coverage (V95) increased from 95.3% with 3D-CRT to 98.6% using IMRT. Maximum and minimum doses delivered to the PTV were significantly increased by 6 and 22%, respectively (P = 0.011, P = 0.055). Volume of small bowel receiving > 30Gy was significantly decreased from 63.5 to 43.1% with IMRT compared with conventional treatment (P = 0.043). Seven patients developed grade 2 nausea, three developed grade 2 diarrhea, one had grade 2 skin toxicity, and one patient developed grade 3 liver toxicity (RTOG toxicity scale). No other delayed toxicities related to radiation were observed. At a median follow-up of 58 weeks, there were no local recurrences and only one patient developed disease progression with distant metastasis in the liver. Conclusions: IMRT for retroperitoneal sarcoma allowed enhanced tumor coverage and better sparing of dose to critical normal structures such as small bowel, liver, and kidney. Escalation of dose has a positive impact on local control for retroperitoneal sarcoma; IMRT may be an effective method to achieve this goal. We are evaluating preoperative dose escalation to 59.4 Gy. PMID:18521378

Koshy, Mary; Lawson, Joshua D.; Staley, Charles A.; Esiashvili, Natia; Howell, Rebecca; Ghavidel, Shahram; Davis, Lawrence W.

2003-01-01

483

Response of mouse epidermis to fractionated doses of pi mesons  

SciTech Connect

An extensive series of preclinical experiments are described in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of pions from TRIUMF has been determined for mouse skin. To measure the RBE at both high and low doses per fraction, a range of fractionation schedules was used, with 1, 2, 4, 10, and 20 fractions. Because the pion dose rate is much lower than the dose rate of X or gamma-rays used in radiotherapy, two sets of reference X ray data were obtained: one at the same dose rate as the pions (15 cGy min-1), and another at the more conventional 150 cGy min-1. This allowed a biophysical RBE for equivalent dose rates and a practical RBE for preclinical evaluation to be calculated. The pion RBE was significantly higher for 20 small fractions than for fewer large doses. The absolute value of RBE depends upon the dose rate of the reference X ray treatments. The practical RBE increased from 1.05 at high doses to 1.45 at the smallest dose per fraction tested. The biophysical RBE for equivalent dose rates ranged from 1.20 at high doses to 1.5 for 20 fractions.

Chaplin, D.J.; Douglas, B.G.; Grulkey, W.; Skarsgard, L.D.; Lam, G.; Denekamp, J.

1987-08-01

484

Single-dose tinidazole for the treatment of giardiasis.  

PubMed Central

Sixty-three expatriate residents and travellers in Bangladesh, infected with Giardia lamblia, participated in two studies to compare the therapeutic efficacy of tinidazole and metronidazole. In the first trial 33 randomly selected patients were treated with tinidazole (50 mg/kg of body weight to a maximum of 2 g) or metronidazole (60 mg/kg of body weight to a maximum of 2.4 g) in a single oral dose. Patients were followed for 4 weeks after the end of therapy for the presence of G. lamblia in their stools. Sixteen (94%) of 17 patients receiving tinidazole were free of G. lamblia during that period, compared to only 9 (56%) of 16 patients who had received metronidazole (P less than 0.02). In the second trial patients were randomly allocated to a treatment schedule of either metronidazole as a single dose on 3 successive days (50 mg/kg of body weight to a maximum of 2 g daily) or tinidazole as a single oral dose (50 mg/kg of body weight to a maximum of 2 g). All 15 patients treated with tinidazole and 14 (93%) of 15 patients treated with metronidazole were free of G. lamblia during the 4-week follow-up period. A single oral dose of tinidazole is a highly effective treatment for giardiasis and is equal in efficacy to a 3-day therapy with metronidazole. PMID:3985604

Speelman, P

1985-01-01

485

Solar modulation of dose rate onboard the Mir station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of the radiation belts that are currently used to estimate exposure for astronauts describe the environment at times of either solar minimum or solar maximum. Static models, constructed using data acquired prior to 1970 during a solar cycle with relatively low solar radio flux, have flux uncertainties of a factor of two to five and dose-rate uncertainties of a

G. D. Badhwar; V. A. Shurshakov; V. V. Tstelin

1997-01-01

486

Estimating maximum performance: effects of intraindividual variation.  

PubMed

Researchers often estimate the performance capabilities of animals using a small number of trials per individual. This procedure inevitably underestimates maximum performance, but few studies have examined the magnitude of this effect. In this study we explored the effects of intraindividual variation and individual sample size on the estimation of locomotor performance parameters. We measured sprint speed of the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis at two temperatures (20 degrees C and 35 degrees C), obtaining 20 measurements per individual. Speed did not vary temporally, indicating no training or fatigue effects. About 50% of the overall variation in speed at each temperature was due to intraindividual variation. While speed was repeatable, repeatability decreased slightly with increasing separation between trials. Speeds at 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C were positively correlated, indicating repeatability across temperatures as well. We performed statistical sampling experiments in which we randomly drew a subset of each individual's full set of 20 trials. As expected, the sample's maximum speed increased with the number of trials per individual; for example, five trials yielded an estimate averaging 89% of the true maximum. The number of trials also influenced the sample correlation between mean speeds at 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C; for example, five trials yielded a correlation coefficient averaging 90% of the true correlation. Therefore, intraindividual variation caused underestimation of maximal speed and the correlation between speeds across temperatures. These biases declined as the number of trials per individual increased, and depended on the magnitude of intraindividual variation, as illustrated by running sampling experiments that used modified data sets. PMID:18375858

Adolph, Stephen C; Pickering, Trevor

2008-04-01

487

Maximum tunneling velocities in symmetric double well potentials  

E-print Network

We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to ...

Manz, Jörn; Schmidt, Burkhard; Yang, Yonggang

2014-01-01

488

Pharmacokinetics of gentamicin at traditional versus high doses: implications for once-daily aminoglycoside dosing.  

PubMed

Two doses of gentamicin (2 and 7 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to 11 healthy volunteers in a randomized, crossover single-dose study to compare their pharmacokinetics. Doses were infused over 1 h with a syringe infusion pump, and 14 concentrations in sera were obtained over an 8-h period. Concentration in serum versus time data were fitted to a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. In addition, to mimic the clinical setting, subjects' data were fitted by the Sawchuk-Zaske method. Distributional and postdistributional peak concentrations, along with the last obtained concentration in serum, were utilized to compare the following pharmacokinetic variables: volume of distribution at steady state (Vss), half-life, clearance (CL), and maximum concentration in serum (Cmax). With two-compartment pharmacokinetic fitting, significant differences in distribution half-life (average, 21.8 and 41.6 min [P < or = 0.05]) and gentamicin CL (76.6 +/- 6.6 and 67.2 +/- 4.2 ml/min/1.73 m2 [P < or = 0.001]) were found between traditional-dose and high-dose groups, respectively. When the data for concentrations in sera were fitted to a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model by using either the distributional or the postdistributional Cmax, statistically significant differences (P < or = 0.001) were found between Vss, half-life, CL, and Cmax values for both dosage groups. The results show that the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin at a large dose differ significantly from those at the traditional dose. This information has direct implications for once-daily aminoglycoside (ODA) literature when the Cmax values reported are distributional and therefore show falsely high Cmax/MIC ratio estimates. In addition, ODA nomogram dosing tools developed with distributional Cmax values are probably inaccurate. PMID:9145878

Demczar, D J; Nafziger, A N; Bertino, J S

1997-05-01

489

Design of toroidal transformers for maximum efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the most efficient toroidal transformer that can be built given the frequency, volt-ampere rating, magnetic flux density, window fill factor, and materials is described. With the above all held constant and only the dimensions of the magnetic core varied, the most efficient design occurs when the copper losses equal 60 percent of the iron losses. When this criterion is followed, efficiency is only slightly dependent on design frequency and fill factor. The ratios of inside diameter to outside diameter and height to build of the magnetic core that result in transformers of maximum efficiency are computed.

Dayton, J. A., Jr.

1972-01-01

490

Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

1991-01-01

491

Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

2014-04-01

492

Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

Bastea, S

2009-01-27

493

Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

494

The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun'rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.

Smith, E. J.; Marsden, R. G.; Balogh, A.; Gloeckler, G.; Geiss, J.; McComas, D. J.; McKibben, R. B.; MacDowall, R. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Krupp, N.; Krueger, H.; Landgraf, M.

2003-01-01

495

p-MOSFET total dose dosimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A p-MOSFET total dose dosimeter where the gate voltage is proportional to the incident radiation dose. It is configured in an n-WELL of a p-BODY substrate. It is operated in the saturation region which is ensured by connecting the gate to the drain. The n-well is connected to zero bias. Current flow from source to drain, rather than from peripheral leakage, is ensured by configuring the device as an edgeless MOSFET where the source completely surrounds the drain. The drain junction is the only junction not connected to zero bias. The MOSFET is connected as part of the feedback loop of an operational amplifier. The operational amplifier holds the drain current fixed at a level which minimizes temperature dependence and also fixes the drain voltage. The sensitivity to radiation is made maximum by operating the MOSFET in the OFF state during radiation soak.

Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

496

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the co-evolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand `dune-building' species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the time scale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches: higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species which shifts foredune formation landwards and thus leads to larger foredunes.

Duran Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2014-05-01

497

A maximum entropy model for opinions in social groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the opinions of a group of individuals determine their spatial distribution and connectivity, through an agent-based model. The interaction between agents is described by a Hamiltonian in which agents are allowed to move freely without an underlying lattice (the average network topology connecting them is determined from the parameters). This kind of model was derived using maximum entropy statistical inference under fixed expectation values of certain probabilities that (we propose) are relevant to social organization. Control parameters emerge as Lagrange multipliers of the maximum entropy problem, and they can be associated with the level of consequence between the personal beliefs and external opinions, and the tendency to socialize with peers of similar or opposing views. These parameters define a phase diagram for the social system, which we studied using Monte Carlo Metropolis simulations. Our model presents both first and second-order phase transitions, depending on the ratio between the internal consequence and the interaction with others. We have found a critical value for the level of internal consequence, below which the personal beliefs of the agents seem to be irrelevant.

Davis, Sergio; Navarrete, Yasmín; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

2014-04-01

498

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes  

PubMed Central

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the coevolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady-state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand “dune-building” species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the timescale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches. Higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species, which shifts foredune formation landward and thus leads to larger foredunes. In this scenario, plants play a much more active role in modifying their habitat and altering coastal vulnerability than previously thought. PMID:24101481

Durán, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2013-01-01

499

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes.  

PubMed

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the coevolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady-state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand "dune-building" species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the timescale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches. Higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species, which shifts foredune formation landward and thus leads to larger foredunes. In this scenario, plants play a much more active role in modifying their habitat and altering coastal vulnerability than previously thought. PMID:24101481

Durán, Orencio; Moore, Laura J

2013-10-22

500

Prediction of three sigma maximum dispersed density for aerospace applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Free molecular heating (FMH) is caused by the transfer of energy during collisions between the upper atmosphere molecules and a space vehicle. The dispersed free molecular heating on a surface is an important constraint for space vehicle thermal analyses since it can be a significant source of heating. To reduce FMH to a spacecraft, the parking orbit is often designed to a higher altitude at the expense of payload capability. Dispersed FMH is a function of both space vehicle velocity and atmospheric density, however, the space vehicle velocity variations are insignificant when compared to the atmospheric density variations. The density of the upper atmosphere molecules is a function of altitude, but also varies with other environmental factors, such as solar activity, geomagnetic activity, location, and time. A method has been developed to predict three sigma maximum dispersed density for up to 15 years into the future. This method uses a state-of-the-art atmospheric density code, MSIS 86, along with 50 years of solar data, NASA and NOAA solar activity predictions for the next 15 years, and an Aerospace Corporation correlation to account for density code inaccuracies to generate dispersed maximum density ratios denoted as 'K-factors'. The calculated K-factors can be used on a mission unique basis to calculate dispersed density, and hence dispersed free molecular heating rates. These more accurate K-factors can allow lower parking orbit altitudes, resulting in increased payload capability.

Charles, Terri L.; Nitschke, Michael D.

1993-01-01