Note: This page contains sample records for the topic maximum dose point from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Heterogeneity-corrected vs -uncorrected critical structure maximum point doses in breast balloon brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) * 0.930 (R(2) = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) * 0.955 (R(2) = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor. PMID:23474368

Kim, Leonard; Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning

2013-03-07

2

An appreciation of the maximum tolerated dose: an inadequately precise decision point in designing a carcinogenesis bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancers arise in specific tissues. One difficulty with the present definitions of the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), as they pertain to the rodent cancer bioassay, is that they base MTD on relatively crude parameters associated with the well-being of the entire animal rather than with the lack of specific tissue toxicity. Additional factors that could be included in the MTD

David B. Clayson; Frank Iverson; Rudolf Mueller

1991-01-01

3

Integrated photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-power low-cost highly efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to be integrated into a photovoltaic (PV) panel is proposed. This can result in a 25% energy enhancement compared to a standard photovoltaic panel, while performing functions like battery voltage regulation and matching of the PV array with the load. Instead of using an externally connected MPPT, it is proposed

Johan H. R. Enslin; Mario S. Wolf; D. B. Snyman; Wernher Swiegers

1997-01-01

4

Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.

Veerachary, Mummadi

5

Maximum power point tracker using fuzzy control for photovoltaic arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar cell has an optimum operating point to be able to get the maximum power. To obtain the maximum power from a photovoltaic array, the photovoltaic power system usually requires a maximum power point tracking controller. This paper proposes a maximum power point tracking control of photovoltaic array using fuzzy control; the controller only uses the output power. Therefore,

Tomonobu Senjyu; Katsumi Uezato

1994-01-01

6

Binary mixtures exhibiting maximum flash-point behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has demonstrated the existence of maximum flash-point solutions, where the maximum flash-point value is larger than those of the individual components. The behavior of such a solution has potential application in hazard reduction. The sufficient condition for a binary mixture to form such a maximum flash-point solution, and the equations to determine its composition and maximum flash point

Horng-Jang Liaw; Shen-Chun Lin

2007-01-01

7

A fast maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors proposed a novel maximum power point controller, which not only can track the maximum power of an array quickly without perturbation and observation process but also can be implemented easily. The main idea is based on the graphical interpretation of the maximum power point as the intersecting point of two curves on the phase plane

Ching-Tsai Pan; Jeng-Yue Chen; Chin-Peng Chu; Yi-Shuo Huang

1999-01-01

8

Step-down maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design of a simple, inexpensive, and efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is presented. This design calls for a fixed voltage and a pilot cell to track the maximum power point voltage (V{sub mp}). The tracking is done by changing the duty cycle of a step-down chopper, which is controlled by a direct feedback analog circuit. The control voltage

Z. M. Salameh; F. Dagher; W. A. Lynch

1991-01-01

9

Climatic sensorless maximum power point tracking in PV generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is addressed for photovoltaic (PV) arrays considered in a given panel position. The PV system includes a PV panel, a PWM boost power converter and a storing battery. Although the maximum power point (MPP) of PV generators varies with solar radiation and temperature, the MPPT is presently sought without resorting to solar

H. El Fadil; F. Giri

2011-01-01

10

An integrated maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for a photovoltaic panel, that is to be integrated with the panel during manufacturing. The MPPT is inexpensive, efficient and has few components that serve to increase the MPPT's mean time between failures (MTBF). The MPPT uses an inexpensive microcontroller to perform all of its functions. This includes maximum power point

Wernher Swiegers; Johan H. R. Enslin

1998-01-01

11

Development of an efficient photovoltaic maximum power point tracking controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance boost converter for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic (PV) systems is presented. The proposed boost converter uses a new active snubber to minimize losses in the switching and improve efficiency of the converter. For tracking the maximum power point of a PV array, a closed loop fuzzy logic based MPPT controller has been developed. The

Subiyanto; Azah Mohamed; MA Hannan

2011-01-01

12

Pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled particles and the maximum tolerated dose.  

PubMed Central

Chronic inhalation bioassays in rodents are used to assess pulmonary carcinogenicity for purposes of hazard identification and potentially for risk characterization. The influence of high experimental doses on tumor development has been recognized for some time and has led to the concept of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for dose selection, with the highest dose being at the MTD. Exposure at the MTD should ensure that the animals are sufficiently challenged while at the same time the animal's normal longevity is not altered from effects other than carcinogenicity. A characteristic of exposure-dose-response relationships for chronically inhaled particles is that lung tumors are significantly increased only at high exposure levels, and that lung tumors are seen in rats only but not in mice or hamsters. This lung tumor response in rats is thought to be secondary to persistent alveolar inflammation, indicating that the MTD may have been exceeded. Thus, mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity may be dose dependent and may not operate at lower doses that humans normally experience. Despite awareness of this problem, carcinogenicity bioassays that evaluate particulate compounds in rodents have not always been designed with the MTD concept in mind. This is due to several problems associated with determining an appropriate MTD for particle inhalation studies. One requirement for the MTD is that some toxicity should be observed. However, it is difficult to define what degree of toxic response is indicative of the MTD. For particle inhalation studies, various noncancer end points in addition to mortality and body weight gain have been considered as indicators of the MTD, i.e., pulmonary inflammation, increased epithelial cell proliferation, increased lung weight, impairment of particle clearance function, and significant histopathological findings at the end of a subchronic study. However, there is no general agreement about quantification of these end points to define the MTD. To determine whether pulmonary responses are indicative of the MTD, we suggest defining an MTD based on results of a multidose subchronic and chronic inhalation study with a known human particulate carcinogen, e.g., asbestos or crystalline silica. Quantification of effects in such a study using the noncancer end points listed above would identify a dose level without significant signs of toxicity at the end of the subchronic study. If this dose level still results in significant lung tumor incidence at the end of the chronic study. We will have a sound basis for characterizing the MTD and justifying its use in future particle inhalation studies. Also, a better understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of particle-induced lung tumors is needed to support the MTD concept.

Oberdorster, G

1997-01-01

13

Comparative study of maximum power point tracking algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) play an important role in photovoltaic (PV) power systems because they maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency. Thus, an MPPT can minimize the overall system cost. MPPTs find and maintain operation at the maxi- mum power point, using an MPPTalgorithm. Many

D. P. Hohm; M. E. Ropp

2003-01-01

14

Dynamic maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic process for reaching the maximum power point of a variable power source such as a solar cell is introduced. The process tracks maximum power nearly cycle-by-cycle during transients. Information from the natural switching ripple instead of external perturbation is used to support the maximizing process. The method is globally stable for DC-DC power converters, provided that a switching

Pallab Midya; Philip T. Krein; Robert J. Turnbull; Robert Reppa; Jonathan Kimball

1996-01-01

15

A maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic-SPE system using a maximum current controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis (SPE) are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV-SPE system based on the maximum current searching methods has been designed and implemented.Based on the characteristics of voltage–current and theoretical analysis of SPE, it can be shown that the tracking of

Riza Muhida; Mohammed Dakkak; Kenji Matsuura; Akira Tsuyoshi; Masakazu Michira

2003-01-01

16

Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generator Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system the DC/DC converter is under the control of a maximum power point tracker which ensures that the TEG system outputs the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g., temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different, each TEG module will not produce its maximum power. If each TEG module is controlled individually, each TEG module can be operated at its maximum power point and the TEG system output power will therefore be higher. In this work a power converter based on noninverting buck-boost converters capable of handling four TEG modules is presented. It is shown that, when each module in the TEG system is operated under individual maximum power point tracking, the system output power for this specific application can be increased by up to 8.4% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in series and 16.7% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in parallel.

Vadstrup, Casper; Schaltz, Erik; Chen, Min

2013-04-01

17

Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The many different techniques for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are discussed. The techniques are taken from the literature dating back to the earliest methods. It is shown that at least 19 distinct methods have been introduced in the literature, with many variations on implementation. This paper should serve as a convenient reference for future work in

Trishan Esram; Patrick L. Chapman

2007-01-01

18

Maximum Power Point Estimation for Photovoltaic Systems Using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar panels are the power sources in photovoltaic applications which provide electrical power. Solar panel characteristics depend on environmental conditions (solar radiation level, temperature and etc.). In this paper, estimation of maximum power point of silicon solar panels is presented. We applied two different neural networks (back propagation and RBF) for the purpose of estimation in different environmental conditions. These

M. Taherbaneh; K. Faez

2007-01-01

19

Maximum power point tracking for low power photovoltaic solar panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum power point tracker unit is developed for the optimum coupling of photovoltaic panels (PVP) to the batteries and load through a controlled DC-DC power converter (chopper). The system consists of three main units: (i) the photovoltaic panels that convert solar power to electricity; (ii) a chopper which couples the power of PVP to the load or batteries at

Mehmet BODUR; Mummer ERMIS

1994-01-01

20

Developability assessment of clinical drug products with maximum absorbable doses.  

PubMed

Maximum absorbable dose refers to the maximum amount of an orally administered drug that can be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum absorbable dose, or D(abs), has proved to be an important parameter for quantifying the absorption potential of drug candidates. The purpose of this work is to validate the use of D(abs) in a developability assessment context, and to establish appropriate protocol and interpretation criteria for this application. Three methods for calculating D(abs) were compared by assessing how well the methods predicted the absorption limit for a set of real clinical candidates. D(abs) was calculated for these clinical candidates by means of a simple equation and two computer simulation programs, GastroPlus and an program developed at Eli Lilly and Company. Results from single dose escalation studies in Phase I clinical trials were analyzed to identify the maximum absorbable doses for these compounds. Compared to the clinical results, the equation and both simulation programs provide conservative estimates of D(abs), but in general D(abs) from the computer simulations are more accurate, which may find obvious advantage for the simulations in developability assessment. Computer simulations also revealed the complex behavior associated with absorption saturation and suggested in most cases that the D(abs) limit is not likely to be achieved in a typical clinical dose range. On the basis of the validation findings, an approach is proposed for assessing absorption potential, and best practices are discussed for the use of D(abs) estimates to inform clinical formulation development strategies. PMID:22349050

Ding, Xuan; Rose, John P; Van Gelder, Jan

2012-02-13

21

Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves  

SciTech Connect

In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between the yield of dicentric chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The dicentric yields follow the Poisson distribution, and the expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose for low LET radiation. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been obtained by Kellerer and Rossi using the theory of dual radiation action. The yield of elementary lesions is kappa(..gamma..d + g(t, tau)d/sup 2/), where t is the time and d is dose. The coefficient of the d/sup 2/ term is determined by the recovery function and the temporal mode of irradiation. Two special cases of practical interest are split-dose and continuous exposure experiments, and the resulting models are intrinsically nonlinear in the parameters. A general purpose maximum likelihood estimation procedure is described and illustrated with numerical examples from both experimental designs. Poisson regression analysis is used for estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression diagnostics. Results are discussed in the context of exposure assessment procedures for both acute and chronic human radiation exposure.

Frome, E.L; DuFrain, R.J.

1983-10-01

22

Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves.  

PubMed

In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes are exposed to low-LET radiation, and the resulting dicentric chromosome aberrations follow the Poisson distribution. The expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been presented by Kellerer and Rossi (1972, Current Topics on Radiation Research Quarterly 8, 85-158; 1978, Radiation Research 75, 471-488) using the theory of dual radiation action. Two special cases of practical interest are split-dose and continuous exposure experiments, and the resulting dose-time-response models are intrinsically nonlinear in the parameters. A general-purpose maximum likelihood estimation procedure is described, and estimation for the nonlinear models is illustrated with numerical examples from both experimental designs. Poisson regression analysis is used for estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression diagnostics. Results are discussed in the context of exposure assessment procedures for both acute and chronic human radiation exposure. PMID:3719064

Frome, E L; DuFrain, R J

1986-03-01

23

Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses  

SciTech Connect

Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

Marter, W.L.

1990-11-01

24

Investigation of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) model is developed as a tool for investigating optimized maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms for TEG systems within automotive exhaust heat energy recovery applications. The model comprises three main subsystems that make up the TEG system: the heat exchanger, thermoelectric material, and power conditioning unit (PCU). In this study, two MPPT algorithms known as the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm and extremum seeking control (ESC) are investigated. A synchronous buck-boost converter is implemented as the preferred DC-DC converter topology, and together with the MPPT algorithm completes the PCU architecture. The process of developing the subsystems is discussed, and the advantage of using the MPPT controller is demonstrated. The simulation results demonstrate that the ESC algorithm implemented in combination with a synchronous buck-boost converter achieves favorable power outputs for TEG systems. The appropriateness is by virtue of greater responsiveness to changes in the system's thermal conditions and hence the electrical potential difference generated in comparison with the P&O algorithm. The MATLAB/Simulink environment is used for simulation of the TEG system and comparison of the investigated control strategies.

Phillip, Navneesh; Maganga, Othman; Burnham, Keith J.; Ellis, Mark A.; Robinson, Simon; Dunn, Julian; Rouaud, Cedric

2013-07-01

25

Simple photovoltaic solar cell dynamic sliding mode controlled maximum power point tracker for battery charging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a maximum power point tracker and estimator for a PV system to estimate the point of maximum power, to track this point and force it to reach this point in finite time and to stay there for all future time in order to provide the maximum power available to the load. The load will be

Emil A. Jimenez Brea; Eduardo I. Ortiz-Rivera; Andres Salazar-Llinas; Jesus Gonzalez-Llorente

2010-01-01

26

A new algorithm for rapid tracking of approximate maximum power point in photovoltaic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new algorithm for tracking maximum power point in photovoltaic systems. This is a fast tracking algorithm, where an initial approximation of maximum power point is (MPP) quickly achieved using a variable step-size. Subsequently, the exact maximum power point can be targeted using any conventional method like the hill-climbing or incremental conductance method. Thus, the drawback of

Sachin Jain; Vivek Agarwal

2004-01-01

27

Design of optimum Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm for solar panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to track the maximum power point of the Photovoltaic panel, as the electrical power supplied by solar array depends on insolation, temperature and load. Maximum Power Point Tracking ( MPPT) is an Power electronic system that operates the photovoltaic modules to produce maximum power. MPPT varies the electrical operating point of the modules and enables them to

A. Thenkani; N. Senthil Kumar

2011-01-01

28

New approach to photovoltaic arrays maximum power point tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present trend for commercial telecommunication and scientific satellites is the utilization of standard platform, characterized by a high level of flexibility and reduced nonrecurring costs. One of the areas where flexibility is mandatory is the electrical primary power subsystem, due to the impact on solar array configuration and dimensions and on power conditioning unit. Use of the maximum power

Angelo Brambilla; Marcello Gambarara; Antonio Garutti; F. Ronchi

1999-01-01

29

An approximate, maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a point  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neighboring extremal control problem is formulated for a hypersonic glider to execute a maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a stationary target in a vertical plane. The resulting two-part, feedback control scheme initially solves a nonlinear algebraic problem to generate a nominal trajectory to the target altitude. Secondly, quadrature about the nominal provides the lift perturbation necessary to achieve the target downrange.

G. Richard Eisler; David G. Hull

1988-01-01

30

Topology Study of Photovoltaic Interface for Maximum Power Point Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the performance of photovoltaic modules in nonideal conditions and proposes topologies to minimize the degradation of performance caused by these conditions. It is found that the peak power point of a module is significantly decreased due to only the slightest shading of the module, and that this effect is propagated through other nonshaded modules connected in

Weidong Xiao; Nathan Ozog; William G. Dunford

2007-01-01

31

Solar cell single measurement maximum power point tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible to give a valuable estimation for an entire solar array IV curve, based only on a single working point (current and voltage) measurement, on panels of solar cells, when several of their parameters are known and environmental parameters also known. The estimations were performed using Matlab\\/Simulink and the simulation is based on the 10 parameter solar cell

Raul Rabinovici; Yotam B. Frechter

2010-01-01

32

Prediction-data-based maximum-power-point-tracking method for photovoltaic power generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) method for a photovoltaic (PV) power generation system was studied which can efficiently generate PV power even under changing weather conditions. In order to research a method suitable for the actual photovoltaic power system, PV characteristics of the maximum power point were measured for more than six months using a PV curve tracer. The actual maximum

Nobuyoshi Mutoh; Takatoshi Matuo; Kazuhito Okada; Masahiro Sakai

2002-01-01

33

Novel Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Wind Turbine Driven Permanent Magnet Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Maximum Power Point Control for variable speed wind turbine driven permanent-magnet generator. The wind turbine generator is operated such that the rotor speed varies according to wind speed to adjust the duty cycle of power converter and maximizes Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) efficiency. The maximum power point for each speed value is traced using Maximum Power

R. Bharanikumar; A. C. Yazhini; A. N. Kumar

2008-01-01

34

Voltage-based maximum power point tracking control of PV system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photovoltaic (PV) generators exhibit nonlinear v-i characteristics and maximum power (MP) points that vary with solar insulation. An intermediate converter can therefore increase efficiency by matching the PV system to the load and by operating the solar cell arrays (SCAs) at their maximum power point. An MP point tracking algorithm is developed using only SCA voltage information thus leading to

MUMMADI VEERACHARY; TOMONOBU SENJYU; KATSUMI UEZATO

2002-01-01

35

A review of maximum power point tracking algorithms for wind energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews state of the art maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms for wind energy systems. Due to the instantaneous changing nature of the wind, it is desirable to determine the one optimal generator speed that ensures maximum energy yield. Therefore, it is essential to include a controller that can track the maximum peak regardless of wind speed. The

M. A. Abdullah; A. H. M. Yatim; C. W. Tan; R. Saidur

2012-01-01

36

An improved maximum power point tracker using a step-up converter with current locked loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that for a given solar radiation intensity and solar cell temperature there exists a Maximum Power Point at which the power generated from the PV panel is at its maximum. A system designer is interested in optimal matching of the load to the PV generator so that the maximum power can be obtained during operating period.

H. D. Maheshappa; J. Nagaraju; M. V. Krishna Murthy

1998-01-01

37

Maximum power point tracking using adaptive fuzzy logic control for grid-connected photovoltaic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method of maximum power point tracking using adaptive fuzzy logic control for grid-connected photovoltaic systems. The system is composed of a boost converter and a single-phase inverter connected to a utility grid. The maximum power point tracking control is based on adaptive fuzzy logic to control a switch of a boost converter. Adaptive fuzzy logic controllers

Nopporn Patcharaprakiti; Suttichai Premrudeepreechacharn; Yosanai Sriuthaisiriwong

2005-01-01

38

Self-regulating maximum power point tracking for solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the electric power supplied by solar arrays is dependent upon the insolation, temperature and array voltage, it is necessary to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in order to move the solar array operating voltage close to the peak power point, thus drawing the maximum power from the solar array. The solar panel is integrated with a dc-dc converter,

S. Armstrong; W. G. Hurley

2004-01-01

39

Intensity-modulated radiosurgery: improving dose gradients and maximum dose using post inverse-optimization interactive dose shaping.  

PubMed

Intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) for brain metastases and arterio-venous malformations (AVM) using a serial tomotherapy system (Nomos Corp., Cranberry Township, PA) has been delivered in >150 cases over the last 5 years. A new software tool provided within the Corvus inverse planning software (ActiveRx) allows for post inverse planning re-optimization and individualization of the dose distribution. We analyzed this tool with respect to increasing the steepness of the dose gradient and in-target dose inhomogeneity while maintaining conformity. Fifteen clinically delivered IMRS plans for solitary brain metastases provided the basis for this analysis. The clinical IMRS plans were copied and the ActiveRx module was opened. The toolset in ActiveRx includes a hot spot eraser, a pencil tool to redefine isodose lines and a drag and drop tool, allowing reshaping of existing isodose lines. To assess changes in the steepness of the dose gradient and dose homogeneity, the 100%, 90%, 50% and 25% isodose volume, the volume of the target, maximum dose and mean dose to the target were recorded. We also recorded total monitor units and calculated treatment delivery times. Target volumes ranged from 0.6 to 14.1 cm(3) (mean/median 3.9/1.8 cm(3)). Mean RTOG conformity index (CI) of plans clinically delivered was 1.23+/-0.31; mean homogeneity index (HI) was 115+/-5%. After using the ActiveRx tool-set, the mean CI was slightly improved to 1.14+/-0.1, with an associated increase in HI to 141+/-10%. The average, respective Ian Paddick CI for the 100%, 90% 50% and 25% isodose lines were 0.79 vs. 0.83, 0.44 vs. 0.59, 0.12 vs. 0.19, and 0.04 vs. 0.07, representing significant improvements after using ActiveRx post-optimization. Total MU were reduced by a mean of 12.3% using ActiveRx, shortening estimated treatment delivery times by 3.2 minutes on average. A post inverse planning optimization tool for IMRS plans allowed for statistically significant improvements in the steepness of the dose gradient, and increased maximum and mean target doses compared to clinically delivered plans that were already considered excellent. Gains were especially pronounced in the reduction of normal brain tissue included into the 90%, and 50% isodose lines. We have since made this process part of the clinical routine for all cranial IMRS procedures. PMID:17535028

Fuss, Martin; Salter, Bill J

2007-06-01

40

The Expected Toxicity Rate at the Maximum Tolerated Dose in Bridging Studies in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bridging study has been recommended to determine the maximum tolerated dose in Alzheimer's disease patients, because the maximum tolerated dose in the Alzheimer's disease patient population versus the normal population can vary greatly. Although bridging studies in Alzheimer's disease have often been conducted, it is surprising to note that very little is known about the statistical properties of the

Seung-Ho Kang; Chul Ahn

2005-01-01

41

The maximum size of a convex polygon in a restricted set of points in the plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assume we havek points in general position in the plane such that the ratio between the maximum distance of any pair of points to the minimum distance of any pair of points is at most??k, for some positive constant?. We show that there exist at least?k1\\/4 of these points which are the vertices of a convex polygon, for some positive

N. Alon; M. Katchalski; W. R. Pulleyblank

1989-01-01

42

Design of a Maximum Power Point Tracker with Simulation, Analysis, and Comparison of Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, the advantages of three different maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm are investigated. By simulation, the performance and efficiency of these algorithms was analyzed. By using MATLAB's SimPowerSystems block set, we created the m...

J. Wurz

2012-01-01

43

Maximum allowable load of mobile manipulators for two given end points of end effector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is the formulation and numerical solution for finding the maximum dynamic load of mobile manipulators for a given two-end-point task. In fixed-base classical robots, the maximum allowable load is limited mainly by their joint actuator capacity constraints. However, besides actuator capacity constraints, kinematic redundancy and non-holonomic constraints should be considered for finding maximum dynamic payload

M. H. Korayem; H. Ghariblu; A. Basu

2004-01-01

44

Novel maximum-power-point-tracking controller for photovoltaic energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) controller for a photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion system is presented. Using the slope of power versus voltage of a PV array, the proposed MPPT controller allows the conversion system to track the maximum power point very rapidly. As opposed to conventional two-stage designs, a single-stage configuration is implemented, resulting in size and weight reduction and increased

Yeong-Chau Kuo; Tsorng-Juu Liang; Jiann-Fuh Chen

2001-01-01

45

Dual-Module-Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of Photovoltaic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control method for small-scale dual-module photovoltaic (PV) systems is presented in this paper. With this method, the voltage and current information of each module are shared and utilized for the detection of the maximum-power point (MPP) without measuring power. This approach can be implemented in a simple structure, especially due to the elimination

Joung-Hu Park; Jun-Youn Ahn; Bo-Hyung Cho; Gwon-Jong Yu

2006-01-01

46

A novel maximum power point tracker for PV panels using switching frequency modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique for efficiently extracting maximum power from photovoltaic (PV) panels is presented. The power conversion stage, which is connected between a PV panel and a load or bus, is a SEPIC or Cuk converter or their derived circuits operating in discontinuous inductor-current or capacitor-voltage mode. A method of locating the maximum power point (MPP) is based on injecting

K. K. Tse; M. T. Ho; Henry S.-H. Chung; S. Y. Hui

2002-01-01

47

A Global Maximum Power Point Tracking Scheme Employing DIRECT Search Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a maximum power point tracking approach for a photovoltaic system using the dividing rectangles algorithm. The new approach overcomes some weaknesses of the existing methods such as the perturb and observe method as it is capable of searching for global maximum. This is particularly important for a system that is partially shaded. To validate the performance of

Tat Luat Nguyen; Kay-Soon Low

2010-01-01

48

Challenges of overcurrent protection devices in photovoltaic arrays brought by maximum power point tracker  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the challenges of overcurrent protection devices (OCPD) brought by the maximum power point tracker (MPPT) of the centralized grid-connected inverter in a photovoltaic (PV) array. Since PV arrays have non-linear output characteristics, MPPT algorithms of PV inverters are often used to harvest the maximum output power from PV arrays. Most MPPTs are designed to respond to unexpected

Ye Zhao; Brad Lehman; Jean-Francois de Palma; Jerry Mosesian; Robert Lyons

2011-01-01

49

Microcontroller based intelligent DC\\/DC converter to track Maximum Power Point for solar photovoltaic module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is widely used control technique to extract maximum power available from the solar cell of photovoltaic (PV) module. Since the solar cells have non-linear i-v characteristics. The efficiency of PV module is very low and power output depends on solar insolation level and ambient temperature, so maximization of power output with greater efficiency is of

Y. P. Siwakoti; Bhupendra Bimal Chhetri; Brijesh Adhikary; Diwakar Bista

2010-01-01

50

Increasing maximum tumor dose to manage range uncertainties in IMPT treatment planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is sensitive to range uncertainties. Geometric margins, as dosimetric surrogates, are ineffective and robust optimization strategies are needed. These, however, lead to increased normal tissue dose. We explore here how this dose increase can be reduced by increasing the maximum tumor dose instead. We focus on range uncertainties, modeled by scaling the stopping powers 5% up (undershoot) or down (overshoot) compared to the nominal scenario. Robust optimization optimizes for target dose conformity in the most likely scenario, not the worst, while constraining target coverage for the worst-case scenario. Non-robust plans are also generated. Different maximum target doses are applied (105% versus 120% versus 140%) to investigate the effect on normal tissue dose reduction. The method is tested on a homogeneous and a lung phantom and on a liver patient. Target D99 of the robust plans equals the prescription dose of 60 GyEWe use the symbol GyE for the correct notation of Gy(RBE). for all scenarios, but decreases to 36 GyE for the non-robust plans. The mean normal tissue dose in a 2 cm ring around the target is 11% to 31% higher for the robust plans. This increase can be reduced to -8% and 3% (compared to the non-robust plan) by allowing a maximum tumor dose of 120% instead of 105%. Thus robustness leads to more normal tissue dose, but it can be compensated by allowing a higher maximum tumor dose.

Petit, Steven; Seco, Joao; Kooy, Hanne

2013-10-01

51

A novel maximum power point tracking algorithm for ocean wave energy devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many forms of renewable energy exist in the world's oceans, with ocean wave energy showing great potential. However, the ocean environment presents many challenges for cost-effective renewable energy conversion, including optimal control of a wave energy converter (WEC). This paper presents a novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for control of a point absorber WEC. The algorithm and control

Ean A. Amon; Alphonse A. Schacher; Ted K. A. Brekken

2009-01-01

52

Artificial Neural Network Maximum Power Point Tracker for Solar Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an artificial neural network maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for solar electric vehicles. The MPPT is based on a highly efficient boost converter with insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power switch. The reference voltage for MPPT is obtained by artificial neural network (ANN) with gradient descent momentum algorithm. The tracking algorithm changes the duty-cycle of the converter

Theodore Amissah Ocran; Junyi Cao; Binggang Cao; Xinghua Sun

2005-01-01

53

A Novel Scheme for Rapid Tracking of Maximum Power Point in Wind Energy Generation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel maximum power point (MPP) tracking (MPPT) algorithm for grid-connected wind energy generation systems (WEGS). This is a rapid tracking algorithm that uses the fact that the value of ????,?? an intermediate variable, especially defined for the purpose, remains constant ( =??MPP ) for a given WEGS at the MPP irrespective of the wind velocity. The

Vivek Agarwal; Rakesh K. Aggarwal; Pravin Patidar; Chetan Patki

2010-01-01

54

A novel algorithm for fast and efficient maximum power point tracking of wind energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper proposes a novel solution to the problems that exists in the normal hill climb searching (HCS) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The solution presented not only solves the tracking speed vs. efficiency tradeoff problem of HCS but also makes sure that the changing wind conditions shouldn't lead HCS in the

Kazmi Syed Muhammad Raza; Hiroki Goto; Hai-Jiao Guo; Osamu Ichinokura

2008-01-01

55

Maximum Power Point Tracking of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Based on Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control method for variable-speed constant-frequency wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The proposed tracking method combines the ideas of sliding mode (SM) control and extremum seeking control (ESC). The only input needed in this method is the output active power of the generator. It avoids some difficult problems in traditional tracking

Tinglong Pan; Zhicheng Ji; Zhenhua Jiang

2008-01-01

56

Design of DC\\/DC Boost converter with FNN solar cell Maximum Power Point Tracking controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller that uses a DC\\/DC Boost converter with a Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) system. It simplifies the topology of the DC\\/DC boost converter model to state equations, which is easy to simulate with Matlab. Additionally, the FNN system uses an integrated Fuzzy and Neural Network (NN), which advantages include uncertainty information

Hung-Ching Lu; Te-Lung Shih

2010-01-01

57

A new fuzzy control method based on PSO for Maximum Power Point Tracking of photovoltaic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is the key technology in the solar energy photovoltaic system, which plays an important role in enhancing energy utilization effectively. Aiming at problems existing in traditional fuzzy tracking method, such as pre-confirmation of control parameters, weak self-study ability, and effective tracking cannot be organized under the circumstance that the environment condition is changed greatly, a

Qiang Fu; Nan Tong

2011-01-01

58

A Novel Maximum Power Point Tracking Strategy for Stand-alone Solar Pumping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hybrid maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control strategy for stand-alone solar pumping systems without backup batteries is proposed in this paper. The whole control process consists of two steps: the judgment of speed up or down and the selection of step size of speed command. Basically, the system with the proposed MPPT strategy is controlled by a normal

Guo Heng; Xu Zheng; Li You-Chun; Wang Hui

2005-01-01

59

Simplified feed-forward control of the maximum power point in PV installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel simplified control strategy, based on the positive feedback of a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) converter output current, is introduced. Cost-effective MPPT reduces the energy cost from renewable energy generators by optimizing the utilization of the renewable energy source. MPPT for relative small photovoltaic (PV) systems, with battery back-up, is achieved by maximization of the output current to

J. H. R. Enslin; D. B. Snyman

1992-01-01

60

Maximum power point tracker applied in batteries charging with PV panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the design and implementation prototype of a real time maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for photovoltaic panel (PV), aiming to improve energy transfer efficiency. This paper describes also the charging process of lead- acid batteries integrating the MPPT algorithm making an charging autonomous system that can be used to feed any autonomous application. The photovoltaic system

José António Barros Vieira; Alexandre Manuel Mota

2008-01-01

61

Stand-alone PV generation system with maximum power point tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power available at the output of photovoltaic (PV) cells keeps changing with solar irradiation and ambient temperature because PV cells exhibit a nonlinear current-voltage characteristic. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are used in PV systems to make full utilization of PV array output power which depends on solar irradiation and ambient temperature. Inverter control is another key aspect

Hadi Aghazadeh; Hossein Madadi Kojabadi; Ahmad Sadeghi Yazdankhah

2010-01-01

62

Sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking of Wind by DFIG Using Rotor Position Phase Lock Loop (PLL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an invention, the rotor position phase lock loop (PLL), which enables maximum power point (MPPT) tracking of wind by doubly-fed induction generators without needing a tachometer, an absolute position encoder, or an anemometer. The rotor position PLL is parameter variation insensitive, requiring only an estimate of the magnetization inductance for it to operate. It is also insensitive

Baike Shen; Bakari Mwinyiwiwa; Yongzheng Zhang; Boon-Teck Ooi

2009-01-01

63

A Digital Coreless Maximum Power Point Tracking Circuit for Thermoelectric Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit for thermoelectric generators (TEG) without a digital controller unit. The proposed method uses an analog tracking circuit that samples the half point of the open-circuit voltage without a digital signal processor (DSP) or microcontroller unit for calculating the peak power point using iterative methods. The simulation results revealed that the MPPT circuit, which employs a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter, handled rapid variation of temperature and abrupt changes of load current; this method enables stable operation with high power transfer efficiency. The proposed MPPT technique is a useful analog MPPT solution for thermoelectric generators.

Kim, Shiho; Cho, Sungkyu; Kim, Namjae; Baatar, Nyambayar; Kwon, Jangwoo

2011-05-01

64

A Control Method for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Stand-Alone-Type PV Generation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new control method for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in stand-alone-type PV generaton systems is proposed. In this control method, the operations detecting the maximum power point and tracking its point are alternately carried out by using a step-up DC—DC converter. This method requires neither the measurement of temperature and insolation level nor PV array model. In a stand-alone-type application with a battery load, the design method for the boost inductance L of the step-up DC—DC converter is described, and the experimental results show that the use of the proposed MPPT control increases the PV generated energy by 14.8% compared to the conventional system.

Itako, Kazutaka; Mori, Takeaki

65

Change point models for cognitive tests using semi-parametric maximum likelihood  

PubMed Central

Random-effects change point models are formulated for longitudinal data obtained from cognitive tests. The conditional distribution of the response variable in a change point model is often assumed to be normal even if the response variable is discrete and shows ceiling effects. For the sum score of a cognitive test, the binomial and the beta-binomial distributions are presented as alternatives to the normal distribution. Smooth shapes for the change point models are imposed. Estimation is by marginal maximum likelihood where a parametric population distribution for the random change point is combined with a non-parametric mixing distribution for other random effects. An extension to latent class modelling is possible in case some individuals do not experience a change in cognitive ability. The approach is illustrated using data from a longitudinal study of Swedish octogenarians and nonagenarians that began in 1991. Change point models are applied to investigate cognitive change in the years before death.

van den Hout, Ardo; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Matthews, Fiona E.

2013-01-01

66

Maximum-power-point tracking with reduced mechanical stress applied to wind-energy-conversion-systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an improved maximum-power-point tracking algorithm for wind-energy-conversion-systems. The proposed method significantly reduces the turbine mechanical stress with regard to conventional techniques, so that both the maintenance needs and the medium time between failures are expected to be improved. To achieve these objectives, a sensorless speed control loop receives its reference signal from a modified Perturb&Observe algorithm, in

L. G. González; E. Figueres; G. Garcerá; O. Carranza

2010-01-01

67

Intelligent inverse control to maximum power point tracking control strategy of wind energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the wind speed is below the rated value, the rbf neural network inverse controller is designed to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for wind energy conversion system,the simulation model is built based on the Matlab \\/ Simulink.The results show that power coefficient and tip speed ratio has high accuracy of tracking the optimal power value,what's more,the neural network

Tai Li; Z. C Ji

2011-01-01

68

Optimized Maximum Power Point Tracker for Fast-Changing Environmental Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high-performance maximum power point tracker (MPPT) optimized for fast cloudy conditions, e.g., rapidly changing irradiation on the photovoltaic panels. The rapidly changing conditions are tracked by an optimized hill-climbing MPPT method called dP-P&O. This algorithm separates the effects of the irradiation change from the effect of the tracker's perturbation and uses this information to optimize the

Dezso Sera; Remus Teodorescu; Jochen Hantschel; Michael Knoll

2008-01-01

69

Development of a microcontroller-based, photovoltaic maximum power point tracking control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the photovoltaic array output power, irrespective of the temperature and irradiation conditions and of the load electrical characteristics. A new MPPT system has been developed, consisting of a buck-type DC\\/DC converter, which is controlled by a microcontroller-based unit. The main difference between the method used in the

Eftichios Koutroulis; Kostas Kalaitzakis; Nicholas C. Voulgaris

2001-01-01

70

Maximum supercoolign in liquid /sup 3/He-/sup 4/He mixtures near the tricritical point  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of supercooling in liquid /sup 3/He-/sup 4/He mixtures near the tricritical point are presented. The reduced temperature range 0.001 < epsilon identical to (1 - T/T/sub t/) < 0.01 was investigated for three different rates of cooling using a pressure-quench technique. For epsilon < 0.012, the maximum supercooling was found to be a function of the cooling rate. Comparisons with data in organic binary mixtures are given.

Sinha, D.N.; Hoffer, J.K.

1984-01-01

71

Unbounded Binary Search for a Fast and Accurate Maximum Power Point Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a technique for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a concentrating photovoltaic system using cell level power optimization. Perturb and observe (P&O) has been a standard for an MPPT, but it introduces a tradeoff between the tacking speed and the accuracy of the maximum power delivered. The P&O algorithm is not suitable for a rapid environmental condition change by partial shading and self-shading due to its tracking time being linear to the length of the voltage range. Some of researches have been worked on fast tracking but they come with internal ad hoc parameters. In this paper, by using the proposed unbounded binary search algorithm for the MPPT, tracking time becomes a logarithmic function of the voltage search range without ad hoc parameters.

Kim, Yong Sin; Winston, Roland

2011-12-01

72

Active energy harvesting from microbial fuel cells at the maximum power point without using resistors.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers a sustainable approach to harvest electricity from biodegradable materials. Energy production from MFCs has been demonstrated using external resistors or charge pumps, but such methods can only dissipate energy through heat or receive electrons passively from the MFC without any controllability. This study developed a new approach and system that can actively extract energy from MFC reactors at any operating point without using any resistors, especially at the peak power point to maximize energy production. Results show that power harvesting from a recirculating-flow MFC can be well maintained by the maximum power point circuit (MPPC) at its peak power point, while a charge pump was not able to change operating point due to current limitation. Within 18-h test, the energy gained from the MPPC was 76.8 J, 76 times higher than the charge pump (1.0 J) that was commonly used in MFC studies. Both conditions resulted in similar organic removal, but the Coulombic efficiency obtained from the MPPC was 21 times higher than that of the charge pump. Different numbers of capacitors could be used in the MPPC for various energy storage requirements and power supply, and the energy conversion efficiency of the MPPC was further characterized to identify key factors for system improvement. This active energy harvesting approach provides a new perspective for energy harvesting that can maximize MFC energy generation and system controllability. PMID:22486712

Wang, Heming; Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong

2012-04-17

73

A complementary review of maximum power point tracking methods for wind generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a very important necessity in a system of energy conversion from a renewable energy source. In this paper, is made an attempt to provide a brief review of 12 very recent publications, not analyzed in the last surveys appeared in 2010 and 2011, and to make a comparative analyze and a classification of all available MPPT algorithms, highlighting their strength and drawbacks. After addressing the reasons for use of MPPT techniques, various power optimization schemes are surveyed. The comparative analysis and a classification of the MPPT algorithms are useful for the designers of wind energy power systems.

Cr?ciunescu, Aurelian; Popescu, Claudia; Popescu, Mihai

2012-09-01

74

Point dose verification for intensity modulated radiosurgery using Clarkson's method.  

PubMed

In clinical radiation physics chart checking, the dose calculation results generated by computer treatment planning software are usually verified by an independent computerized monitor unit calculation routine, or by "hand calculation" using percent depth dose (PDD), tissue phantom ratio (TPR), scatter factors, and the machine calibration factors. For intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the "hand calculation" becomes not feasible due to the sophisticated multileaf collimator (MLC) segments created for intensity-modulated dose delivery. Therefore, an independent computerized dose calculation routine is needed for fast and reliable dose verification. In this work, a point dose calculation routine for IMRS/IMRT plan verification is developed by directly applying Clarkson's method. The method includes preparing data table by measuring TPRs for circular fields with diameters ranging 6 to 98 mm, extrapolating TPR for the zero field size (TPR0) from measured data and generating scatter phantom ratio (SPR) for each individual circular field. The segmented MLC sequences created by IMRS/IMRT inverse planning are converted into irregular fields for Clarkson's calculation. This method has been tested using 29 IMRS/IMRT cases. The results indicate that it is reliable, fast, and accurate. The average time to calculate one field is about 2 s with a 300 Mhz CPU. PMID:12945987

Zhu, Jingeng; Yin, Fang-Fang; Kim, Jae Ho

2003-08-01

75

Maximum power point tracking control of photovoltaic generation system under non-uniform insolation by means of monitoring cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic power generation system (PV system) is operated under various insolation conditions. Sometimes the PV system is operated under nonuniform insolation, which may generate several maximum output power points on the V-I curve of the PV array and raises serious problem on maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the system. In order to solve this problem, the authors

Kei Irisawa; Takeshi Saito; I. Takano; Y. Sawada

2000-01-01

76

Evaluation of the dose uniformity for double-plane high dose rate interstitial breast implants with the use of dose reference points and dose non-uniformity ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: To investigate the influence of dwell time optimizations on dose uniformity characterized by dose values in dose points and dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR) and to analyze which implant parameters have influence on the DNR.Materials and methods: Double-plane breast implants with catheters arranged in triangular pattern were used for the calculations. At a typical breast implant, dose values

Tibor Major; Csaba Polgár; András Somogyi; György Németh

2000-01-01

77

Maximum tolerable dose (MTD): a new index for ultraviolet radiation toxicity in the lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum tolerable dose (MTD2.3:16) for avoidance of cataract on exposure to UVR-300 nm in the rat was currently estimated to 3.65 kJ/m2. For this, Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally exposed to UVR in the 300 nm wavelength region, generated with a high pressure mercury arc source. The intensity of forward light scattering was measured one week after exposure. MTD allows estimation of toxicity for continuous response events with small sample experiments. Current safety standards for avoidance of cataract after exposure to UVR are based on a binary response event. It has however recently been shown that UVR-induced cataract is a continuous dose-dependent event. MTD provides a statistically well defined criterium of toxicity for continuous response events.

Soederberg, Per G.; Loefgren, Stefan; Ayala, Marcelo; Kakar, M.

2001-06-01

78

Main clinical, therapeutic and technical factors related to patient's maximum skin dose in interventional cardiology procedures  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aimed to characterise the factors related to the X-ray dose delivered to the patient's skin during interventional cardiology procedures. Methods We studied 177 coronary angiographies (CAs) and/or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties (PTCAs) carried out in a French clinic on the same radiography table. The clinical and therapeutic characteristics, and the technical parameters of the procedures, were collected. The dose area product (DAP) and the maximum skin dose (MSD) were measured by an ionisation chamber (Diamentor; Philips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) and radiosensitive film (Gafchromic; International Specialty Products Advanced Materials Group, Wayne, NJ). Multivariate analyses were used to assess the effects of the factors of interest on dose. Results The mean MSD and DAP were respectively 389 mGy and 65 Gy cm?2 for CAs, and 916 mGy and 69 Gy cm?2 for PTCAs. For 8% of the procedures, the MSD exceeded 2 Gy. Although a linear relationship between the MSD and the DAP was observed for CAs (r=0.93), a simple extrapolation of such a model to PTCAs would lead to an inadequate assessment of the risk, especially for the highest dose values. For PTCAs, the body mass index, the therapeutic complexity, the fluoroscopy time and the number of cine frames were independent explanatory factors of the MSD, whoever the practitioner was. Moreover, the effect of technical factors such as collimation, cinematography settings and X-ray tube orientations on the DAP was shown. Conclusion Optimising the technical options for interventional procedures and training staff on radiation protection might notably reduce the dose and ultimately avoid patient skin lesions.

Journy, N; Sinno-Tellier, S; Maccia, C; Le Tertre, A; Pirard, P; Pages, P; Eilstein, D; Donadieu, J; Bar, O

2012-01-01

79

Approximating the Distribution of the Maximum Likelihood Estimate of the Change-Point in a Sequence of Independent Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of estimating the change-point in a sequence of independent random variables is considered. As the sample sizes before and after the change-point tend to infinity, Hinkley (1970) showed that the maximum likelihood estimate of the change-point converges in distribution to that of the change-point based on an infinite sample. Letting the amount of change in distribution approach 0,

Yi-Ching Yao

1987-01-01

80

Single-phase single-stage photovoltaic generation system based on a ripple correlation control maximum power point tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum power point tracking algorithm for single-stage converters connecting photovoltaic (PV) panels to a single-phase grid is presented in this paper. The algorithm is based on the application of the \\

Domenico Casadei; Gabriele Grandi; Claudio Rossi

2006-01-01

81

A comparative study of maximum-power-point trackers for photovoltaic panels using switching-frequency modulation scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the maximum power point trackers using a switching-frequency modulation scheme (SFMS) for photovoltaic panels is presented. Some commonly used dc\\/dc converters, which are applied for the power conversion stage of those trackers, will be examined. Method of locating the maximum power point (MPP) is based on injecting a small-signal sinusoidal perturbation into the switching frequency of

K. K. Tse; Billy M. T. Ho; Henry Shu-Hung Chung; S. Y. Ron Hui

2004-01-01

82

A study on a two stage maximum power point tracking control of a photovoltaic system under partially shaded insolation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic (PV) array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the PV array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the current-power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multilocal maximum points mode under nonuniform insolation conditions.

K. Kobayashi; I. Takano; Y. Sawada

2003-01-01

83

Artificial neural network-based maximum power point tracking control for variable speed wind energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller using artificial neural networks (ANN) for variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) is proposed. The algorithm uses Jordan recurrent ANN and is trained online using back propagation. The inputs to the networks are the instantaneous output power, maximum output power, rotor speed and wind speed, and the output is the rotor

J. S. Thongam; P. Bouchard; H. Ezzaidi; M. Ouhrouche

2009-01-01

84

Long Duration Balloon Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) solar power system development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High altitude scientific balloons have been used for many years to provide scientists with access to near space at a fraction of the cost of satellite based or sounding rocket experiments. In recent years, these balloons have been successfully used for long duration missions of up to 40 days. Longer missions, with durations of up to 100 days (Ultra Long), are in the planning stages. Due to the flight durations, solar power systems have been utilized throughout the Long Duration Balloon (LDB) flight program to power the necessary electronic systems. Recently, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) charge controllers have become available off-the-shelf. These controllers along with high efficiency mono-crystalline solar cells have become reliable, low cost solutions even in the harsh environments they operate in. The LDB program at the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) began supporting solar power systems with custom units fabricated by the Physical Science Laboratory (PSL) of New Mexico State University (NMSU). These charge controllers proved to be very reliable systems; however, they required intensive labor to build and were relatively expensive. As off-the-shelf MPPT charge controllers have become available, they have been integrated into the LDB flight support systems. Coupled with PSL developed interface electronics for monitoring and power switching, they have proven to be as reliable, less expensive, and more efficient. The addition of MPPT allows for the controller to operate the solar panel at it highest power production point. Newer, off-the-shelf controllers with smarter MPPT, are currently being tested. This paper describes the long and ultra-long balloon missions and the role that solar power plays in mission success. More importantly, it discusses the recent developments in off-the-shelf MPPT charge controllers configured for use in the harsh high altitude balloon environment.

Perez, Juan

85

Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Thermoelectric Generators with Peak Gain Control of Boost DC-DC Converters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analog maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit for a thermoelectric generator (TEG) is proposed. We show that the peak point of the voltage conversion gain of a boost DC-DC converter with an input voltage source having an internal resistor is the maximum power point of the TEG. The key characteristic of the proposed MPPT controller is that the duty ratio of the input clock pulse to the boost DC-DC converter shifts toward the maximum power point of the TEG by seeking the peak gain point of the boost DC-DC converters. The proposed MPPT technique provides a simple and useful analog MPPT solution, without employing digital microcontroller units.

Park, Jungyong; Kim, Shiho

2012-06-01

86

A maximum-likelihood search for neutrino point sources with the AMANDA-II detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrino astronomy offers a new window to study the high energy universe. The AMANDA-II detector records neutrino-induced muon events in the ice sheet beneath the geographic South Pole, and has accumulated 3.8 years of livetime from 2000 - 2006. After reconstructing muon tracks and applying selection criteria, we arrive at a sample of 6595 events originating from the Northern Sky, predominantly atmospheric neutrinos with primary energy 100 GeV to 8 TeV. We search these events for evidence of astrophysical neutrino point sources using a maximum-likelihood method. No excess above the atmospheric neutrino background is found, and we set upper limits on neutrino fluxes. Finally, a well-known potential dark matter signature is emission of high energy neutrinos from annihilation of WIMPs gravitationally bound to the Sun. We search for high energy neutrinos from the Sun and find no excess. Our limits on WIMP-nucleon cross section set new constraints on MSSM parameter space.

Braun, James R.

87

Short-current pulse-based maximum-power-point tracking method for multiple photovoltaic-and-converter module system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) method with a simple algorithm for photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems. The method is based on use of a short-current pulse of the PV to determine an optimum operating current where the maximum output power can be obtained and completely differs from conventional hill-climbing-based methods. In the proposed system, the optimum operating

Toshihiko Noguchi; Shigenori Togashi; Ryo Nakamoto

2002-01-01

88

Dosimetric impact of point A definition on high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer: evaluations on conventional point A and MRI-guided, conformal plans  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the dosimetric impact of point A definitions on both conventional point A plans and MRI-guided conformal high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy plans. Material and methods Fifty-five HDR plans of 36 patients with FIGO stage I to IV cervical cancer were retrospectively studied; these included 30 conventional treatments and 25 conformal plans. Two different point A definitions were explored: the revised Manchester point A and the new point A as recommended by the American Brachytherapy Society. Conventional plans were produced by varying only the point A definition and the normalized isodose lines. Conformal plans were retrospectively generated per GEC-ESTRO recommendations based upon 3.0 Tesla MRI data. Results Small yet significant variations were found in point A locations (mean: 0.5 cm, maximum: 2.1 cm, p < 0.001). The use of a new point A caused minimal dose variation for both conventional and conformal plans. Conventional plans normalized to the new point A generated up to 12% (avg. 1-3%) higher overall dose in terms of higher total reference air kerma than plans normalized to other points. Dosimetric changes due to point A definitions were up to 11-12% (avg. less than 2%) on target volumes or organs-at-risk. Conclusions For both conventional and conformal plans, the new point A definition leads to smaller variations caused during implant and/or differences in patient anatomy. Using the new point A is expected to produce more consistent brachytherapy plans and improve outcome analysis.

Anderson, James; Huang, Yunfei

2012-01-01

89

IMRT point dose measurements with a diamond detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Radiation dose distribution calculations used in treatment planning systems (TPS) describe dose deposition well for large fields. For small fields encountered in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) these models may be less accurate. Dose verification of IMRT fields is therefore essential in IMRT implementation and quality assurance. For these smaller fields, lateral electronic equilibrium may not exist and volume

Erin Barnett; Marc MacKenzie; B. Gino Fallone

2005-01-01

90

Highly accurate maximum likelihood laser mapping by jointly optimizing laser points and robot poses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe an algorithm for learn- ing highly accurate laser-based maps that treats the overall mapping problem as a joint optimization problem over robot poses and laser points. We assume that a laser range finder senses points sampled from a regular surface and we utilize an improved likelihood function that accounts for two phenomena affecting the laser

Michael Ruhnke; Rainer Kummerle; Giorgio Grisetti; Wolfram Burgard

2011-01-01

91

A Stand-Alone Hybrid Generation System Combining Solar Photovoltaic and Wind Turbine with Simple Maximum Power Point Tracking Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a hybrid energy system combing solar photovoltaic and wind turbine as a small-scale alternative source of electrical energy where conventional generation is not practical. A simple and cost effective control technique has been proposed for maximum power point tracking from the photovoltaic array and wind turbine under varying climatic conditions without measuring the irradiance of the photovoltaic

Nabil A. Ahmed; Masafumi Miyatake

2006-01-01

92

Growing Neural Gas (GNG)Based Maximum Power Point Tracking for High-Performance Wind Generator With an Induction Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a maximum power point track- ing (MPPT) technique for a high-performance wind generator with induction machine based on the growing neural gas (GNG) network. Here, a GNG network has been trained offline to learn the turbine characteristic surface torque versus wind speed and machine speed. It has been implemented online to perform the inversion of this function,

Maurizio Cirrincione; Marcello Pucci; Gianpaolo Vitale

2011-01-01

93

Combination of Fuzzy-Based Maximum Power Point Tracker and Sun Tracker for Deployable Solar Panels in Photovoltaic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar panels are power sources in photovoltaic applications. Solar panels I-V curves depend on environmental conditions such as irradiance, temperature, load and degradation level. In this paper, design and implementation of simultaneous fuzzy-based maximum power point tracker (MPPT) and sun tracker are presented for deployable solar panels. A digital controller was implemented by an AVR microcontroller. Results showed that the

Mohsen Taherbaneh; Hasan Ghafori Frard; Amir Hossein Rezaie; Shahab Karbasian

2007-01-01

94

The simulation algorithm for array of photovoltaic cells the maximum power point tracking based on the PSIM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation algorithm based on the field of power electronics and motor control areas of application package software simulation (PSIM) for array of photovoltaic cells in a certain light maximum power point tracking (MPPT) had been built, different simulation step by analysis of the impact of MPPT. Simulation results show that: the model parameters of an array of photovoltaic cells

Zhang Yi; Lian Xiaoqin; Zhang Xiaoli; Duan Zhen Gang; Chen Jun

2011-01-01

95

Control method of a photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis plant without batteries based on maximum power point tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis plant is designed to operate at variable flow\\/pressure in equatorial areas, enabling it to make efficient use of the naturally varying solar resource. A derivation of a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for the photovoltaic (PV) array has been designed to increase the efficiency of the whole system The control method combines feedforward and

P. C. M. de Carvalho; R. S. T. Pontes; D. B. Riffel; R. G. V. de Oliveira; S. B. Mesquita

2004-01-01

96

Thermoelectric automotive waste heat energy recovery using maximum power point tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes and implements a thermoelectric waste heat energy recovery system for internal combustion engine automobiles, including gasoline vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to directly convert the heat energy from automotive waste heat to electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator, which is then regulated by a DC–DC ?uk converter to charge a battery using maximum power

Chuang Yu; K. T. Chau

2009-01-01

97

Evaluation of a photovoltaic energy mechatronics system with a built-in quadratic maximum power point tracking algorithm  

SciTech Connect

The historically high cost of crude oil price is stimulating research into solar (green) energy as an alternative energy source. In general, applications with large solar energy output require a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the power generated by the photovoltaic effect. This work aims to provide a stand-alone solution for solar energy applications by integrating a DC/DC buck converter to a newly developed quadratic MPPT algorithm along with its appropriate software and hardware. The quadratic MPPT method utilizes three previously used duty cycles with their corresponding power outputs. It approaches the maximum value by using a second order polynomial formula, which converges faster than the existing MPPT algorithm. The hardware implementation takes advantage of the real-time controller system from National Instruments, USA. Experimental results have shown that the proposed solar mechatronics system can correctly and effectively track the maximum power point without any difficulties. (author)

Chao, R.M.; Ko, S.H.; Lin, I.H. [Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronics Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Pai, F.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, National University of Tainan (China); Chang, C.C. [Department of Environment and Energy, National University of Tainan (China)

2009-12-15

98

Fracture toughness calculation from maximum load in four point bend tests of chevron notch specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chevron notch specimen is especially useful for measuring the plane strain fracture toughness K I_ of brittle materials. The specimen's unique advantages are: (i) ~ sharp natural crack is produced during the early stage of test loading so that no pre-cracking is required, and (2) the test load passes through a maximum at a constant, material-independent crack length\\/width ratio

Dietrich G. Munz; John L. Shannon; Raymond T. Bubsey

1980-01-01

99

A novel maximum power point tracking technique for solar panels using a SEPIC or Cuk converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique for efficiently extracting the maximum output power from a solar panel under varying meteorological conditions is presented. The methodology is based on connecting a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) DC\\/DC SEPIC or Cuk converter between a solar panel and a load or battery bus. The converter operates in discontinuous capacitor voltage mode whilst its input current is continuous. By modulating

Henry Shu-Hung Chung; K. K. Tse; S. Y. Ron Hui; C. M. Mok; M. T. Ho

2003-01-01

100

Hybrid energy storage systems based on compressed air and supercapacitors with maximum efficiency point tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beside the high-capacity storage facilities based on hydro-power technologies, electrochemical solutions are the today's candidate for storage for renewable energy sources. However, limited life-cycles and sustainability of batteries are often inhibiting factors. This paper presents a hybrid energy storage system with high life cycle, based on compressed air energy storage (CAES). The storage and discharge are done within maximum efficiency

S. Lemofouet; A. Rufer

2005-01-01

101

Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities  

SciTech Connect

Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle ({alpha}{sub max}) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining {alpha}{sub max}, which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t{sub E}) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL{sub e}) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that {alpha}{sub max} increases for increasing TVL{sub e} (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t{sub E}, with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation.

Fondevila, Damian; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Monica; Dosoretz, Bernardo [Vidt Centro Medico, Vidt 1924, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-05-15

102

Correlation of Point B and Lymph Node Dose in 3D-Planned High-Dose-Rate Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare high dose rate (HDR) point B to pelvic lymph node dose using three-dimensional-planned brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with FIGO Stage IB-IIIB cervical cancer received 70 tandem HDR applications using CT-based treatment planning. The obturator, external, and internal iliac lymph nodes (LN) were contoured. Per fraction (PF) and combined fraction (CF) right (R), left (L), and bilateral (Bil) nodal doses were analyzed. Point B dose was compared with LN dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters by paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: Mean PF and CF doses to point B were R 1.40 Gy +- 0.14 (CF: 7 Gy), L 1.43 +- 0.15 (CF: 7.15 Gy), and Bil 1.41 +- 0.15 (CF: 7.05 Gy). The correlation coefficients between point B and the D100, D90, D50, D2cc, D1cc, and D0.1cc LN were all less than 0.7. Only the D2cc to the obturator and the D0.1cc to the external iliac nodes were not significantly different from the point B dose. Significant differences between R and L nodal DVHs were seen, likely related to tandem deviation from irregular tumor anatomy. Conclusions: With HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer, per fraction nodal dose approximates a dose equivalent to teletherapy. Point B is a poor surrogate for dose to specific nodal groups. Three-dimensional defined nodal contours during brachytherapy provide a more accurate reflection of delivered dose and should be part of comprehensive planning of the total dose to the pelvic nodes, particularly when there is evidence of pathologic involvement.

Lee, Larissa J. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sadow, Cheryl A. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Russell, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2009-11-01

103

Maximum principle and convergence analysis for the meshfree point collocation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discrete Laplacian operator is considered in the sense of the meshfree point collocation method which will be called the strong meshfree Laplacian operator. To define the strong meshfree Laplacian operator, we use the fast version of the generalized moving least square approximation, which can calculate the approximated derivatives of shape functions. Some types of the locally layered node distribution

Do Wan Kim

2006-01-01

104

Theoretical and Experimental Analyses of Photovoltaic Systems with Voltage and Current-Based Maximum Power Point Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed theoretical and experimental analyses are presented for the comparison of two simple fast and reliable maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques for photovoltaic systems (PV): the voltage-based (VMPPT) and the current-based (CMPPT) approaches. A microprocessor-controlled tracker capable of online voltage and current measurements and programmed with both VMPPT and CMPPT algorithms is constructed. The load of the solar system

M. A. Masoum; H. Dehbonei; E. F. Fuchs

2002-01-01

105

A ripple-based maximum power point tracking algorithm for a single-phase, grid-connected photovoltaic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a maximum power point tracking algorithm for a single-phase, grid-connected photovoltaic system with a transformerless, diode-clamped inverter. The algorithm is based on the fact that in single-phase systems the instantaneous power oscillates at twice the line frequency. The oscillation of the AC power also causes a ripple of twice the line frequency on the DC voltage and

Martina Calais; Hartmut Hinz

1998-01-01

106

Theoretical and experimental analyses of photovoltaic systems with voltageand current-based maximum power-point tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed theoretical and experimental analyses are presented for the comparison of two simple, fast and reliable maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) techniques for photovoltaic (PV) systems: the voltage-based (VMPPT) and the current-based (CMPPT) approaches. A microprocessor-controlled tracker capable of online voltage and current measurements and programmed with VMPPT and CMPPT algorithms is constructed. The load of the solar system is either

Mohammad A. S. Masoum; Hooman Dehbonei; Ewald F. Fuchs

2002-01-01

107

A Low-Cost Solar-Powered Light-Flasher with Built-in Maximum Power Point Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a RISC- microcontroller based solar-powered light-flasher with built- in Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) system. The unit captures solar energy by a solar array and delivers into battery through a boost converter. With the built-in MPPT, solar power can then be efficiently drawn from the solar array. In this research work, the MPPT based

Noppadol Khaehintung; Borpit Tuvirat; Krisada Pramotung; Phaophak Sirisuk

108

A high-efficiency maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic arrays in a solar-powered race vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic arrays is presented. Components are optimized for weight\\/power-loss tradeoff in a solar-powered vehicle, resulting in over 97% efficiency. The control circuit uses a robust auto-oscillation method. Measurement and multiplication of array voltage and current is shown to be unnecessary, and the control is based only on output current measurement. Multiple local maxima arising

Charles R. Sullivan; Matthew J. Powers

1993-01-01

109

Implementation of maximum power point tracking using fuzzy logic controller for solar-powered light-flasher applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) using a fuzzy logic controller (FLC). By applying the synthetic fuzzy inference algorithm, the relation between input and output of FLC can be effectively stored in a memory-limited lookup table (LUT). As a consequence, the controller can be efficiently implemented on a low-cost 16F872 RISC microcontroller. A practical system

N. Khaehintung; P. Sirisuk

2004-01-01

110

TiO2 dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC): linear relationship of maximum power point and anthocyanin concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the relationship of anthocyanin concentration from different organic fruit species and output voltage and current in a TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and hypothesized that fruits with greater anthocyanin concentration produce higher maximum power point (MPP) which would lead to higher current and voltage. Anthocyanin dye solution was made with crushing of a group of fresh fruits with different anthocyanin content in 2 mL of de-ionized water and filtration. Using these test fruit dyes, multiple DSSCs were assembled such that light enters through the TiO2 side of the cell. The full current-voltage (I-V) co-variations were measured using a 500 ? potentiometer as a variable load. Point-by point current and voltage data pairs were measured at various incremental resistance values. The maximum power point (MPP) generated by the solar cell was defined as a dependent variable and the anthocyanin concentration in the fruit used in the DSSC as the independent variable. A regression model was used to investigate the linear relationship between study variables. Regression analysis showed a significant linear relationship between MPP and anthocyanin concentration with a p-value of 0.007. Fruits like blueberry and black raspberry with the highest anthocyanin content generated higher MPP. In a DSSC, a linear model may predict MPP based on the anthocyanin concentration. This model is the first step to find organic anthocyanin sources in the nature with the highest dye concentration to generate energy.

Ahmadian, Radin

2010-08-01

111

Quality assurance for radiotherapy in prostate cancer: Point dose measurements in intensity modulated fields with large dose gradients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We aimed to evaluate an optimization algorithm designed to find the most favorable points to position an ionization chamber (IC) for quality assurance dose measurements of patients treated for prostate cancer with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and fields up to 10 cm x 10 cm. Methods and Materials: Three cylindrical ICs (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) were used with volumes of 0.6 cc, 0.125 cc, and 0.015 cc. Dose measurements were made in a plastic phantom (PMMA) at 287 optimized points. An algorithm was designed to search for points with the lowest dose gradient. Measurements were made also at 39 nonoptimized points. Results were normalized to a reference homogeneous field introducing a dose ratio factor, which allowed us to compare measured vs. calculated values as percentile dose ratio factor deviations {delta}F (%). A tolerance range of {delta}F (%) of {+-}3% was considered. Results: Half of the {delta}F (%) values obtained at nonoptimized points were outside the acceptable range. Values at optimized points were widely spread for the largest IC (i.e., 60% of the results outside the tolerance range), whereas for the two small-volume ICs, only 14.6% of the results were outside the tolerance interval. No differences were observed when comparing the two small ICs. Conclusions: The presented optimization algorithm is a useful tool to determine the best IC in-field position for optimal dose measurement conditions. A good agreement between calculated and measured doses can be obtained by positioning small volume chambers at carefully selected points in the field. Large chambers may be unreliable even in optimized points for IMRT fields {<=}10 cm x 10 cm.

Escude, Lluis [Servei de Radio-oncologia, Instituto Oncologico Teknon, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: lluis.escude@gmx.net; Linero, Dolors [Servei de Radio-oncologia, Instituto Oncologico Teknon, Barcelona (Spain); Molla, Meritxell [Servei de Radio-oncologia, Instituto Oncologico Teknon, Barcelona (Spain); Miralbell, Raymond [Servei de Radio-oncologia, Instituto Oncologico Teknon, Barcelona (Spain); Service de Radio-oncologie, Hopitaux Universitaires, Geneva (Switzerland)

2006-11-15

112

EPR spectrum deconvolution and dose assessment of fossil tooth enamel using maximum likelihood common factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the components which give rise to the EPR spectrum around g = 2 we have applied Maximum Likelihood Common Factor Analysis (MLCFA) on the EPR spectra of enamel sample 1126 which has previously been analysed by continuous wave and pulsed EPR as well as EPR microscopy. MLCFA yielded agreeing results on three sets of X-band spectra

G. Vanhaelewyn; F. Callens; R. Grün

2000-01-01

113

Dose dependent cataractogenesis and Maximum Tolerable Dose (MTD 2.3:16) for UVR 300 nm-induced cataract in C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the in vivo dose response function for UVR 300nm-induced cataract in the C57BL\\/6J mouse lens and to establish a cataract threshold estimate expressed as Maximum Tolerable Dose (MTD2.3:16) for UVR 300 nm-induced cataract in the C57BL\\/6J mouse lens. Knowledge of the MTD2.3:16 in the C57BL\\/6J mouse will permit quantitative in vivo

Linda M. Meyer; Xiuqin Dong; Alfred Wegener; Per Söderberg

2008-01-01

114

Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency: Do the Maximum Urethral Closure Pressure and the Valsalva Leak-Point Pressure Identify Different Pathogenic Mechanisms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   A prospective analysis of 166 women with genuine stress incontinence was performed comparing Valsalva leak-point pressure\\u000a (VLPP) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) with age, previous urogynecologic surgery and\\/or hysterectomy, poor urethral\\u000a mobility, weight, menopause and vaginal deliveries, to find correlations with intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD). Cut-off\\u000a value for VLPP were 60 cmH2O and for MUCP 30 cmH2O. MUCP

C. Pajoncini; E. Costantini; F. Guercini; M. Porena

2002-01-01

115

Dose point kernel simulation for monoenergetic electrons and radionuclides using Monte Carlo techniques.  

PubMed

Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has been commonly used in the dose evaluation of radiation accidents and for medical purposes. The accuracy of simulated results is affected by the particle-tracking algorithm, cross-sectional database, random number generator and statistical error. The differences among MC simulation software packages must be validated. This study simulated the dose point kernel (DPK) and the cellular S-values of monoenergetic electrons ranging from 0.01 to 2 MeV and the radionuclides of (90)Y, (177)Lu and (103 m)Rh, using Fluktuierende Kaskade (FLUKA) and MC N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP5). A 6-?m-radius cell model consisting of the cell surface, cytoplasm and cell nucleus was constructed for cellular S-value calculation. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) of the scaled DPKs, simulated using FLUKA and MCNP5, were 7.92, 9.64, 4.62, 3.71 and 3.84 % for 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 MeV, respectively. For the three radionuclides, the MAPEs of the scaled DPKs were within 5 %. The maximum deviations of S(N?N), S(N?Cy) and S(N?CS) for the electron energy larger than 10 keV were 6.63, 6.77 and 5.24 %, respectively. The deviations for the self-absorbed S-values and cross-dose S-values of the three radionuclides were within 4 %. On the basis of the results of this study, it was concluded that the simulation results are consistent between FLUKA and MCNP5. However, there is a minor inconsistency for low energy range. The DPK and the cellular S-value should be used as the quality assurance tools before the MC simulation results are adopted as the gold standard. PMID:22923242

Wu, J; Liu, Y L; Chang, S J; Chao, M M; Tsai, S Y; Huang, D E

2012-08-23

116

Gamma dose from a cylindrical source obtained by point kernel and MCNP  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the generation of an algorithm, based on the point kernel technique, for the calculation of the dose rate at various distances from a cylindrical gamma source and the use of the MCNP code for verification of the algorithm along with the fluence-to-dose conversion factor used.

Tsoulfanidis, N.; Shrestha, B. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1994-12-31

117

Investigation of a 2D two-point maximum entropy regularization method for signal-to-noise ratio enhancement: application to CT polymer gel dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a new method of image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement by utilizing a newly developed 2D two-point maximum entropy regularization method (TPMEM). When utilized as an image filter, it is shown that 2D TPMEM offers unsurpassed flexibility in its ability to balance the complementary requirements of image smoothness and fidelity. The technique is evaluated for use in the enhancement of x-ray computed tomography (CT) images of irradiated polymer gels used in radiation dosimetry. We utilize a range of statistical parameters (e.g. root-mean square error, correlation coefficient, error histograms, Fourier data) to characterize the performance of TPMEM applied to a series of synthetic images of varying initial SNR. These images are designed to mimic a range of dose intensity patterns that would occur in x-ray CT polymer gel radiation dosimetry. Analysis is extended to a CT image of a polymer gel dosimeter irradiated with a stereotactic radiation therapy dose distribution. Results indicate that TPMEM performs strikingly well on radiation dosimetry data, significantly enhancing the SNR of noise-corrupted images (SNR enhancement factors >15 are possible) while minimally distorting the original image detail (as shown by the error histograms and Fourier data). It is also noted that application of this new TPMEM filter is not restricted exclusively to x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry image data but can in future be extended to a wide range of radiation dosimetry data.

Jirasek, A.; Matthews, Q.; Hilts, M.; Schulze, G.; Blades, M. W.; Turner, R. F. B.

2006-05-01

118

Point kernel sup 1 H(n,. gamma. ) sup 2 H dose calculations in BNCT  

SciTech Connect

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a potential treatment modality for the fatal brain glioblastoma multiforme. Successful BNCT will require calculation of the expected relative biological effectiveness dose distribution in the patient's head prior to treatment. The method most often proposed for calculating dose distributions in BNCT is the Monte Carlo simulation technique. However, Monte Carlo calculations require a large amount of computer time to achieve good statistics if the dose is determined at many points within the head. In BNCT, a significant amount of radiation dose is deposited by 2.2-MeV gamma rays produced in the hydrogen capture interaction {sup 1}H(n,{gamma}){sup 2}H. To develop a faster calculational system, the absorbed dose deposited by these gamma rays was determined by the faster point kernel method and compared with Monte Carlo calculated results.

Niemkiewicz, J.; Gupta, N.; Blue, T.E. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

1992-01-01

119

Study of a thermoelectric system equipped with a maximum power point tracker for stand-alone electric generation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the International Energy Agency, 1.4 billion people are without electricity in the poorest countries and 2.5 billion people rely on biomass to meet their energy needs for cooking in developing countries. The use of cooking stoves equipped with small thermoelectric generator to provide electricity for basic needs (LED, cell phone and radio charging device) is probably a solution for houses far from the power grid. The cost of connecting every house with a landline is a lot higher than dropping thermoelectric generator in each house. Thermoelectric generators have very low efficiency but for isolated houses, they might become really competitive. Our laboratory works in collaboration with plane`te-bois (a non governmental organization) which has developed energy-efficient multifunction (cooking and hot water) stoves based on traditional stoves designs. A prototype of a thermoelectric generator (Bismuth Telluride) has been designed to convert a small part of the energy heating the sanitary water into electricity. This generator can produce up to 10 watts on an adapted load. Storing this energy in a battery is necessary as the cooking stove only works a few hours each day. As the working point of the stove varies a lot during the use it is also necessary to regulate the electrical power. An electric DC DC converter has been developed with a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in order to have a good efficiency of the electronic part of the thermoelectric generator. The theoretical efficiency of the MMPT converter is discussed. First results obtained with a hot gas generator simulating the exhaust of the combustion chamber of a cooking stove are presented in the paper.

Favarel, C.; Champier, D.; Bédécarrats, J. P.; Kousksou, T.; Strub, F.

2012-06-01

120

Calculation of dose decrease in a finite phantom of a {sup 192}Ir point source  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to calculate the dose decrease in a finite phantom of a {sup 192}Ir-point source by using a new algorithm based on field theory. The methods used included the phenomenological application of the principle 'mirror image of an electric point source in front of a dielectric semi-plateau' to a radioactive source in a finite phantom results in a function to calculate the dose decrease near the surface. Measurements were done in a water phantom in three different experimental setups. To verify the calculated results Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of dose distribution of a {sup 192}Ir point source in 34x40x40 cm{sup 3} water were carried out. The strength of mirror source was found -0.103 of the real source. A lack scatter function was necessary to handle the dose decrease very close to surface. The measured and calculated dose values differed less than 0.9%. Both MC simulations and the new algorithm show the dose decrease near phantom surface with differences less than 2% between each other. The new algorithm based on field theory calculated the dose decrease of a {sup 192}Ir point source in a finite phantom with a very good agreement to measured and simulated data. A clinical example, which affects only a single planar boundary, is given by using molds in the treatment of skin tumors. This was calculated with the new algorithm presented in this article. The comparison with the common algorithm demonstrates the differences that might cause an overestimation of the dose, which probably leads an underdosing of the tumor. The general use of the new algorithm in brachytherapy where a variety of boundary shapes are encountered has to be verified seriously.

Melchert, Corinna; Kohr, P.; Schmidt, R. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, Luebeck, Schleswig-Holstein 23538 (Germany)

2007-10-15

121

Estimated radiological doses to the maximumly exposed individual and downstream populations from releases of tritium, strontium-90, ruthenium-106, and cesium-137 from White Oak Dam  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of tritium, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 106/Ru, and /sup 137/Cs in the Clinch River for 1978 were estimated by using the known 1978 releases of these nuclides from the White Oak Dam and diluting them by the integrated annual flow rate of the Clinch River. Estimates of 50-year dose commitment to a maximumly exposed individual were calculated for both aquatic and terestrial pathways of exposure. The maximumly exposed individual was assumed to reside at the mouth of White Oak Creek where it enters the Clinch River and obtain all foodstuffs and drinking water at that location. The estimated total-body dose from all pathways to the maximumly exposed individual as a result of 1978 releases was less than 1% of the dose expected from natural background. Using appropriate concentrations of to subject radionuclides diluted downstream, the doses to populations residing at Harriman, Kingston, Rockwood, Spring City, Soddy-Daisy, and Chattanooga were calculated for aquatic exposure pathways. The total-body dose estimated for aquatic pathways for the six cities was about 0.0002 times the expected dose from natural background. For the pathways considered in this report, the nuclide which contributed the largest fraction of dose was /sup 90/Sr. The largest dose delivered by /sup 90/Sr was to the bone of the subject individual or community.

Little, C.A.; Cotter, S.J.

1980-01-01

122

Neural-network-based maximum-power-point tracking of coupled-inductor interleaved-boost-converter-supplied PV system using fuzzy controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photovoltaic (PV) generator exhibits a nonlinear V-I characteristic and its maximum power (MP) point varies with solar insolation. In this paper, a feedforward MP-point tracking scheme is developed for the coupled-inductor interleaved-boost-converter-fed PV system using a fuzzy controller. The proposed converter has lower switch current stress and improved efficiency over the noncoupled converter system. For a given solar insolation,

Mummadi Veerachary; Tomonobu Senjyu; Katsumi Uezato

2003-01-01

123

The use of four-point probe sheet resistance measurements for characterizing low dose ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two techniques for extending the capabilities of conventional four-point sheet resistance measurements to the characterization of low-dose (1010-1013 ions\\/cm2) implantation. One technique, which involves the direct measurement of sheet resistance values as great as 100 kOmega\\/□ utilizes high resistivity substrates in conjunction with a special cleaning procedure for passivating the silicon surface. The second technique relies on

Alan K. Smith; David S. Perloff; Rob Edwards; Rob Kleppinger; Michael D. Rigik

1985-01-01

124

New Maximum Power Point Tracker Using Sliding-Mode Observer for Estimation of Solar Array Current in the Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for a grid-connected photovoltaic system without solar array current sensor is proposed. The solar array current information is obtained from the sliding-mode observer and fed into the MPPT to generate the reference voltage. The parameter values such as capacitances can be changed up to 50% from their nominal values, and the linear observer

Il-Song Kim; Myung-Bok Kim; Myung-Joong Youn

2006-01-01

125

A novel speed-sensorless adaptive hill climbing algorithm for fast and efficient maximum power point tracking of wind energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper proposes a novel solution to the problems that exists in the normal hill climb searching (HCS) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The solution presented not only solves the tracking speed vs. control efficiency tradeoff problem of HCS but also makes sure that the changing wind conditions shouldnpsilat lead HCS in

Kazmi Syed Muhammad Raza; Hiroki Goto; Hai-Jiao Guo; Osamu Ichinokura

2008-01-01

126

Review and critical analysis of the research papers published till date on maximum power point tracking in wind energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a very important necessity in a system of energy conversion from a renewable energy source. Every year a number of publications appear in various journals and conferences claiming to offer better and faster MPPT techniques for wind energy conversion system (WECS). This research paper provides a concise yet comprehensive critical analysis of these techniques

Syed Muhammad Raza Kazmi; Hiroki Goto; Hai-Jiao Guo; Osamu Ichinokura

2010-01-01

127

Novel battery charging and discharging control system for solar panel using One-by-one controllers and maximum power point tracker  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new methodology of charging and discharging batteries in photovoltaic system. The proposed method introduces One-by-one battery charging and discharging controllers with a maximum power point tracker for a solar panel. This approach allows the batteries to be charged and discharged with their own proper condition and this will be extended battery lifetime. Beside this, the using of

Suchart Janjornmanit; Sakorn Panta

2010-01-01

128

Maximum likelihood estimation of a change-point in the distribution of independent random variables: General multiparameter case  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a sequence ofn independent random variables the pdf changes fromf(x, 0) tof(x, 0 + [delta]vn-1) after the firstn[lambda] variables. The problem is to estimate[lambda] [set membership, variant] (0, 1 ), where 0 and [delta] are unknownd-dim parameters andvn --> [infinity] slower thann1\\/2. Letn denote the maximum likelihood estimator (mle) of[lambda]. Analyzing the local behavior of the likelihood function near

P. K. Bhattacharya

1987-01-01

129

DuraCap: a supercapacitor-based, power-bootstrapping, maximum power point tracking energy-harvesting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

DuraCap is a solar-powered energy harvesting system that stores harvested energy in supercapacitors and is voltage-compatible with lithium-ion batteries. The use of supercapacitors instead of batteries enables DuraCap to extend the operational life time from tens of months to tens of years. DuraCap addresses two additional problems with micro-solar systems: inefficient operation of supercapacitors during cold booting, and maximum power

Chien-Ying Chen; Pai H. Chou

2010-01-01

130

Classification and launch-impact point prediction of ballistic target via multiple model maximum likelihood estimator (MM-MLE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the problems of (i) launch and impact point prediction (LPP, IPP) of ballistic targets (BT) and (ii) BT classification by processing measurements acquired either by 3D surveillance or multifunctional phased-array radars. It is assumed that the radar acquires a limited number of measurements (plots) that do not encompass the whole target trajectory; thus, the established target

A. Farina; L. Timmoneri; D. Vigilante

2006-01-01

131

Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the Parameters of a Normal Distribution which is Truncated at a Known Point  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introduction.The two cases where a normal distribution is “truncated” at a known point have been treated by R. A. Fisher (1) and W. L. Stevens (2), respectively. Fisher treated the case in which all record is omitted of observations below a given value, while Stevens treated the case in which the frequency of observations below a given value is

A. Hald

1949-01-01

132

Effective dose equivalent and effective dose for photon exposures from point and disk sources on the floor.  

PubMed

A complete set of H(E) and E values were calculated for photon exposures from point and disk sources on the floor using the MCNP code and a "hermaphroditic" phantom. It was found that a male can receive a higher H(E) or health risks than a female by a factor of two from an identical point source on the floor when source distance is less than 50 cm. Conversely, if the source distance becomes larger than 100 cm, the female receives H(E) higher than the male by up to 40%. For identical sources, both the male and female experience significantly higher H(E) from front-located sources than from back- or side-located sources. For a 100-cm source distance, male H(E) from a front-located source is greater than that from a side-located source by factors of 4, 3, and 2 for 0.08, 03, and 1.0 MeV photons, respectively. In the female cases, the differences are somewhat smaller but still differ by factors of 3, 2, and 1.7. It was also found that both the highest male and female H(E) values occur when a source is within 40-60 cm in front of the phantom. The maximum male H(E) is 1.8 x 10(-18), 6.6 x 10(-18), and 2.1 x 10(-17) Sv per photon emission for 0.08, 03, and 1.0 MeV photons, respectively. For females, these maximum values are slightly smaller, 1.4 x 10(-18), 5.3 x 10(-18), and 1.9 x 10(-17) Sv/photon, respectively. Tissue kerma free-in-air at 100 cm above a disk source (Ktissue) was found to greatly overestimate H(E) if the source radius is less than 200 cm. For radii larger than 200 cm, the Ktissue gives a relatively better estimate of H(E), overestimating by not more than 100%. The point source H(E) values were directly integrated to estimate H(E) for simple non-self-shielding sources such as disk, circle, and line sources. This simple approach was found to overestimate H(E) by less than 10% for these irradiation geometries. Finally, the comparison of H(E) and E showed that for most cases these values are almost identical. For point sources, when source distance is larger than 50 cm, the difference between H(E) and E was always less than 23% over photon energies between 0.08 and 1.0 MeV. For disk sources of radius larger than 50 cm, the difference was even smaller (<12%). PMID:9685071

Kim, C H; Reece, W D; Poston, J W

1998-08-01

133

Search for Point Sources of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays above 4.0 × 1019 eV Using a Maximum Likelihood Ratio Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a search for cosmic-ray point sources at energies in excess of 4.0×1019 eV in the combined data sets recorded by the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array and High Resolution Fly's Eye stereo experiments. The analysis is based on a maximum likelihood ratio test using the probability density function for each event rather than requiring an a priori choice of a fixed angular bin size. No statistically significant clustering of events consistent with a point source is found.

Abbasi, R. U.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Amann, J. F.; Archbold, G.; Atkins, R.; Bellido, J. A.; Belov, K.; Belz, J. W.; Ben-Zvi, S. Y.; Bergman, D. R.; Boyer, J. H.; Burt, G. W.; Cao, Z.; Clay, R. W.; Connolly, B. M.; Dawson, B. R.; Deng, W.; Farrar, G. R.; Fedorova, Y.; Findlay, J.; Finley, C. B.; Hanlon, W. F.; Hoffman, C. M.; Holzscheiter, M. H.; Hughes, G. A.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kim, K.; Kirn, M. A.; Knapp, B. C.; Loh, E. C.; Maestas, M. M.; Manago, N.; Mannel, E. J.; Marek, L. J.; Martens, K.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthews, J. N.; O'Neill, A.; Painter, C. A.; Perera, L.; Reil, K.; Riehle, R.; Roberts, M. D.; Sasaki, M.; Schnetzer, S. R.; Seman, M.; Simpson, K. M.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, J. D.; Snow, R.; Sokolsky, P.; Song, C.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Thomas, J. R.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tupa, D.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiencke, L. R.; Zech, A.

2005-04-01

134

Maximum power point tracking by incremental conductance method for photovoltaic systems with phase shifted full-bridge dc-dc converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

th 3 Abstract- Because of sunshine variation, output power of photo­ voltaic (PV) array can be fluctuated. In order to obtain fully uti­ lization from the PV array, an algorithm of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) functions with a high efficiency of dc-dc converter is necessary. This paper presents a phase-shifted full­ bridge dc-to-dc converter which is appropriate for PV

Phattara Suwannatrai; Pisit Liutanakul; Pongpit Wipasuramonton

2011-01-01

135

Search for Point Sources of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays above 4.0 × 1019 eV Using a Maximum Likelihood Ratio Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a search for cosmic-ray point sources at energies in excess of 4.0×1019 eV in the combined data sets recorded by the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array and High Resolution Fly's Eye stereo experiments. The analysis is based on a maximum likelihood ratio test using the probability density function for each event rather than requiring an

S. Westerhoff; T. Abu-Zayyad; J. F. Amann; G. Archbold; R. Atkins; J. A. Bellido; K. Belov; J. W. Belz; S. Y. Ben-Zvi; D. R. Bergman; J. H. Boyer; G. W. Burt; Z. Cao; R. W. Clay; B. M. Connolly; B. R. Dawson; W. Deng; G. R. Farrar; Y. Fedorova; J. Findlay; C. B. Finley; W. F. Hanlon; C. M. Hoffman; M. H. Holzscheiter; G. A. Hughes; P. Hüntemeyer; C. C. H. Jui; K. Kim; M. A. Kirn; B. C. Knapp; E. C. Loh; M. M. Maestas; N. Manago; E. J. Mannel; L. J. Marek; K. Martens; J. A. J. Matthews; J. N. Matthews; A. O'Neill; C. A. Painter; L. Perera; K. Reil; R. Riehle; M. D. Roberts; M. Sasaki; S. R. Schnetzer; M. Seman; K. M. Simpson; G. Sinnis; J. D. Smith; R. Snow; P. Sokolsky; C. Song; R. W. Springer; B. T. Stokes; J. R. Thomas; S. B. Thomas; G. B. Thomson; D. Tupa; L. R. Wiencke; A. Zech

2005-01-01

136

Methodology used to compute maximum potential doses from ingestion of edible plants and wildlife found on the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the assumptions, dose factors, consumption rates, and methodology used to evaluate potential radiation doses to persons who may eat contaminated wildlife or contaminated plants collected from the Hanford Site. This report includes a description of the number and variety of wildlife and edible plants on the Hanford Site, methods for estimation of the quantities of these items consumed and conversion of intake of radionuclides to radiation doses, and example calculations of radiation doses from consumption of plants and wildlife. Edible plants on the publicly accessible margins of the shoreline of the Hanford Site and Wildlife that move offsite are potential sources of contaminated food for the general public. Calculations of potential radiation doses from consumption of agricultural plants and farm animal products are made routinely and reported annually for those produced offsite, using information about concentrations of radionuclides, consumption rates, and factors for converting radionuclide intake into dose. Dose calculations for onsite plants and wildlife are made intermittently when appropriate samples become available for analysis or when special studies are conducted. Consumption rates are inferred from the normal intake rates of similar food types raised offsite and from the edible weight of the onsite product that is actually available for harvest. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

1990-10-01

137

Photon dose equivalent rate from a cylindrical source using a point kernel technique.  

PubMed

The photon dose equivalent rate as a function of distance from a cylindrical source was calculated using a point kernel technique in the energy range 0.3-5 MeV. Buildup factors for a single medium were those given by the geometric progression formula. The buildup factor for the whole geometry was considered as that from a multilayer shield represented by the Broder formula with two corrections applied to it: the first for finite shield and the second for the contribution of the last layer as given by Kitazume. The accuracy of this algorithm was tested by performing a MCNP (General Purpose Monte Carlo Code for Neutral Particle Transport) calculation for the same source and comparing the two sets of results. The conclusion is that the point kernel technique, with the corrections mentioned above included, gives results that agree with those obtained by using MCNP in most cases to within 10%. Therefore, the method presented here is adequate for performing a dose equivalent rate computation as the effort for using it is much smaller than that needed using the MCNP code. PMID:9169935

Tsoulfanidis, N; Shrestha, B

1997-06-01

138

Maximum Age Predictions for Optical Dating on Mars Based on Dose\\/Depth Models and Martian Meteorite Compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental need in the Mars exploration portfolio is in-situ absolute dating. Optical dating has been proposed for determining the age of Mars surface features and landforms as well as the rates of martian surface processes. On Earth, the method is employed for Quaternary studies because the technique currently has a terrestrial maximum age limit of approximately 350 ka. This

R. T. Franklund; K. Lepper

2004-01-01

139

On the origin of a maximum pressure peak on the target outside of the stagnation point upon normal impact of a blunt projectile and with an underwater explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of a rigid projectile (impactor), against a metal target and a condensed explosive surface, is considered as, the important process accompanying the normal entry of a rigid projectile into a target, was overlooked in the preceding studies. Within the framework of accurate shock wave theory, and the utilization of both Tait's EOS and the relationship, D=C+sU, the flowfield, behind the bow shock wave attached to the perimeter of the adjoined surface, was defined. The maximum values of the peak pressure are 2.2 to 3.2 times higher for the metallic and soft targets (nitromethane, PBX 9502), than peak pressure values at the stagnation point. This effect changes the commonly held notion that the maximum pressure peak is reached at the projectile stagnation point. In the present study the interaction of a spherical decaying blast wave, caused by an underwater explosion, with a piece-wise plane target having corner configurations, is investigated. The numerical results based on Tait's EOS result in the determination of the vulnerable spots on the target where the maximum overpressure peak surpassed that for the head-on shock wave reflection by a factor of 5.

Gonor, Alexander; Hooton, Irene

2005-07-01

140

Impact of a proposed change in the maximum permissible dose limit for neutrons to radiation-protection programs at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has issued a statement advising that it is considering lowering the maximum permissible dose for neutrons. This action would present substantive problems to radiation protection programs at DOE facilities where a potential for neutron exposure exists. In addition to altering administrative controls, a lowering of the maximum permissible dose for neutrons will require advances in personnel neutron dosimetry systems, and neutron detection and measurement instrumentation. Improvement in the characterization of neutron fields and spectra at work locations will also be needed. DOE has initiated research and development programs in these areas. However, problems related to the control of personnel neutron exposure have yet to be resolved and investigators are encouraged to continue collaboration with both United States and international authorities.

Murphy, B.L.

1981-09-01

141

Impact of a proposed change in the maximum permissible dose limit for neutrons to radiation-protection programs at DOE facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has issued a statement advising that it is considering lowering the maximum permissible dose for neutrons. This action would present substantive problems to radiation protection programs at DOE facilities where a potential for neutron exposure exists. In addition to altering administrative controls, a lowering of the maximum permissible dose for neutrons will require advances in personnel neutron dosimetry systems and neutron detection and measurement instrumentation. Improvement in the characterization of neutron fields and spectra at work locations will also be needed. DOE has initiated research and development programs in these areas. However, problems related to the control of personnel neutron exposure have yet to be resolved and investigators are encouraged to continue collaboration with both United States and international authorities.

Murphy, B. L.

1981-09-01

142

Self-absorption correction for 32P, 198Au and 188Re stents: dose point kernel calculations versus Monte Carlo.  

PubMed

Monte Carlo simulations of dose distributions around radioactive stents are very time intensive. Thus, in order to calculate the dose distribution around a 188Re stent, we chose to test a point kernel method, a method which is known to be faster but the accuracy of which has not been established for this application. The dose point kernel method, which takes into account absorption in the strut material (=self-absorption), was based on different beta-emitting point source distributions in water by itself and surrounded by steel spheres of different thicknesses. This information was input into an integration routine that modeled either a Palmaz-Schatz or Multilink stent. The dose distributions around 198Au and 32P stents calculated with the dose point kernel method were compared to those calculated using EGS4 and MCNP 4B Monte Carlo methods. The resulting correction for self-absorption in steel was distance dependent and averaged 1.12 for 32P and 1.25 for 198Au stents. The dose point kernel method gave nearly identical results to these full Monte Carlo simulations and was thus used to calculate the dose distributions around a 188Re stent. Although 188Re has a half-life of only 17 hours, it is posited to be useful for radioactive restenosis prevention, given that a recently developed rapid electrodeposition procedure allows stents to be made radioactive, at predetermined activities, within 15 minutes. The dose point kernel calculations of a 188Re-coated Multilink stent were compared to its radiochromic film measurements. The dose fall-off agreed with the calculations within 5% over 0.4 to 3.5 mm from the stent surface. The dose point kernel method is a valuable tool to determine depth dose distributions around activated stents taking into account the detailed geometry and the self-absorption in the struts. It not only requires much less processing time than Monte Carlo methods, but also allows the use of higher resolutions in modeling the geometry, which leads to more accurate self-absorption correction factors. PMID:11585219

Reynaert, N; Häfeli, U O

2001-09-01

143

Maximum</span> 255 Characters)></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://google2.fda.gov/search?client=FDAgov&site=FDAgov&lr=&proxystylesheet=FDAgov&output=xml_no_dtd&&proxycustom=%3CADVANCED/%3E">Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Text Version... shorter periods of euthymia, greater likelihood of suicide ... tolerated <span class="hlt">doses</span> and the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> tolerable <span class="hlt">dose</span> ... N Mean (SD) Median Min/ Max (95% CI ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23025196"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biocompatibility of antimicrobials to maggot debridement therapy: medical maggots Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) exhibit tolerance to clinical <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">doses</span> of antimicrobials.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The larvae of calliphorid flies are used to debride wounds of patients with severe tissue destruction, often concurrently with antimicrobials. The current study evaluates the effects of ceftazidime, tobramycin, amikacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, doxycycline, paromomycin, amphotericin B, sodium stibogluconate, and miltefosine at 1, 10, and 100 x the <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Clinical Concentration (mg/kg/d) in raw liver assays. Effects on larvae were small and depended on <span class="hlt">dose</span> and antimicrobial formulation, with hours in assay (24 or 48 h) having a significant effect on larval survival. Sodium stibgluconate had the strongest effect on maggot survival (80.0% at 48 h). These results suggest that the antimicrobials tested here may be used simultaneously with maggot debridement therapy, and may actually increase the effectiveness of maggot debridement therapy in certain applications where >1 x <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Clinical Concentration is indicated, such as topical creams for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:23025196</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peck, George W; Kirkup, Benjamin C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22449902"> <span id="translatedtitle">[The comparison between <span class="hlt">dose</span> rates at the interventional reference <span class="hlt">point</span> of the angiography systems in many facilities].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The management of the radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span> is very important in interventional radiology (IVR), especially in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, we measured entrance surface <span class="hlt">doses</span> at the interventional reference <span class="hlt">point</span> of 27 cardiac intervention procedures in 22 cardiac catheterization laboratories around Hiroshima, and compared these <span class="hlt">doses</span>. Recently, for cardiac interventional radiology, the X-ray machines using flat-panel detectors (FPD) instead of image intensifiers (I.I.) is increasing; 13 systems used FPD and 14 systems used I.I. For fluoroscopy rate, the difference between laboratories was 9 times. For cineangiography rate, the difference between laboratories was 7 times. In addition, between both devices, the I.I. group is bigger than the FPD group. When comparing by the same condition, for the <span class="hlt">dose</span> at the interventional reference <span class="hlt">point</span>, no significant difference was detected between the FPD group and the I.I. group. This study shows that FPD is not available for reducing the radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span> simply. Therefore, it is necessary that we think of the balance with image quality and radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span>. The optimization of the devices and cardiac intervention procedures becomes very important. PMID:22449902</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ishibashi, Tooru; Imada, Naoyuki; Yamashita, Yukari; Asou, Hiroya; Matsumoto, Yoriaki; Inada, Satoshi; Okino, Mizuho; Nonaka, Haruki; Mizutani, Hiroshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3551371"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">point</span> A asymmetry on local control and survival for low <span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate (LDR) brachytherapy in cervical cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose To evaluate whether <span class="hlt">Point</span> A asymmetry in low <span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate (LDR) brachytherapy is associated with local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS) and/or overall survival (OS). Material and methods A retrospective analysis of disease control and survival outcomes was conducted for patients who underwent LDR brachytherapy for advanced cervical cancer. Institutional protocol entailed concurrent chemotherapy and whole pelvis radiotherapy (WPRT) over 5 weeks, followed by placement of Fletcher-Suit tandem and colpostat applicators at weeks 6 and 8. Objective <span class="hlt">Point</span> A <span class="hlt">doses</span>, 80-85 Gy, were accomplished by placement of Cesium-137 (Cs-137) sources. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess associations between disease control and survival endpoints with variables of interest. Results The records of 50 patients with FIGO stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer undergoing LDR brachytherapy at our institution were identified. Thirty of these patients had asymmetry > 2.5%, and 11 patients had asymmetry > 5%. At a median survivor follow-up of 20.25 months, 15 patients had experienced disease failure (including 5 cervical/vaginal apex only failures and 2 failures encompassing the local site). Right/left <span class="hlt">dose</span> asymmetry at <span class="hlt">Point</span> A was associated with statistically significantly inferior LC (p = 0.035) and inferior DFS (p = 0.011) for patients with mean <span class="hlt">Point</span> A <span class="hlt">dose</span> of > 80 Gy. Insufficient evidence existed to conclude an association with OS. Conclusions LDR brachytherapy may be associated with clinically significant <span class="hlt">dose</span> asymmetry. The present study demonstrates that patients with <span class="hlt">Point</span> A asymmetry have a higher risk of failure for DFS and LC.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wahlquist, Amy; Watkins, John; Kohler, Matthew; Jenrette, Joseph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092835"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> levels for the rodent comet assay to examine damage at the site of contact or to the gastrointestinal tract.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The comet assay can be applied to virtually any tissue and it has been noted that it can be particularly useful in evaluating directly acting genotoxins at their initial site of action. Consequently, it has become relatively common practice to use the stomach comet assay after oral administration to test chemicals that have given positive in vitro genotoxicity results in the absence of metabolic activation. However, to test nontoxic substances up to the limit <span class="hlt">doses</span> of 1000/2000mg/kg formulations approaching molar concentrations must be used resulting in the stomach mucosa being exposed to excessively high levels. Evidence is beginning to accumulate which shows positive results that do not indicate that potential carcinogenicity may be associated with such high levels of exposure. For pharmaceutical agents, toxicokinetic data are usually available to demonstrate systemic exposure after oral administration. In such cases, it is proposed that exposure of any tissue to levels of the drug substance greater than those that have given positive in vitro results in the absence of metabolic activation is sufficient. However, it is recognised that toxicokinetic data are not available for all chemicals and there are also agents designed not to leave the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Where it is necessary to examine the GIT, the <span class="hlt">dose</span> levels selected for examination should cover the likely or intended exposure levels, not necessarily to achieve the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> tolerated or limit <span class="hlt">doses</span>, even if the higher <span class="hlt">doses</span> are required for genotoxicity endpoints in other tissues to be valid. There are usually two or three <span class="hlt">dose</span> levels in in vivo genotoxicity studies, so when both systemically exposed tissues and the stomach are being examined, it would be possible to use one of the lower <span class="hlt">doses</span> for the latter without increasing the numbers of animals required. It is important to consider the local concentrations achieved in the stomach or other parts of the GIT in order to avoid the comet assay generating artefactual positive results and it is hoped this will be addressed in the imminent Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline. PMID:24092835</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Donovan, Mike; Burlinson, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3484035"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> involvement of biopsy core in predicting outcome for patients treated with <span class="hlt">dose</span>-escalated radiation therapy for prostate cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose To evaluate the influence of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> involvement of biopsy core (MIBC) on outcome for prostate cancer patients treated with <span class="hlt">dose</span>-escalated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and materials The outcomes of 590 men with localized prostate cancer treated with EBRT (?75?Gy) at a single institution were retrospectively analyzed. The influence of MIBC on freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), freedom from metastasis (FFM), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) was compared to other surrogates for biopsy tumor volume, including the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) and the total percentage of cancer volume (PCV). Results MIBC correlated with PSA, T-stage, Gleason score, NCCN risk group, PPC, PCV, and treatment related factors. On univariate analysis, MIBC was prognostic for all endpoints except OS; with greatest impact in those with Gleason scores of 8–10. However, on multivariate analysis, MIBC was only prognostic for FFBF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.9, p?=?0.008), but not for FFM (p?=?0.19), CSS (p?=?0.16), and OS (p?=?0.99). Conclusions In patients undergoing <span class="hlt">dose</span>-escalated EBRT, MIBC had the greatest influence in those with Gleason scores of 8–10 but provided no additional prognostic data as compared to PPC and PCV, which remain the preferable prognostic variables in this patient population.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21057886"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a <span class="hlt">point</span>-of-care HIV/AIDS medication <span class="hlt">dosing</span> support system using the Android mobile platform.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Medication <span class="hlt">dosing</span> errors can greatly reduce HIV treatment effectiveness as incorrect <span class="hlt">dosing</span> leads to drug resistance and non-adherence. In order to <span class="hlt">dose</span> correctly, HIV therapy providers must balance several patient characteristics such as renal functions and weight. In developing countries and other resource-limited settings, <span class="hlt">dosing</span> errors are more likely because treatment is provided by mid-level providers with only basic training in HIV therapy. These providers also typically lack electronic tools informing medical decisions. Widespread adoption of mobile phones in developing nations offers an opportunity to implement a <span class="hlt">point</span>-of-care system to help providers reduce <span class="hlt">dosing</span> errors. We discuss the development of the mHIV-Dr system prototype using the new Android mobile platform. mHIV-Dr is being designed to provide <span class="hlt">dosing</span> recommendations for front-line providers in developing countries. We also discuss the additional challenges in the implementation of the mHIV-Dr system in a resource limited setting. PMID:21057886</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sadasivam, Rajani S; Gathibandhe, Vaibhav; Tanik, Murat M; Willig, James H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16893712"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of a single end <span class="hlt">point</span> to determine optimal initial warfarin <span class="hlt">dosing</span> (5 mg versus 10 mg) for venous thromboembolism.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There remains considerable controversy regarding optimal initial warfarin <span class="hlt">dosing</span> in patients with acute venous thromboembolism. Therefore, an open-label, randomized trial comparing 2 warfarin initiation nomograms (5 vs 10 mg) was conducted in patients with acute venous thromboembolism. All participants received fondaparinux for > or = 5 days as a "bridge" to warfarin. The primary end <span class="hlt">point</span> was defined as the number of days necessary to achieve 2 consecutive international normalized ratio laboratory test values > 1.9. A total of 50 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to each of the treatment arms. The median time to 2 consecutive international normalized ratios was 5 days in the 2 groups. There was no statistical difference in achieving the primary end <span class="hlt">point</span> using either the 5- or the 10-mg nomogram (p = 0.69). These results should provide clinicians with increased warfarin <span class="hlt">dosing</span> options in patients presenting with acute venous thromboembolism. PMID:16893712</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quiroz, Rene; Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Kosowsky, Joshua M; DeSantis, Stacia M; Kucher, Nils; McKean, Sylvia C; Goldhaber, Samuel Z</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16312684"> <span id="translatedtitle">An approximate Bayesian up-down method for estimating a percentage <span class="hlt">point</span> on a <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response curve</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">While the up-down method for estimating a percentage <span class="hlt">point</span> on a <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response curve has received considerable attention, a general Bayesian solution to the up-down design and estimation has never been presented, probably due to its computational complexity both in design and use. This paper presents a theoretical approach for up-down experimental designs with unknown location and slope parameters, and a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hui Li; Robert A. Malkin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/54874"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculation and measurement of the <span class="hlt">dose</span> to <span class="hlt">points</span> outside the primary beam for CO-60 gamma radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In radiation therapy one sometimes needs to estimate the <span class="hlt">dose</span> to <span class="hlt">points</span> in the body outside the primary beam. Therefore a generalized model is developed to calculate this <span class="hlt">dose</span> with reasonable accuracy. Measurements were made for a cobalt beam to determine separately the contribution of leakage radiation, radiation scattered from the collimator, scattered from the floor and radiation scattered inside the patient. The radiation scattered in the patient shows a strong dependence on field size and distance to the beam axis and is predominant only at short distances. The radiation scattered from the collimator also depends strongly on distance and field size and is more important than the leakage radiation. With appropriate factors, correcting for patient dimensions and field shape, the total <span class="hlt">dose</span> outside the primary beam can be calculated with an accuracy better than {+-}30%. The results are in accordance with published data. Using the measured data it is possible to calculate the <span class="hlt">dose</span> at any <span class="hlt">point</span> of the body outside the primary beam for Co-60 gamma radiation. The accuracy is considered to be adequate for risk assessment. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Der Giessen, P.H. [Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Hurkmans, C.W. [Highschool of Eindhoven (Netherlands)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-10-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/104/2/412.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automated Quantitative <span class="hlt">Dose</span>-Response Modeling and <span class="hlt">Point</span> of Departure Determination for Large Toxicogenomic and High-Throughput Screening Data Sets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Regulatory and homeland security agencies undertake safety and risk assessments to assess the potential hazards of radiation, chemical, biological, and pharmaceutical agents. By law, these assessments must be science-based to ensure public safety and environmental quality. These agencies use <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response modeling and benchmark <span class="hlt">dose</span> methods to identify <span class="hlt">points</span> of departure across single end <span class="hlt">points</span> elicited by the agent. Regulatory agencies</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyle D. Burgoon; Timothy R. Zacharewski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/72711p13425r1253.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finding <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Convex Polygons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper considers the situation where one is given a finite set of n <span class="hlt">points</span> in the plane each of which is labeled either positive or negative. The problem is to find a bounded convex polygon of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> area, the vertices of which are positive <span class="hlt">points</span> and which does not contain any negative <span class="hlt">point</span>. It is shown that this problem</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul Fischer; Lehrstuhl Informatik II</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23649709"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metronomic chemotherapy following the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> tolerated <span class="hlt">dose</span> is an effective anti-tumour therapy affecting angiogenesis, tumour dissemination and cancer stem cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, the effectiveness of a multi-targeted chemo-switch (C-S) schedule that combines metronomic chemotherapy (MET) after treatment with the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> tolerated <span class="hlt">dose</span> (MTD) is reported. This schedule was tested with gemcitabine in two distinct human pancreatic adenocarcinoma orthotopic models and with cyclophosphamide in an orthotopic ovarian cancer model. In both models, the C-S schedule had the most favourable effect, achieving at least 80% tumour growth inhibition without increased toxicity. Moreover, in the pancreatic cancer model, although peritoneal metastases were observed in control and MTD groups, no dissemination was observed in the MET and C-S groups. C-S treatment caused a decrease in angiogenesis, and its effect on tumour growth was similar to that produced by the MTD followed by anti-angiogenic DC101 treatment. C-S treatment combined an increase in thrombospondin-1 expression with a decrease in the number of CD133+ cancer cells and triple-positive CD133+/CD44+/CD24+ cancer stem cells (CSCs). These findings confirm that the C-S schedule is a challenging clinical strategy with demonstrable inhibitory effects on tumour dissemination, angiogenesis and CSCs. PMID:23649709</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vives, Marta; Ginestà, Mireia M; Gracova, Kristina; Graupera, Mariona; Casanovas, Oriol; Capellà, Gabriel; Serrano, Teresa; Laquente, Berta; Viñals, Francesc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24049321"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation on the effect of sharp phantom edges on <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> measurement during patient-specific dosimetry with Rapid Arc.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this work was to investigate and quantify the effect of sharp edges of the phantom on the <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> measurement during patient-specific dosimetry with Rapid Arc (RA). Ten patients with carcinoma of prostate were randomly selected for this dosimetric study. Rapid Arc plans were generated with 6 MV X-rays in the Eclipse (v 8.6.14) with single arc (clockwise). Dosimetry verification plans were generated for two phantoms (cylindrical and rectangular). The cylindrical phantom was solid water (diameter 34 cm) and the rectangular phantom was a water phantom (25 cm × 25 cm × 10 cm). These phantoms were pre-scanned in computed tomography (CT) machine with cylindrical ionization chamber (FC65) in place. The plans were delivered with Novalis Tx linear accelerator with 6 MV X-rays for both the phantoms separately. The measured <span class="hlt">dose</span> was compared with the planned <span class="hlt">dose</span> for both the phantoms. Mean percentage deviation between measured and planned <span class="hlt">doses</span> was found to be 4.19 (SD 0.82) and 3.63 (SD 0.89) for cylindrical and rectangular phantoms, respectively. No significant dosimetric variation was found due to the geometry (sharp edges) of the phantom. The sharp edges of the phantom do not perturb the patient specific Rapid Arc dosimetry significantly. PMID:24049321</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinhikar, R A; Pandey, V P; Jose, Rojas K; Mahantshetty, U; Dhote, D S; Deshpande, D D; Shrivastava, S K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3775038"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation on the effect of sharp phantom edges on <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> measurement during patient-specific dosimetry with Rapid Arc</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this work was to investigate and quantify the effect of sharp edges of the phantom on the <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> measurement during patient-specific dosimetry with Rapid Arc (RA). Ten patients with carcinoma of prostate were randomly selected for this dosimetric study. Rapid Arc plans were generated with 6 MV X-rays in the Eclipse (v 8.6.14) with single arc (clockwise). Dosimetry verification plans were generated for two phantoms (cylindrical and rectangular). The cylindrical phantom was solid water (diameter 34 cm) and the rectangular phantom was a water phantom (25 cm × 25 cm × 10 cm). These phantoms were pre-scanned in computed tomography (CT) machine with cylindrical ionization chamber (FC65) in place. The plans were delivered with Novalis Tx linear accelerator with 6 MV X-rays for both the phantoms separately. The measured <span class="hlt">dose</span> was compared with the planned <span class="hlt">dose</span> for both the phantoms. Mean percentage deviation between measured and planned <span class="hlt">doses</span> was found to be 4.19 (SD 0.82) and 3.63 (SD 0.89) for cylindrical and rectangular phantoms, respectively. No significant dosimetric variation was found due to the geometry (sharp edges) of the phantom. The sharp edges of the phantom do not perturb the patient specific Rapid Arc dosimetry significantly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinhikar, R. A.; Pandey, V. P.; Jose, Rojas K.; Mahantshetty, U.; Dhote, D. S.; Deshpande, D. D.; Shrivastava, S. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/q0l626v561310870.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Why are there no really big bony fishes? A <span class="hlt">point</span>-of-view on <span class="hlt">maximum</span> body size in teleosts and elasmobranchs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The most massive teleost, the ocean sunfish(Mola mola), is an order of magnitude smaller than the largest cartilaginous fish,the whale shark (Rhincodon typus), and issignificantly smaller than several other extantelasmobranch species. Possible reasons for this discrepancy in <span class="hlt">maximum</span> size include:anatomical, physiological, ecological, and life-history\\/ontogenetic constraints. Weexamined life-history traits and growth ratesas the most likely constraints on <span class="hlt">maximum</span> teleostsize. For pelagic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jonathan A. Freedman; David L. G. Noakes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50613156"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> power <span class="hlt">point</span> tracking control and voltage regulation of a DC grid-tied wind energy conversion system based on a novel permanent magnet reluctance generator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research paper aims to employ a new permanent magnet reluctance generator in a variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) of a grid-tied distributed generation application. The grid integration of WECS is achieved through cascaded dc-dc converters ensuring <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power extraction from the wind energy while maintaining a constant output voltage at the grid side. The surplus power is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazmi Syed Muhammad Raza; Hiroki Goto; Hai-Jiao Guo; Osamu Ichinokura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17278826"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dose</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> kernel for boron-11 decay and the cellular S values in boron neutron capture therapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study of the radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy is based on the cellular level dosimetry of boron-10's thermal neutron capture reaction 10B(n,alpha)7Li, in which one 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion and one 0.84 MeV lithium-7 ion are spawned. Because of the chemical preference of boron-10 carrier molecules, the <span class="hlt">dose</span> is heterogeneously distributed in cells. In the present work, the (scaled) <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> kernel of boron-11 decay, called 11B-DPK, was calculated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code. The DPK curve drops suddenly at the radius of 4.26 microm, the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) range of a lithium-7 ion. Then, after a slight ascending, the curve decreases to near zero when the radius goes beyond 8.20 microm, which is the CSDA range of a 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion. With the DPK data, S values for nuclei and cells with the boron-10 on the cell surface are calculated for different combinations of cell and nucleus sizes. The S value for a cell radius of 10 microm and a nucleus radius of 5 microm is slightly larger than the value published by Tung et al. [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 739-743 (2004)]. This result is potentially more accurate than the published value since it includes the contribution of a lithium-7 ion as well as the alpha particle. PMID:17278826</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ma, Yunzhi; Geng, JinPeng; Gao, Song; Bao, Shanglian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_8 div --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59183516"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Innovative Phase I Trial Design Allowing for the Identification of Multiple Potential <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Tolerated <span class="hlt">Doses</span> with Combination Therapy of Targeted Agents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Treatment for cancer often involves combination therapies used both in medical practice and clinical trials. Korn and Simon listed three reasons for the utility of combinations: 1) biochemical synergism, 2) differential susceptibility of tumor cells to different agents, and 3) higher achievable <span class="hlt">dose</span> intensity by exploiting non-overlapping toxicities to the host. Even if the toxicity profile of each agent of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarina A Piha-Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2921466"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> tolerated <span class="hlt">dose</span> and biologic effects of 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) in combination with irinotecan for patients with refractory solid tumors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose 3-AP is a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor and has been postulated to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic agents. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and antitumor activity of 3-AP with irinotecan. Correlative studies included pharmacokinetics and the effects of ABCB1 and UGT1A1 polymorphisms. Methods The treatment plan consisted of irinotecan on day 1 with 3-AP on days 1-3 of a 21-day cycle. Starting <span class="hlt">dose</span> was irinotecan 150 mg/m2 and 3-AP 85 mg/m2/d. Polymorphisms of ABCB1 were evaluated by pyrosequencing. Drug concentrations were determined by HPLC. Results Twenty-three patients were enrolled, 10 men and 13 women. Tumor types included 7 patients with pancreatic cancer, 4 with lung cancer, 2 with cholangiocarcinoma, 2 with mesothelioma, 2 with ovarian cancer, and 6 with other malignancies. Two patients experienced <span class="hlt">dose</span>-limiting toxicity (DLT) at <span class="hlt">dose</span> level 1, requiring amendment of the <span class="hlt">dose</span> escalation scheme. Maximal tolerated <span class="hlt">dose</span> (MTD) was determined to be 3-AP 60 mg/m2/d and irinotecan 200 mg/m2. DLTs consisted of hypoxia, leukopenia, fatigue, infection, thrombocytopenia, dehydration and ALT elevation. One partial response in a patient with refractory non-small cell lung cancer was seen. Genotyping suggests that patients with wild-type ABCB1 have a higher rate of grade 3 or 4 toxicity than those with ABCB1 mutations. Conclusions The MTD for this combination was 3-AP 60 mg/m2/d on days 1-3 and irinotecan 200 mg/m2 on day 1 every 21 days. Antitumor activity in a patient with refractory non-small cell lung cancer was noted at level 1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choi, Brian S.; Alberti, Dona B.; Schelman, William R.; Kolesar, Jill M.; Thomas, James P.; Marnocha, Rebecca; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Ivy, S. Percy; Wilding, George; Holen, Kyle D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x52023208373l65t.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a <span class="hlt">Point</span>-of-Care HIV\\/Aids Medication <span class="hlt">Dosing</span> Support System Using the Android Mobile Platform</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Medication <span class="hlt">dosing</span> errors can greatly reduce HIV treatment effectiveness as incorrect <span class="hlt">dosing</span> leads to drug resistance and non-adherence.\\u000a In order to <span class="hlt">dose</span> correctly, HIV therapy providers must balance several patient characteristics such as renal functions and\\u000a weight. In developing countries and other resource-limited settings, <span class="hlt">dosing</span> errors are more likely because treatment is provided\\u000a by mid-level providers with only basic training</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rajani S. Sadasivam; Vaibhav Gathibandhe; Murat M. Tanik; James H. Willig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3289940"> <span id="translatedtitle">Absorbed Radiation <span class="hlt">Dose</span> in Radiosensitive Organs During Coronary CT Angiography Using 320-MDCT: Effect of <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Tube Voltage and Heart Rate Variations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to estimate the absorbed radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span> in radiosensitive organs during coronary MDCT angiography using 320-MDCT and to determine the effects of tube voltage variation and heart rate (HR) control on absorbed radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span>. MATERIALS AND METHODS Semiconductor field effect transistor detectors were used to measure absorbed radiation <span class="hlt">doses</span> for the thyroid, midbreast, breast, and midlung in an anthropomorphic phantom at 100, 120, and 135 kVp at two different HRs of 60 and 75 beats per minute (bpm) with a scan field of view of 320 mm, 400 mA, 320 × 0.5 mm detectors, and 160 mm collimator width (160 mm range). The paired Student’s t test was used for data evaluation. RESULTS At 60 bpm, absorbed radiation <span class="hlt">doses</span> for 100, 120, and 135 kVp were 13.41 ± 3.59, 21.7 ± 4.12, and 29.28 ± 5.17 mGy, respectively, for midbreast; 11.76 ± 0.58, 18.86 ± 1.06, and 24.82 ± 1.45 mGy, respectively, for breast; 12.19 ± 2.59, 19.09 ± 3.12, and 26.48 ± 5.0 mGy, respectively, for lung; and 0.37 ± 0.14, 0.69 ± 0.14, and 0.92 ± 0.2 mGy, respectively, for thyroid. Corresponding absorbed radiation <span class="hlt">doses</span> for 75 bpm were 38.34 ± 2.02, 59.72 ± 3.13, and 77.8 ± 3.67 mGy for midbreast; 26.2 ± 1.74, 44 ± 1.11, and 52.84 ± 4.07 mGy for breast; 38.02 ± 1.58, 58.89 ± 1.68, and 78 ± 2.93 mGy for lung; and 0.79 ± 0.233, 1.04 ± 0.18, and 2.24 ± 0.52 mGy for thyroid. Absorbed radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span> changes were significant for all organs for both tube voltage reductions as well as for HR control from 75 to 60 bpm at all tube voltage settings (p < 0.05). The absorbed radiation <span class="hlt">doses</span> for the calcium score protocol were 11.2 ± 1.4 mGy for midbreast, 9.12 ± 0.48 mGy for breast, 10.36 ± 1.3 mGy for lung, and 0.4 ± 0.05 mGy for thyroid. CONCLUSION CT angiography with 320-MDCT scanners results in absorbed radiation <span class="hlt">doses</span> in radiosensitive organs that compare favorably to those previously reported. Significant <span class="hlt">dose</span> reductions can be achieved by tube voltage reductions and HR control.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nikolic, Boris; Khosa, Faisal; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Khan, Atif N.; Sarwar, Sheryar; Yam, Chun-Shan; Court, Laurence E.; Raptopoulos, Vassilios; Clouse, Melvin E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50094088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Honeywell radiation hardened 32-bit processor central processing unit, floating <span class="hlt">point</span> processor, and cache memory <span class="hlt">dose</span> rate and single event effects test results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We will present single event effects and <span class="hlt">dose</span> rate test results for the Honeywell Radiation Hardened 32-Bit Processor Central Processing Unit, Floating <span class="hlt">Point</span> Processor and Cache Memory. These three chip types comprise the processor core for a 32-bit radiation-hardened, fault-tolerant processor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gary R. Brown; Lee F. Hoffmann; Scott C. Leavy; Jeffrey A. Mogensen; Julie Brichacek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23478094"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dose</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> kernels in liquid water: An intra-comparison between GEANT4-DNA and a variety of Monte Carlo codes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modeling the radio-induced effects in biological medium still requires accurate physics models to describe the interactions induced by all the charged particles present in the irradiated medium in detail. These interactions include inelastic as well as elastic processes. To check the accuracy of the very low energy models recently implemented into the GEANT4 toolkit for modeling the electron slowing-down in liquid water, the simulation of electron <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> kernels remains the preferential test. In this context, we here report normalized radial <span class="hlt">dose</span> profiles, for mono-energetic <span class="hlt">point</span> sources, computed in liquid water by using the very low energy "GEANT4-DNA" physics processes available in the GEANT4 toolkit. In the present study, we report an extensive intra-comparison of profiles obtained by a large selection of existing and well-documented Monte-Carlo codes, namely, EGSnrc, PENELOPE, CPA100, FLUKA and MCNPX. PMID:23478094</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Champion, C; Incerti, S; Perrot, Y; Delorme, R; Bordage, M C; Bardiès, M; Mascialino, B; Tran, H N; Ivanchenko, V; Bernal, M; Francis, Z; Groetz, J-E; Fromm, M; Campos, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60695474"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of electron and isotopes <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The calculation of patient-specific <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Botta; M. Cremonesi; A. Di Dia; G. Pedroli; A. Mairani; G. Battistoni; A. Fassò; A. Ferrari; M. Ferrari; G. Paganelli; M. Valente</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8234874"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quality audit of megavoltage radiotherapy units: intercomparison of <span class="hlt">dose</span> at a reference <span class="hlt">point</span> using a mailed TL-dosimetry system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A dosimetry intercomparison based on mailed TL-dosimeters and the well proven IAEA/EORTC phantom is described. Its aim is to identify discrepancies in dosimetry larger than +/- 3%. Dosimeters were mailed to all radiotherapy centres in Switzerland for irradiation with 2 Gy at a reference <span class="hlt">point</span> in a water container, using photons and electrons. Thirty-six beams were monitored. The results show an agreement of within 2% for the majority of the beams monitored. Two electron beams were at 6% of the reference value. PMID:8234874</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, B; Faessler, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2377284"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> empty rectangle problem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given a rectangle A and a set S of n <span class="hlt">points</span> in A, we consider the problem, called the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> empty rectangle problem, of finding a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> area rectangle that is fully contained in A and does not contain any <span class="hlt">point</span> of S in its interior. An O(n') time algorithm is presented. Further-more, it is shown that if the <span class="hlt">points</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. NAAMAD; D. T. LEE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21193305"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of oxygen <span class="hlt">dosing</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> and mixing on the microaerobic removal of hydrogen sulphide in sludge digesters.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Limited oxygen supply to anaerobic sludge digesters to remove hydrogen sulphide from biogas was studied. Micro-oxygenation showed competitive performance to reduce considerably the additional equipment necessary to perform biogas desulphurization. Two pilot-plant digesters with an HRT of ? 20 d were micro-oxygenated at a rate of 0.25 NL per L of feed sludge with a removal efficiency higher than 98%. The way of mixing (sludge or biogas recirculation) and the <span class="hlt">point</span> of oxygen supply (headspace or liquid phase) played an important role on hydrogen sulphide oxidation. While micro-oxygenation with sludge recirculation removed only hydrogen sulphide from the biogas, dissolved sulphide was removed if micro-oxygenation was performed with biogas recirculation. Dosage in the headspace resulted in a more stable operation. The result of the hydrogen sulphide oxidation was mostly elemental sulphur, partially accumulated in the headspace of the digester, where different sulphide-oxidising bacteria were found. PMID:21193305</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Díaz, I; Pérez, S I; Ferrero, E M; Fdz-Polanco, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16731692"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relation between absorbed <span class="hlt">dose</span>, charged particle equilibrium and nuclear transformations: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics <span class="hlt">point</span> of view.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a discussion to show that the absorbed <span class="hlt">dose</span> D is a time-dependent function. This time dependence is demonstrated based on the concepts of charged particle equilibrium and on radiation equilibrium within the context of thermodynamic non-equilibrium. In the latter, the time dependence is due to changes of the rest mass energy of the nuclei and elementary particles involved in the terms summation operator Q and Q that appear in the definitions of energy imparted epsilon and energy deposit epsilon(i), respectively. In fact, nothing is said about the averaging operation of the non-stochastic quantity mean energy imparted epsilon, which is used in the definition of D according to ICRU 60. It is shown in this research that the averaging operation necessary to define the epsilon employed to get D cannot be performed with an equilibrium statistical operator rho(r) as could be expected. Rather, the operation has to be defined with a time-dependent non-equilibrium statistical operator rho(r, t); therefore, D is a time-dependent function D(r,t). PMID:16731692</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alvarez-Romero, J T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19694581"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of electron <span class="hlt">dose-point</span> kernels in water generated by the Monte Carlo codes, PENELOPE, GEANT4, MCNPX, and ETRAN.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Point</span> kernels describe the energy deposited at a certain distance from an isotropic <span class="hlt">point</span> source and are useful for nuclear medicine dosimetry. They can be used for absorbed-<span class="hlt">dose</span> calculations for sources of various shapes and are also a useful tool when comparing different Monte Carlo (MC) codes. The aim of this study was to compare <span class="hlt">point</span> kernels calculated by using the mixed MC code, PENELOPE (v. 2006), with <span class="hlt">point</span> kernels calculated by using the condensed-history MC codes, ETRAN, GEANT4 (v. 8.2), and MCNPX (v. 2.5.0). <span class="hlt">Point</span> kernels for electrons with initial energies of 10, 100, 500, and 1 MeV were simulated with PENELOPE. Spherical shells were placed around an isotropic <span class="hlt">point</span> source at distances from 0 to 1.2 times the continuous-slowing-down-approximation range (R(CSDA)). Detailed (event-by-event) simulations were performed for electrons with initial energies of less than 1 MeV. For 1-MeV electrons, multiple scattering was included for energy losses less than 10 keV. Energy losses greater than 10 keV were simulated in a detailed way. The <span class="hlt">point</span> kernels generated were used to calculate cellular S-values for monoenergetic electron sources. The <span class="hlt">point</span> kernels obtained by using PENELOPE and ETRAN were also used to calculate cellular S-values for the high-energy beta-emitter, 90Y, the medium-energy beta-emitter, 177Lu, and the low-energy electron emitter, 103mRh. These S-values were also compared with the Medical Internal Radiation <span class="hlt">Dose</span> (MIRD) cellular S-values. The greatest differences between the <span class="hlt">point</span> kernels (mean difference calculated for distances, <0.9 r/R(CSDA)), using PENELOPE and those from ETRAN, GEANT4, and MCNPX, were 3.6%, 6.2%, and 14%, respectively. The greatest difference between the cellular S-values for monoenergetic electrons was 1.4%, 2.5%, and 6.9% for ETRAN, GEANT4, and MCNPX, respectively, compared to PENELOPE, if omitting the S-values when the activity was distributed on the cell surface for 10-keV electrons. The largest difference between the cellular S-values for the radionuclides, between PENELOPE and ETRAN, was seen for 177Lu (1.2%). There were large differences between the MIRD cellular S-values and those obtained from PENELOPE: up to 420% for monoenergetic electrons and <22% for the radionuclides, with the largest difference for 103mRh. In conclusion, differences were found between the <span class="hlt">point</span> kernels generated by different MC codes, but these differences decreased when cellular S-values were calculated, and decreased even further when the energy spectra of the radionuclides were taken into consideration. PMID:19694581</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Uusijärvi, Helena; Chouin, Nicolas; Bernhardt, Peter; Ferrer, Ludovic; Bardiès, Manuel; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24033250"> <span id="translatedtitle">A randomized, open-label, phase I/II trial to investigate the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> tolerated <span class="hlt">dose</span> of the Polo-like kinase inhibitor BI 2536 in elderly patients with refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polo-like kinases (Plks) play an important role in cell cycle checkpoint controls and are over-expressed in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). BI 2536, a novel Plk inhibitor, induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis. In this phase I/II trial of BI 2536 in 68 elderly patients with relapsed/refractory AML, three schedules were investigated (day 1, days 1-3, and days 1 + 8). <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> tolerated <span class="hlt">dose</span> was 350 and 200 mg in the day 1 and days 1 + 8 schedules, respectively. The day 1-3 schedule appeared equivalent to the day 1 schedule and was discontinued early. BI 2536 exhibited multi-compartmental pharmacokinetic behaviour. The majority of patients showed an increase of bone marrow cells in G2/M with a characteristic pattern of mitotic catastrophe. The overall response rate in the day 1 and day 1 + 8 schedules was 9% (5/54) with 2 complete and 3 partial responses. The majority of drug-related adverse events grade ?3 were haematological. Taken together, Plk inhibition induced cell cycle arrest in AML blasts in vivo and BI 2536 monotherapy showed modest clinical activity in this poor prognosis patient group. PMID:24033250</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Bug, Gesine; Lübbert, Michael; Krämer, Alwin; Krauter, Jürgen; Valent, Peter; Nachbaur, David; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Ottmann, Oliver G; Fritsch, Holger; Munzert, Gerd; Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Fleischer, Frank; Taube, Tillmann; Döhner, Hartmut</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21486895"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetric Analysis of 3D Image-Guided HDR Brachytherapy Planning for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer: Is <span class="hlt">Point</span> A-Based <span class="hlt">Dose</span> Prescription Still Valid in Image-Guided Brachytherapy?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to analyze the dosimetric outcome of 3D image-guided high-<span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning for cervical cancer treatment and compare <span class="hlt">dose</span> coverage of high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) to traditional <span class="hlt">Point</span> A <span class="hlt">dose</span>. Thirty-two patients with stage IA2-IIIB cervical cancer were treated using computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging-based image-guided HDR brachytherapy (IGBT). Brachytherapy <span class="hlt">dose</span> prescription was 5.0-6.0 Gy per fraction for a total 5 fractions. The HRCTV and organs at risk (OARs) were delineated following the GYN GEC/ESTRO guidelines. Total <span class="hlt">doses</span> for HRCTV, OARs, <span class="hlt">Point</span> A, and <span class="hlt">Point</span> T from external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy were summated and normalized to a biologically equivalent <span class="hlt">dose</span> of 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2). The total planned D90 for HRCTV was 80-85 Gy, whereas the <span class="hlt">dose</span> to 2 mL of bladder, rectum, and sigmoid was limited to 85 Gy, 75 Gy, and 75 Gy, respectively. The mean D90 and its standard deviation for HRCTV was 83.2 {+-} 4.3 Gy. This is significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than the mean value of the <span class="hlt">dose</span> to <span class="hlt">Point</span> A (78.6 {+-} 4.4 Gy). The <span class="hlt">dose</span> levels of the OARs were within acceptable limits for most patients. The mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> to 2 mL of bladder was 78.0 {+-} 6.2 Gy, whereas the mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> to rectum and sigmoid were 57.2 {+-} 4.4 Gy and 66.9 {+-} 6.1 Gy, respectively. Image-based 3D brachytherapy provides adequate <span class="hlt">dose</span> coverage to HRCTV, with acceptable <span class="hlt">dose</span> to OARs in most patients. <span class="hlt">Dose</span> to <span class="hlt">Point</span> A was found to be significantly lower than the D90 for HRCTV calculated using the image-based technique. Paradigm shift from 2D <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> dosimetry to IGBT in HDR cervical cancer treatment needs advanced concept of evaluation in dosimetry with clinical outcome data about whether this approach improves local control and/or decreases toxicities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Hayeon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Houser, Chris; Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130356"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Rectal <span class="hlt">Dose</span> During High-<span class="hlt">Dose</span>-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-<span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high <span class="hlt">doses</span> being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the <span class="hlt">dose</span> delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the <span class="hlt">dose</span> delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the <span class="hlt">dose</span>, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> and the measured <span class="hlt">dose</span> was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> was typically higher than the measured <span class="hlt">dose</span>. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal <span class="hlt">dose</span> for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the <span class="hlt">dose</span> delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated <span class="hlt">dose</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sha, Rajib Lochan [Department of Radiation Physics, Indo-American Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Hyderabad (India); Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India); Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India); Rao, Ramakrishna [Department of Radiation Physics, MNJ Institute of Oncology and Regional Cancer Center, Hyderabad (India); Muralidhar, Kanaparthy R. [Department of Radiation Physics, Indo-American Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Hyderabad (India); Kudchadker, Rajat J., E-mail: rkudchad@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JNuM..442.S399Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recovery behavior of <span class="hlt">point</span> defects after low-<span class="hlt">dose</span> neutron irradiation at ˜423 K of sintered 6H-SiC by lattice parameter and macroscopic length measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To evaluate neutron-irradiation-induced crystalline defects and its thermal stability, ?-SiC sintered bodies consisting of mainly 6H polytype were neutron irradiated using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor up to 1.9 × 1023 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at a low temperature of ˜423 K. Due to very low <span class="hlt">dose</span> irradiation at low temperature, expected defects induced into crystalline lattice should only be simple <span class="hlt">point</span> defects. Changes in the lattice parameters and macroscopic lengths resulting from post-irradiation isothermal annealing up to 6 h between room temperature and 1673 K were measured. Macroscopic volume swelling of ?-SiC specimens coincided well to those of unit cell volume changes, indicating the presence of only simple defects. The recovery behavior of the macroscopic length and lattice parameters showed almost the same tendencies, although residual changes in the c-axis length slightly exceeded that of the a-axis length at temperatures lower than 1273 K. Difference in these axes lengths diminished at temperatures above 1273 K. Calculation of activation energies, obtained from precise length measurement using a dilatometer during each isothermal annealing step, revealed that length recovery behavior between 473 and 1573 K could almost be completely explained by a first-order reaction, and three stages with activation energies of 0.14, 0.26, and 1.13 eV. Changes in activation energy were related to the behavior of lattice parameter changes. The results indicated the presence of several kinds of <span class="hlt">point</span> defects, some of which induced anisotropic lattice expansion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yano, Toyohiko; Futamura, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Saishun; Sawabe, Takashi; Yoshida, Katsumi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20788285"> <span id="translatedtitle">CT-guided intracavitary radiotherapy for cervical cancer: Comparison of conventional <span class="hlt">point</span> A plan with clinical target volume-based three-dimensional plan using <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume parameters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To perform an intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR) plan comparison between the conventional <span class="hlt">point</span> A plan (conventional plan) and computed tomography (CT)-guided clinical target volume-based plan (CTV plan) by analysis of the quantitative <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume parameters and irradiated volumes of organs at risk in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty plans for {sup 192}Ir high-<span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate ICR after 30-40-Gy external beam radiotherapy were investigated. CT images were acquired at the first ICR session with artifact-free applicators in place. The gross tumor volume, clinical target volume (CTV), <span class="hlt">point</span> A, and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 rectal and bladder <span class="hlt">points</span> were defined on reconstructed CT images. A fractional 100% <span class="hlt">dose</span> was prescribed to <span class="hlt">point</span> A in the conventional plan and to the outermost <span class="hlt">point</span> to cover all CTVs in the CTV plan. The reference volume receiving 100% of the prescribed <span class="hlt">dose</span> (V{sub ref}), and the <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume parameters of the coverage index, conformal index, and external volume index were calculated from the <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume histogram. The bladder, rectal <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">doses</span>, and percentage of volumes receiving 50%, 80%, and 100% of the prescribed <span class="hlt">dose</span> were also analyzed. Results: Conventional plans were performed, and patients were categorized on the basis of whether the 100% isodose line of <span class="hlt">point</span> A prescription <span class="hlt">dose</span> fully encompassed the CTV (Group 1, n = 20) or not (Group 2, n = 10). The mean gross tumor volume (11.6 cm{sup 3}) and CTV (24.9 cm{sup 3}) of Group 1 were smaller than the corresponding values (23.7 and 44.7 cm{sup 3}, respectively) for Group 2 (p = 0.003). The mean V{sub ref} for all patients was 129.6 cm{sup 3} for the conventional plan and 97.0 cm{sup 3} for the CTV plan (p = 0.003). The mean V{sub ref} in Group 1 decreased markedly with the CTV plan (p < 0.001). For the conventional and CTV plans in all patients, the mean coverage index, conformal index, and external volume index were 0.98 and 1.0, 0.23 and 0.34, and 3.86 and 2.15, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the conformal index and external volume index improved significantly with the CTV plan, and this improvement was more marked in Group 1. The mean values of the bladder and rectal <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">doses</span> and volume fractions receiving 50%, 80%, and 100% of the reference <span class="hlt">dose</span> did not differ between plans for all patients. The reduction in the mean rectal and bladder <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">doses</span> and irradiated volumes for the CTV plan was statistically significant in Group 1. Conclusion: Computed tomography-guided CTV planning of ICR is superior to conventional <span class="hlt">point</span> A planning in terms of conformity of target coverage and avoidance of overdosed normal tissue volume. To ascertain the potential benefit of treatment outcome, ICR with image-guided three-dimensional plans will be pursued and correlated with the <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shin, Kyung Hwan [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyun [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: k2onco@ncc.re.kr; Cho, Jung Keun [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joo-Young [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Yong [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Yoon [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Chie, Eui Kyu [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Hong Ryull [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwan Ho [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/188771"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood Stereo Matching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the research literature, <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood principles were applied to stereo matching by altering the stereo pair so that the difference would have a Gaussian distribution. Here in this paper we present a novel method of applying <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood to stereo matching. In our approach, we measure the real noise distribution from a training set, and then construct a new</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicu Sebe; Michael S. Lew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/enforcementactivitiesbyfda/cyberletters/ucm056347.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hoodia <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Strength</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://google2.fda.gov/search?client=FDAgov&site=FDAgov&lr=&proxystylesheet=FDAgov&output=xml_no_dtd&&proxycustom=%3CADVANCED/%3E">Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Text Version... reviewed your web site at the Internet address http://www.life-all.com and has determined that the product “Hoodia <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Strength” is promoted ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1455682"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> ratio transmission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titus K. Y. Lo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_9 div --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Total <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Daily Load Program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power <span class="hlt">Point</span>). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=156748"> <span id="translatedtitle">MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT AS A SENSITIVE END-<span class="hlt">POINT</span> FOLLOWING ACUTE PERNATAL EXPOSURE TO A LOW <span class="hlt">DOSE</span> ATRAZINE METABOLITE MIXTURE IN FEMALE LONG EVANS RATS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to characterize the potential developmental effects of atrazine (ATR) metabolites at low <span class="hlt">doses</span>, an environmentally-based mixture (EBM) of ATR and its metabolites hydroxyatrazine, diaminochlorotriazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine was formulated based on surv...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980JAP....51.4680G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> windmill efficiency</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Consideration is given to the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> efficiency obtainable from a windmill as predicted by one-dimensional fluid flow theory. Considerations of the conservation of mass, energy and linear momentum for the one-dimensional flow of an incompressible fluid through an active windmill blade section are used to derive an expression for the windmill efficiency, or power coefficient, as a function of thrust force on the frame and mean stream velocity. It is noted that the present expression cannot be differentiated to obtain a theoretical <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power output as was done by Betz (1927) on the basis of an incorrect statement of the energy balance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greet, R. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21039775"> <span id="translatedtitle">In Vivo Dosimetry of High-<span class="hlt">Dose</span>-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in the Pelvic Region: Use of a Radiophotoluminescence Glass Dosimeter for Measurement of 1004 <span class="hlt">Points</span> in 66 Patients With Pelvic Malignancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To perform the largest in vivo dosimetry study for interstitial brachytherapy yet to be undertaken using a new radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeter (RPLGD) in patients with pelvic malignancy and to study the limits of contemporary planning software based on the results. Patients and Methods: Sixty-six patients with pelvic malignancy were treated with high-<span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate interstitial brachytherapy, including prostate (n = 26), gynecological (n = 35), and miscellaneous (n = 5). <span class="hlt">Doses</span> for a total of 1004 <span class="hlt">points</span> were measured by RPLGDs and calculated with planning software in the following locations: rectum (n = 549), urethra (n = 415), vagina (n = 25), and perineum (n = 15). Compatibility (measured <span class="hlt">dose</span>/calculated <span class="hlt">dose</span>) was analyzed according to dosimeter location. Results: The compatibility for all dosimeters was 0.98 {+-} 0.23, stratified by location: rectum, 0.99 {+-} 0.20; urethra, 0.96 {+-} 0.26; vagina, 0.91 {+-} 0.08; and perineum, 1.25 {+-} 0.32. Conclusions: Deviations between measured and calculated <span class="hlt">doses</span> for the rectum and urethra were greater than 20%, which is attributable to the independent movements of these organs and the applicators. Missing corrections for inhomogeneity are responsible for the 9% negative shift near the vaginal cylinder (specific gravity = 1.24), whereas neglect of transit <span class="hlt">dose</span> contributes to the 25% positive shift in the perineal <span class="hlt">dose</span>. <span class="hlt">Dose</span> deviation of >20% for nontarget organs should be taken into account in the planning process. Further development of planning software and a real-time dosimetry system are necessary to use the current findings and to achieve adaptive <span class="hlt">dose</span> delivery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nose, Takayuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Physics, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: takayuki.nose@jfcr.or.jp; Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center, Osaka (Japan); Yoshida, Ken [Department of Radiology, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Nishiyama, Kinji; Sasaki, Junichi; Ohnishi, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center, Osaka (Japan); Kozuka, Takuyo; Gomi, Kotaro; Oguchi, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Sumida, Iori [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Physics, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, Yutaka; Ito, Akira [Department of Physics, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Yamashita, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Physics, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1585575"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> likelihood pitch estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method for estimating the pitch period of voiced speech sounds is developed based on a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood (ML) formulation. It is capable of resolution finer than one sampling period and is shown to perform better in the presence of noise than the cepstrum method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Wise; J. Caprio; T. Parks</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/188840"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Discrimination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a general framework for discriminative estimation based on the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropyprinciple and its extensions. All calculations involve distributions over structures and\\/orparameters rather than specic settings and reduce to relative entropy projections. This holdseven when the data is not separable within the chosen parametric class, in the context of anomalydetection rather than classication, or when the labels in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tommi Jaakkola; Marina Meila; Tony Jebara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ChPhC..33..914M"> <span id="translatedtitle">SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, FREE ELECTRON LASER, APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY, ETC.: Measurement of radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span> at the north interaction <span class="hlt">point</span> of BEPC II</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The technique details for measuring radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span> are expounded. The results of gamma and neutron radiation levels are presented and the corresponding radiation shielding is discussed based on the simplified estimation. In addition, the photon radiation level move as background for future experiments is measured by a NaI(Tl) detector.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mo, Xiao-Hu; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Tian-Bao; Zhang, Qing-Jiang; Achasov, Mikhail; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Muchnoi, Nikolay; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua-Min; Wang, Yi-Fang; Wu, Jing-Min; Xu, Jin-Qiang; Yu, Bo-Xiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32307100"> <span id="translatedtitle">Local skin and eye lens equivalent <span class="hlt">doses</span> in interventional neuroradiology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose  To assess patient skin and eye lens <span class="hlt">doses</span> in interventional neuroradiology and to assess both stochastic and deterministic\\u000a radiation risks.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Kerma–area product (P\\u000a KA) was recorded and skin <span class="hlt">doses</span> measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters. Estimated <span class="hlt">dose</span> at interventional reference <span class="hlt">point</span>\\u000a (IRP) was compared with measured absorbed <span class="hlt">doses</span>.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The average and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> fluoroscopy times were 32 and 189 min for coiling and 40</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Sandborg; Sandro Rossitti; Håkan Pettersson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31072418"> <span id="translatedtitle">A randomized, multicenter trial of weight-adjusted intravenous heparin <span class="hlt">dose</span> titration and <span class="hlt">point</span>-of-care coagulation monitoring in hospitalized patients with active thromboembolic disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Therapy with intravenous unfractionated heparin improves clinical outcome in patients with active thromboembolic disease, but achieving and maintaining a therapeutic level of anticoagulation remains a major challenge for clinicians. Methods A total of 113 patients requiring heparin for at least 48 hours were randomly assigned at 7 medical centers to either weight-adjusted or non-weight-adjusted <span class="hlt">dose</span> titration. They were separately</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard C. Becker; Steven P. Ball; Paul Eisenberg; Steven Borzak; A. Christian Held; Frederick Spencer; Stephen J. Voyce; Robert Jesse; Robert Hendel; Yunsheng Ma; Thomas Hurley; James Hebert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31103491"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rationale for use of an exercise end <span class="hlt">point</span> and design for the ADVANCE (A <span class="hlt">Dose</span> evaluation of a Vasopressin ANtagonist in CHF patients undergoing Exercise) trial</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Exercise intolerance is a primary characteristic of chronic congestive heart failure. Exercise testing is therefore widely used to evaluate the degree of functional impairment, prognosis of underlying cardiac disease, and response to treatment. Historically, studies that used exercise tolerance as an end <span class="hlt">point</span> to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacologic interventions have been confounded by methodologic differences involving protocols, exercise</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stuart D. Russell; Paulina Selaru; David A. Pyne; Maha M. Ghazzi; Kenneth D. Massey; Milton Pressler; Alexis Serikoff; Andrew J. S. Coats</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE88753153"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Power <span class="hlt">Point</span> Tracking of a Microprocessor - Controlled Wind Turbine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A wind turbine adaptative control has been designed and optimized. The horizontal axis wind turbine and its mechanical regulation device is first described. An impedance matching is shown to be necessary and is obtained with a direct-direct static convert...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Kraif</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19661421"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Maximum</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level approximately 14.5 ka. PMID:19661421</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clark, Peter U; Dyke, Arthur S; Shakun, Jeremy D; Carlson, Anders E; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; McCabe, A Marshall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1172873"> <span id="translatedtitle">The last glacial <span class="hlt">maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clark, P. U.; Dyke, A. S.; Shakun, J. D.; Carlson, A. E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Hostetler, S. W.; McCabe, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001Entrp...3..191H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Fundamentals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In its modern formulation, the <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over the development of natural languages. In fact, we are able to relate our theoretical findings to the empirically found Zipf's law which involves statistical aspects of words in a language. The apparent irregularity inherent in models with entropy loss turns out to imply desirable stability properties of languages.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harremoeës, P.; Topsøe, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21486869"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variability of Marker-Based Rectal <span class="hlt">Dose</span> Evaluation in HDR Cervical Brachytherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In film-based intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer, position of the rectal markers may not accurately represent the anterior rectal wall. This study was aimed at analyzing the variability of rectal <span class="hlt">dose</span> estimation as a result of interfractional variation of marker placement. A cohort of five patients treated with multiple-fraction tandem and ovoid high-<span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate (HDR) brachytherapy was studied. The cervical os <span class="hlt">point</span> and the orientation of the applicators were matched among all fractional plans for each patient. Rectal <span class="hlt">points</span> obtained from all fractions were then input into each clinical treated plan. New fractional rectal <span class="hlt">doses</span> were obtained and a new cumulative rectal <span class="hlt">dose</span> for each patient was calculated. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> interfractional variation of distances between rectal <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">points</span> and the closest source positions was 1.1 cm. The corresponding <span class="hlt">maximum</span> variability of fractional rectal <span class="hlt">dose</span> was 65.5%. The percentage difference in cumulative rectal <span class="hlt">dose</span> estimation for each patient was 5.4%, 19.6%, 34.6%, 23.4%, and 13.9%, respectively. In conclusion, care should be taken when using rectal markers as reference <span class="hlt">points</span> for estimating rectal <span class="hlt">dose</span> in HDR cervical brachytherapy. The best estimate of true rectal <span class="hlt">dose</span> for each fraction should be determined by the most anterior <span class="hlt">point</span> among all fractions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang Zhou, E-mail: Zhou.Wang@RoswellPark.or [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Malhotra, Harish K.; Podgorsak, Matthew B. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21333956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cord <span class="hlt">Dose</span> Specification and Validation for Stereotactic Body Radiosurgery of Spine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> to a portion of the spinal cord in treatment segment, rather than the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> in the cord surface, was set as the <span class="hlt">dose</span> limit in stereotactic-body radiosurgery (SBRS) of spine. Such a cord <span class="hlt">dose</span> specification is sensitive to the volume size and position errors. Thus, we used stereotactic image guidance to minimize phantom positioning errors and compared the results of a 0.6-cm{sup 3} Farmer ionization chamber and a 0.01-cm{sup 3} compact ionization chamber to determine the detector size effect on 9 SBRS cases. The experimental errors ranging from 2% to 7% were estimated by the deviation of the mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> in plans to the chamber with spatial displacements of 0.5 mm. The mean and measured <span class="hlt">doses</span> for the large chamber to individual cases were significantly ({approx}17%) higher than the <span class="hlt">doses</span> with the compact chamber placed at the same <span class="hlt">point</span>. Our experimental results shown that the mean <span class="hlt">doses</span> to the volume of interest could represent the measured cord <span class="hlt">doses</span>. For the 9 patients, the mean <span class="hlt">doses</span> to 10% of the cord were about 10 Gy, while the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> cord <span class="hlt">doses</span> varied from 11.6 to 17.6 Gy. The mean <span class="hlt">dose</span>, possibly correlated with the cord complication, provided us an alternative and reliable cord <span class="hlt">dose</span> specification in SBRS of spine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li Shidong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: Shidong.Li@thus.temple.edu; Liu Yan; Chen Qing; Jin Jianyue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States) Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22095275"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of absorbed <span class="hlt">dose</span> in water at the reference <span class="hlt">point</span> D(r{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0}) for an {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy source using a Fricke system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A ring-shaped Fricke device was developed to measure the absolute <span class="hlt">dose</span> on the transverse bisector of a {sup 192}Ir high <span class="hlt">dose</span> rate (HDR) source at 1 cm from its center in water, D(r{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0}). It consists of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) rod (axial axis) with a cylindrical cavity at its center to insert the {sup 192}Ir radioactive source. A ring cavity around the source with 1.5 mm thickness and 5 mm height is centered at 1 cm from the central axis of the source. This ring cavity is etched in a disk shaped base with 2.65 cm diameter and 0.90 cm thickness. The cavity has a wall around it 0.25 cm thick. This ring is filled with Fricke solution, sealed, and the whole assembly is immersed in water during irradiations. The device takes advantage of the cylindrical geometry to measure D(r{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0}). Irradiations were performed with a Nucletron microselectron HDR unit loaded with an {sup 192}Ir Alpha Omega radioactive source. A Spectronic 1001 spectrophotometer was used to measure the optical absorbance using a 1 mL quartz cuvette with 1.00 cm light pathlength. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo code (MC) was utilized to simulate the Fricke device and the {sup 192}Ir Alpha Omega source in detail to calculate the perturbation introduced by the PMMA material. A NIST traceable calibrated well type ionization chamber was used to determine the air-kerma strength, and a published <span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate constant was used to determine the <span class="hlt">dose</span> rate at the reference <span class="hlt">point</span>. The time to deliver 30.00 Gy to the reference <span class="hlt">point</span> was calculated. This absorbed <span class="hlt">dose</span> was then compared to the absorbed <span class="hlt">dose</span> measured by the Fricke solution. Based on MC simulation, the PMMA of the Fricke device increases the D(r{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0}) by 2.0%. Applying the corresponding correction factor, the D(r{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0}) value assessed with the Fricke device agrees within 2.0% with the expected value with a total combined uncertainty of 3.43%(k=1). The Fricke device provides a promising method towards calibration of brachytherapy radiation sources in terms of D(r{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0}) and audit HDR source calibrations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Austerlitz, C.; Mota, H. C.; Sempau, J.; Benhabib, S. M.; Campos, D.; Allison, R.; Almeida, C. E. de; Zhu, D.; Sibata, C. H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27834 (United States); Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Radiation Oncology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27834 (United States); Laboratorio de Cie circumflex ncias Radiologicas, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Department of Radiation Oncology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27834 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PMB....53.2509N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the SURLAS applicator on radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions during simultaneous thermoradiotherapy with helical tomotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simultaneous thermoradiotherapy has been shown to maximize the effect of hyperthermia as a radiation sensitizer in cancer treatment. Here we follow our previous work on feasibility of thermoradiotherapy with the scanning ultrasound reflector linear array system (SURLAS) and TomoTherapy® HisdotArt® treatment system, and investigate the influence of the SURLAS hyperthermia applicator on delivered radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span> with the TomoTherapy. A radiation treatment plan was calculated and the treatment was delivered to a phantom with SURLAS on top simulating the likely clinical setup. Proper positioning of the SURLAS was assisted with a magnetic position-and-orientation tracking device (POTD) and was verified with megavoltage-computed tomography. The delivered <span class="hlt">dose</span> was measured with an ionization chamber (<span class="hlt">point</span> measurement) and a radiographic film (2D <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions). The planned and delivered <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> data agreed within 0.61% ± 0.63%. Planar <span class="hlt">dose</span> data agreed within a <span class="hlt">dose</span> difference of <=3% of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span>, and a distance-to-<span class="hlt">dose</span>-agreement of <=1 mm. The susceptibility of the delivered radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span> on correct SURLAS positioning was studied as well. The largest <span class="hlt">dose</span> discrepancy was measured for a position for which a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> number of radiation beams intersected the incorrectly positioned SURLAS within one TomoTherapy gantry rotation. The <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> disagreed by 6.14% ± 0.52%, and 2.25% of pixels of the 2D <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution did not pass the 3% <span class="hlt">dose</span> difference/1 mm distance-to-<span class="hlt">dose</span>-agreement criteria. Our study showed that correct positioning of the SURLAS applicator had an influence on the delivered radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span>. Delivered and planned <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions were in an excellent agreement when SURLAS was positioned according to the treatment plan. Moving the applicator from its planned position was found to cause a modification of delivered <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions. A precise and reproducible positioning of the applicator was assured with a POTD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Novák, Petr; Peñagarícano, José A.; Nahirnyak, Volodymyr; Corry, Peter; Moros, Eduardo G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23118440"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">dose</span> heterogeneity on radiation risk in medical imaging.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current estimations of risk associated with medical imaging procedures rely on assessing the organ <span class="hlt">dose</span> via direct measurements or simulation. The <span class="hlt">dose</span> to each organ is assumed to be homogeneous. To take into account the differences in radiation sensitivities, the mean organ <span class="hlt">doses</span> are weighted by a corresponding tissue-weighting coefficients provided by ICRP to calculate the effective <span class="hlt">dose</span>, which has been used as a surrogate of radiation risk. However, those coefficients were derived under the assumption of a homogeneous <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution within each organ. That assumption is significantly violated in most medical-imaging procedures. In helical chest CT, for example, superficial organs (e.g. breasts) demonstrate a heterogeneous <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution, whereas organs on the peripheries of the irradiation field (e.g. liver) might possess a discontinuous <span class="hlt">dose</span> profile. Projection radiography and mammography involve an even higher level of organ <span class="hlt">dose</span> heterogeneity spanning up to two orders of magnitude. As such, mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> or <span class="hlt">point</span> measured <span class="hlt">dose</span> values do not reflect the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> energy deposited per unit volume of the organ. In this paper, the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">dose</span> heterogeneity in both CT and projection X-ray imaging was reported, using Monte Carlo methods. The lung <span class="hlt">dose</span> demonstrated factors of 1.7 and 2.2 difference between the mean and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> for chest CT and radiography, respectively. The corresponding values for the liver were 1.9 and 3.5. For mammography and breast tomosynthesis, the difference between mean glandular <span class="hlt">dose</span> and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> glandular <span class="hlt">dose</span> was 3.1. Risk models based on the mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> were found to provide a reasonable reflection of cancer risk. However, for leukaemia, they were found to significantly under-represent the risk when the organ <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution is heterogeneous. A systematic study is needed to develop a risk model for heterogeneous <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions. PMID:23118440</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samei, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Chen, Baiyu; Reiman, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6593963"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> likelihood deconvolution: a new perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span>-likelihood deconvolution can be presented from at least two very different <span class="hlt">points</span> of view. Unfortunately, in most journal articles, it is couched in the mystique of state-variable models and estimation theory, both of which, are generally quite foreign to geophysical signal processors. This paper explains <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood deconvolution using the well-known convolutional model and some relatively simple ideas from optimization theory. Both of these areas should be well known to geophysical signal processors. Although it is straightforward to develop the theory of <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood deconvolution using the convolutional model and optimization theory, this approach does not lead to practical computational algorithms. Recursive algorithms must be used; they are orders of magnitude faster than the batch algorithms that are associated with the convolutional model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mendel, J.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_10 div --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60819507"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE MEASUREMENT OF NEUTRON <span class="hlt">DOSE</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physical (as opposed to the biological) data which are used to ; derive the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> permissible neutron flux are summarized. Problems which arise ; in field instrumentation designed to measure the neutron <span class="hlt">dose</span> are surveved. ; Methods for measuring <span class="hlt">dose</span> include energy absorption in tissue equivalent ; chambers, flux detection with sensitivity inversely proportional to <span class="hlt">maximum</span> ; permissible flux</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1959-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23633649"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neural network modelling of <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution and <span class="hlt">dose</span> uniformity in the Tunisian Gamma Irradiator.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper an approach to model <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions, isodose curves and <span class="hlt">dose</span> uniformity in the Tunisian Gamma Irradiation Facility using artificial neural networks (ANNs) are described. For this purpose, measurements were carried out at different <span class="hlt">points</span> in the irradiation cell using polymethyl methacrylate dosemeters. The calculated and experimental results are compared and good agreement is observed showing that ANNs can be used as an efficient tool for modelling <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution in the gamma irradiation facility. Monte Carlo (MC) photon-transport simulation techniques have been used to evaluate the spatial <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution for extensive benchmarking. ANN approach appears to be a significant advance over the time-consuming MC or the less accurate regression methods for <span class="hlt">dose</span> mapping. As a second application, a detailed <span class="hlt">dose</span> mapping using two different product densities was carried out. The minimum and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> locations and <span class="hlt">dose</span> uniformity as a function of the irradiated volume for each product density were determined. Good agreement between ANN modelling and experimental results was achieved. PMID:23633649</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manai, K; Trabelsi, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3021560"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of three-dimensional intrinsic dosimetric uncertainties resulting from using deformable image registration for <span class="hlt">dose</span> mapping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: This article presents a general procedural framework to assess the <span class="hlt">point-by-point</span> precision in mapped <span class="hlt">dose</span> associated with the intrinsic uncertainty of a deformable image registration (DIR) for any arbitrary patient. Methods: <span class="hlt">Dose</span> uncertainty is obtained via a three-step process. In the first step, for each voxel in an imaging pair, a cluster of <span class="hlt">points</span> is obtained by an iterative DIR procedure. In the second step, the dispersion of the <span class="hlt">points</span> due to the imprecision of the DIR method is used to compute the spatial uncertainty. Two different ways to quantify the spatial uncertainty are presented in this work. Method A consists of a one-dimensional analysis of the modules of the position vectors, whereas method B performs a more detailed 3D analysis of the coordinates of the <span class="hlt">points</span>. In the third step, the resulting spatial uncertainty estimates are used in combination with the mapped <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution to compute the <span class="hlt">point-by-point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> standard deviation. The process is demonstrated to estimate the <span class="hlt">dose</span> uncertainty induced by mapping a 62.6 Gy <span class="hlt">dose</span> delivered on <span class="hlt">maximum</span> exhale to <span class="hlt">maximum</span> inhale of a ten-phase four-dimensional lung CT. Results: For the demonstration lung image pair, the standard deviation of inconsistency vectors is found to be up to 9.2 mm with a mean ? of 1.3 mm. This uncertainty results in a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> estimated <span class="hlt">dose</span> uncertainty of 29.65 Gy if method A is used and 21.81 Gy for method B. The calculated volume with <span class="hlt">dose</span> uncertainty above 10.00 Gy is 602 cm3 for method A and 1422 cm3 for method B. Conclusions: This procedure represents a useful tool to evaluate the precision of a mapped <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution due to the intrinsic DIR uncertainty in a patient. The procedure is flexible, allowing incorporation of alternative intrinsic error models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salguero, Francisco J.; Saleh-Sayah, Nahla K.; Yan, Chenyu; Siebers, Jeffrey V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22096870"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of three-dimensional intrinsic dosimetric uncertainties resulting from using deformable image registration for <span class="hlt">dose</span> mapping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: This article presents a general procedural framework to assess the <span class="hlt">point-by-point</span> precision in mapped <span class="hlt">dose</span> associated with the intrinsic uncertainty of a deformable image registration (DIR) for any arbitrary patient. Methods: <span class="hlt">Dose</span> uncertainty is obtained via a three-step process. In the first step, for each voxel in an imaging pair, a cluster of <span class="hlt">points</span> is obtained by an iterative DIR procedure. In the second step, the dispersion of the <span class="hlt">points</span> due to the imprecision of the DIR method is used to compute the spatial uncertainty. Two different ways to quantify the spatial uncertainty are presented in this work. Method A consists of a one-dimensional analysis of the modules of the position vectors, whereas method B performs a more detailed 3D analysis of the coordinates of the <span class="hlt">points</span>. In the third step, the resulting spatial uncertainty estimates are used in combination with the mapped <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution to compute the <span class="hlt">point-by-point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> standard deviation. The process is demonstrated to estimate the <span class="hlt">dose</span> uncertainty induced by mapping a 62.6 Gy <span class="hlt">dose</span> delivered on <span class="hlt">maximum</span> exhale to <span class="hlt">maximum</span> inhale of a ten-phase four-dimensional lung CT. Results: For the demonstration lung image pair, the standard deviation of inconsistency vectors is found to be up to 9.2 mm with a mean {sigma} of 1.3 mm. This uncertainty results in a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> estimated <span class="hlt">dose</span> uncertainty of 29.65 Gy if method A is used and 21.81 Gy for method B. The calculated volume with <span class="hlt">dose</span> uncertainty above 10.00 Gy is 602 cm{sup 3} for method A and 1422 cm{sup 3} for method B. Conclusions: This procedure represents a useful tool to evaluate the precision of a mapped <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution due to the intrinsic DIR uncertainty in a patient. The procedure is flexible, allowing incorporation of alternative intrinsic error models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salguero, Francisco J.; Saleh-Sayah, Nahla K.; Yan Chenyu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, 23298 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE85012731"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Beam Diagnostic Tomography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reviews the formalism of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed mo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. T. Mottershead</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://video.nasa.gov/core-dl/423/0/593/202614731/1391/423/764/076ec919b8001ea2a34f10807e40ec97.mp4"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arctic Sea Ice <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> 2011</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began collecting the data in 1979.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holly Zell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20801599"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development, validation and transfer of a near infrared method to determine in-line the end <span class="hlt">point</span> of a fluidised drying process for commercial production batches of an approved oral solid <span class="hlt">dose</span> pharmaceutical product.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pharmaceutical companies are progressively adopting and introducing the principles of Quality by Design with the main purpose of assurance and built-in quality throughout the whole manufacturing process. Within this framework, a Partial Least Square (PLS) model, based on Near Infrared (NIR) spectra and humidity determinations, was built in order to determine in-line the drying end <span class="hlt">point</span> of a fluidized bed process. The in-process method was successfully validated following the principles described within The International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use - ICH Q2 (r1) - Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology. However, in some aspects, the cited guidelines were not appropriate to in-process methods developed and validated exclusively with in-line samples and implemented in dynamic systems, such as drying processes. In this work, a customized interpretation of guidelines has been adopted which provided the framework of evidence to support a validated application. The application has been submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The European Medicines Agency (EMA) during applications for grant of licences. Representatives from these Regulatory Authorities have specifically reviewed this novel application during on-site inspections, and have subsequently approved both the product and this application. Currently, the NIR method is implemented as a primary in-line method to control the drying end <span class="hlt">point</span> in real-time (to below a control limit of not greater than 1.2% w/w) for commercial production batches of an approved, solid, oral-<span class="hlt">dose</span> medicine. The implementation of this in-process method allows real-time control with benefits including a reduction in operation time and labour; sample handling and waste generation; and a reduced risk to product quality in further unit operations due to improved consistency of intermediate output at this stage. To date, this has achieved approximately 10% savings in energy efficiency and operational time for this part of the manufacturing process. PMID:20801599</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peinado, Antonio; Hammond, Jonathan; Scott, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50805973"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simple method for computing power systems <span class="hlt">maximum</span> loading conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A very simple and fast method for computing power systems <span class="hlt">maximum</span> loading <span class="hlt">points</span> is proposed in this paper. These <span class="hlt">points</span> are simply computed through repeated load flow solutions. The main contribution resides in the appropriate use of a special load flow with step size optimization and the extraction of useful information from it, which guides the search for the desired</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. H. Fujisawa; C. A. Castro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40737130"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Mission experiment: ultraviolet spectroscopy and polarimetry on the Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Mission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Mission spacecraft is described. It is <span class="hlt">pointed</span> out that the instrument, which operates in the wavelength range 1150-3600 A, has a spatial resolution of 2-3 arcsec and a spectral resolution of 0.02 A FWHM in second order. A Gregorian telescope, with a focal length of 1.8 m, feeds a 1 m</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Tandberg-Hanssen; B. E. Woodgate; J. M. Beckers; R. D. Chapman; E. C. Bruner; J. B. Gurman; C. L. Hyder; P. J. Kenney; A. G. Michalitsianos; R. A. Rehse; S. A. Schoolman; R. A. Shine; W. Henze</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/mineralogy/activities/MinEx26PointGrps.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Point</span> Groups</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This exercise involves identifying symmetry in crystals and using that information to assign crystals to crystal systems and <span class="hlt">point</span> groups. Students examine cardboard models and wooden blocks and fill their symmetry elements into a table. Then they figure out what what crystal system and <span class="hlt">point</span> group each sample belongs to and fill in another table.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perkins, Dexter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6106183"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Expected Utility via MCMC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract This paper provides a pure simulation approach to solving <span class="hlt">maximum</span>,expected utility (MEU) problems. MEU problems require both integration, to compute the expected utility, and optimization, to find the optimal decision. In most cases of interest, the expected utility does not have a analytical solution, even for a given value of the decision. One must apply gradient methods around numerical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eric Jacquier; Michael Johannes; Nicholas Polson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6076654"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy beam diagnostic tomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reviews the formalism of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mottershead, C.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8534175"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span>: Solar Array Degradation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak p...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26287312"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heliostats for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> ground coverage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most conventional heliostats consist of a rectangular reflector which is moved around a fixed vertical axis tracking the azimuth of the sun and a second moving horizontal axis which rotates around the vertical axis to allow tracking the elevation of the sun. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> ground coverage possible of fields of such heliostats without colliding neighbouring reflectors is 58%. Applications of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Philipp Schramek; David R. Mills</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50850220"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> throughput of clandestine relay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> throughput of relaying information flows while concealing their presence is studied. The concealment is achieved by embedding transmissions of information flows into truly independent transmission schedules that resemble the normal transmission behaviors without any flow. Such embedding may reduce the throughput for delay-sensitive flows, and the paper provides a quantitative characterization of the level of reduction. Under a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ting He; Lang Tong; Ananthram Swami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2178702"> <span id="translatedtitle">Graphs with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> connectivity index</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Let G be a graph and dv the degree (=number of first neighbors) of its vertex v. The connectivity index of G is ?=?(dudv)?1\\/2, with the summation ranging over all pairs of adjacent vertices of G. In a previous paper (Comput. Chem. 23 (1999) 469), by applying a heuristic combinatorial optimization algorithm, the structure of chemical trees possessing extremal (<span class="hlt">maximum</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gilles Caporossi; Ivan Gutman; Pierre Hansen; Ljiljana Pavlovic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53951159"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> reentry drag deceleration revisited</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The analytic formulation of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> reentry drag deceleration problem is modified to include (1) the motion of the atmosphere due to earth rotation and (2) an accurate, multi-layer atmospheric density model. It is demonstrated that peak deceleration depends on drag coefficient values except in the case of isothermal layers, where the density profile is an exponential function. Despite the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. E. Hough</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57469269"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Acceptable Weight of Lift</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> amount of weight that an individual can be expected to lift comfortably and without strain. Recommendations based on empirical estimates, biomechanical techniques, and psychophysical methods are reviewed, including those of the International Labour Office, the Swiss Accident Insurance Institute, the Danish National Association for Infantile Paralysis, and the U. S. Air Force. The approach used</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. H. Snook; C. H. Irvine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5614119"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy beam diagnostic tomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reviews the formalism of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mottershead, C.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22131257"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the number of control <span class="hlt">points</span> has on isodose distributions in a dynamic multileaf collimator intensity-modulated radiation therapy delivery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a powerful technique in planning the delivery of <span class="hlt">dose</span>. The most common IMRT delivery requires the use of moving multileaf collimators (MLCs) to deliver the requested fluence pattern. A dynamic delivery IMRT field file will contain several control <span class="hlt">points</span> that are defined MLC shapes at a marked fraction of the delivered monitor units. The size of this file and the fidelity of the deliverable fluence are proportional to the number of control <span class="hlt">points</span> defined. This study investigates the effect of reducing the number of control <span class="hlt">points</span> has on the resultant <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution quality in complex IMRT in efforts to reduce transfer times, loading times, check sum times and file storage. Analysis was performed with 6 head and neck patients on an Eclipse version 8.5 treatment planning system (Varian, Palo Alto, CA). To ensure the quality of all treatments, Eclipse defines a minimum of 64 and a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> of 320 control <span class="hlt">points</span> per subfield (Eclipse Algorithms Reference guide). All 6 patients' plans were calculated with fixed 64, 166, and 320 control <span class="hlt">points</span> using the sliding window technique. In addition, each plan was calculated in variable mode (Normal mode) in which the planning system determined the required number of control <span class="hlt">points</span>. Each of the 4 plans for each patient was renormalized to provide the same mean planning target volume (PTV) 70 <span class="hlt">dose</span>. <span class="hlt">Dose</span> values for critical and target structures were examined for each patient. When examining the minimum, <span class="hlt">maximum</span>, and mean <span class="hlt">doses</span> to all target structures, it was noted that the greatest reduction in target <span class="hlt">dose</span> coverage caused by reduced number of control <span class="hlt">points</span> was 0.5%, which occurred for the minimum <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the PTV56 structure in one plan.' <span class="hlt">Dose</span> analysis for critical structures showed no clinically significant increase in <span class="hlt">dose</span> when compared with the 320 control <span class="hlt">point</span> plan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goraj, Andrew [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Boer, Steven F. de, E-mail: steven.deboer@roswellpark.org [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_11 div --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3473701"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organ and effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> reduction in adult chest CT using abdominal lead shielding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare organ and effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> savings that could be achieved using conventional lead aprons and a new, custom-designed shield as out-of-plane shielding devices during chest CT scans. Methods Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure <span class="hlt">doses</span> throughout the abdomen and pelvis during CT scans of the chest of a RANDO phantom. <span class="hlt">Dose</span> measurements were made with no shielding, with lead aprons and with the new shield around the abdomen and pelvis in order to quantify the achievable organ and effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> reductions. Results Average <span class="hlt">dose</span> savings in the 10 phantom sections ranged from 5% to 78% with the highest <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> saving of 93% being found in the mid-pelvis. When shielding was used, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> measured organ <span class="hlt">dose</span> reduction was a 72% <span class="hlt">dose</span> saving to the testes. Significant <span class="hlt">dose</span> savings were found throughout the abdomen and pelvis, which contributed to an effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> saving of 4% that was achieved over and above the <span class="hlt">dose</span> savings obtained through conventional optimisation strategies. This could yield significant population <span class="hlt">dose</span> savings and reductions in collective radiation risk. Conclusion In this study significant organ and effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> reductions have been achieved through the use of abdominal shielding during chest CT examinations and it is therefore recommended that out-of-plane patient shielding devices should be used for all chest CT scans and potentially for every CT scan, irrespective of body part.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iball, G R; Brettle, D S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvC..73e8801S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> mass of neutron stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We determine the structure of neutron stars within a Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach based on realistic nucleon-nucleon, nucleon-hyperon, and hyperon-hyperon interactions. Our results indicate rather low <span class="hlt">maximum</span> masses below 1.4 solar masses. This feature is insensitive to the nucleonic part of the EOS due to a strong compensation mechanism caused by the appearance of hyperons and represents thus strong evidence for the presence of nonbaryonic “quark” matter in the interior of heavy stars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schulze, H.-J.; Polls, A.; Ramos, A.; Vidaña, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/187084"> <span id="translatedtitle">Algorithms for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> independent set applied to map labelling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the following map labelling problem: given distinct <span class="hlt">points</span> p1, p2, . . . , pn in\\u000athe plane, and given o, find a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> cardinality set of pairwise disjoint axis-parallel o*o squares Q1,Q2, . . . ,Qr. This problem reduces to that of finding a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> cardinality\\u000aindependent set in an associated graph called the conflict graph. We</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tycho Strijk; A. M. Verweij; Karen Aardal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation/ucm123671.xls"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">DOSE</span> VERIFICATION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://google2.fda.gov/search?client=FDAgov&site=FDAgov&lr=&proxystylesheet=FDAgov&output=xml_no_dtd&&proxycustom=%3CADVANCED/%3E">Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Text Version... 5, TARGETED DAILY <span class="hlt">DOSE</span>, LOW <span class="hlt">DOSE</span> ( mg/kg body-weight/day), MID <span class="hlt">DOSE</span> ( mg/kg body-weight/day), HIGH <span class="hlt">DOSE</span> ( mg/kg body-weight/day), ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://concord.org/stem-resources/dew-point"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dew <span class="hlt">Point</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Determine the dew <span class="hlt">point</span> temperature for your classroom through a hands-on experiment. Use humidity and temperature probes to investigate the temperature at which it would rain in your classroom! Learn about water density and the conditions necessary to produce fog or rain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Consortium, The C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20890401"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Flux Transition Paths of Conformational Change.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given two metastable states A and B of a biomolecular system, the problem is to calculate the likely paths of the transition from A to B. Such a calculation is more informative and more manageable if done for a reduced set of collective variables chosen so that paths cluster in collective variable space. The computational task becomes that of computing the "center" of such a cluster. A good way to define the center employs the concept of a committor, whose value at a <span class="hlt">point</span> in collective variable space is the probability that a trajectory at that <span class="hlt">point</span> will reach B before A. The committor "foliates" the transition region into a set of isocommittors. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> flux transition path is defined as a path that crosses each isocommittor at a <span class="hlt">point</span> which (locally) has the highest crossing rate of distinct reactive trajectories. This path is based on the same principle as the minimum resistance path of Berkowitz et al (1983), but it has two advantages: (i) the path is invariant with respect to a change of coordinates in collective variable space and (ii) the differential equations that define the path are simpler. It is argued that such a path is nearer to an ideal path than others that have been proposed with the possible exception of the finite-temperature string method path. To make the calculation tractable, three approximations are introduced, yielding a path that is the solution of a nonsingular two-<span class="hlt">point</span> boundary-value problem. For such a problem, one can construct a simple and robust algorithm. One such algorithm and its performance is discussed. PMID:20890401</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Ruijun; Shen, Juanfang; Skeel, Robert D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056083"> <span id="translatedtitle">3D <span class="hlt">Dose</span> Verification Using Tomotherapy CT Detector Array</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To evaluate a three-dimensional <span class="hlt">dose</span> verification method based on the exit <span class="hlt">dose</span> using the onboard detector of tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study included 347 treatment fractions from 24 patients, including 10 prostate, 5 head and neck (HN), and 9 spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) cases. Detector sonograms were retrieved and back-projected to calculate entrance fluence, which was then forward-projected on the CT images to calculate the verification <span class="hlt">dose</span>, which was compared with ion chamber and film measurement in the QA plans and with the planning <span class="hlt">dose</span> in patient plans. Results: Root mean square (RMS) errors of 2.0%, 2.2%, and 2.0% were observed comparing the <span class="hlt">dose</span> verification (DV) and the ion chamber measured <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> in the phantom plans for HN, prostate, and spinal SBRT patients, respectively. When cumulative <span class="hlt">dose</span> in the entire treatment is considered, for HN patients, the error of the mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the planning target volume (PTV) varied from 1.47% to 5.62% with a RMS error of 3.55%. For prostate patients, the error of the mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the prostate target volume varied from -5.11% to 3.29%, with a RMS error of 2.49%. The RMS error of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">doses</span> to the bladder and the rectum were 2.34% (-4.17% to 2.61%) and 2.64% (-4.54% to 3.94%), respectively. For the nine spinal SBRT patients, the RMS error of the minimum <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the PTV was 2.43% (-5.39% to 2.48%). The RMS error of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the spinal cord was 1.05% (-2.86% to 0.89%). Conclusions: An excellent agreement was observed between the measurement and the verification <span class="hlt">dose</span>. In the patient treatments, the agreement in <span class="hlt">doses</span> to the majority of PTVs and organs at risk is within 5% for the cumulative treatment course <span class="hlt">doses</span>. The dosimetric error strongly depends on the error in multileaf collimator leaf opening time with a sensitivity correlating to the gantry rotation period.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheng Ke, E-mail: ks2mc@virginia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Jones, Ryan; Yang Wensha; Saraiya, Siddharth; Schneider, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Chen Quan; Sobering, Geoff; Olivera, Gustavo [TomoTherapy, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Read, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5459364"> <span id="translatedtitle">RV strings of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> curvature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To design an effective interceptor for a string of reentry vehicles (RV's) released by a post-boost vehicle (PBV), it is necessary to have information about possible geometries of the string when it reaches a given altitude above the target. The geometry of the string, assumed for simplicity to contain three RV's, is determined by the motion of the PBV which is controlled by varying its thrust direction. Of interest in this study is maximizing the curvature of the string, which is represented by the distance of RV{sub 2} from the line joining RV{sub 1} and RV{sub 3} when RV{sub 1} reaches the intercept attitude, subject to the constraints that all three RV's must land within 3000 ft distance of the target. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> curvature problem is formulated as a parameter optimization problem and solved by a nonlinear programming code known as GRG2. The thrust angles are assumed to be piecewise linear, and a total of 21 parameters is used. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> curvature is shown to be approximately 2900 ft. 4 refs., 8 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hull, D.G. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)); Zazworsky, R.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ia.usu.edu/viewproject.php?project=ia:19158"> <span id="translatedtitle">Graphing <span class="hlt">Points</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Let's learn how to use the lines on graphs (the x & y axis) to plot information. Choose any of the activities below to test your knowledge of identifying the coordinates correctly. Meteoroid Coordinates Soccer Coordinates Donut Coordinates Graphing <span class="hlt">Points</span> Save the Zogs!-Using Linear Equations Using your coordinate plane knowledge and linear equations help to rescue the Zogs! Can you find the axis for these problems too? What have you noticed about linear equations? What do the lines in linear equations look ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Izzy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3797409"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can we improve the <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution for single or multi-lumen breast balloons used for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose The aim of the study was to verify <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution parameters for multi-lumen, and artificially created single-lumen balloon applicator used for the same patient with two optimization algorithms: inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) and <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> optimization with distance option. Material and methods Group of 24 patients with multi-lumen balloon applied were investigated. Each patient received 10 fractions of 3.4 Gy (2 fractions daily). For every patient, four treatment plans were prepared. Firstly, for five-lumen balloon optimized with IPSA algorithm and optimization parameters adjusted for each case. Secondly, for the same applicator optimized with <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> optimization and distant option. Two other plans were prepared for single-lumen applicator, created by removing four peripheral lumens, optimized with both algorithms. Results The highest D95 parameter was obtained for plans optimized with IPSA algorithm, mean value 99.3 percent of prescribed <span class="hlt">dose</span>, and it was significantly higher than plans optimized with <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> algorithm (mean = 83.50%, p < 0.0001), IPSA single-lumen balloon plan (mean = 83.50%, p = 0.0037) and optimized to <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> single-lumen balloon (mean = 85.51%, p < 0.0001). There were no statistically significant differences concerning <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">doses</span> distributed to skin surface for neither application nor optimization method. Volumes receiving 200% of prescribed <span class="hlt">dose</span> in PTV were higher for multi-lumen balloon <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> optimized plans (mean = 8.78%), than for other plans (IPSA multi-lumen balloon plan: mean = 7.37%, p < 0.0001, single-lumen IPSA: mean = 7.20%, p < 0.0001, single-lumen <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">point</span>: mean = 7.19%, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Basing on performed survey, better <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution parameters are obtained for patients with multi-lumen balloon applied and optimized using IPSA algorithm with individualized optimization parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bieleda, Grzegorz; Laski, Piotr; Kycler, Witold</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22168251"> <span id="translatedtitle">Esophageal tolerance to high-<span class="hlt">dose</span> stereotactic ablative radiotherapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Dose</span>-volume parameters are needed to guide the safe administration of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). We report on esophageal tolerance to high-<span class="hlt">dose</span> hypofractionated radiation in patients treated with SABR. Thirty-one patients with spine or lung tumors received single- or multiple-fraction SABR to targets less than 1 cm from the esophagus. End <span class="hlt">points</span> evaluated include D(5cc) (minimum <span class="hlt">dose</span> in Gy to 5 cm(3) of the esophagus receiving the highest <span class="hlt">dose</span>), D(2cc) , D(1cc) , and D(max) (<span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> to 0.01 cm(3) ). Multiple-fraction treatments were correlated using the linear quadratic and linear quadratic-linear/universal survival models. Three esophageal toxicity events occurred, including esophagitis (grade 2), tracheoesophageal fistula (grade 4-5), and esophageal perforation (grade 4-5). Chemotherapy was a cofactor in the high-grade events. The median time to development of esophageal toxicity was 4.1 months (range 0.6-6.1 months). Two of the three events occurred below a published D(5cc) threshold, all three were below a D(2cc) threshold, and one was below a D(max) threshold. We report a dosimetric analysis of incidental <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the esophagus from SABR. High-<span class="hlt">dose</span> hypofractionated radiotherapy led to a number of high-grade esophageal adverse events, suggesting that conservative parameters to protect the esophagus are necessary when SABR is used, especially in the setting of chemotherapy or prior radiotherapy. PMID:22168251</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abelson, J A; Murphy, J D; Loo, B W; Chang, D T; Daly, M E; Wiegner, E A; Hancock, S; Chang, S D; Le, Q-T; Soltys, S G; Gibbs, I C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14496465"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> trimmed likelihood estimators: a unified approach, examples, and algorithms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The likelihood principle is one of the most important concepts in Statistics. Among other things, it is used to obtain <span class="hlt">point</span> estimators for the parameters of probability distributions of random variables by maximizing the likelihood function. The resulting <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimators usually have desirable properties such as consistency and efficiency. However, these estimators are often not robust as it is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali S. Hadi; Alberto Luceño</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57749402"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deconvolution of MODIS imagery using multiscale <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A multiscale <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy method (MEM) for image deconvolution is implemented and applied to MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) data to remove instrument <span class="hlt">point</span>-spread function (PSF) effects. The implementation utilizes three efficient computational methods: a fast Fourier transform convolution, a wavelet image decomposition and an algorithm for gradient method step-size estimation that together enable rapid image deconvolution. Multiscale entropy uses</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. J. Jackett; P. J. Turner; J. L. Lovell; R. N. Williams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2400108"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span>-likelihood reconstruction for single-photon emission computedtomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A mathematical model is formulated for a gamma camera used to observe single-photon emissions from multiple view angles. The model accounts for the statistics of radioactive decays, nonuniform attenuation, and a depth-dependent <span class="hlt">point</span>-spread function. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood method of statistics is used with the model to derive an algorithm for estimating the distribution of radioactivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael I. Miller; T. R. Miller; D. L. Snyder</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/793066"> <span id="translatedtitle">An efficient algorithm for computing the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> empty rectangle in three dimensions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given a set P of n <span class="hlt">points</span> in three dimensions within a bounding hyper rectangle (BHR), the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> empty hyper rectangle (MEHR) problem is to find a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> volume or surface area hyper rectangle R within BHR such that R does not contain any <span class="hlt">point</span> from the set P. We present an efficient algorithm for computing the MEHR. The worst</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amitava Datta; Subbiah Soundaralakshmi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20951591"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainties in Assesment of the Vaginal <span class="hlt">Dose</span> for Intracavitary Brachytherapy of Cervical Cancer using a Tandem-ring Applicator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The vagina has not been widely recognized as organ at risk in brachytherapy for cervical cancer. No widely accepted <span class="hlt">dose</span> parameters are available. This study analyzes the uncertainties in <span class="hlt">dose</span> reporting for the vaginal wall using tandem-ring applicators. Methods and Materials: Organ wall contours were delineated on axial magnetic resonance (MR) slices to perform <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Different DVH parameters were used in a feasibility study based on 40 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based treatment plans of different cervical cancer patients. <span class="hlt">Dose</span> to the most irradiated, 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 cm{sup 3}, 2 cm{sup 3}, and at defined <span class="hlt">points</span> on the ring surface and at 5-mm tissue depth were reported. Treatment-planning systems allow different methods of <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> definition. Film dosimetry was used to verify the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> at the surface of the ring applicator in an experimental setup. Results: <span class="hlt">Dose</span> reporting for the vagina is extremely sensitive to geometrical uncertainties with variations of 25% for 1 mm shifts. Accurate delineation of the vaginal wall is limited by the finite pixel size of MRI and available treatment-planning systems. No significant correlation was found between <span class="hlt">dose-point</span> and <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume parameters. The DVH parameters were often related to noncontiguous volumes and were not able to detect very different situations of spatial <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions inside the vaginal wall. Deviations between measured and calculated <span class="hlt">doses</span> were up to 21%. Conclusions: Reporting either <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> values or DVH parameters for the vaginal wall is based on high inaccuracies because of contouring and geometric positioning. Therefore, the use of prospective <span class="hlt">dose</span> constraints for individual treatment plans is not to be recommended at present. However, for large patient groups treated within one protocol correlation with vaginal morbidity can be evaluated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berger, Daniel [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniel.berger@akhwien.at; Dimopoulos, Johannes [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Petra [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Kirisits, Christian [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFD.M8005H"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> drag reduction asymptote</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Addition of a small amount of long chain polymers to a Newtonian solvent can lead to a dramatic drag reduction in turbulent flows. This effect has been extensively studied since its discovery in the late 1940's. The drag reduction at first is proportional to the polymer concentration (Weisenberg number) but then saturates to the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> drag reduction (MDR) asymptote. It is commonly believed that drag reduction results from an adjustment of the turbulent flow structure due to the action of the polymers. We here present experimental results of turbulent pipe flows using dilute polyacrylamid solutions at relatively large Weisenberg numbers (˜10). Our results show that for relatively low polymer concentrations transition to turbulence is postponed to higher Reynolds numbers. However when the Weisenberg number is increased further we find that the subcritical transition to turbulence, typical for Newtonian pipe flow disappears. Instead a supercritical instability is found at much lower Reynolds numbers which gives rise to a disordered flow. The observed drag of this disordered flow is identical to the well known MDR asymptote.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hof, Björn; Samanta, Devranjan; Wagner, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1443..290M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy production in daisyworld</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21036266"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Evaluation of the Impact of Different Head-and-Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning Techniques on <span class="hlt">Doses</span> to the Skin and Shallow Targets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To investigate experimentally the impact of different head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning techniques on <span class="hlt">doses</span> to the skin and shallow targets. Methods and Materials: A semicylindrical phantom was constructed with micro-MOSFET dosimeters (Thomson-Nielson, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) at 0-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-mm depths. The planning target volume (PTV) was pulled back 0, 3, or 5 mm from the body contour. The IMRT plans were created to maximize PTV coverage, with one of the following strategies: (a) aim for a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> 110% hotspot, with 115% allowed; (b) aims for a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> 105% hotspot; (c) aims for a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> 105% hotspot and 50% of skin to get a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> 70% of the prescribed <span class="hlt">dose</span>; and (d) aim for 99% of the PTV volume to receive 90-93% of prescribed <span class="hlt">dose</span>, with a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> 105% hotspot, and with the <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the skin structure minimized. <span class="hlt">Doses</span> delivered using a linear accelerator were measured. Setup uncertainty was simulated by intentionally shifting the phantom in a range of {+-}8 mm, and calculating the delivered <span class="hlt">dose</span> for a range of systematic and random uncertainties. Results: From lowest to highest skin <span class="hlt">dose</span>, the planning strategies were in the order of c, d, b, and a, but c showed a tendency to underdose tissues at depth. Delivered <span class="hlt">doses</span> varied by 10-20%, depending on planning strategy. For typical setup uncertainties, cumulative <span class="hlt">dose</span> reduction to a <span class="hlt">point</span> 6 mm deep was <4%. Conclusions: It is useful to use skin as a sensitive structure, but a minimum <span class="hlt">dose</span> constraint must be used for the PTV if unwanted reductions in <span class="hlt">dose</span> to nodes near the body surface are to be avoided. Setup uncertainties are unlikely to give excessive reductions in cumulative <span class="hlt">dose</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber and Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: lcourt@lroc.harvard.edu; Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber and Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22058877"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors Associated With Chest Wall Toxicity After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-<span class="hlt">Dose</span>-Rate Brachytherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume relationships associated with a higher probability for developing chest wall toxicity (pain) after accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by using both single-lumen and multilumen brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Rib <span class="hlt">dose</span> data were available for 89 patients treated with APBI and were correlated with the development of chest wall/rib pain at any <span class="hlt">point</span> after treatment. Ribs were contoured on computed tomography planning scans, and rib <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume histograms (DVH) along with histograms for other structures were constructed. Rib DVH data for all patients were sampled at all volumes {>=}0.008 cubic centimeter (cc) (for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> related to pain) and at volumes of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 cc for analysis. Rib pain was evaluated at each follow-up visit. Patient responses were marked as yes or no. No attempt was made to grade responses. Eighty-nine responses were available for this analysis. Results: Nineteen patients (21.3%) complained of transient chest wall/rib pain at any <span class="hlt">point</span> in follow-up. Analysis showed a direct correlation between total <span class="hlt">dose</span> received and volume of rib irradiated with the probability of developing rib/chest wall pain at any <span class="hlt">point</span> after follow-up. The median <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> at volumes {>=}0.008 cc of rib in patients who experienced chest wall pain was 132% of the prescribed <span class="hlt">dose</span> versus 95% of the prescribed <span class="hlt">dose</span> in those patients who did not experience pain (p = 0.0035). Conclusions: Although the incidence of chest wall/rib pain is quite low with APBI brachytherapy, attempts should be made to keep the volume of rib irradiated at a minimum and the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> received by the chest wall as low as reasonably achievable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, Sheree, E-mail: shereedst32@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, WellStar Kennestone Hospital, Marietta, Georgia (United States); Vicini, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Vanapalli, Jyotsna R.; Whitaker, Thomas J.; Pope, D. Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, WellStar Kennestone Hospital, Marietta, Georgia (United States); Lyden, Maureen [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, Florida (United States); Bruggeman, Lisa; Haile, Kenneth L.; McLaughlin, Mark P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, WellStar Kennestone Hospital, Marietta, Georgia (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_12 div --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvL.109j5702L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Velocities in Avalanches Near the Depinning Transition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report exact predictions for universal scaling exponents and scaling functions associated with the distribution of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> collective avalanche propagation velocities vm in the mean field theory of the interface depinning transition. We derive the extreme value distribution P(vm|T) for the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> velocities in avalanches of fixed duration T and verify the results by numerical simulation near the critical <span class="hlt">point</span>. We find that the tail of the distribution of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> velocity for an arbitrary avalanche duration, vm, scales as P(vm)˜vm-2 for large vm. These results account for the observed power-law distribution of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> amplitudes in acoustic emission experiments of crystal plasticity and are also broadly applicable to other systems in the mean-field interface depinning universality class, ranging from magnets to earthquakes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LeBlanc, Michael; Angheluta, Luiza; Dahmen, Karin; Goldenfeld, Nigel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11444515"> <span id="translatedtitle">Independent <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculations for the corvus MLC IMRT.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two independent <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation methods have been explored to validate MLC-based IMRT plans from the NOMOS CORVUS system. After the plan is generated on the CORVUS planning system, the beam parameters are imported into an independent workstation. The beam parameters consist of intensity maps at each gantry angle. In addition, CT scans of the patient are imported into the independent workstation to obtain the external contour of the patient. The coordinate system is defined relative to the alignment <span class="hlt">point</span> chosen in the CORVUS plan. The 2 independent calculation methods are based on a pencil beam kernel convolution and a Clarkson-type differential scatter summation, respectively. The pencil beam data for a 1 x 1-cm beam, as formed by the multileaf collimator, were measured for the 6-MV photon beam from a Siemens PRIMUS linear accelerator using film dosimetry. In the pencil beam method, the <span class="hlt">dose</span> at a <span class="hlt">point</span> is calculated using the depth and off-axis distance from a given pencil beam, corrected for beam intensity. The scatter summation method used the conversion of measured depth <span class="hlt">dose</span> data into scatter <span class="hlt">maximum</span> ratios. In this method, the differential scatter from each pencil beam is corrected for the beam intensity. Isodose distributions were generated using the independent <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculations and compared to the CORVUS plans. Although isodose distributions from both methods show good agreement with the CORVUS plan, our implementation of the differential scatter summation approach seems more favorable. The 2 independent <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation algorithms are described in this paper. PMID:11444515</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ayyangar, K M; Nizin, P S; Saw, C B; Gearheart, D; Shen, B; Enke, C A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bdort-prt.net/5FactorsBDORTManuscriptARCHIVEJuly08WebVersion.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quick Organ Diagnosis and Treatment according to Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Measurements of Current <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Potential Relative Function, Relative Amount of Telomere and Acetylcholine, and Circulatory Disturbance on Organ Representation <span class="hlt">Points</span>: Comparison with Palpation Diagnosis of Pressure Pain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study aimed to find the factors that could be measured with the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test on an internal organ representation <span class="hlt">point</span> (ORP) that would integrate with the diagnosis of palpable reflexive pressure pain (PP) on the ORP and on other related locations on the body often used in some acupuncture (AP) systems. The basic BDORT of function and the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard Malter; Dip Shiatsu; Cert Dry Needling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005homm.book.1851C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Point</span> Defects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Point</span> defects are pervasive. They are present in all materials, as a result of the intrinsic thermodynamic equilibrium and of the inevitable levels of impurities. Indeed, elementary chemical thermodynamics shows that if a defect formation reaction (e.g., Frenkel or Schottky formation as discussed below) is associated with a free energy gD, then the equilibrium mole fraction, xD, of defects is given by: x_D = exp ( { - {g_D }/{{nkT} ), where n is the number of defects created in the defect formation process. The equation shows that xd > 0 for T > 0, and also demonstrates that properties dependent on defects will show "Arrhenius"-like temperature dependence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Catlow, C. R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1073..252B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Principle for Transportation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bilich, F.; Dasilva, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAG....88..154F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-depth to potential field sources by a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> structural index method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple and fast determination of the limiting depth to the sources may represent a significant help to the data interpretation. To this end we explore the possibility of determining those source parameters shared by all the classes of models fitting the data. One approach is to determine the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> depth-to-source compatible with the measured data, by using for example the well-known Bott-Smith rules. These rules involve only the knowledge of the field and its horizontal gradient maxima, and are independent from the density contrast.Thanks to the direct relationship between structural index and depth to sources we work out a simple and fast strategy to obtain the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> depth by using the semi-automated methods, such as Euler deconvolution or depth-from-extreme-<span class="hlt">points</span> method (DEXP).The proposed method consists in estimating the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> depth as the one obtained for the highest allowable value of the structural index (Nmax). Nmax may be easily determined, since it depends only on the dimensionality of the problem (2D/3D) and on the nature of the analyzed field (e.g., gravity field or magnetic field). We tested our approach on synthetic models against the results obtained by the classical Bott-Smith formulas and the results are in fact very similar, confirming the validity of this method. However, while Bott-Smith formulas are restricted to the gravity field only, our method is applicable also to the magnetic field and to any derivative of the gravity and magnetic field. Our method yields a useful criterion to assess the source model based on the (?f/?x)max/fmax ratio.The usefulness of the method in real cases is demonstrated for a salt wall in the Mississippi basin, where the estimation of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> depth agrees with the seismic information.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fedi, M.; Florio, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20853463"> <span id="translatedtitle">A theoretical approach to the problem of <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume constraint estimation and their impact on the <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume histogram selection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper outlines a theoretical approach to the problem of estimating and choosing <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume constraints. Following this approach, a method of choosing <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume constraints based on biological criteria is proposed. This method is called ''reverse normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) mapping into <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume space'' and may be used as a general guidance to the problem of <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume constraint estimation. <span class="hlt">Dose</span>-volume histograms (DVHs) are randomly simulated, and those resulting in clinically acceptable levels of complication, such as NTCP of 5{+-}0.5%, are selected and averaged producing a mean DVH that is proven to result in the same level of NTCP. The <span class="hlt">points</span> from the averaged DVH are proposed to serve as physical <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume constraints. The population-based critical volume and Lyman NTCP models with parameter sets taken from literature sources were used for the NTCP estimation. The impact of the prescribed value of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the organ, D{sub max}, on the averaged DVH and the <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume constraint <span class="hlt">points</span> is investigated. Constraint <span class="hlt">points</span> for 16 organs are calculated. The impact of the number of constraints to be fulfilled based on the likelihood that a DVH satisfying them will result in an acceptable NTCP is also investigated. It is theoretically proven that the radiation treatment optimization based on physical objective functions can sufficiently well restrict the <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the organs at risk, resulting in sufficiently low NTCP values through the employment of several appropriate <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume constraints. At the same time, the pure physical approach to optimization is self-restrictive due to the preassignment of acceptable NTCP levels thus excluding possible better solutions to the problem.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schinkel, Colleen; Stavrev, Pavel; Stavreva, Nadia; Fallone, B. Gino [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, and Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Oncology, University of Alberta, and Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G1Z2 (Canada)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24125978"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetric impact of Acuros XB <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation algorithm in prostate cancer treatment using RapidArc.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the dosimetric impact of Acuros XB <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation algorithm (AXB), in comparisons with Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) calculations in prostate cancer treatment using RapidArc. Materials and Methods: A computed tomography (CT) dataset of low-risk prostate cancer patients treated at Arizona Center for Cancer Care was selected and contoured for prostate, seminal vesicles, and organs at risk (OARs)(rectum, bladder, and femur heads). Plans were created for 6 MV photon beam using RapidArc technique in Eclipse treatment planning system. <span class="hlt">Dose</span> calculations were performed with AAA and AXB for same number of monitor units and identical beam setup. Mean and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">doses</span> to planning target volume (PTV) and OARs were analyzed. Additionally, minimum <span class="hlt">dose</span> to PTV and V100 was analyzed. Finally, <span class="hlt">point-dose</span> difference between planar <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions of AAA and AXB plans was investigated. Results: The highest <span class="hlt">dose</span> difference was up to 0.43% (range: 0.05-0.43%, P> 0.05) for PTV and 1.98% (range: 0.22-1.98%, P> 0.05) for OARs with AAA predicting higher <span class="hlt">dose</span> than AXB. The V100 values of AAA plans (95 %) and AXB plans (range: 93.1-97.9 %) had an average difference of 0.89±1.47% with no statistical significance (P = 0.25411). The <span class="hlt">point-dose</span> difference analysis showed that AAA predicted higher <span class="hlt">dose</span> than AXB at significantly higher percentage (in average 94.15) of total evaluated <span class="hlt">points</span>. Conclusion: The dosimetric results of this study suggest that the AXB can perform the <span class="hlt">dose</span> computation comparable to AAA in RapidArc prostate cancer treatment plans that are generated by a partial single-arc technique. PMID:24125978</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rana, Suresh; Rogers, Kevin; Lee, Terry; Reed, Daniel; Biggs, Christopher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23318389"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of organ <span class="hlt">doses</span> from breast cancer radiotherapy: a Monte Carlo study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current study aimed to: a) utilize Monte Carlo simulation methods for the assessment of radiation <span class="hlt">doses</span> imparted to all organs at risk to develop secondary radiation induced cancer, for patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer; and b) evaluate the effect of breast size on <span class="hlt">dose</span> to organs outside the irradiation field. A simulated linear accelerator model was generated. The in-field accuracy of the simulated photon beam properties was verified against percentage depth <span class="hlt">dose</span> (PDD) and <span class="hlt">dose</span> profile measurements on an actual water phantom. Off-axis <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculations were verified with thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements on a humanoid physical phantom. An anthropomorphic mathematical phantom was used to simulate breast cancer radiotherapy with medial and lateral fields. The effect of breast size on the calculated organ <span class="hlt">dose</span> was investigated. Local differences between measured and calculated PDDs and <span class="hlt">dose</span> profiles did not exceed 2% for the <span class="hlt">points</span> at depths beyond the depth of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> and the plateau region of the profile, respectively. For the penumbral regions of the <span class="hlt">dose</span> profiles, the distance to agreement (DTA) did not exceed 2 mm. The mean difference between calculated out-of-field <span class="hlt">doses</span> and TLD measurements was 11.4% ± 5.9%. The calculated <span class="hlt">doses</span> to peripheral organs ranged from 2.32 cGy up to 161.41 cGy depending on breast size and thus the field dimensions applied, as well as the proximity of the organs to the primary beam. An increase to the therapeutic field area by 50% to account for the large breast led to a mean organ <span class="hlt">dose</span> elevation by up to 85.2% for lateral exposure. The contralateral breast <span class="hlt">dose</span> ranged between 1.4% and 1.6% of the prescribed <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the tumor. Breast size affects <span class="hlt">dose</span> deposition substantially. PMID:23318389</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berris, Theocharis; Mazonakis, Michael; Stratakis, John; Tzedakis, Antonios; Fasoulaki, Anastasia; Damilakis, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE99613666"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topics in Bayesian statistics and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Notions of Bayesian decision theory and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Mutihac A. Cicuttin A. Cerdeira C. Stanciulescu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8001E...2M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lighting spectra for the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> colorfulness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The advent of modern solid-state sources enabled almost any spectrum for lighting and a wide range of possibilities in color rendering. The quality of the lighting has been typically evaluated by the color rendering index which measures how much the colors of objects illuminated by the light under test look similar to those produced when the objects are illuminated by the daylight or a conventional incandescent light. On the other hand, how colorful or vivid the colors under the illumination are perceived is also an important quality to evaluate lighting. We investigated, computationally, the spectral profiles of the illumination that maximizes the theoretical limit of the perceivable object colors. A large number of metamers with various degree of smoothness were generated using the Schmitt's elements method at chromaticity <span class="hlt">points</span> on and around the Planckian locus ranging from 2,222 K to 20,000 K. The general color rendering index (CRI) and MacAdam volumes in CIELAB color space were calculated for each metamer. The metamers maximizing the CRI had smoother spectra than the metamers maximizing the MacAdam volume. These results show that <span class="hlt">maximum</span> colorfulness in nature can only be obtained with spectrally non-smooth illumination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masuda, Osamu; Linhares, João M. M.; Felgueiras, Paulo E. R.; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22831774"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mammography segmentation with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood active contours.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a computer-aided approach to segmenting suspicious lesions in digital mammograms, based on a novel <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood active contour model using level sets (MLACMLS). The algorithm estimates the segmentation contour that best separates the lesion from the background using the Gamma distribution to model the intensity of both regions (foreground and background). The Gamma distribution parameters are estimated by the algorithm. We evaluate the performance of MLACMLS on real mammographic images. Our results are compared to those of two leading related methods: The adaptive level set-based segmentation method (ALSSM) and the spiculation segmentation using level sets (SSLS) approach, and show higher segmentation accuracy (MLACMLS: 86.85% vs. ALSSM: 74.32% and SSLS: 57.11%). Moreover, our results are qualitatively compared with those of the Active Contour Without Edge (ACWOE) and show a better performance. Further, the suitability of using ML as the objective function as opposed to the KL divergence and to the energy functional of the ACWOE is also demonstrated. Our algorithm is also shown to be robust to the selection of a required single seed <span class="hlt">point</span>. PMID:22831774</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rahmati, Peyman; Adler, Andy; Hamarneh, Ghassan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ascl.soft12012N"> <span id="translatedtitle">CORA: Emission Line Fitting with <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed <span class="hlt">point</span> equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59170772"> <span id="translatedtitle">A randomized, multicenter trial of weight-adjusted intravenous heparin <span class="hlt">dose</span> titration and <span class="hlt">point</span>-of-care coagulation monitoring in hospitalized patients with active thromboembolic disease. Antithrombotic Therapy Consortium Investigators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Therapy with intravenous unfractionated heparin improves clinical outcome in patients with active thromboembolic disease, but achieving and maintaining a therapeutic level of anticoagulation remains a major challenge for clinicians.\\u000aMETHODS: A total of 113 patients requiring heparin for at least 48 hours were randomly assigned at 7 medical centers to either weight-adjusted or non-weight-adjusted <span class="hlt">dose</span> titration. They were separately</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard C. Becker; Steven P. Ball; Paul Eisenberg; Steven Borzak; A. Christian Held; Frederick A. Spencer; Stephen J. Voyce; Robert Jesse; Robert C. Hendel; Yunsheng Ma; Thomas G. Hurley; James R. Hebert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol1-sec229-48.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">20 CFR 229.48 - Family <span class="hlt">maximum</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family <span class="hlt">maximum</span>. 229.48 Section 229.48 Employees...Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family <span class="hlt">maximum</span>. (a) Family <span class="hlt">maximum</span> defined. Under the Social...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3623350"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Effect of a Supratherapeutic <span class="hlt">Dose</span> of Intravenous Ceftaroline Fosamil on the Corrected QT Interval</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period crossover study was conducted in 54 healthy adults to assess the effect of ceftaroline fosamil on the corrected QT (QTc) interval. The QT interval, corrected for heart rate using an individual correction formula (QTcIb), was determined predose and at 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24.5 h after intravenous <span class="hlt">dosing</span> with a supratherapeutic <span class="hlt">dose</span> (1,500 mg) of ceftaroline fosamil, 400 mg moxifloxacin (positive control), and placebo. The pharmacokinetic profile of ceftaroline was also evaluated. At each time <span class="hlt">point</span> following ceftaroline fosamil administration, the upper limit of the 90% confidence interval (CI) for the placebo-corrected change from predose baseline in QTcIb (??QTcIb) was below 10 ms (<span class="hlt">maximum</span>, 3.4 ms at 1.5 h after <span class="hlt">dosing</span>), indicating an absence of clinically meaningful QTc increase. The lower limit of the 90% CI of ??QTcIb for moxifloxacin versus placebo was greater than 5 ms at 5 time <span class="hlt">points</span> (<span class="hlt">maximum</span>, 12.8 ms at 1 h after <span class="hlt">dosing</span>), demonstrating assay sensitivity. There was no apparent correlation between ceftaroline plasma concentrations and ??QTcIb. The supratherapeutic <span class="hlt">dose</span> of ceftaroline fosamil (1,500 mg) resulted in substantially greater systemic exposure to ceftaroline than previously observed with standard therapeutic <span class="hlt">doses</span>. Ceftaroline fosamil was well tolerated after a single 1,500-mg intravenous <span class="hlt">dose</span>, and no clinically meaningful abnormalities in laboratory values or vital signs were observed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rekeda, Ludmyla; Rank, Douglas; Llorens, Lily</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981AdSpR...1..275T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Mission Experiment - Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry on the Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Mission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Mission spacecraft is described. It is <span class="hlt">pointed</span> out that the instrument, which operates in the wavelength range 1150-3600 A, has a spatial resolution of 2-3 arcsec and a spectral resolution of 0.02 A FWHM in second order. A Gregorian telescope, with a focal length of 1.8 m, feeds a 1 m Ebert-Fastie spectrometer. A polarimeter comprising rotating Mg F2 waveplates can be inserted behind the spectrometer entrance slit; it permits all four Stokes parameters to be determined. Among the observing modes are rasters, spectral scans, velocity measurements, and polarimetry. Examples of initial observations made since launch are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Cheng, C. C.; Woodgate, B. E.; Brandt, J. C.; Chapman, R. D.; Athay, R. G.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, E. C.; Gurman, J. B.; Hyder, C. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22095294"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dose</span> calculation with respiration-averaged CT processed from cine CT without a respiratory surrogate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Dose</span> calculation for thoracic radiotherapy is commonly performed on a free-breathing helical CT despite artifacts caused by respiratory motion. Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) is one method to incorporate motion information into the treatment planning process. Some centers now use the respiration-averaged CT (RACT), the pixel-by-pixel average of the ten phases of 4D-CT, for <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation. This method, while sparing the tedious task of 4D <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation, still requires 4D-CT technology. The authors have recently developed a means to reconstruct RACT directly from unsorted cine CT data from which 4D-CT is formed, bypassing the need for a respiratory surrogate. Using RACT from cine CT for <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation may be a means to incorporate motion information into <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation without performing 4D-CT. The purpose of this study was to determine if RACT from cine CT can be substituted for RACT from 4D-CT for the purposes of <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation, and if increasing the cine duration can decrease differences between the <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions. Cine CT data and corresponding 4D-CT simulations for 23 patients with at least two breathing cycles per cine duration were retrieved. RACT was generated four ways: First from ten phases of 4D-CT, second, from 1 breathing cycle of images, third, from 1.5 breathing cycles of images, and fourth, from 2 breathing cycles of images. The clinical treatment plan was transferred to each RACT and <span class="hlt">dose</span> was recalculated. <span class="hlt">Dose</span> planes were exported at orthogonal planes through the isocenter (coronal, sagittal, and transverse orientations). The resulting <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions were compared using the gamma ({gamma}) index within the planning target volume (PTV). Failure criteria were set to 2%/1 mm. A follow-up study with 50 additional lung cancer patients was performed to increase sample size. The same <span class="hlt">dose</span> recalculation and analysis was performed. In the primary patient group, 22 of 23 patients had 100% of <span class="hlt">points</span> within the PTV pass {gamma} criteria. The average <span class="hlt">maximum</span> and mean {gamma} indices were very low (well below 1), indicating good agreement between <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions. Increasing the cine duration generally increased the <span class="hlt">dose</span> agreement. In the follow-up study, 49 of 50 patients had 100% of <span class="hlt">points</span> within the PTV pass the {gamma} criteria. The average <span class="hlt">maximum</span> and mean {gamma} indices were again well below 1, indicating good agreement. <span class="hlt">Dose</span> calculation on RACT from cine CT is negligibly different from <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation on RACT from 4D-CT. Differences can be decreased further by increasing the cine duration of the cine CT scan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riegel, Adam C.; Ahmad, Moiz; Sun Xiaojun; Pan Tinsu [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2156701"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span>-likelihood estimation of circle parameters via convolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The accurate fitting of a circle to noisy measurements of circ umferential <span class="hlt">points</span> is a much studied problem in the literature. In this paper, we present an interpretati on of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood estimator (MLE) and the DELOGNE-K ? ASA estimator (DKE) for circle-centre and radius estimation in terms of convolution on an image which is ideal in a certain sense.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emanuel E. Zelniker; Vaughan Clarkson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044863"> <span id="translatedtitle">2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored <span class="hlt">Point</span> Sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored <span class="hlt">Point</span> Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each <span class="hlt">point</span> source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored <span class="hlt">point</span> sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on <span class="hlt">point</span> sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored <span class="hlt">point</span> sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored <span class="hlt">point</span> sources. This usage survey includes the following release <span class="hlt">points</span>: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release <span class="hlt">points</span> identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release <span class="hlt">points</span> as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored <span class="hlt">point</span> sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and <span class="hlt">dose</span> for these <span class="hlt">point</span> sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are organized. The RMUS Interview Form with the attached RMUS Process Form(s) provides the radioactive materials survey data by technical area (TA) and building number. The survey data for each release <span class="hlt">point</span> includes information such as: exhaust stack identification number, room number, radioactive material source type (i.e., potential source or future potential source of air emissions), radionuclide, usage (in curies) and usage basis, physical state (gas, liquid, particulate, solid, or custom), release fraction (from Appendix D to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H), and process descriptions. In addition, the interview form also calculates emissions (in curies), lists mrem/Ci factors, calculates PEDEs, and states the location of the critical receptor for that release <span class="hlt">point</span>. [The critical receptor is the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> exposed off-site member of the public, specific to each individual facility.] Each of these data fields is described in this section. The Tier classification of release <span class="hlt">points</span>, which was first introduced with the 1999 usage survey, is also described in detail in this section. Section 4 includes a brief discussion of the <span class="hlt">dose</span> estimate methodology, and includes a discussion of several release <span class="hlt">points</span> of particular interest in the CY 2011 usage survey report. It also includes a table of the calculated PEDEs for each release <span class="hlt">point</span> at its critical receptor. Section 5 describes ES's approach to Quality Assurance (QA) for the usage survey. Satisfactory completion of the survey requires that team members responsible for Rad-NESHAP (National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) compliance accurately collect and process several types of information, including radioactive materials usage data, process information, and supporting information. They must also perform and document the QA reviews outlined in Section 5.2.6 (Process Verification and Peer Review) of ES-RN, 'Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Rad-NESHAP Compliance Project' to verify that all information is complete and correct.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_13 div --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40028731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Receiver function estimated by <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy deconvolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy as the rule to determine\\u000a auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative\\u000a formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient\\u000a is always less than 1, which keeps <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy deconvolution stable. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qing-Ju Wu; Xiao-Bo Tian; Nai-Ling Zhang; Wei-Ping Li; Rong-Sheng Zeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7164E...5A"> <span id="translatedtitle">A heterogeneous algorithm for PDT <span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization for prostate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The object of this study is to develop optimization procedures that account for both the optical heterogeneity as well as photosensitizer (PS) drug distribution of the patient prostate and thereby enable delivery of uniform photodynamic <span class="hlt">dose</span> to that gland. We use the heterogeneous optical properties measured for a patient prostate to calculate a light fluence kernel (table). PS distribution is then multiplied with the light fluence kernel to form the PDT <span class="hlt">dose</span> kernel. The Cimmino feasibility algorithm, which is fast, linear, and always converges reliably, is applied as a search tool to choose the weights of the light sources to optimize PDT <span class="hlt">dose</span>. <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> and minimum PDT <span class="hlt">dose</span> limits chosen for sample <span class="hlt">points</span> in the prostate constrain the solution for the source strengths of the cylindrical diffuser fibers (CDF). We tested the Cimmino optimization procedures using the light fluence kernel generated for heterogeneous optical properties, and compared the optimized treatment plans with those obtained using homogeneous optical properties. To study how different photosensitizer distributions in the prostate affect optimization, comparisons of light fluence rate and PDT <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions were made with three distributions of photosensitizer: uniform, linear spatial distribution, and the measured PS distribution. The study shows that optimization of individual light source positions and intensities are feasible for the heterogeneous prostate during PDT.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Altschuler, Martin D.; Zhu, Timothy C.; Hu, Yida; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Wang, Ken; Li, Jun; Cengel, Keith; Malkowicz, S. B.; Hahn, Stephen M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1041521"> <span id="translatedtitle">PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING <span class="hlt">DOSE</span> RATE MEASUREMENTS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> allowed <span class="hlt">dose</span> rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable <span class="hlt">dose</span> rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify <span class="hlt">dose</span> rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any <span class="hlt">point</span> on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the <span class="hlt">dose</span> rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the <span class="hlt">dose</span> rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21124401"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Radiation <span class="hlt">Dose</span>-Response of the Human Spinal Cord</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To characterize the radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response of the human spinal cord. Methods and Materials: Because no single institution has sufficient data to establish a <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response function for the human spinal cord, published reports were combined. Requisite data were <span class="hlt">dose</span> and fractionation, number of patients at risk, number of myelopathy cases, and survival experience of the population. Eight data <span class="hlt">points</span> for cervical myelopathy were obtained from five reports. Using <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimation correcting for the survival experience of the population, estimates were obtained for the median tolerance <span class="hlt">dose</span>, slope parameter, and {alpha}/{beta} ratio in a logistic <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response function. An adequate fit to thoracic data was not possible. Hyperbaric oxygen treatments involving the cervical cord were also analyzed. Results: The estimate of the median tolerance <span class="hlt">dose</span> (cervical cord) was 69.4 Gy (95% confidence interval, 66.4-72.6). The {alpha}/{beta} = 0.87 Gy. At 45 Gy, the (extrapolated) probability of myelopathy is 0.03%; and at 50 Gy, 0.2%. The <span class="hlt">dose</span> for a 5% myelopathy rate is 59.3 Gy. Graphical analysis indicates that the sensitivity of the thoracic cord is less than that of the cervical cord. There appears to be a sensitizing effect from hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Conclusions: The estimate of {alpha}/{beta} is smaller than usually quoted, but values this small were found in some studies. Using {alpha}/{beta} = 0.87 Gy, one would expect a considerable advantage by decreasing the <span class="hlt">dose</span>/fraction to less than 2 Gy. These results were obtained from only single fractions/day and should not be applied uncritically to hyperfractionation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schultheiss, Timothy E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, CA (United States)], E-mail: schultheiss@coh.org</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7383E.167X"> <span id="translatedtitle">"Hedgehog <span class="hlt">Point</span>" feature <span class="hlt">point</span> matching based on <span class="hlt">point</span> structure information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on <span class="hlt">points</span> structure information, this paper presents a new method called "hedgehog <span class="hlt">point</span>" matching, a fast algorithm for <span class="hlt">point</span> pattern matching is proposed to effectively solve the problems of optimal matches between two <span class="hlt">point</span> pattern under geometrical transformation and correctly identify the missing or spurious <span class="hlt">points</span> of patterns. Theorems and algorithms are developed to determine the matching pairs support of each <span class="hlt">point</span> pair and its transformation parameters (scaling S and rotation ?) on a two-parameter space (S, ?). Experiments are conducted both on real and synthetic data. The experimental results show that the proposed matching algorithm can handle translation, rotation, and scaling differences under noisy or distorted condition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Yi-Dan; Zhu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Qi-Feng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/654870"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motion from <span class="hlt">point</span> matches: multiplicity of solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, we study the multiplicity of solutions of the motion problem. Given n <span class="hlt">point</span> matches between two frames, how many solutions are there to the motion problem ? we show that the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> number of solutions is 10 when five <span class="hlt">point</span> matches are available. This settles a question which has been around in the Computer Vision community for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olivier D. Faugeras; Stephen J. Maybank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2084318"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motion from <span class="hlt">point</span> matches: Multiplicity of solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we study the multiplicity of solutions of the motion problem. Given n <span class="hlt">point</span> matches between two frames, how many solutions are there to the motion problem? We show that the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> number of solutions is 10 when 5 <span class="hlt">point</span> matches are available. This settles a question that has been around in the computer vision community for a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olivier D. Faugeras; Stephen J. Maybank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/218340"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variable-correction truncated floating <span class="hlt">point</span> multipliers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">About half the hardware for floating <span class="hlt">point</span> multipliers is needed only to guarantee correctly rounded results. For multimedia, graphics, and DSP systems, a significant reduction in area, delay, and power can be achieved by producing results that are not correctly rounded. This paper presents an efficient method for designing variable-correction truncated floating <span class="hlt">point</span> multipliers that produce results with a <span class="hlt">maximum</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kent E. Wires; Michael J. Schulte; James E. Stine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6400465"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bright <span class="hlt">point</span> study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transition region and coronal observations of bright <span class="hlt">points</span> by instruments aboard the Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright <span class="hlt">points</span> and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23479401"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dose</span> verification of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by use of in-treatment linac parameters.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Linac parameters such as the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) position and jaw position, cumulative monitor units (MUs), and the corresponding gantry angle were recorded during the clinical delivery of volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate, lung, and head/neck cancer patients. Then, linac parameters were converted into the beam-data format used in the treatment planning system, and the <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution was reconstructed. The <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume histogram and the <span class="hlt">dose</span> difference (DD) were compared with the corresponding values in the treatment plan. A reproducible error of in-treatment linac parameters was observed when a sudden change of beam intensity or MLC/jaw speed occurred. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> cumulative MU error was more than 4 MU for lung cancer cases, and the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> MLC position exceeded 5 mm for prostate and head/neck cancer patients. However, these errors were quickly compensated for at the next control <span class="hlt">point</span>. All treatments analyzed in the present study were delivered within 0.4% accuracy at the planning target volume. The cumulative <span class="hlt">dose</span> agreed with that of the plan within 3% of the prescribed <span class="hlt">dose</span>. The 1% DD was 93.9, 99.9, and 93.4% of the prescription <span class="hlt">dose</span> for prostate, lung, and head/neck cancer patients, respectively. PMID:23479401</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haga, Akihiro; Sakumi, Akira; Okano, Yukari; Itoh, Saori; Saotome, Naoya; Kida, Satoshi; Igaki, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Yamashita, Hideomi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol34-sec1039-140.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 1039.140 - What is my engine's <span class="hlt">maximum</span> engine power?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements ...power <span class="hlt">point</span> on the nominal power curve for the engine configuration... (b) The nominal power curve of an engine configuration...also be expressed by a torque curve that relates <span class="hlt">maximum</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol34-sec1051-140.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's <span class="hlt">maximum</span> engine power and displacement?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements ...power <span class="hlt">point</span> on the nominal power curve for the engine configuration...kilowatts. The nominal power curve of an engine configuration...also be expressed by a torque curve that relates <span class="hlt">maximum</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2009-title49-vol2-sec107-329.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 107.329 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> penalties.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $100,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $450 civil penalty applies to a violation...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $100,000 if the violation results in death, serious...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol2-sec107-329.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 107.329 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> penalties.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol2-sec107-329.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 107.329 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> penalties.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol2-sec107-329.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 107.329 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> penalties.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16316934"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAXIMUM</span> LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR GENERALISED LOGISTIC DISTRIBUTIONS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> likelihood estimation for the type I generalised logistic distributions is investigated. We show that the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimation usually exists, except when the so-called embedded model problem occurs. A full set of embedded distributions is derived, including Gumbel distribution and a two-parameter reciprocal exponential distribution. Properties relating the embedded distributions are given. We also provide criteria to determine when</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quanxi Shao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJMPE..2230018C"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Mass of Neutron Stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the most intriguing questions about neutron stars concerns their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> mass. The answer is intimately related to the properties of matter at densities far beyond that found in heavy atomic nuclei. The current view on the internal constitution of neutron stars and on their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> mass, both from theoretical and observational studies, are briefly reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chamel, N.; Haensel, P.; Zdunik, J. L.; Fantina, A. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52792935"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lift modulation for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> endurance planetary entry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optimal lift modulation for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> endurance planetary entry trajectories of Shuttle type vehicles is investigated. The force field of the planet is considered Newtonian, and the atmosphere is assumed to be exponential. Motion is confined to the plane of a great circle to obtain <span class="hlt">maximum</span> endurance, and a set of dimensionless variables and a normalized lift coefficient are used to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C.-Y. Yang; J.-S. Chern</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18657985"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAXIMUM</span> NOISE LEVELS IN CITY TRAFFIC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Manual and automatic noise measurements were made along 13 streets in Gothenburg, Sweden to explore sources of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> noise levels. Noise from different types of vehicles driven in a realistic way in inner city traffic was measured. In summary, the results show that the most important vehicle component as regards the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> noise level in inner city traffic was a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Bjorkman; R. Rylander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_14 div --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.unites.uqam.ca/eco/CREFE/cahiers/cah100.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Costly Sanctions and the <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Penalty Principle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the problem of deterring undesirable behavior in a moral hazard framework with risk averse individuals, noisy information and costly sanctions. We find that, if sanctions are a pure loss, a utilitarian society should use a bang-bang penalty scheme satisfying the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> penalty principle. If sanctions are monetary but imposing sanctions involves a sufficiently large resource cost, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dominique Demougin; Claude Fluet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cmss.monash.edu.au/assets/files/Miller-E9.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Principle for Singular Stochastic Control Problems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, an optimal singular stochastic control problem is considered. For this model, it is obtained a general stochastic <span class="hlt">maximum</span> principle by using a time transformation. This is the first version of the stochastic <span class="hlt">maximum</span> principle that covers the singular control problem in the nonlinear case.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Dufour; Boris M. Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57641288"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood Estimation with the Weibull Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some of the questions concerning the uniqueness of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimates for the parameters in the Weibull distribution are considered for both censored and noncensored samples. In some cases answers previously known are reviewed, while new results are presented for some other cases. In particular, it is shown that with the shape parameter known, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimates of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Howard Rockette; Charles Antle; Lawrence A. Klimko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2151757"> <span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the <span class="hlt">Point</span> of Chimpanzee <span class="hlt">Pointing</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Pointing</span> has long been considered to be a uniquely human, universal, and biologically based gesture. However, <span class="hlt">pointing</span> emerges spontaneously, without explicit training, in captive chimpanzees. Because <span class="hlt">pointing</span> is commonplace in captive chimpanzees and virtually absent in wild chimpanzees, and because both captive and wild chimpanzees are sampled from the same gene pool, <span class="hlt">pointing</span> by captive apes is attributable to environmental influences on communicative development. If <span class="hlt">pointing</span> by captive chimpanzees is so variably expressed in different rearing environments, this suggests that <span class="hlt">pointing</span> by humans may also be attributable to situational factors that make <span class="hlt">pointing</span> effective in certain developmental contexts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leavens, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Bard, Kim A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19550358"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> visibility under unitary transformations in two-pinhole interference for electromagnetic fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In terms of the spectral density tensors associated with the electric field vector, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> visibility one can obtain in a two-<span class="hlt">point</span> interference arrangement by using local (i.e., position-dependent) unitary transformations applied at such <span class="hlt">points</span> is determined. It is also shown that the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> visibility can be expressed in terms of a number of well-known parameters describing the coherence and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosario Martínez-Herrero; Pedro M. Mejías</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14374048"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Point</span> Set Registration: Coherent <span class="hlt">Point</span> Drift</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Point</span> set registration is a key component in many computer vision tasks. The\\u000agoal of <span class="hlt">point</span> set registration is to assign correspondences between two sets of\\u000apoints and to recover the transformation that maps one <span class="hlt">point</span> set to the other.\\u000aMultiple factors, including an unknown non-rigid spatial transformation, large\\u000adimensionality of <span class="hlt">point</span> set, noise and outliers, make the <span class="hlt">point</span> set</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andriy Myronenko; Xubo B. Song</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50376516"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel method to estimate the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power for a photovoltaic inverter system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a novel method to approximate the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power for a photovoltaic inverter system for solar distributed generation. It is designed for power systems applications and utilities. The proposed method takes in consideration the interaction between solar panels, photovoltaic inverter, <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power <span class="hlt">point</span> tracking (MPPT) control, solar panel DC side dynamic model and the effective intensity of light</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. I. rtiz-Rivera; Fang Peng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21442516"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bias reduction in logistic <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response models.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In generalized linear models, such as the logistic regression model, <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimators are well known to be biased at smaller sample sizes. When the number of <span class="hlt">dose</span> levels or replications per <span class="hlt">dose</span> is small, bias in the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimates can lead to very misleading results and the model often fails to converge. In order to correct the bias present in the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimates and the problem of nonconvergence, the penalized <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimator is considered. Simulations compare the fit and empirical confidence levels of inferences made from the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood and penalized <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood based models. PMID:21442516</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wagler, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21180436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimized <span class="hlt">Dose</span> Distribution of Gammamed Plus Vaginal Cylinders</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in the female genital tract. Intracavitary vaginal cuff irradiation may be given alone or with external beam irradiation in patients determined to be at risk for locoregional recurrence. Vaginal cylinders are often used to deliver a brachytherapy <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the vaginal apex and upper vagina or the entire vaginal surface in the management of postoperative endometrial cancer or cervical cancer. The <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions of HDR vaginal cylinders must be evaluated carefully, so that clinical experiences with LDR techniques can be used in guiding optimal use of HDR techniques. The aim of this study was to optimize <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution for Gammamed plus vaginal cylinders. Placement of <span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization <span class="hlt">points</span> was evaluated for its effect on optimized <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions. Two different <span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization <span class="hlt">point</span> models were used in this study, namely non-apex (<span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization <span class="hlt">points</span> only on periphery of cylinder) and apex (<span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization <span class="hlt">points</span> on periphery and along the curvature including the apex <span class="hlt">points</span>). Thirteen dwell positions were used for the HDR dosimetry to obtain a 6-cm active length. Thus 13 optimization <span class="hlt">points</span> were available at the periphery of the cylinder. The coordinates of the <span class="hlt">points</span> along the curvature depended on the cylinder diameters and were chosen for each cylinder so that four <span class="hlt">points</span> were distributed evenly in the curvature portion of the cylinder. Diameter of vaginal cylinders varied from 2.0 to 4.0 cm. Iterative optimization routine was utilized for all optimizations. The effects of various optimization routines (iterative, geometric, equal times) was studied for the 3.0-cm diameter vaginal cylinder. The effect of source travel step size on the optimized <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions for vaginal cylinders was also evaluated. All optimizations in this study were carried for <span class="hlt">dose</span> of 6 Gy at <span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization <span class="hlt">points</span>. For both non-apex and apex models of vaginal cylinders, <span class="hlt">doses</span> for apex <span class="hlt">point</span> and three dome <span class="hlt">points</span> were higher for the apex model compared with the non-apex model. Mean <span class="hlt">doses</span> to the optimization <span class="hlt">points</span> for both the cylinder models and all the cylinder diameters were 6 Gy, matching with the prescription <span class="hlt">dose</span> of 6 Gy. Iterative optimization routine resulted in the highest <span class="hlt">dose</span> to apex <span class="hlt">point</span> and dome <span class="hlt">points</span>. The mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> for optimization <span class="hlt">point</span> was 6.01 Gy for iterative optimization and was much higher than 5.74 Gy for geometric and equal times routines. Step size of 1 cm gave the highest <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the apex <span class="hlt">point</span>. This step size was superior in terms of mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> to optimization <span class="hlt">points</span>. Selection of <span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization <span class="hlt">points</span> for the derivation of optimized <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions for vaginal cylinders affects the <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Supe, Sanjay S. [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)], E-mail: sanjayssupe@gmail.com; Bijina, T.K.; Varatharaj, C.; Shwetha, B.; Arunkumar, T.; Sathiyan, S.; Ganesh, K.M.; Ravikumar, M. [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19181251"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimized <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution of Gammamed plus vaginal cylinders.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in the female genital tract. Intracavitary vaginal cuff irradiation may be given alone or with external beam irradiation in patients determined to be at risk for locoregional recurrence. Vaginal cylinders are often used to deliver a brachytherapy <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the vaginal apex and upper vagina or the entire vaginal surface in the management of postoperative endometrial cancer or cervical cancer. The <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions of HDR vaginal cylinders must be evaluated carefully, so that clinical experiences with LDR techniques can be used in guiding optimal use of HDR techniques. The aim of this study was to optimize <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution for Gammamed plus vaginal cylinders. Placement of <span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization <span class="hlt">points</span> was evaluated for its effect on optimized <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions. Two different <span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization <span class="hlt">point</span> models were used in this study, namely non-apex (<span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization <span class="hlt">points</span> only on periphery of cylinder) and apex (<span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization <span class="hlt">points</span> on periphery and along the curvature including the apex <span class="hlt">points</span>). Thirteen dwell positions were used for the HDR dosimetry to obtain a 6-cm active length. Thus 13 optimization <span class="hlt">points</span> were available at the periphery of the cylinder. The coordinates of the <span class="hlt">points</span> along the curvature depended on the cylinder diameters and were chosen for each cylinder so that four <span class="hlt">points</span> were distributed evenly in the curvature portion of the cylinder. Diameter of vaginal cylinders varied from 2.0 to 4.0 cm. Iterative optimization routine was utilized for all optimizations. The effects of various optimization routines (iterative, geometric, equal times) was studied for the 3.0-cm diameter vaginal cylinder. The effect of source travel step size on the optimized <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions for vaginal cylinders was also evaluated. All optimizations in this study were carried for <span class="hlt">dose</span> of 6 Gy at <span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization <span class="hlt">points</span>. For both non-apex and apex models of vaginal cylinders, <span class="hlt">doses</span> for apex <span class="hlt">point</span> and three dome <span class="hlt">points</span> were higher for the apex model compared with the non-apex model. Mean <span class="hlt">doses</span> to the optimization <span class="hlt">points</span> for both the cylinder models and all the cylinder diameters were 6 Gy, matching with the prescription <span class="hlt">dose</span> of 6 Gy. Iterative optimization routine resulted in the highest <span class="hlt">dose</span> to apex <span class="hlt">point</span> and dome <span class="hlt">points</span>. The mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> for optimization <span class="hlt">point</span> was 6.01 Gy for iterative optimization and was much higher than 5.74 Gy for geometric and equal times routines. Step size of 1 cm gave the highest <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the apex <span class="hlt">point</span>. This step size was superior in terms of mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> to optimization <span class="hlt">points</span>. Selection of <span class="hlt">dose</span> optimization <span class="hlt">points</span> for the derivation of optimized <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions for vaginal cylinders affects the <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions. PMID:19181251</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Supe, Sanjay S; Bijina, T K; Varatharaj, C; Shwetha, B; Arunkumar, T; Sathiyan, S; Ganesh, K M; Ravikumar, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19394239"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary liver <span class="hlt">dose</span> estimation in the new facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a part of the project concerning the irradiation of a section of the human liver left lobe, a preliminary estimation of the expected <span class="hlt">dose</span> was performed. To obtain proper input values for the calculation, neutron flux and gamma <span class="hlt">dose</span> rate characterization were carried out using adequate portions of cow or pig liver covered with demineralized water simulating the preservation solution. Irradiations were done inside a container specially designed to fulfill temperature preservation of the organ and a reproducible irradiation position (which will be of importance for future planification purposes). Implantable rhodium based self-powered neutron detectors were developed to obtain neutron flux profiles both external and internal. Implantation of SPND was done along the central longitudinal axis of the samples, where lowest flux is expected. Gamma <span class="hlt">dose</span> rate was obtained using a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber moved along external surfaces of the samples. The internal neutron profile resulted uniform enough to allow for a single and static irradiation of the liver. For <span class="hlt">dose</span> estimation, irradiation condition was set in order to obtain a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. Additionally, literature reported boron concentrations of 47 ppm in tumor and 8 ppm in healthy tissue and a more conservative relationship (30/10 ppm) were used. To make a conservative estimation of the <span class="hlt">dose</span> the following considerations were done: i). Minimum measured neutron flux inside the sample (approximately 5 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1) was considered to calculate <span class="hlt">dose</span> in tumor. (ii). <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> measured neutron flux (considering both internal as external profiles) was used to calculate <span class="hlt">dose</span> in healthy tissue (approximately 8.7 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1). (iii). <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> measured gamma <span class="hlt">dose</span> rate (approximately 13.5 Gy h-1) was considered for both tumor and healthy tissue. Tumor tissue <span class="hlt">dose</span> was approximately 69 Gy-eq for 47 ppm of (10)B and approximately 42 Gy-eq for 30 ppm, for a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. As can be seen from these results, even for the most conservative case, minimum tumor <span class="hlt">dose</span> will be acceptable from the treatment <span class="hlt">point</span> of view, which shows that the irradiation conditions at this facility have quite good characteristics for the proposed irradiation. PMID:19394239</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gadan, M; Crawley, V; Thorp, S; Miller, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5252405"> <span id="translatedtitle">Real-Time Identification of Optimal Operating <span class="hlt">Points</span> in Photovoltaic Power Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photovoltaic power systems are usually integrated with some specific control algorithms to deliver the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> possible power. Several <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power <span class="hlt">point</span> tracking (MPPT) methods that force the operating <span class="hlt">point</span> to oscillate have been presented in the past few decades. In the MPPT system, the ideal operation is to determine the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power <span class="hlt">point</span> (MPP) of the photovoltaic (PV) array directly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weidong Xiao; Magnus G. J. Lind; William G. Dunford; Antoine Capel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PMB....57.3463L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental determination of the effective <span class="hlt">point</span> of measurement for cylindrical ionization chambers in 60Co gamma radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The displacement effect of cylindrical ionization chambers is taken into account either by an effective <span class="hlt">point</span> of measurement (EPOM) or, alternatively, by using a displacement perturbation factor. The dependence of these effects in water was examined as a function of the cavity radius using cylindrical chambers with different radii and a plane-parallel chamber, whose EPOM is well known. Depth-<span class="hlt">dose</span> curves were measured in terms of absolute absorbed <span class="hlt">dose</span> in water and evaluated according to the international protocol IAEA TRS-398 as well as the German protocol DIN 6800-2. As expected, evaluation of absorbed <span class="hlt">dose</span> under reference conditions following both protocols agreed well within a standard uncertainty of 0.1%. However, values of absorbed <span class="hlt">dose</span> at depths beyond the <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">maximum</span> showed deviations up to 0.3% and 0.5% for IAEA TRS-398 and DIN 6800-2, respectively. Values in the build-up and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> region did not agree very well. Deviations of more than 1% were found for both protocols. It was concluded that the corrections recommended in both protocols are not fully appropriate. A procedure is suggested to measure the absorbed depth-<span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution including the build-up region with an improved accuracy by means of cylindrical chambers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Legrand, C.; Hartmann, G. H.; Karger, C. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15112368"> <span id="translatedtitle">An annealed chaotic <span class="hlt">maximum</span> neural network for bipartite subgraph problem.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, based on <span class="hlt">maximum</span> neural network, we propose a new parallel algorithm that can help the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> neural network escape from local minima by including a transient chaotic neurodynamics for bipartite subgraph problem. The goal of the bipartite subgraph problem, which is an NP- complete problem, is to remove the minimum number of edges in a given graph such that the remaining graph is a bipartite graph. Lee et al. presented a parallel algorithm using the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> neural model (winner-take-all neuron model) for this NP- complete problem. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> neural model always guarantees a valid solution and greatly reduces the search space without a burden on the parameter-tuning. However, the model has a tendency to converge to a local minimum easily because it is based on the steepest descent method. By adding a negative self-feedback to the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> neural network, we proposed a new parallel algorithm that introduces richer and more flexible chaotic dynamics and can prevent the network from getting stuck at local minima. After the chaotic dynamics vanishes, the proposed algorithm is then fundamentally reined by the gradient descent dynamics and usually converges to a stable equilibrium <span class="hlt">point</span>. The proposed algorithm has the advantages of both the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> neural network and the chaotic neurodynamics. A large number of instances have been simulated to verify the proposed algorithm. The simulation results show that our algorithm finds the optimum or near-optimum solution for the bipartite subgraph problem superior to that of the best existing parallel algorithms. PMID:15112368</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Jiahai; Tang, Zheng; Wang, Ronglong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1745819"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systemic effects of formoterol and salmeterol: a <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response comparison in healthy subjects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND—The main adverse effects of inhaled long acting ?2 agonists relate to their systemic activity. The systemic effects seen over eight hours after inhalation of three <span class="hlt">doses</span> of salmeterol and formoterol were therefore compared in normal subjects.?METHODS—A double blind, randomised, crossover study was carried out in 16 healthy subjects who inhaled formoterol 24, 48 and 96 µg (via Turbuhaler®), salmeterol 100, 200 and 400 µg (via Diskhaler®), or placebo on separate days. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and plasma potassium and glucose concentrations were measured for eight hours following each drug and mean values were used to plot the time course of change after each <span class="hlt">dose</span>. Mean <span class="hlt">maximum</span> (or minimum) absolute values were used to construct <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response curves to calculate the relative <span class="hlt">dose</span> potency of the two drugs. Lunch was taken after the four hour readings and, since this caused additional changes to the main outcome measures, data from the first four hours are also presented in a post hoc analysis.?RESULTS—Both salmeterol and formoterol caused an early <span class="hlt">dose</span> dependent increase in heart rate and glucose concentrations and a fall in diastolic blood pressure and plasma potassium concentration; formoterol also caused an early increase in systolic blood pressure. The cardiovascular effects occurred more rapidly than the metabolic effects and the response to formoterol was faster than that of salmeterol, apart from the glycaemic response. The effects of salmeterol were slightly more prolonged than those of formoterol, although some <span class="hlt">dose</span> related effects were apparent at eight hours with both drugs. The relative <span class="hlt">dose</span> potency for formoterol compared with salmeterol at four and eight hours for the different end <span class="hlt">points</span> excluding systolic blood pressure ranged from 1.6 to 7.0after adjusting for baseline values. Relative <span class="hlt">dose</span> potencies (95% CI) for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> heart rate and plasma potassium concentrations were 4.1 (3.0 to 5.6) and 5.8 (4.1 to 8.6) over four hours and 2.4 (1.2 to 3.8) and 3.0 (1.2 to 5.7) over eight hours.?CONCLUSIONS—Formoterol and salmeterol cause <span class="hlt">dose</span> related changes in heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, and plasma glucose and potassium concentrations. Formoterol has a more rapid onset for most end <span class="hlt">points</span> whereas salmeterol has slightly more prolonged activity. Both drugs have a relatively modest therapeutic window. The relative <span class="hlt">dose</span> potencies of the two drugs for the main end <span class="hlt">points</span> were similar to the fourfold difference in recommended <span class="hlt">doses</span>. Some differences in the pharmacological profile of the two drugs emerged and are as yet unexplained.??</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guhan, A; Cooper, S; Oborne, J; Lewis, S; Bennett, J; Tattersfield, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21055440"> <span id="translatedtitle">Triadic conceptual structure of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy approach to evolution.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, <span class="hlt">pointing</span> towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy, <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Power, and <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law. PMID:21055440</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MNRAS.391..711M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> stellar mass versus cluster membership number revisited</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have made a new compilation of observations of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> stellar mass versus cluster membership number from the literature, which we analyse for consistency with the predictions of a simple random drawing hypothesis for stellar mass selection in clusters. Previously, Weidner and Kroupa have suggested that the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> stellar mass is lower, in low-mass clusters, than would be expected on the basis of random drawing, and have <span class="hlt">pointed</span> out that this could have important implications for steepening the integrated galactic initial mass function (IGIMF) at high masses. Our compilation demonstrates how the observed distribution in the plane of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> stellar mass versus membership number is affected by the method of target selection; in particular, rather low n clusters with large <span class="hlt">maximum</span> stellar masses are abundant in observational data sets that specifically seek clusters in the environs of high-mass stars. Although we do not consider our compilation to be either complete or unbiased, we discuss the method by which such data should be statistically analysed. Our very provisional conclusion is that the data are not indicating any striking deviation from the expectations of random drawing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maschberger, Th.; Clarke, C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5462730"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood analysis of electron microscopic autoradiographs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors have recently reported a new method based on the <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood method of statistics for estimating the concentrations of radioactive tracers in subcellular structures in electron microscopic (EM) autoradiographs. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood algorithm (MLA) appears to be superior to other widely used methods. It is derived from a Poisson statistical model describing the radioactive decay process and is therefore suitable for the low decay rates observed in EM autoradiography. In contrast to other analytical methods which use transition-probability estimates based on pooled data from many micrographs, the MLA applies the function describing the spread of grains around <span class="hlt">point</span> sources of radioactivity to each grain and uses the information inherent in the unique configuration of subcellular structures surrounding each grain. Earlier evaluations of the MLA were based on a Gaussian approximation of the function describing the spread of grains around <span class="hlt">point</span> sources of radioactivity. New validation results based on measurement simulations employing a more completely modeled <span class="hlt">point</span>-spread function show that the MLA provides significantly improved estimates of tracer distributions compared to the conventional mask-overlay method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller, M.I.; Roysam, B.; Saffitz, J.E.; Larson, K.B.; Thomas, L.J. Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title5-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title5-vol1-sec534-203.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">5 CFR 534.203 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> stipends.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">Maximum</span> stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title5-vol1/pdf/CFR-2009-title5-vol1-sec534-203.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">5 CFR 534.203 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> stipends.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">Maximum</span> stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_15 div --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2008109319"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood Estimation for Random Sequential Adsorption.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Existence and uniqueness of a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimator for the time and range parameters in random sequential adsorption models is established. Nuisance parameters of the reference distribution are estimated by means of profile likelihoods. The approa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. N. M. Van Lieshout</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EL....10340001A"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the efficiency at <span class="hlt">maximum</span> cooling power</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The efficiency at <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power (EMP) of heat engines operating as generators is one corner stone of finite-time thermodynamics, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency \\eta_CA being considered as a universal upper bound. Yet, no valid counterpart to \\eta_CA has been derived for the efficiency at <span class="hlt">maximum</span> cooling power (EMCP) for heat engines operating as refrigerators. In this letter we analyse the reasons of the failure to obtain such a bound and we demonstrate that, despite the introduction of several optimisation criteria, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> cooling power condition should be considered as the genuine equivalent of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power condition in the finite-time thermodynamics frame. We then propose and discuss an analytic expression for the EMCP in the specific case of exoreversible refrigerators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Michot, A.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/glossariesandkeywordlists/search.do?details=&glossaryName=Sediment%20TMDLs%20(Oct%201999)"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sediment Total <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Daily Loads (TMDLs) Glossary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water Quality:  The biological, chemical, and physical conditions of a waterbody. It is a measure of a waterbody's ability to support beneficial uses.   From Sediment Total <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Daily Loads (TMDLs) Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing water quality</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhyS...41..758N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photoemission spectromicroscopy with <span class="hlt">MAXIMUM</span> at Wisconsin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope <span class="hlt">MAXIMUM</span> at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.; Cole, R. K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R. W. C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G.; Underwood, J. H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R. C. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20634679"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical representation for Varian EDW factors at off-center <span class="hlt">points</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate a new analytical model for Varian enhanced dynamic wedge factors at off-center <span class="hlt">points</span>. The new model was verified by comparing measured and calculated wedge factors for the standard set of wedge angles (i.e., 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg. and 60 deg.), different symmetric and asymmetric fields, and two different photon energies. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> difference between calculated and measured wedge factors is less than 2%. The average absolute difference is within 1%. The obtained results indicate that the suggested model can be useful for independent <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation with enhanced dynamic wedges.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuperman, Vadim Y. [James A. Haley Veterans Hospital, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Entrp...8...18D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Utility Function from <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Principle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently we used the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy principle for finding the price density in a multi agent insurance market. The result is similar to what the Buhlmann had obtained by maximizing the utility function. Here we begin with the price density that is derived by applying the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy principle to a conservative economic system (exchange market), then reverse the Buhlmann calculation to find the utility function and the risk aversion of agents with respect to this density.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Darooneh, Amir H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/313270"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy for Text Classification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes the use of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropytechniques for text classification. Maximumentropy is a probability distribution estimationtechnique widely used for a variety ofnatural language tasks, such as language modeling,part-of-speech tagging, and text segmentation.The underlying principle of maximumentropy is that without external knowledge, oneshould prefer distributions that are uniform.Constraints on the distribution, derived fromlabeled training data, inform <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kamal Nigam; John Lafferty; Andrew Mccallum</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChPhB..22c0312Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states. In this paper, we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced, linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC. By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states, we derive the upper bound of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> confidence measure of a set. An explicit transformation of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> confidence measure is presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Wen-Hai; Yu, Long-Bao; Cao, Zhuo-Liang; Ye, Liu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1686048"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood map of chromosome 1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thirteen loci are mapped on chromosome 1 from genetic evidence. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood map presented permits confirmation that Scianna (SC) and a fourteenth locus, phenylketonuria (PKU), are on chromosome 1, although the location of the latter on the PGM1-AMY segment is uncertain. Eight other controversial genetic assignments are rejected, providing a practical demonstration of the resolution which <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood theory brings to mapping.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rao, D C; Keats, B J; Lalouel, J M; Morton, N E; Yee, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12593429"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian estimation of <span class="hlt">dose</span> thresholds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed <span class="hlt">dose</span> thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as <span class="hlt">dose</span> thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a <span class="hlt">dose</span> threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold <span class="hlt">dose</span> after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body <span class="hlt">doses</span> for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body <span class="hlt">doses</span> were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the <span class="hlt">dose</span> thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> value at zero with increasing <span class="hlt">doses</span>. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types. PMID:12593429</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Groer, P G; Carnes, B A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50954174"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Improved <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Relevance and Minimum Redundancy Feature Selection Algorithm Based on Normalized Mutual Information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present in this paper a comprehensive analysis of the mutual information based feature selection algorithms. We <span class="hlt">point</span> out the limitations of some recent work in this area then propose an improvement to overcome the weak <span class="hlt">points</span>. The experiment results confirm that we achieve a better feature sets compared with the two recent developed algorithms, which are <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Relevance and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">La The Vinh; Nguyen Duc Thang; Young-Koo Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49982953"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power <span class="hlt">point</span> tracker of photovoltaic arrays using fuzzy controller</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies on photovoltaic systems are increasing because of a large, secure, essentially exhaustible and broadly available resource as a future energy supply. However, the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of solar cell radiation, temperature of the solar cells and so on. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the renewable energy system, it is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chung-Yuen Won; Duk-Heon Kim; Sei-Chan Kim; Won-Sam Kim; Hack-Sung Kim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50226004"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power <span class="hlt">point</span> tracking control for photovoltaic power system under rapidly changing solar radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes a novel MPPT control algorithm for a digitally implemented photovoltaic power system under rapidly changing solar radiation. The method of the MPPT control algorithm can be classified into two categories: perturb and observe (P&O) and incremental conductance (IncCond). In comparing the P&O and IncCond algorithms, the dynamic and tracking characteristic of the IncCond algorithm is better than</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tae-Yeop Kim; Ho-Gyun Ahn; Seung-Kyu Park; Youn-Kyun Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50574914"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Fuzzy-Based <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Power <span class="hlt">Point</span> Tracker for Body Mounted Solar Panels in LEO Satellites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar panels are the power subsystem components which provide satellite electrical power. Solar panels characteristics depend on environmental conditions (insolation level, temperature and etc.). In this paper, design and simulation of fuzzy-based MPPT for the body mounted solar panel in a LEO satellite are presented. To show how good the proposed technique is; we applied it into a real system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Taherbaneh; M. B. Menhaj</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26520861"> <span id="translatedtitle">An automotive thermoelectric–photovoltaic hybrid energy system using <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power <span class="hlt">point</span> tracking</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In recent years, there has been active research on exhaust gas waste heat energy recovery for automobiles. Meanwhile, the use of solar energy is also proposed to promote on-board renewable energy and hence to improve their fuel economy. In this paper, a new thermoelectric–photovoltaic (TE–PV) hybrid energy system is proposed and implemented for automobiles. The key is to newly develop</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xiaodong Zhang; K. T. Chau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50881339"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Power <span class="hlt">Point</span> Tracking for PV Systems Using MATALAB\\/SIMULINK</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes the study of the verification of characteristic equation for the output current generated by a solar panel. The characteristic equation is simulated by using MATLAB\\/Simulink. Many factors that affect the performance of the solar energy tracking system need to be considered profoundly for the complete & effective utilization of the available energy. This work deals with the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. S. Revankar; W. Z. Gandhare; A. G. Thosar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50727071"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive algorithm for fast <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power <span class="hlt">point</span> tracking in wind energy systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wind energy systems are being closely studied because of its benefits as an environmentally friendly and renewable source of energy. Because of its unpredictable nature, power management concepts are essential to extract as much power as possible from the wind when it becomes available. In this paper an algorithm has been developed to keep the system at its highest possible</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joanne Hui; Alireza Bakhshai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD609794"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Applicable Frequencies for Communication Between Two <span class="hlt">Points</span> by a Digital Computer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methods are given for calculation of the highest and lowest working frequencies that will insure stable radio communication on a given radio link. A digital computer is used for calculating the frequencies. The algorithm is given on which the computer pro...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. M. Kovalevskaya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1964-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/eltamaly/Documents/papers/[12].pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of Wind Turbine Driving Permanent Magnet Generator with <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Power <span class="hlt">Point</span> Tracking System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper elaborates on the analysis and simulation of 15 kW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) driving low speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) using PSIM computer simulation program. The system consists of wind turbine, permanent magnet generator, three-phase diode rectifier, boost converter, and voltage source inverter models. In the WTG model, the best performance coefficient has been determined according to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali M. Eltamaly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8923792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnification of Starting Torques of DC Motors by <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Power <span class="hlt">Point</span> Trackers in Photovoltaic Systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Direct current (dc) motors are used in terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) systems such as in water-pumping systems for irrigation and water supply. Direct current motors may also be used for space applications. Simple and low weight systems including dc motors...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Appelbaum S. Singer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_16 div --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51073446"> <span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power <span class="hlt">point</span> tracking for photovoltaic cells: A backstepping mode control approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper , we study a system consisting of a photovoltaic (FV) array panel, dc-to-dc switching converter and a battery. A backstepping PWM controller is developed to maximize the power of the solar generating system. The controller tracks a desired array voltage, designed online by using MPPT algorithm, by varying the duty cycle of the switching converter. The stability</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hassan Abouobaida; Mohamed Cherkaoui; Mohamed Ouassaid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51785684"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long Duration Balloon <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Power <span class="hlt">Point</span> Tracking (MPPT) solar power system development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">High altitude scientific balloons have been used for many years to provide scientists with access to near space at a fraction of the cost of satellite based or sounding rocket experiments. In recent years, these balloons have been successfully used for long duration missions of up to 40 days. Longer missions, with durations of up to 100 days (Ultra Long),</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Juan Perez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://qspace.library.queensu.ca/bitstream/1974/1630/1/hui_joanne_cy_200812_masters.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Adaptive Control Algorithm for <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Power <span class="hlt">Point</span> Tracking for Wind Energy Conversion Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Wind energy systems are being closely studied because of its benefits as an envi- ronmentally friendly and renewable source of energy. Because of its unpredictable availability, power management concepts are essential to extract as much power as possible from the wind when it becomes available. The purpose of this thesis is to presents a new adaptive control algorithm for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joanne Hui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7622E..27S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The myth of mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> as a surrogate for radiation risk?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current estimations of risk associated with medical imaging procedures rely on assessing the organ <span class="hlt">dose</span> via direct measurements or simulation. Each organ <span class="hlt">dose</span> is assumed to be homogeneous, a representative sample or mean of which is weighted by a corresponding tissue weighting factor provided by ICRP publication 103. The weighted values are summed to provide Effective <span class="hlt">Dose</span> (ED), the most-widely accepted surrogate for population radiation risk. For individual risk estimation, one may employ Effective Risk (ER), which further incorporates gender- and age-specific risk factors. However, both the tissue-weighting factors (as used by ED) and the risk factors (as used by ER) were derived (mostly from the atomic bomb survivor data) under the assumption of a homogeneous <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution within each organ. That assumption is significantly violated in most medical imaging procedures. In chest CT, for example, superficial organs (eg, breasts) demonstrate a heterogeneous distribution while organs on the peripheries of the irradiation field (eg, liver) possess a nearly discontinuous <span class="hlt">dose</span> profile. Projection radiography and mammography involve an even wider range of organ <span class="hlt">dose</span> heterogeneity spanning up to two orders of magnitude. As such, mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> or <span class="hlt">point</span> measured <span class="hlt">dose</span> values do not reflect the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> energy deposited per unit volume of the organ, and therefore, effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> or effective risk, as commonly computed, can misrepresent irradiation risk. In this paper, we report the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">dose</span> heterogeneity in both CT and projection x-ray imaging, provide an assessment of its impact on irradiation risk, and explore an alternative model-based approach for risk estimation for imaging techniques involving heterogeneous organ <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samei, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Chen, Baiyu; Reiman, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5368..596E"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dose</span> profile measurement of a four-dimensional CT (4D-CT) including scattered radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have developed a four-dimensional CT (4D CT) using continuous rotation of cone-beam x-ray. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> nominal beam width of the 4D CT is 128 mm at the center of rotation in the longitudinal direction. In order to obtain appropriate estimations of exposure <span class="hlt">dose</span>, detailed single-slice <span class="hlt">dose</span> profi les perpendicular to the rotation axis including scattered radiation were measured in PMMA cylindrical phantoms, which were cylindrical lucite phantoms of 160 mm and 320 mm diameter and 900 mm length. <span class="hlt">Dose</span> profi les were measured with a pin photodiode detector at the center and a peripheral <span class="hlt">point</span> of 10 mm depth. A pin silicon photodiode sensor with 3 × 3 × 3 mm sensitive region was used as an x-ray detector, which was scanned along longitudinal direction in the phantom for beam widths of 20, 42, 74, 106 and 138 mm. The <span class="hlt">dose</span> profi les had long tails caused by scattered radiation more than 200 mm out of the beam width edge. The exposure <span class="hlt">dose</span> covered 95 % was distributed along about 360 mm length at the center and about 310 mm at the periphery, which was independent of the beam width. Before the advent of multi-detector CT, CTDI100 was used to approximate integral <span class="hlt">dose</span> for clinical scan conditions. However, for 4D CT employing a variable beam width, the standard CTDI was not a good estimation. This work was carried out to establish a method of the <span class="hlt">dose</span> measurements including scattered radiation for cone-beam CT such as 4D CT. In order to perform the <span class="hlt">dose</span> assessment including scattered radiation, <span class="hlt">dose</span> measured length should be recommended to measure integral <span class="hlt">dose</span> over beam widths plus at least 230 mm, which covered 95 % total exposure <span class="hlt">dose</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Endo, Masahiro; Mori, Schin'ichiro; Tsunoo, Takanori; Nishizawa, Kanae; Aoyama, Takahiko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MNRAS.397.1302B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> spin of black holes driving jets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unbound outflows in the form of highly collimated jets and broad winds appear to be a ubiquitous feature of accreting black hole systems. The most powerful jets are thought to derive a significant fraction, if not the majority, of their power from the rotational energy of the black hole. Whatever the precise mechanism that causes them, these jets must, therefore, exert a braking torque on the black hole. Consequently, we expect jet production to play a significant role in limiting the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> spin attainable by accreting black holes. We calculate the spin-up function - the rate of change of black hole spin normalized to the black hole mass and accretion rate - for an accreting black hole, accounting for this braking torque. We assume that the accretion flow on to a Kerr black hole is advection-dominated (ADAF) and construct easy-to-use analytic fits to describe the global structure of such flows based on the numerical solutions of Popham & Gammie. We find that the predicted black hole spin-up function depends only on the black hole spin and dimensionless parameters describing the accretion flow. Using recent relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) numerical simulation results to calibrate the efficiency of angular momentum transfer in the flow, we find that an ADAF flow will spin a black hole up (or down) to an equilibrium value of about 96 per cent of the maximal spin value in the absence of jets. Combining our ADAF system with a simple model for jet power, we demonstrate that an equilibrium is reached at approximately 93 per cent of the maximal spin value, as found in the numerical simulation studies of the spin-up of accreting black holes, at which <span class="hlt">point</span> the spin-up of the hole by accreted material is balanced by the braking torque arising from jet production. The existence of equilibrium spin means that optically dim active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that have grown via accretion from an advection-dominated flow will not be maximally rotating. It also offers a possible explanation for the tight correlation observed by Allen et al. between the Bondi accretion rate and jet power in nine, nearby, X-ray luminous giant elliptical galaxies. We suggest that the black holes in these galaxies must all be rotating close to their equilibrium value. Our model also yields a relationship between jet efficiency and black hole spin that is in surprisingly good agreement with that seen in the simulation studies, indicating that our simple model is a useful and convenient description of ADAF inflow - jet outflow about a spinning black hole for incorporation in semi-analytic modelling as well as cosmological numerical simulation studies focusing on the formation and evolution of galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benson, Andrew J.; Babul, Arif</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3335261"> <span id="translatedtitle">EQPlanar: A <span class="hlt">Maximum</span>-Likelihood Method for Accurate Organ Activity Estimation from Whole Body Planar Projections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optimizing targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) requires patient-specific estimation of organ <span class="hlt">doses</span>. The organ <span class="hlt">doses</span> are estimated from quantitative nuclear medicine imaging studies, many of which involve planar wholebody scans. We have previously developed the Quantitative Planar (QPlanar) processing method and demonstrated its ability to provide more accurate activity estimates than conventional geometric-mean based planar (CPlanar) processing methods using physical phantom and simulation studies. The QPlanar method uses the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm, 3D organ VOIs, and rigorous models of physical image degrading factors to estimate organ activities. However, the QPlanar method requires alignment between the 3D organ VOIs and the 2D planar projections and assumes uniform activity distribution in each VOI. This makes application to patients challenging. As a result, in this paper we propose an extended QPlanar (EQPlanar) method that provides independent-organ rigid registration and includes multiple background regions. We have validated this method using both Monte Carlo simulation and patient data. In the simulation study, we evaluated the precision and accuracy of the method in comparison to the original QPlanar method. For the patient studies, we compared organ activity estimates at 24 hours after injection with those from conventional geometric mean based planar quantification using a 24 hour post-injection quantitative SPECT reconstruction as the gold standard. We also compared the goodness of fit of the measured and estimated projections obtained from EQPlanar method to those from the original method at 4 other time <span class="hlt">points</span> where gold standard data was not available. In the simulation study, more accurate activity estimates were provided by the EQPlanar method for all the organs at all the time <span class="hlt">points</span> compared with the QPlanar method. Based on the patient data, we concluded that the EQPlanar method provided a substantial increase in accuracy of organ activity estimates from 24 hr planar images compared to the CPlanar using 24 hr SPECT as the golden standard. For other time <span class="hlt">points</span>, where no golden standard is available, better agreement between estimated and measured projections was observed by using EQPlanar method compared to the QPlanar method. This phenomenon is consistent with the improvement in goodness of fit seen in both simulation data and 24 hr patient data. Therefore, this indicates the improved reliability of organ activity estimates obtained though EQPlanar method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, N.; He, B.; Wahl, R. L.; Frey, E. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17579355"> <span id="translatedtitle">Managing patient <span class="hlt">dose</span> in interventional cardiology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper introduces a methodology for managing the radiation delivered to individual patients, incidental to their fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Because rare, but devastating skin injuries have occurred, radiation should be monitored and managed as well as drugs or radiographic contrast media. <span class="hlt">Dose</span> metrics such as the total <span class="hlt">dose</span> delivered to a reference <span class="hlt">point</span> (reference <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span>) should be used for this purpose. Fluoroscopy time is a poor independent predictor of skin <span class="hlt">dose</span> in an individual patient. The concept of a "significant <span class="hlt">dose</span>" is introduced. This is a predetermined action level of the selected <span class="hlt">dose</span> metric. The numerical value is set based on classes of patient and procedural factors. Exceeding this value triggers processes for clinical justification of radiation usage and patient follow-up. Slightly exceeding the significant <span class="hlt">dose</span> threshold during a procedure should be highly unlikely to cause skin injury. PMID:17579355</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balter, Stephen; Moses, Jeffrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22098531"> <span id="translatedtitle">A {gamma} <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution evaluation technique using the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching to improve the {gamma} calculation time for 2D and 3D <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions. Methods: The {gamma} calculation method has been widely used for comparisons of <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions in clinical treatment plans and quality assurances. By specifying the acceptable <span class="hlt">dose</span> and distance-to-agreement criteria, the method provides quantitative measurement of the agreement between the reference and evaluation <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions. The {gamma} value indicates the acceptability. In regions where {gamma}{<=}1, the predefined criterion is satisfied and thus the agreement is acceptable; otherwise, the agreement fails. Although the concept of the method is not complicated and a quick naieve implementation is straightforward, an efficient and robust implementation is not trivial. Recent algorithms based on exhaustive searching within a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> radius, the geometric Euclidean distance, and the table lookup method have been proposed to improve the computational time for multidimensional <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions. Motivated by the fact that the least searching time for finding a nearest neighbor can be an O(log N) operation with a k-d tree, where N is the total number of the <span class="hlt">dose</span> <span class="hlt">points</span>, the authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for the {gamma} evaluation in this work. Results: In the experiment, the authors found that the average k-d tree construction time per reference <span class="hlt">point</span> is O(log N), while the nearest neighbor searching time per evaluation <span class="hlt">point</span> is proportional to O(N{sup 1/k}), where k is between 2 and 3 for two-dimensional and three-dimensional <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions, respectively. Conclusions: Comparing with other algorithms such as exhaustive search and sorted list O(N), the k-d tree algorithm for {gamma} evaluation is much more efficient.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yuan Jiankui; Chen Weimin [ICT Radiotherapy, Livingston, New Jersey 07039 (United States) and Northeast Radiation Oncology Center, Dunmore, Pennsylvania 18509 (United States); ICT Radiotherapy, Livingston, New Jersey 07039 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23880474"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-<span class="hlt">dose</span> metronomic chemotherapy: A systematic literature analysis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Low-<span class="hlt">dose</span> metronomic (LDM) chemotherapy, the frequent and continuous use of low <span class="hlt">doses</span> of conventional chemotherapeutics, is an emerging alternative to conventional chemotherapy. While promising tumour control rates and excellent safety profiles have been observed, there are no definitive phase III trial results. Furthermore, the selection of patients, drug dosages and <span class="hlt">dosing</span> intervals is empirical. To systematically review the current state of knowledge regarding LDM chemotherapy, we searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and PubMed databases for fully published LDM chemotherapy trials. We calculated the relative <span class="hlt">dose</span>-intensity (RDI, mg/m(2)/week) of each LDM regimen as compared to conventional <span class="hlt">maximum</span> tolerated <span class="hlt">dose</span> (MTD) dosages and the '<span class="hlt">dosing</span>-density' (DD, % of days with chemotherapy administration per cycle). Meta-regression was performed to examine factors associated with disease control rate (DCR; complete response (CR)+partial response (PR)+stable disease (SD)). Eighty studies involving mainly pretreated patients with advanced/metastatic breast (26.25%) and prostate (11.25%) cancers were retrieved. The most commonly used drug was cyclophosphamide (43%). LDM chemotherapy was frequently combined with other therapies (64.5%). Response rate (RR) and progression-free survival (PFS) were the most frequent primary end-<span class="hlt">points</span> (24% and 19%). Mean RR was 26.03% (95% confidence interval (CI): 21.4-30.7), median PFS was 4.6months (interquartile range (IQR): 2.9-7.0) and mean DCR was 56.3% (95% CI: 50.9-61.6). RDI, DD and metronomic drug used were not associated with DCR. Grade 3/4 adverse events were rare (anaemia 7.78%, fatigue 13.4%). Thus, LDM therapy appears to be clinically beneficial and safe in a broad range of tumors. However, meta-regression analysis did not identify predictive factors of response. PMID:23880474</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lien, K; Georgsdottir, S; Sivanathan, L; Chan, K; Emmenegger, U</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2009-title40-vol20-sec94-107.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false Determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed from a lug curve. This <span class="hlt">maximum</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec94-107.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false Determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed from a lug curve. This <span class="hlt">maximum</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol22-sec141-65.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 141.65 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels. 141.65 Section 141...Contaminant Levels and <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.65 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels. (a) <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2009-title40-vol22-sec141-65.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 141.65 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Sec. 141.65 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels.] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...<span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Sec. 141.65 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels. (a) <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels (MRDLs) are as...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title24-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title24-vol4-sec886-108.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">24 CFR 886.108 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> annual contract commitment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> annual contract commitment. 886.108 Section 886.108 ...886.108 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> annual contract commitment. (a) Number of units assisted...conversion. (b) <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> annual Contract commitment. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> annual housing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhTea..50..167B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Aerodynamic Force on an Ascending Space Vehicle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The March 2010 issue of The Physics Teacher includes a great article by Metz and Stinner on the kinematics and dynamics of a space shuttle launch.1 Within those pages is a brief mention of an event known in the language of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as ``<span class="hlt">maximum</span> dynamic pressure'' (called simply ``Max.AirPressure'' in the article), where the combined effect of air density and the shuttles speed produce the greatest aerodynamic stress on the vehicle as it ascends through the atmosphere toward orbit. Official commentary during a launch2 refers to this <span class="hlt">point</span> in the ascent with language such as ``space shuttle main engines throttling back as vehicle enters area of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> dynamic pressure'' and occurs in a range between 45 and 60 s after launch. (In dealing with this stress, the space shuttles main engines reduce their thrust at approximately 45 s to reduce acceleration, and return to normal levels again some 15 s later as <span class="hlt">maximum</span> dynamic pressure is traversed.) This paper presents an analysis, accessible to introductory-level students, that predicts the time of Max. AirPressure for a given ascending spacecraft.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Backman, Philip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53333712"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> power configuration for multireservoir chemical engines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model of a multireservoir isothermal endoreversible chemical engine is put forward in this paper. Optimal control theory is used to determine the optimal configuration of the multireservoir isothermal endoreversible chemical engine for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power output. The optimal cycle consists of two constant chemical potential branches and two instantaneous constant mass-flux branches, which is independent of the number of mass</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shaojun Xia; Lingen Chen; Fengrui Sun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58431052"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Programming, <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Principle and Vintage Capital</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an application of the Dynamic Programming (DP) and of the <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Principle (MP) to solve an optimization over time when the production function is linear in the stock of capital (Ak model). Two views of capital are considered. In one, which is embraced by the great majority of macroeconomic models, capital is homogeneous and depreciates at a constant</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giorgio Fabbri; Maurizio Iacopetta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eng.swu.ac.th/mme/%c2%c8%c8%d1%a1%b4%d4%ec.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">??????????????????????????????? <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Velocity of a Racing Car</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to analysis optimum <span class="hlt">maximum</span> velocity of a racing car along the given path by using the minimum time optimization method. The simple mathematical model are the equations of motion with geometrical path constraints, also total driving and braking forces are upper and lower bounds, respectively. The usefulness of this paper is to predict optimum</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tawiwat Veeraklaew; Yotsak Saisanit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1577970"> <span id="translatedtitle">Step motor control for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> torque</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship between the switching angle and the output torque of a step motor is derived, and the optimal angle, which maximized the output torque, is found. The resulting <span class="hlt">maximum</span> torque, which varies with the velocity, is an upper limit for the torque that can be generated by the step motor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Tal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_17 div --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4775670"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relaxed <span class="hlt">maximum</span> a posteriori fault identification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the problem of estimating a pattern of faults, represented as a binary vector, from a set of measurements. The measurements can be noise corrupted real values, or quantized versions of noise corrupted signals, including even 1-bit (sign) measurements. <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> a posteriori probability (MAP) estimation of the fault pattern leads to a difficult combinatorial optimization problem, so we propose</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Argyrios Zymnis; Stephen P. Boyd; Dimitry M. Gorinevsky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985A%26A...143...77C"> <span id="translatedtitle">A simple <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy deconvolution algorithm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy image deconvolution algorithm, now implemented in the Astronomical Image Processing System AIPS as task VM, is described. VM uses a simple Newton-Raphson approach to optimise the relative entropy of the image subject to constraints upon the rms error and total power enforced by Lagrange multipliers. Some examples of the application of VM to VLA data are given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cornwell, T. J.; Evans, K. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/310335"> <span id="translatedtitle">Filters, Random fields And <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy (FRAME)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents a statistical theory for texture modeling. This theory combines filteringtheory and Markov random field modeling through the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy principle, and interpretsand clarifies many previous concepts and methods for texture analysis and synthesis from a unifiedpoint of view. Our theory characterizes the ensemble of images I with the same texture appearanceby a probability distribution f(I) on a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Mumford; Song Chun Zhu; Yingnian Wu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1037535"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrating Correlated Bayesian Networks Using <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the problem of generating a joint distribution for a pair of Bayesian networks that preserves the multivariate marginal distribution of each network and satisfies prescribed correlation between pairs of nodes taken from both networks. We derive the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy distribution for any pair of multivariate random vectors and prescribed correlations and demonstrate numerical results for an example integration of Bayesian networks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jarman, Kenneth D.; Whitney, Paul D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44458612"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computer Forecasts of <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> and Minimum Temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An automated system for predicting <span class="hlt">maximum</span> and minimum surface temperatures for 12- to 60-hr projections is described. The system uses multiple regression equations derived for 131 cities in the United States and 12 in southern Canada from 18 years of daily data stratified by 2-month periods. The predictors are selected by screening upper level heights and thicknesses observed at 67</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William H. Klein; Frank Lewis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB296131"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainties in Adaptive <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Frequency Estimators.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For a real sinusoid in white noise, the weight vector noise associated with an adaptive <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy frequency estimator causes the peak of the spectrum estimator to shift away from the input frequency. For a long adaptive filter and a normalized frequ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. J. Keeler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cmb.usc.edu/papers/msw_papers/msw-019.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Locating <span class="hlt">maximum</span> variance segments in sequential data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An automated method is presented for the identification of peaks in sets of sequential data. The method is based upon the location of those segments with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> variance and has the advantage of guarding against the masking of small-scale effects by large-scale effects. The procedure is illustrated with data taken as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation project.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. R. Bement; M. S. Waterman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41950001"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparing for the Upcoming Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the next solar <span class="hlt">maximum</span> approaches, society is increasingly reliant on satellite communications and navigation technologies, which are vulnerable to solar storms. To prepare for the upcoming peak in solar activity, expected in 2013, the U.S. National Space Weather Program Council organized the 2009 Space Weather Enterprise Forum, held 19-20 May in Washington, D. C. The conference, themed \\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ernie Tretkoff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3184154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset – Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depth. We also use field measured <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict <span class="hlt">maximum</span> depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Milstead, W. Bryan; Urrutia, M. Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26945128"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Oxygen Intake in Himalayan Mountaineers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of 20 studies of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> oxygen intake at sea level on members of Himalayan expeditions from 1953 to 1971 are presented. The data include results on two men who have climbed to the summit of Mount Everest (8,848 m) and two who have ascended Mount Annapurna (8,078 m). The average values were: age 33 years; weight 72 kg;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. G. C. E. PUGH</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52665289"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Second <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> in the Rossi Curve</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">IT is well known that the rate of production of cosmic ray showers by layers of any material increases to a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> as the thickness of the layer increases, and then falls off very slowly for much greater thicknesses, giving the familiar `Rossi curve'. Certain observers1 have investigated the rate of production of showers under large thicknesses of iron and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. B. O. Mohr; G. H. Stafford</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1942-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASS...30..163C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Sunspot Numbers and Active Days</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Parameters associated with solar minimum have been studied to relate them to solar activity at solar <span class="hlt">maximum</span> so that one could possibly predict behaviors of an upcoming solar cycle. The number of active days has been known as a reliable indicator of solar activity around solar minimum. Active days are days with sunspots reported on the solar disk. In this work, we have explored the relationship between the sunspot numbers at solar <span class="hlt">maximum</span> and the characteristics of the monthly number of active days. Specifically, we have statistically examined how the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> monthly sunspot number of a given solar cycle is correlated with the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days for the corresponding solar cycle. We have calculated the linear correlation coefficient r and the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient rs for data sets prepared under various conditions. Even though marginal correlations are found, they turn out to be insufficiently significant (r ~ 0.3). Nonetheless, we have confirmed that the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days is less steep when solar cycles belonging to the "Modern <span class="hlt">Maximum</span>" are considered compared with rests of solar cycles. We conclude, therefore, that the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days is indeed dependent on the solar activity at its maxima, but that this simple relationship should be insufficient as a valid method to predict the following solar activity amplitude.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, Heon-Young</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21984945"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depth from surrounding topography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset - Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depth. We also use field measured <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict <span class="hlt">maximum</span> depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hollister, Jeffrey W; Milstead, W Bryan; Urrutia, M Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2415185"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Based Restoration of Arabic Diacritics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Short vowels and other diacritics are not part of written Arabic scripts. Exceptions are made for important political and reli- gious texts and in scripts for beginning stu- dents of Arabic. Script without diacritics have considerable ambiguity because many words with dieren t diacritic patterns ap- pear identical in a diacritic-less setting. We propose in this paper a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Imed Zitouni; Jeffrey S. Sorensen; Ruhi Sarikaya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ece.umassd.edu/Faculty/acosta/ICASSP/Icassp_2004/pdfs/0300929.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distributed <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimation for sensor networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The problem of finding the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimator of a commonly observed model, based on data collected by a sensor network under power and bandwidth constraints, is considered. In particular, a case where the sensors cannot fully share their data is treated. An iterative algorithm that relaxes the requirement of sharing all the data is given. The algorithm is based</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doron Blatt; Alfred Hero</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36054436"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> efforts in contests with asymmetric valuations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Efforts may be reduced when players with different valuations participate in a contest. This paper considers the problem of designing a contest to elicit <span class="hlt">maximum</span> aggregate effort from players with asymmetric valuations. Optimal designs for different classes of contest technologies are computed and characterized. A value weighted contest is optimal in the concave case. In the unconstrained case, the optimal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kofi O. Nti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58845022"> <span id="translatedtitle">30 = 20: ‘Understanding’ <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Sentence Enhancements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, Professor Herrmann argues that the due process protections of a criminal trial should apply to aggravating factors that under current “<span class="hlt">maximum</span>-enhancing statutes” allow judges to impose lengthier punishments in the sentencing phase. Part I considers the Supreme Court's rationale for refusing to apply full due process safeguards to all types of sentencing schemes. This background will reveal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herrmann Frank R. S. J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/66098"> <span id="translatedtitle">Boosting and <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood for Exponential Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We derive an equivalence between AdaBoost and the dual of a convex optimization problem, showing that the only difference between mini- mizing the exponential loss used by AdaBoost and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood for exponential models is that the latter requires the model to be normal- ized to form a conditional probability distribution over labels. In addi- tion to establishing a simple</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Lafferty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22theory+of+relativity%22&pg=3&id=EJ426340"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a physical picture, an expression for the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medhekar, Sarang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49870955"> <span id="translatedtitle">A suboptimal, low cost <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood algorithm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple, noniterative algorithm is presented for resolving closely space sinusoids. The method is based on a <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood algorithm and is specifically designed to resolve two signals of similar power with minimum complexity. The algorithm consists of three phases: conventional beamforming, beamforming with a projection operator, and solution of a single nonlinear equation. It is shown that the method can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. R. Farrier; R. Mardani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_18 div --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://acoustics2005.bath.ac.uk/math-sci/bics/preprints/BICS08_04.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> likelihood estimation for cooperative sequential adsorption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider a model for a time series of spatial locations,\\u000ain which <span class="hlt">points</span> are placed sequentially at random\\u000ainto an initially empty region of ?<sup>d<\\/sup>, and\\u000agiven the current configuration of <span class="hlt">points</span>,\\u000athe likelihood at location x for the next particle is proportional\\u000ato a specified function ?<sub>k<\\/sub> of the current number\\u000a(k) of <span class="hlt">points</span> within a specified distance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mathew D. Penrose; Vadim Shcherbakov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23747917"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cell development obeys <span class="hlt">maximum</span> Fisher information.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies <span class="hlt">maximum</span> Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micrometer and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micrometer. The NM contains approximately 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC. Therefore the first-order change in I = 0. But also, the 2nd-order change in I is likewise close to zero, indicating significant stability to environmental perturbations. Many predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4 nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F approximately 10(16) proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> probability, i.e. <span class="hlt">maximum</span> Kullback-Liebler entropy H(KL). In a smoothness limit H(KL) --> I(DNA)/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys <span class="hlt">maximum</span> Fisher I. It is also shown that such <span class="hlt">maximum</span> information --> a cell state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, one condition for life. PMID:23747917</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frieden, B Roy; Gatenby, Robert A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16312619"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interval estimation of the median effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> for a logistic <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response curve</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1986, Williams showed how, assuming a logistic <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response curve, one can construct a confidence interval for the median effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> from the asymptotic likelihood ratio test. He gave reasons for preferring this likelihood ratio interval to the established interval calculated by applying Fieller's theorem to the <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood estimates. Here, we assess the impact of applying a Bartlett adjustment to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter Harris; Mark Hann; Simon Kirby; John Dearden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50845549"> <span id="translatedtitle">MUOS <span class="hlt">Point-to-Point</span> power control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mobile user objective system (MUOS) is a geo-satellite communications system derived from the terrestrial cellular WCDMA air interface. WCDMA power control with the long geo-satellite round trip time presents substantial challenges. This paper describes the <span class="hlt">Point-to-Point</span> power control system with simulation results using time-varying channel models specified by the MUOS program office.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Zunich; J. S. Sadowsky; N. Butts; W. A. Brown</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9314221"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dose</span> reconstruction for weapons experiments involving 140La at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1944-1962.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of 254 weapons design experiments was conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1944 through 1962 and resulted in the dispersal of approximately 11 PBq (300 kCi) of radioactive 140La. All shots occurred at <span class="hlt">Point</span> Able in Bayo Canyon, east of the Los Alamos townsite. Public interest and the Government Accounting Office probe precipitated a <span class="hlt">dose</span> reconstruction to assess potential exposures to members of the public. The information available for each shot included explosive charge size, date and time of explosion, and shot activity. Detailed meteorological data were not available for the majority of the shots, requiring the development of statistically representative meteorological data. A wind rose was developed specific to the afternoon-evening time of the shots, and the wind frequency in each sector was used to determine the fraction of activity dispersed towards each hypothetical receptor. HOTSPOT 7, a Gaussian plume-based dispersion model, was used to determine the average <span class="hlt">dose</span> per sector per unit of shot activity. The <span class="hlt">dose</span> from penetrating radiation from ground-deposited 140La was greater by several orders of magnitude than the <span class="hlt">dose</span> from inhalation and immersion. The highest <span class="hlt">doses</span> to a permanent resident probably occurred in the easternmost part of the Los Alamos townsite. The highest annual <span class="hlt">dose</span> occurred in 1955 and was approximately 0.23 mSv. Assuming an individual had been at the location of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> potential exposure in the Los Alamos townsite continuously throughout the experiments, the total <span class="hlt">dose</span> from the 18-y series would have been approximately 1.4 mSv with an average <span class="hlt">dose</span> of approximately 0.09 mSv y(-1). <span class="hlt">Doses</span> at nearby Totavi trailer park, San Ildefonso Pueblo, and Santa Clara Pueblo were approximately 75%, 40%, and 15%, respectively, of those at Los Alamos. Visitors to nearby public areas received negligible <span class="hlt">doses</span>. PMID:9314221</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kraig, D H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMB....56..397K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The accuracy of <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculations by anisotropic analytical algorithms for stereotactic radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nasopharyngeal tumors are commonly treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques. For photon <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculations, problems related to loss of lateral electronic equilibrium exist when small fields are used. The anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) implemented in Varian Eclipse was developed to replace the pencil beam convolution (PBC) algorithm for more accurate <span class="hlt">dose</span> prediction in an inhomogeneous medium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the AAA for predicting interface <span class="hlt">doses</span> for intensity-modulated stereotactic radiotherapy boost of nasopharyngeal tumors. The central axis depth <span class="hlt">dose</span> data and <span class="hlt">dose</span> profiles of phantoms with rectangular air cavities for small fields were measured using a 6 MV beam. In addition, the air-tissue interface <span class="hlt">doses</span> from six different intensity-modulated stereotactic radiotherapy plans were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom. The nasopharyngeal region of the phantom was especially modified to simulate the air cavities of a typical patient. The measured data were compared to the data calculated by both the AAA and the PBC algorithm. When using single small fields in rectangular air cavity phantoms, both AAA and PBC overestimated the central axis <span class="hlt">dose</span> at and beyond the first few millimeters of the air-water interface. Although the AAA performs better than the PBC algorithm, its calculated interface <span class="hlt">dose</span> could still be more than three times that of the measured <span class="hlt">dose</span> when a 2 × 2 cm2 field was used. Testing of the algorithms using the anthropomorphic phantom showed that the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> overestimation by the PBC algorithm was 20.7%, while that by the AAA was 8.3%. When multiple fields were used in a patient geometry, the <span class="hlt">dose</span> prediction errors of the AAA would be substantially reduced compared with those from a single field. However, overestimation of more than 3% could still be found at some <span class="hlt">points</span> at the air-tissue interface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kan, M. W. K.; Cheung, J. Y. C.; Leung, L. H. T.; Lau, B. M. F.; Yu, P. K. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ORAUIEA789M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dose</span>-Response Curves from Incomplete Data.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A procedure is described which uses the now classical Kaplan-Meier estimator to establish <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response curves from incomplete data under the assumption that the different observed responses are statistically independent. It is <span class="hlt">pointed</span> out that for incomp...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. G. Groer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........68J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of geometric uncertainties on <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculations for intensity modulated radiation therapy of prostate cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) uses non-uniform beam intensities within a radiation field to provide patient-specific <span class="hlt">dose</span> shaping, resulting in a <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution that conforms tightly to the planning target volume (PTV). Unavoidable geometric uncertainty arising from patient repositioning and internal organ motion can lead to lower conformality index (CI) during treatment delivery, a decrease in tumor control probability (TCP) and an increase in normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The CI of the IMRT plan depends heavily on steep <span class="hlt">dose</span> gradients between the PTV and organ at risk (OAR). Geometric uncertainties reduce the planned <span class="hlt">dose</span> gradients and result in a less steep or "blurred" <span class="hlt">dose</span> gradient. The blurred <span class="hlt">dose</span> gradients can be maximized by constraining the <span class="hlt">dose</span> objective function in the static IMRT plan or by reducing geometric uncertainty during treatment with corrective verification imaging. Internal organ motion and setup error were evaluated simultaneously for 118 individual patients with implanted fiducials and MV electronic portal imaging (EPI). A Gaussian probability density function (PDF) is reasonable for modeling geometric uncertainties as indicated by the 118 patients group. The Gaussian PDF is patient specific and group standard deviation (SD) should not be used for accurate treatment planning for individual patients. In addition, individual SD should not be determined or predicted from small imaging samples because of random nature of the fluctuations. Frequent verification imaging should be employed in situations where geometric uncertainties are expected. Cumulative PDF data can be used for re-planning to assess accuracy of delivered <span class="hlt">dose</span>. Group data is useful for determining worst case discrepancy between planned and delivered <span class="hlt">dose</span>. The margins for the PTV should ideally represent true geometric uncertainties. The measured geometric uncertainties were used in this thesis to assess PTV coverage, <span class="hlt">dose</span> to OAR, equivalent uniform <span class="hlt">dose</span> per fraction (EUDf) and NTCP. The <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution including geometric uncertainties was determined from integration of the convolution of the static <span class="hlt">dose</span> gradient with the PDF. Integration of the convolution of the static <span class="hlt">dose</span> and derivative of the PDF can also be used to determine the <span class="hlt">dose</span> including geometric uncertainties although this method was not investigated in detail. Local <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> gradient (LMDG) was determined via optimization of <span class="hlt">dose</span> objective function by manually adjusting DVH control <span class="hlt">points</span> or selecting beam numbers and directions during IMRT treatment planning. Minimum SD (SDmin) is used when geometric uncertainty is corrected with verification imaging. <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> SD (SDmax) is used when the geometric uncertainty is known to be large and difficult to manage. SDmax was 4.38 mm in anterior-posterior (AP) direction, 2.70 mm in left-right (LR) direction and 4.35 mm in superior-inferior (SI) direction; SDmin was 1.1 mm in all three directions if less than 2 mm threshold was used for uncorrected fractions in every direction. EUDf is a useful QA parameter for interpreting the biological impact of geometric uncertainties on the static <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution. The EUD f has been used as the basis for the time-course NTCP evaluation in the thesis. Relative NTCP values are useful for comparative QA checking by normalizing known complications (e.g. reported in the RTOG studies) to specific DVH control <span class="hlt">points</span>. For prostate cancer patients, rectal complications were evaluated from specific RTOG clinical trials and detailed evaluation of the treatment techniques (e.g. <span class="hlt">dose</span> prescription, DVH, number of beams, bean angles). Treatment plans that did not meet DVH constraints represented additional complication risk. Geometric uncertainties improved or worsened rectal NTCP depending on individual internal organ motion within patient.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, Runqing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Air+AND+resistance&pg=3&id=EJ742680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical Analysis of <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Flow Declination Rate versus <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Area Declination Rate in Phonation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titze, Ingo R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flow+AND+rates&pg=2&id=EJ742680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical Analysis of <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Flow Declination Rate versus <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Area Declination Rate in Phonation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Purpose: <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titze, Ingo R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-27/pdf/2010-18321.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> and Aggravated <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Civil Monetary Penalties for...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...The aggravated <span class="hlt">maximum</span> penalty is available only for a violation that results in death, serious illness, or...follows: --<span class="hlt">Maximum</span> civil penalty: $50,000, except...violation that results in death, serious illness, or...property. --Minimum civil penalty: $250, except...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NJPh...14f3004T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span>-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce the application of <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood (ML) principles to the image reconstruction problem in coherent diffractive imaging. We describe an implementation of the optimization procedure for ptychography, using conjugate gradients and including preconditioning strategies, regularization and typical modifications of the statistical noise model. The optimization principle is compared to a difference map reconstruction algorithm. With simulated data important improvements are observed, as measured by a strong increase in the signal-to-noise ratio. Significant gains in resolution and sensitivity are also demonstrated in the ML refinement of a reconstruction from experimental x-ray data. The immediate consequence of our results is the possible reduction of exposure, or <span class="hlt">dose</span>, by up to an order of magnitude for a reconstruction quality similar to iterative algorithms currently in use.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thibault, P.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14496889"> <span id="translatedtitle">A modified Fieller interval for the interval estimation of effective <span class="hlt">doses</span> for a logistic <span class="hlt">dose</span>–response curve</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interval estimation of the ?% effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> (?? say) is often based on the asymptotic variance of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimator (delta interval) or Fieller's theorem (Fieller interval). Sitter and Wu (J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 88 (1993) 1021) compared the delta and Fieller intervals for the median effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> (?50) assuming a logistic <span class="hlt">dose</span>–response curve. Their results indicated that although</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yangxin Huang; Peter Harris; Simon P. J. Kirby; John C. Dearden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23509858"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finding <span class="hlt">maximum</span> colorful subtrees in practice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In metabolomics and other fields dealing with small compounds, mass spectrometry is applied as a sensitive high-throughput technique. Recently, fragmentation trees have been proposed to automatically analyze the fragmentation mass spectra recorded by such instruments. Computationally, this leads to the problem of finding a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> weight subtree in an edge-weighted and vertex-colored graph, such that every color appears, at most once in the solution. We introduce new heuristics and an exact algorithm for this <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Colorful Subtree problem and evaluate them against existing algorithms on real-world and artificial datasets. Our tree completion heuristic consistently scores better than other heuristics, while the integer programming-based algorithm produces optimal trees with modest running times. Our fast and accurate heuristic can help determine molecular formulas based on fragmentation trees. On the other hand, optimal trees from the integer linear program are useful if structure is relevant, for example for tree alignments. PMID:23509858</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rauf, Imran; Rasche, Florian; Nicolas, François; Böcker, Sebastian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..86d6304G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> drag reduction simulation using rodlike polymers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simulations of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> drag reduction (MDR) in channel flow using constitutive equations for suspensions of noninteracting rods predict a few-fold larger turbulent kinetic energy than in experiments using rodlike polymers. These differences are attributed to the neglect of interactions between polymers in the simulations. Despite these inconsistencies the simulations correctly reproduce the essential features of MDR, with universal profiles of the mean flow and the shear stress budgets that do not depend on the polymer concentration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gillissen, J. J. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.lptms.u-psud.fr/ressources/publis/0506195.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Precise asymptotics for a random walker's <span class="hlt">maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider a discrete time random walk in one dimension. At each time step the walker jumps by a random distance, independent from step to step, drawn from an arbitrary symmetric density function. We show that the expected positive <span class="hlt">maximum</span> E[Mn] of the walk up to n steps behaves asymptotically for large n as E[M_n]\\/\\\\sigma=\\\\sqrt {2n\\/\\\\pi }+\\\\gamma+\\\\Or (n^{-1\\/2}) , where</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alain Comtet; Satya N. Majumdar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JEI....20a3007R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using image entropy <span class="hlt">maximum</span> for auto exposure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To achieve auto exposure in digital cameras, image brightness is widely used because of its direct relationship with exposure value. To use image entropy as an alternative statistic to image brightness, it is required to establish how image entropy changes as exposure value is varied. This paper presents a mathematical proof along with experimental verification results to show that image entropy reaches a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> value as exposure value is varied by changing shutter speed or aperture size.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rahman, Mohammad T.; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Razlighi, Qolamreza R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21467017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tissue Radiation Response with <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Tsallis Entropy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar [UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain) and University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba); University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991FTP....43.....G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51184591"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Correntropy Criterion for Robust Face Recognition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present a sparse correntropy framework for computing robust sparse representations of face images for recognition. Compared with the state-of-the-art l 1 norm-based sparse representation classifier (SRC), which assumes that noise also has a sparse representation, our sparse algorithm is developed based on the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> correntropy criterion, which is much more insensitive to outliers. In order to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ran He; Wei-Shi Zheng; Bao-Gang Hu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_19 div --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1479449"> <span id="translatedtitle">Noise-predictive <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood (NPML) detection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sequence detectors for the digital magnetic recording channel that are based on noise-predictive partial-response equalization are described. Called Noise-Predictive <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood (NPML) detectors, they arise by imbedding a noise prediction\\/whitening process into the branch metric computation of a Viterbi detector. NPML detectors can be realized in a form that allows RAM table look-up implementation of the imbedded feedback. Alternatively, the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. D. Coker; Evangelos Eleftheriou; Richard L. Galbraith; Walter Hirt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/glossariesandkeywordlists/search.do?details=&glossaryName=TMDLs%20(303d)%20Glossary"> <span id="translatedtitle">Total <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Daily Loads (303d) Glossary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water quality standards:  State or federal law or regulation consisting of a designated use or uses for the waters of the United States, water quality criteria for such waters based upon such uses, and an antidegradation policy and implementation procedures. Water quality standards protect the public health or welfare, enhance the quality of water and serve the purposes of the Clean Water Act.   From Total <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Daily Loads (303d) Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing (((health policy) in) US)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48904195"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy production and earthquake dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine the consistency of natural and model seismicity with the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy production hypothesis for open, slowly-driven, steady-state, dissipative systems. Assuming the commonly-observed power-law feedback between remote boundary stress and strain rate at steady state, several natural observations are explained by the system organizing to maximize entropy production in a near but strictly sub-critical state. These include the low</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ian G. Main; Mark Naylor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1443..263L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy production - Full steam ahead</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of a principle of <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Production (MEP, or less ambiguously MaxEP) to planetary climate is discussed. This idea suggests that if sufficiently free of dynamical constraints, the atmospheric and oceanic heat flows across a planet may conspire to maximize the generation of mechanical work, or entropy. Thermodynamic and information-theoretic aspects of this idea are discussed. These issues are also discussed in the context of dust devils, convective vortices found in strongly-heated desert areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorenz, Ralph D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22308461"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> rate of mammal evolution.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade <span class="hlt">maximum</span> rate, which represents the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in <span class="hlt">maximum</span> mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3306709"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> rate of mammal evolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade <span class="hlt">maximum</span> rate, which represents the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in <span class="hlt">maximum</span> mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18671291"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute effects of high-<span class="hlt">dose</span> methylprednisolone on diaphragm muscle function.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The time- and <span class="hlt">dose</span>-dependent effects of acute high-<span class="hlt">dose</span> corticosteroids on the diaphragm muscle are poorly defined. This study aimed to examine in rabbits the temporal relationships and <span class="hlt">dose</span>-response effects of acute high-<span class="hlt">dose</span> methylprednisolone succinate on diaphragmatic contractile and structural properties. Animals were assigned to groups receiving: (1) 80 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone (MP80) intramuscularly for 1, 2, and 3 days; (2) 10 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone (MP10, pulse-<span class="hlt">dose</span>) for 3 days; or (3) saline (placebo) for 3 days; and (4) a control group. Diaphragmatic in vitro force-frequency and force-velocity relationships, myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform protein and mRNA, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), muscle atrophy F-box (MAF-box) mRNA, and volume density of abnormal myofibrils were measured at each time-<span class="hlt">point</span>. MP80 did not affect animal nutritional state or fiber cross-sectional area as assessed in separate pair-fed groups receiving methylprednisolone or saline for 3 days. Compared with control values, MP80 decreased diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">maximum</span> tetanic tension (Po) by 19%, 24%, and 34% after 1, 2, and 3 days (P < 0.05), respectively, whereas MP10 decreased Po modestly (12%; P > 0.05). Vmax and MyHC protein proportions were unchanged in both the MP80 and MP10 groups. <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> power output decreased after 2 and 3 days of MP80. Suppression of IGF-1 and overexpression of MAF-box mRNA occurred in both MP groups. Significant myofibrillar disarray was also observed in both MP groups. The decline in Po was significantly associated with the increased volume density of abnormal myofibrils. Thus, very high-<span class="hlt">dose</span> methylprednisolone (MP80) can produce rapid reductions in diaphragmatic function, whereas pulse-<span class="hlt">dose</span> methylprednisolone (MP10) produces only modest functional loss. PMID:18671291</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sassoon, Catherine S H; Zhu, Ercheng; Pham, H Tony; Nelson, Renee S; Fang, Liwei; Baker, Michael J; Caiozzo, Vincent J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50735467"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> output power control of permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance generator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, the design and performance analysis of a robust and inexpensive permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance generator (PMa-SynRG) with its corresponding control topology is studied. More specifically, the topology based on vector control for the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> output power of generator is investigated. The torque of PMa-SynRG is controlled by a combustion engine speed and the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power operating <span class="hlt">point</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeihoon Baek; Mina M. Rahimian; Hamid A. Toliyat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1519673"> <span id="translatedtitle">Matching of DC motors to photovoltaic generators for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> daily gross mechanical energy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The matching to solar-cell generators of both separately excited and series DC motors driving pumping loads is addressed. It is shown that the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> gross mechanical power can be obtained at slightly higher voltages and slightly lower currents compared to the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> electrical-power <span class="hlt">points</span> on the solar-cell generator characteristics at different insolation levels. Guidelines for constructing the loci of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. M. Saied</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20628637"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collaborative double robust targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Collaborative double robust targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimators represent a fundamental further advance over standard targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimators of a pathwise differentiable parameter of a data generating distribution in a semiparametric model, introduced in van der Laan, Rubin (2006). The targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood approach involves fluctuating an initial estimate of a relevant factor (Q) of the density of the observed data, in order to make a bias/variance tradeoff targeted towards the parameter of interest. The fluctuation involves estimation of a nuisance parameter portion of the likelihood, g. TMLE has been shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed (CAN) under regularity conditions, when either one of these two factors of the likelihood of the data is correctly specified, and it is semiparametric efficient if both are correctly specified. In this article we provide a template for applying collaborative targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimation (C-TMLE) to the estimation of pathwise differentiable parameters in semi-parametric models. The procedure creates a sequence of candidate targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimators based on an initial estimate for Q coupled with a succession of increasingly non-parametric estimates for g. In a departure from current state of the art nuisance parameter estimation, C-TMLE estimates of g are constructed based on a loss function for the targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimator of the relevant factor Q that uses the nuisance parameter to carry out the fluctuation, instead of a loss function for the nuisance parameter itself. Likelihood-based cross-validation is used to select the best estimator among all candidate TMLE estimators of Q(0) in this sequence. A penalized-likelihood loss function for Q is suggested when the parameter of interest is borderline-identifiable. We present theoretical results for "collaborative double robustness," demonstrating that the collaborative targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimator is CAN even when Q and g are both mis-specified, providing that g solves a specified score equation implied by the difference between the Q and the true Q(0). This marks an improvement over the current definition of double robustness in the estimating equation literature. We also establish an asymptotic linearity theorem for the C-DR-TMLE of the target parameter, showing that the C-DR-TMLE is more adaptive to the truth, and, as a consequence, can even be super efficient if the first stage density estimator does an excellent job itself with respect to the target parameter. This research provides a template for targeted efficient and robust loss-based learning of a particular target feature of the probability distribution of the data within large (infinite dimensional) semi-parametric models, while still providing statistical inference in terms of confidence intervals and p-values. This research also breaks with a taboo (e.g., in the propensity score literature in the field of causal inference) on using the relevant part of likelihood to fine-tune the fitting of the nuisance parameter/censoring mechanism/treatment mechanism. PMID:20628637</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van der Laan, Mark J; Gruber, Susan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6619890"> <span id="translatedtitle">HADOC: a computer code for calculation of external and inhalation <span class="hlt">doses</span> from acute radionuclide releases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute <span class="hlt">Dose</span> Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external <span class="hlt">dose</span> from air submersion and inhalation <span class="hlt">doses</span> following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine <span class="hlt">maximum</span> conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. <span class="hlt">Doses</span> are calculated using <span class="hlt">dose</span> conversion factor supplied in a data library. <span class="hlt">Doses</span> are reported for one and fifty year <span class="hlt">dose</span> commitment periods for the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to <span class="hlt">dose</span> by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23544358"> <span id="translatedtitle">Individualized positioning for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> heart protection during breast irradiation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background. Prone positioning has been found feasible and appropriate for the reduction of radiation exposure of the lungs, but its effects on the heart <span class="hlt">dose</span> remain controversial. Individual anatomical features were sought for the selection of optimal treatment positioning. Material and methods. In 138 left-sided breast cancer cases awaiting postoperative whole-breast radiotherapy, conformal radiotherapy plans were generated in both prone and supine positions. Results. The radiation <span class="hlt">doses</span> to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and heart in the two positions differed individually, and were strongly related to the body mass index (BMI). Image fusion of the CT scans revealed that prone positioning was detrimental if the heart was situated distant from the chest wall in the supine position, but moved to the chest wall in the prone position. For characterization of the geography of the heart and the breast, the median distance between the LAD and the chest wall (dmedian), and the heart area included in the radiation field on a single CT scan at the middle of the heart in the supine position (Aheart) proved most appropriate. Conclusion. A validated statistical model, utilizing the BMI, dmedian and Aheart, permits individualized positioning for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> heart protection. PMID:23544358</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Varga, Zoltán; Cserháti, Adrienn; Rárosi, Ferenc; Boda, Krisztina; Gulyás, Gergely; Együd, Zsófia; Kahán, Zsuzsanna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EPJB...82..159E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetization structure of a Bloch <span class="hlt">point</span> singularity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Switching of magnetic vortex cores involves a topological transition characterized by the presence of a magnetization singularity, a <span class="hlt">point</span> where the magnetization vanishes (Bloch <span class="hlt">point</span>). We analytically derive the shape of the Bloch <span class="hlt">point</span> that is an extremum of the free energy with exchange, dipolar and Landau terms. From a one parameter family of solutions, two types of singularities are distinguished, a radial one (hedgehog) corresponding to a local energy <span class="hlt">maximum</span>, and a twisted one corresponding to a local energy minimum. Micromagnetic simulations show that the hedgehog magnetization naturally evolves to a twisted one if the size of the ferromagnet is much larger than the exchange length.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elías, R. G.; Verga, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22588165"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast range-corrected proton <span class="hlt">dose</span> approximation method using prior <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For robust plan optimization and evaluation purposes, one needs a computationally efficient way to calculate <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions and <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume histograms (DVHs) under various changes in the variables associated with beam delivery and images. In this study, we report an approximate method for rapid calculation of <span class="hlt">dose</span> when setup errors and anatomical changes occur during proton therapy. This fast <span class="hlt">dose</span> approximation method calculates new <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions under various circumstances based on the prior knowledge of <span class="hlt">dose</span> distribution from a reference setting. In order to validate the method, we calculated and compared the <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions from our approximation method to the <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions calculated from a clinically commissioned treatment planning system which was used as the ground truth. The overall accuracy of the proposed method was tested against varying degrees of setup error and anatomical deformation for selected patient cases. The setup error was simulated by rigid shifts of the patient; while the anatomical deformation was introduced using weekly acquired repeat CT data sets. We evaluated the agreement between the <span class="hlt">dose</span> approximation method and full <span class="hlt">dose</span> recalculation using a 3D gamma index and the root-mean-square (RMS) and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> deviation of the cumulative <span class="hlt">dose</span> volume histograms (cDVHs). The average passing rate of 3D gamma analysis under 3% <span class="hlt">dose</span> and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criteria were 96% and 89% for setup errors and severe anatomy changes, respectively. The average of RMS and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> deviation of the cDVHs under the setup error was 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively for all structures considered. Similarly, the average of RMS and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> deviations under the weekly anatomical change were 0.6% and 2.7%, respectively. Our results show that the fast <span class="hlt">dose</span> approximation method was able to account for the density variation of the patient due to the setup and anatomical changes with acceptable accuracy while significantly improving the computation time. PMID:22588165</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Peter C; Cheung, Joey; Zhu, X Ronald; Sahoo, Narayan; Court, Laurence; Dong, Lei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56416418"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity currents near the density <span class="hlt">maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe lock-release experiments in which the receiving water is close to the freezing <span class="hlt">point</span>, and is denser than the warm water in the lock. Experiments are performed with either a free surface or a rigid lid, the latter with a view to simulating warm water releases into ice-covered lakes. When the lock gate is removed, a gravity current of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Leppinen; Antony Kay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3126670"> <span id="translatedtitle">Targeted <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood Based Causal Inference: Part I</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given causal graph assumptions, intervention-specific counterfactual distributions of the data can be defined by the so called G-computation formula, which is obtained by carrying out these interventions on the likelihood of the data factorized according to the causal graph. The obtained G-computation formula represents the counterfactual distribution the data would have had if this intervention would have been enforced on the system generating the data. A causal effect of interest can now be defined as some difference between these counterfactual distributions indexed by different interventions. For example, the interventions can represent static treatment regimens or individualized treatment rules that assign treatment in response to time-dependent covariates, and the causal effects could be defined in terms of features of the mean of the treatment-regimen specific counterfactual outcome of interest as a function of the corresponding treatment regimens. Such features could be defined nonparametrically in terms of so called (nonparametric) marginal structural models for static or individualized treatment rules, whose parameters can be thought of as (smooth) summary measures of differences between the treatment regimen specific counterfactual distributions. In this article, we develop a particular targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimator of causal effects of multiple time <span class="hlt">point</span> interventions. This involves the use of loss-based super-learning to obtain an initial estimate of the unknown factors of the G-computation formula, and subsequently, applying a target-parameter specific optimal fluctuation function (least favorable parametric submodel) to each estimated factor, estimating the fluctuation parameter(s) with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimation, and iterating this updating step of the initial factor till convergence. This iterative targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood updating step makes the resulting estimator of the causal effect double robust in the sense that it is consistent if either the initial estimator is consistent, or the estimator of the optimal fluctuation function is consistent. The optimal fluctuation function is correctly specified if the conditional distributions of the nodes in the causal graph one intervenes upon are correctly specified. The latter conditional distributions often comprise the so called treatment and censoring mechanism. Selection among different targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimators (e.g., indexed by different initial estimators) can be based on loss-based cross-validation such as likelihood based cross-validation or cross-validation based on another appropriate loss function for the distribution of the data. Some specific loss functions are mentioned in this article. Subsequently, a variety of interesting observations about this targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimation procedure are made. This article provides the basis for the subsequent companion Part II-article in which concrete demonstrations for the implementation of the targeted MLE in complex causal effect estimation problems are provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van der Laan, Mark J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21503950"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">maximum</span> astrophysical gravitational recoil velocities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We measure the recoil velocity as a function of spin for equal-mass, highly spinning black-hole binaries, with spins in the orbital plane, equal in magnitude, and opposite in direction. We confirm that the leading-order effect is linear in the spin and the cosine of angle between the spin direction and the infall direction at the merger. We find higher-order corrections that are proportional to the odd powers in both the spin and cosine of this angle. Taking these corrections into account, we predict that the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> recoil will be 3680{+-}130 km s{sup -1}.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lousto, Carlos O.; Zlochower, Yosef [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, 78 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=433082"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span>-valence radii of transition metals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In many of their compounds the transition metals have covalence 9, forming nine bonds with use of nine hybrid spd bond orbitals. A set of <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-valence single-bond radii is formulated for use in these compounds. These radii are in reasonably good agreement with observed bond lengths. Quadruple bonds between two transition metal atoms are about 50 pm (iron-group atoms) or 55 pm (palladium and platinum-group atoms) shorter than single bonds. This amount of shortening corresponds to four bent single bonds with the best set of bond angles, 79.24° and 128.8°.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pauling, Linus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhyA..382..235R"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> drawdown during speculative bubbles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6250R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global characterization of the Holocene Thermal <span class="hlt">Maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the global variations in the timing and magnitude of the Holocene Thermal <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> (HTM) and their dependence on various forcings in transient simulations covering the last 9000 years (9 kyr), performed with the LOVECLIM global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model (Goosse et al. 2010). In these experiments, we consider the influence of variations in orbital parameters and atmospheric greenhouse gases and the early-Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice sheet (LIS). Considering the LIS deglaciation, we quantify separately the impacts of the background melt-water fluxes and the changes in topography and surface albedo. In the analysis we focus on the intensity of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> temperature deviation relative to the preindustrial level, its timing in the Holocene, and the seasonal expression. In the model, the warmest HTM conditions are found at high latitudes in both hemispheres, reaching 5°C above the preindustrial level, while the smallest HTM signal is seen over tropical oceans (less than 0.5°C). This latitudinal contrast is mostly related to the nature of the orbitally-forced insolation forcing, which is also largest at high latitudes, and further enhanced by the polar amplification. The Holocene timing of the HTM is earliest (before 8 kyr BP) in regions not affected by the remnant LIS, particularly NW North America, E Asia, N Africa, N South America, the Middle East, NE Siberia and Australia. Compared to the early Holocene insolation <span class="hlt">maximum</span>, the HTM was delayed by 2 to 3 kyr over NE North America, and regions directly downwind from the LIS. A similar delay is simulated over the Southern Ocean, while an intermediate lag of about 1 kyr is found over most other continents and oceans. The seasonal timing of the HTM over continents generally occurs in the same month as the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> insolation anomaly, whereas over oceans the HTM is delayed by 2-3 months. Exceptions are the oceans covered by sea ice and North Africa, were additional feedbacks results in a different seasonal timing. The simulated timing and magnitude of the HTM are generally consistent with global proxy evidence, with some notable exceptions in the Mediterranean region, SW North America and eastern Eurasia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Renssen, H.; Seppä, H.; Crosta, X.; Goosse, H.; Roche, D. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_20 div --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012QSRv...48....7R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global characterization of the Holocene Thermal <span class="hlt">Maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the global variations in the timing and magnitude of the Holocene Thermal <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> (HTM) and their dependence on various forcings in transient simulations covering the last 9000 years (9 ka), performed with a global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model. In these experiments, we consider the influence of variations in orbital parameters and atmospheric greenhouse gases and the early-Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice sheet (LIS). Considering the LIS deglaciation, we quantify separately the impacts of the background melt-water fluxes and the changes in topography and surface albedo.In the analysis we focus on the intensity of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> temperature deviation relative to the preindustrial level, its timing in the Holocene, and the seasonal expression. In the model, the warmest HTM conditions are found at high latitudes in both hemispheres, reaching 5 °C above the preindustrial level, while the smallest HTM signal is seen over tropical oceans (less than 0.5 °C). This latitudinal contrast is mostly related to the nature of the orbitally-forced insolation forcing, which is also largest at high latitudes, and further enhanced by the polar amplification. The Holocene timing of the HTM is earliest (before 8 ka BP) in regions not affected by the remnant LIS, particularly NW North America, E Asia, N Africa, N South America, the Middle East, NE Siberia and Australia. Compared to the early Holocene insolation <span class="hlt">maximum</span>, the HTM was delayed by 2-3 ka over NE North America, and regions directly downwind from the LIS. A similar delay is simulated over the Southern Ocean, while an intermediate lag of about 1 ka is found over most other continents and oceans. The seasonal timing of the HTM over continents generally occurs in the same month as the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> insolation anomaly, whereas over oceans the HTM is delayed by 2-3 months. Exceptions are the oceans covered by sea ice and North Africa, were additional feedbacks results in a different seasonal timing. The simulated timing and magnitude of the HTM are generally consistent with global proxy evidence, with some notable exceptions in the Mediterranean region, SW North America and eastern Eurasia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Renssen, H.; Seppä, H.; Crosta, X.; Goosse, H.; Roche, D. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1020333"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conductivity <span class="hlt">maximum</span> in a charged colloidal suspension</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity <span class="hlt">maximum</span> as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bastea, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056215"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Comprehensive Analysis of Cardiac <span class="hlt">Dose</span> in Balloon-Based High-<span class="hlt">Dose</span>-Rate Brachytherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To investigate radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span> to the heart in 60 patients with left-sided breast cancer who were treated with balloon-based high-<span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate brachytherapy using MammoSite or Contura applicators. Methods and Materials: We studied 60 consecutive women with breast cancer who were treated with 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions using MammoSite (n = 37) or Contura (n = 23) applicators. The whole heart and the left and right ventricles were retrospectively delineated, and <span class="hlt">dose</span>-volume histograms were analyzed. Multiple dosimetrics were reported, such as mean <span class="hlt">dose</span> (D{sub mean}); relative volume receiving 1.7, 5, 10, and 20 Gy (V1.7, V5, V10, and V20, respectively); <span class="hlt">dose</span> to 1 cc (D{sub 1cc}); and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> (D{sub max}). Biologic metrics, biologically effective <span class="hlt">dose</span> and generalized equivalent uniform <span class="hlt">dose</span> were computed. The impact of lumpectomy cavity location on cardiac <span class="hlt">dose</span> was investigated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation of D{sub mean} was 2.45 {+-} 0.94 Gy (range, 0.56-4.68) and 3.29 {+-} 1.28 Gy (range, 0.77-6.35) for the heart and the ventricles, respectively. The average whole heart V5 and V10 values were 10.2% and 1.3%, respectively, and the heart D{sub max} was >20 Gy in 7 of 60 (11.7%) patients and >25 Gy in 3 of 60 (5%) patients. No cardiac tissue received {>=}30 Gy. The V1.7, V5, V10, V20, and D{sub mean} values were all higher for the ventricles than for the whole heart. For balloons located in the upper inner quadrant of the breast, the average whole heart D{sub mean} was highest. The D{sub mean}, biologically effective <span class="hlt">dose</span>, and generalized equivalent uniform <span class="hlt">dose</span> values for heart and ventricles decreased with increasing minimal distance from the surface of the balloon. Conclusions: On the basis of these comprehensive cardiac dosimetric data, we recommend that cardiac <span class="hlt">dose</span> be routinely reported and kept as low as possible in balloon-based high-<span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate brachytherapy treatment planning for patients with left-sided breast cancer so the correlation with future cardiac toxicity data can be investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Valakh, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@valakh.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Yongbok; Werts, E. Day; Trombetta, Mark G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol11-sec259-34.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> deposits; <span class="hlt">maximum</span> time to deposit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND Capital Construction Fund Agreement § 259.34 Minimum and <span class="hlt">maximum</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1289..329W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood Estimation (MLE) of students' understanding of vector subtraction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we report on the impact that slight changes in question format have on student response to one-dimensional vector subtraction tasks. We use <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood Estimation (MLE) analysis to analyze students' responses on six very similar questions which vary in context (physics or mathematics), vector alignment (both <span class="hlt">pointing</span> to the right or opposed), and operation (left-right subtraction or right-left subtraction). Responses on all questions are generally correct and do not vary by instructional week or even by course. Context and specific operation do not show significant differences. Vector alignment is significantly different, indicating that perception or heuristic thinking is a bigger cause of failure than conceptual deficit. The emphasis in this paper is an introduction to likelihood estimation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Tianren; Sayre, Eleanor C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=10496&DocID=1952"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood Estimation (MLE) of studentsâ understanding of vector subtraction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we report on the impact that slight changes in question format have on student response to one-dimensional vector subtraction tasks. We use <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood Estimation (MLE) analysis to analyze studentsâ responses on six very similar questions which vary in context (physics or mathematics), vector alignment (both <span class="hlt">pointing</span> to the right or opposed), and operation (left-right subtraction or right-left subtraction). Responses on all questions are generally correct and do not vary by instructional week or even by course. Context and specific operation do not show significant differences. Vector alignment is significantly different, indicating that perception or heuristic thinking is a bigger cause of failure than conceptual deficit. The emphasis in this paper is an introduction to likelihood estimation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Tianren; Sayre, Eleanor C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OptEn..48d7205H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> neighborhood margin criterion in face recognition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Feature extraction is a data analysis technique devoted to removing redundancy and extracting the most discriminative information. In face recognition, feature extractors are normally plagued with small sample size problems, in which the total number of training images is much smaller than the image dimensionality. Recently, an optimized facial feature extractor, <span class="hlt">maximum</span> marginal criterion (MMC), was proposed. MMC computes an optimized projection by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem in a standard form that is free from inverse matrix operation, and thus it does not suffer from the small sample size problem. However, MMC is essentially a linear projection technique that relies on facial image pixel intensity to compute within- and between-class scatters. The nonlinear nature of faces restricts the discrimination of MMC. Hence, we propose an improved MMC, namely <span class="hlt">maximum</span> neighborhood margin criterion (MNMC). Unlike MMC, which preserves global geometric structures that do not perfectly describe the underlying face manifold, MNMC seeks a projection that preserves local geometric structures via neighborhood preservation. This objective function leads to the enhancement of classification capability, and this is testified by experimental results. MNMC shows its performance superiority compared to MMC, especially in pose, illumination, and expression (PIE) and face recognition grand challenge (FRGC) databases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Pang Ying; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013A%26A...551A...9A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> likelihood estimation of local stellar kinematics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context. Kinematical data such as the mean velocities and velocity dispersions of stellar samples are useful tools to study galactic structure and evolution. However, observational data are often incomplete (e.g., lacking the radial component of the motion) and may have significant observational errors. For example, the majority of faint stars observed with Gaia will not have their radial velocities measured. Aims: Our aim is to formulate and test a new <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood approach to estimating the kinematical parameters for a local stellar sample when only the transverse velocities are known (from parallaxes and proper motions). Methods: Numerical simulations using synthetically generated data as well as real data (based on the Geneva-Copenhagen survey) are used to investigate the statistical properties (bias, precision) of the method, and to compare its performance with the much simpler "projection method" described by Dehnen & Binney (1998, MNRAS, 298, 387). Results: The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood method gives more correct estimates of the dispersion when observational errors are important, and guarantees a positive-definite dispersion matrix, which is not always obtained with the projection method. Possible extensions and improvements of the method are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aghajani, T.; Lindegren, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59041892"> <span id="translatedtitle">Miami Beach: Biscayne <span class="hlt">Point</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biscayne <span class="hlt">Point</span> in Miami Beach is a residential neighborhood made up of three man made islands in Biscayne Bay. The Biscayne <span class="hlt">Point</span> islands are a part of the North Beach, which is the are north of 63rd Ave and Collins. This aerial photograph looks down the furthest extending island in Biscayne <span class="hlt">Point</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chet Smolski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20775208"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetric and radiobiological impact of <span class="hlt">dose</span> fractionation on respiratory motion induced IMRT delivery errors: A volumetric <span class="hlt">dose</span> measurement study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Respiratory motion can introduce substantial <span class="hlt">dose</span> errors during IMRT delivery. These errors are difficult to predict because of the nonsynchronous interplay between radiation beams and tissues. The present study investigates the impact of <span class="hlt">dose</span> fractionation on respiratory motion induced dosimetric errors during IMRT delivery and their radiobiological implications by using measured 3D <span class="hlt">dose</span>. We focused on IMRT delivery with dynamic multileaf collimation (DMLC-IMRT). IMRT plans using several beam arrangements were optimized for and delivered to a polystyrene phantom containing a simulated target and critical organs. The phantom was set in linear sinusoidal motion at a frequency of 15 cycles/min (0.25 Hz). The amplitude of the motion was {+-}0.75 cm in the longitudinal direction and {+-}0.25 cm in the lateral direction. Absolute <span class="hlt">doses</span> were measured with a 0.125 cc ionization chamber while <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions were measured with transverse films spaced 6 mm apart. Measurements were performed for varying number of fractions with motion, with respiratory-gated motion, and without motion. A tumor control probability (TCP) model for an inhomogeneously irradiated tumor was used to calculate and compare TCPs for the measurements and the treatment plans. Equivalent uniform <span class="hlt">doses</span> (EUD) were also computed. For individual fields, <span class="hlt">point</span> measurements using an ionization chamber showed substantial <span class="hlt">dose</span> deviations (-11.7% to 47.8%) for the moving phantom as compared to the stationary phantom. However, much smaller deviations (-1.7% to 3.5%) were observed for the composite <span class="hlt">dose</span> of all fields. The <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions and DVHs of stationary and gated deliveries were in good agreement with those of treatment plans, while those of the nongated moving phantom showed substantial differences. Compared to the stationaryphantom, the largest differences observed for the minimum and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> target <span class="hlt">doses</span> were -18.8% and +19.7%, respectively. Due to their random nature, these <span class="hlt">dose</span> errors tended to average out over fractionated treatments. The results of five-fraction measurements showed significantly improved agreement between the moving and stationary phantom. The changes in TCP were less than 4.3% for a single fraction, and less than 2.3% for two or more fractions. Variation of average EUD per fraction was small (<3.1 cGy for a fraction size of 200 cGy), even when the DVHs were noticeably different from that of the stationary tumor. In conclusion, IMRT treatment of sites affected by respiratory motion can introduce significant <span class="hlt">dose</span> errors in individual field <span class="hlt">doses</span>; however, these errors tend to cancel out between fields and average out over <span class="hlt">dose</span> fractionation. 3D <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions, DVHs, TCPs, and EUDs for stationary and moving cases showed good agreement after two or more fractions, suggesting that tumors affected by respiration motion may be treated using IMRT without significant dosimetric and biological consequences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duan, Jun; Shen Sui; Fiveash, John B.; Popple, Richard A.; Brezovich, Ivan A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35233 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22555854"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implementation of <span class="hlt">dose</span> superimposition to introduce multiple <span class="hlt">doses</span> for a mathematical absorption model (transit compartment model).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A mathematical absorption model (e.g. transit compartment model) is useful to describe complex absorption process. However, in such a model, an assumption has to be made to introduce multiple <span class="hlt">doses</span> that a prior <span class="hlt">dose</span> has been absorbed nearly completely when the next <span class="hlt">dose</span> is administered. This is because the drug input cannot be determined from drug depot compartment through integration of the differential equation system and has to be analytically calculated. We propose a method of <span class="hlt">dose</span> superimposition to introduce multiple <span class="hlt">doses</span>; thereby eliminating the assumption. The code for implementing the <span class="hlt">dose</span> superimposition in WinNonlin and NONMEM was provided. For implementation in NONMEM, we discussed a special case (SC) and a general case (GC). In a SC, <span class="hlt">dose</span> superimposition was implemented solely using NM-TRAN abbreviated code and the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> number of the <span class="hlt">doses</span> that can be administered for any subject must be pre-defined. In a GC, a user-supplied function (FUNCA) in FORTRAN code was defined to perform <span class="hlt">dose</span> superimposition to remove the restriction that the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> number of <span class="hlt">doses</span> must be pre-defined. PMID:22555854</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shen, Jun; Boeckmann, Alison; Vick, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17671348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patient-specific IMRT verification using independent fluence-based <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation software: experimental benchmarking and initial clinical experience.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental methods are commonly used for patient-specific intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) verification. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy and performance of independent <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation software (denoted as 'MUV' (monitor unit verification)) for patient-specific quality assurance (QA). 52 patients receiving step-and-shoot IMRT were considered. IMRT plans were recalculated by the treatment planning systems (TPS) in a dedicated QA phantom, in which an experimental 1D and 2D verification (0.3 cm(3) ionization chamber; films) was performed. Additionally, an independent <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation was performed. The fluence-based algorithm of MUV accounts for collimator transmission, rounded leaf ends, tongue-and-groove effect, backscatter to the monitor chamber and scatter from the flattening filter. The <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation utilizes a pencil beam model based on a beam quality index. DICOM RT files from patient plans, exported from the TPS, were directly used as patient-specific input data in MUV. For composite IMRT plans, average deviations in the high <span class="hlt">dose</span> region between ionization chamber measurements and <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculations performed with the TPS and MUV were 1.6 +/- 1.2% and 0.5 +/- 1.1% (1 S.D.). The <span class="hlt">dose</span> deviations between MUV and TPS slightly depended on the distance from the isocentre position. For individual intensity-modulated beams (total 367), an average deviation of 1.1 +/- 2.9% was determined between calculations performed with the TPS and with MUV, with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> deviations up to 14%. However, absolute <span class="hlt">dose</span> deviations were mostly less than 3 cGy. Based on the current results, we aim to apply a confidence limit of 3% (with respect to the prescribed <span class="hlt">dose</span>) or 6 cGy for routine IMRT verification. For off-axis <span class="hlt">points</span> at distances larger than 5 cm and for low <span class="hlt">dose</span> regions, we consider 5% <span class="hlt">dose</span> deviation or 10 cGy acceptable. The time needed for an independent calculation compares very favourably with the net time for an experimental approach. The physical effects modelled in the <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation software MUV allow accurate <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculations in individual verification <span class="hlt">points</span>. Independent calculations may be used to replace experimental <span class="hlt">dose</span> verification once the IMRT programme is mature. PMID:17671348</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georg, Dietmar; Stock, Markus; Kroupa, Bernhard; Olofsson, Jörgen; Nyholm, Tufve; Ahnesjö, Anders; Karlsson, Mikael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PMB....52.4981G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patient-specific IMRT verification using independent fluence-based <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation software: experimental benchmarking and initial clinical experience</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental methods are commonly used for patient-specific intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) verification. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy and performance of independent <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation software (denoted as 'MUV' (monitor unit verification)) for patient-specific quality assurance (QA). 52 patients receiving step-and-shoot IMRT were considered. IMRT plans were recalculated by the treatment planning systems (TPS) in a dedicated QA phantom, in which an experimental 1D and 2D verification (0.3 cm3 ionization chamber; films) was performed. Additionally, an independent <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation was performed. The fluence-based algorithm of MUV accounts for collimator transmission, rounded leaf ends, tongue-and-groove effect, backscatter to the monitor chamber and scatter from the flattening filter. The <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation utilizes a pencil beam model based on a beam quality index. DICOM RT files from patient plans, exported from the TPS, were directly used as patient-specific input data in MUV. For composite IMRT plans, average deviations in the high <span class="hlt">dose</span> region between ionization chamber measurements and <span class="hlt">point</span> <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculations performed with the TPS and MUV were 1.6 ± 1.2% and 0.5 ± 1.1% (1 S.D.). The <span class="hlt">dose</span> deviations between MUV and TPS slightly depended on the distance from the isocentre position. For individual intensity-modulated beams (total 367), an average deviation of 1.1 ± 2.9% was determined between calculations performed with the TPS and with MUV, with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> deviations up to 14%. However, absolute <span class="hlt">dose</span> deviations were mostly less than 3 cGy. Based on the current results, we aim to apply a confidence limit of 3% (with respect to the prescribed <span class="hlt">dose</span>) or 6 cGy for routine IMRT verification. For off-axis <span class="hlt">points</span> at distances larger than 5 cm and for low <span class="hlt">dose</span> regions, we consider 5% <span class="hlt">dose</span> deviation or 10 cGy acceptable. The time needed for an independent calculation compares very favourably with the net time for an experimental approach. The physical effects modelled in the <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculation software MUV allow accurate <span class="hlt">dose</span> calculations in individual verification <span class="hlt">points</span>. Independent calculations may be used to replace experimental <span class="hlt">dose</span> verification once the IMRT programme is mature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georg, Dietmar; Stock, Markus; Kroupa, Bernhard; Olofsson, Jörgen; Nyholm, Tufve; Ahnesjö, Anders; Karlsson, Mikael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol4-sec230-24.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.24 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress. (a) <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress value....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol1-sec35-2205.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 35.2205 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> allowable project cost will be the sum of:...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol4-sec230-27.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.27 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> shearing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol4-sec230-27.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.27 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> shearing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol1-sec35-2205.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 35.2205 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2009-title40-vol1-sec35-2205.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 35.2205 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2009-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol4-sec230-24.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.24 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress. (a) <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress value....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_21 div --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2009-title49-vol4-sec230-24.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.24 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2009-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress. (a) <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress value....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec57-19062.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 57.19062 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> acceleration and deceleration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section...Procedures § 57.19062 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> acceleration and deceleration. <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec56-19062.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 56.19062 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> acceleration and deceleration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section...Procedures § 56.19062 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> acceleration and deceleration. <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title24-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title24-vol4-sec886-308.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">24 CFR 886.308 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> total annual contract commitment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> total annual contract commitment. 886.308 Section 886.308 ...308 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> total annual contract commitment. (a) Number of units assisted...by which the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> annual contract commitment per year exceeds amounts paid...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec183-35.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 183.35 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> weight capacity: Outboard boats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 Section 183.35 Navigation...SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Loading...35 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> weight capacity...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec183-35.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 183.35 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> weight capacity: Outboard boats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 Section 183.35 Navigation...SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Loading...35 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> weight capacity...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol4-sec230-27.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.27 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> shearing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2009-title49-vol4-sec230-27.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.27 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2009-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> shearing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15020790"> <span id="translatedtitle">REMARKS ON THE <span class="hlt">MAXIMUM</span> ENTROPY METHOD APPLIED TO FINITE TEMPERATURE LATTICE QCD.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We make remarks on the <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Method (MEM) for studies of the spectral function of hadronic correlators in finite temperature lattice QCD. We discuss the virtues and subtlety of MEM in the cases that one does not have enough number of data <span class="hlt">points</span> such as at finite temperature. Taking these <span class="hlt">points</span> into account, we suggest several tests which one should examine to keep the reliability for the results, and also apply them using mock and lattice QCD data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">UMEDA, T.; MATSUFURU, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/266654"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technical basis for <span class="hlt">dose</span> reconstruction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to consider two general topics: technical considerations of why <span class="hlt">dose</span>-reconstruction studies should or should not be performed and methods of <span class="hlt">dose</span> reconstruction. The first topic is of general and growing interest as the number of <span class="hlt">dose</span>-reconstruction studies increases, and one asks the question whether it is necessary to perform a <span class="hlt">dose</span> reconstruction for virtually every site at which, for example, the Department of Energy (DOE) has operated a nuclear-related facility. And there is the broader question of how one might logically draw the line at performing or not performing <span class="hlt">dose</span>-reconstruction (radiological and chemical) studies for virtually every industrial complex in the entire country. The second question is also of general interest. There is no single correct way to perform a <span class="hlt">dose</span>-reconstruction study, and it is important not to follow blindly a single method to the <span class="hlt">point</span> that cheaper, faster, more accurate, and more transparent methods might not be developed and applied.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anspaugh, L.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3311034"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Point</span> specificity in acupuncture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The existence of <span class="hlt">point</span> specificity in acupuncture is controversial, because many acupuncture studies using this principle to select control <span class="hlt">points</span> have found that sham acupoints have similar effects to those of verum acupoints. Furthermore, the results of pain-related studies based on visual analogue scales have not supported the concept of <span class="hlt">point</span> specificity. In contrast, hemodynamic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies evaluating the responses to stimulation of multiple <span class="hlt">points</span> on the body surface have shown that <span class="hlt">point</span>-specific actions are present. This review article focuses on clinical and laboratory studies supporting the existence of <span class="hlt">point</span> specificity in acupuncture and also addresses studies that do not support this concept. Further research is needed to elucidate the <span class="hlt">point</span>-specific actions of acupuncture.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22373514"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Point</span> specificity in acupuncture.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The existence of <span class="hlt">point</span> specificity in acupuncture is controversial, because many acupuncture studies using this principle to select control <span class="hlt">points</span> have found that sham acupoints have similar effects to those of verum acupoints. Furthermore, the results of pain-related studies based on visual analogue scales have not supported the concept of <span class="hlt">point</span> specificity. In contrast, hemodynamic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies evaluating the responses to stimulation of multiple <span class="hlt">points</span> on the body surface have shown that <span class="hlt">point</span>-specific actions are present. This review article focuses on clinical and laboratory studies supporting the existence of <span class="hlt">point</span> specificity in acupuncture and also addresses studies that do not support this concept. Further research is needed to elucidate the <span class="hlt">point</span>-specific actions of acupuncture. PMID:22373514</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choi, Emma M; Jiang, Fang; Longhurst, John C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50121539"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power tracking techniques and control of DC\\/DC converters for photovoltaic power system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the electric power supplied by solar arrays depends on the insolation, temperature and array voltage, it is necessary to control the operating <span class="hlt">points</span> to draw the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power of the solar array. The object of this paper is to investigate the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power tracking algorithms which were often used to compare the tracking efficiencies for the system operating under</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chihchiang Hua; Chihming Shen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSA41C..08S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variations of Ozone at the Secondary <span class="hlt">Maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multiyear global observations from the SABER and MIPAS satellite instruments show the variations of the secondary <span class="hlt">maximum</span> of ozone in the upper mesosphere (90-100 km). The ozone concentrations have large diurnal and seasonal cycles and also vary on daily to weekly timescales. We investigate the relative contributions and timescales of photochemistry, temperature dependent chemical reactions, and transport and diffusion of ozone and other trace species. Additional satellite observations from these and other instruments contribute to and constrain the analysis. Simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model reproduce much of the variability but the ozone concentrations in the model are lower than observed. Detailed comparisons between model and observations are used to investigate the processes responsible for the differences. At high latitudes during NH winter, variations in ozone are forced at some times by temperature variations, through temperature dependent chemical reaction rates, and at others by variations in atomic hydrogen concentration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, A. K.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Harvey, V.; Mlynczak, M. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3397562"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffusivity <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> in a Reentrant Nematic Phase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..MARY19008C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Frictional Charge Generation on Polymer Surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> amount of charge that a given surface area can hold is limited by the surrounding environmental conditions such as the atmospheric composition, pressure, humidity, and temperature. Above this charge density limit, the surface will discharge to the atmosphere or to a nearby conductive surface that is at a different electric potential. We have performed experiments using the MECA Electrometer, a flight instrument developed jointly by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA Kennedy Space Center to study the electrostatic properties of the Martian soil. The electrometer contains five types of polymers: fiberglass/epoxy, polycarbonate (Lexan), polytetraflouroethylene (Teflon), Rulon J, and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, Lucite). We repeatedly rubbed the polymers with another material until each polymer's charge saturation was determined. We will discuss the correlation of our data with the triboelectric series.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calle, Carlos; Groop, Ellen; Mantovani, James; Buehler, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992jpnt.confRR...S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> life spiral bevel reduction design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed backcone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed reduction, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PMB....53..329B"> <span id="translatedtitle">NOTE: Measurement of <span class="hlt">dose</span> reductions for superficial x-rays backscattered from bone interfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accurate measurement and knowledge of <span class="hlt">dose</span> delivered during superficial x-ray radiotherapy is required for patient <span class="hlt">dose</span> assessment. Some tumours treated near the surface (within the first few centimetres) can have large posterior bone structures. This can cause perturbations to <span class="hlt">dose</span> delivered due to changed backscatter contributions from the bony structure as compared to full water or tissue scattering conditions. Measured results have shown that up to 7.5% of Dmax reductions in <span class="hlt">dose</span> can occur near the water/bone interface for 100 kVp, using 10 cm diameter field sizes when a 1 cm thick slab of bone is located at 2 cm depth. At smaller field sizes such as 2 cm diameter these values reduce to 2% for the same energy. Larger variations (up to 12.5% of <span class="hlt">maximum</span>) have been seen at the phantom surface when the bone layer is directly behind the <span class="hlt">point</span> of interest (within 0.5 mm) and smaller effects (up to 5% of <span class="hlt">maximum</span>) at depths down to 5 cm. Interesting to note is the fact that for larger field sizes, an increase in percentage <span class="hlt">dose</span> is found at the water/bone interface due to the production of low energy backscattered electrons similar to the effect found in lead. However, they are much smaller in magnitude and thus would not cause any significant dosimetric effects. In the case where large bony structures lie relatively close to the surface and the tissue above this region is being treated, a dosimeter such as radiochromic film can be used to estimate the <span class="hlt">dose</span> reduction that may occur due to the changed backscatter conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Butson, Martin J.; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1002031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms for radiation <span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate sensitivity of bipolar transistors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mechanisms for enhanced low-<span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate sensitivity are described. In these mechanisms, bimolecular reactions dominate the kinetics at high <span class="hlt">dose</span> rates thereby causing a sub-linear dependence on total <span class="hlt">dose</span>, and this leads to a <span class="hlt">dose</span>-rate dependence. These bimolecular mechanisms include electron-hole recombination, hydrogen recapture at hydrogen source sites, and hydrogen dimerization to form hydrogen molecules. The essence of each of these mechanisms is the dominance of the bimolecular reactions over the radiolysis reaction at high <span class="hlt">dose</span> rates. However, at low <span class="hlt">dose</span> rates, the radiolysis reaction dominates leading to a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> effect of the radiation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Witczak, Steven Christopher; Hembree, Charles Edward; Pease, Ronald L. (RL Research, Albuquerque, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene; Edwards, Arthur H. (Air Force Research Labs, Albuquerque, NM); Schwank, James Ralph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMagR.223..164B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast Forward <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy reconstruction of sparsely sampled data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an analytical algorithm using fast Fourier transformations (FTs) for deriving the gradient needed as part of the iterative reconstruction of sparsely sampled datasets using the forward <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy reconstruction (FM) procedure by Hyberts and Wagner [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (2007) 5108]. The major drawback of the original algorithm is that it required one FT and one evaluation of the entropy per missing datapoint to establish the gradient. In the present study, we demonstrate that the entire gradient may be obtained using only two FT's and one evaluation of the entropy derivative, thus achieving impressive time savings compared to the original procedure. An example: A 2D dataset with sparse sampling of the indirect dimension, with sampling of only 75 out of 512 complex <span class="hlt">points</span> (15% sampling) would lack (512 - 75) × 2 = 874 <span class="hlt">points</span> per ?2 slice. The original FM algorithm would require 874 FT's and entropy function evaluations to setup the gradient, while the present algorithm is ˜450 times faster in this case, since it requires only two FT's. This allows reduction of the computational time from several hours to less than a minute. Even more impressive time savings may be achieved with 2D reconstructions of 3D datasets, where the original algorithm required days of CPU time on high-performance computing clusters only require few minutes of calculation on regular laptop computers with the new algorithm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balsgart, Nicholas M.; Vosegaard, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_22 div --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20726262"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dose</span> reconstruction in deforming lung anatomy: <span class="hlt">Dose</span> grid size effects and clinical implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study we investigated the accumulation of <span class="hlt">dose</span> to a deforming anatomy (such as lung) based on voxel tracking and by using time weighting factors derived from a breathing probability distribution function (p.d.f.). A mutual information registration scheme (using thin-plate spline warping) provided a transformation that allows the tracking of <span class="hlt">points</span> between exhale and inhale treatment planning datasets (and/or intermediate state scans). The <span class="hlt">dose</span> distributions were computed at the same resolution on each dataset using the <span class="hlt">Dose</span> Planning Method (DPM) Monte Carlo code. Two accumulation/interpolation approaches were assessed. The first maps exhale <span class="hlt">dose</span> grid <span class="hlt">points</span> onto the inhale scan, estimates the <span class="hlt">doses</span> at the 'tracked' locations by trilinear interpolation and scores the accumulated <span class="hlt">doses</span> (via the p.d.f.) on the original exhale data set. In the second approach, the 'volume' associated with each exhale <span class="hlt">dose</span> grid <span class="hlt">point</span> (exhale <span class="hlt">dose</span> voxel) is first subdivided into octants, the center of each octant is mapped to locations on the inhale <span class="hlt">dose</span> grid and <span class="hlt">doses</span> are estimated by trilinear interpolation. The octant <span class="hlt">doses</span> are then averaged to form the inhale voxel <span class="hlt">dose</span> and scored at the original exhale <span class="hlt">dose</span> grid <span class="hlt">point</span> location. Differences between the interpolation schemes are voxel size and tissue density dependent, but in general appear primarily only in regions with steep <span class="hlt">dose</span> gradients (e.g., penumbra). Their magnitude (small regions of few percent differences) is less than the alterations in <span class="hlt">dose</span> due to positional and shape changes from breathing in the first place. Thus, for sufficiently small <span class="hlt">dose</span> grid <span class="hlt">point</span> spacing, and relative to organ motion and deformation, differences due solely to the interpolation are unlikely to result in clinically significant differences to volume-based evaluation metrics such as mean lung <span class="hlt">dose</span> (MLD) and tumor equivalent uniform <span class="hlt">dose</span> (gEUD). The overall effects of deformation vary among patients. They depend on the tumor location, field size, volume expansion, tissue heterogeneity, and direction of tumor displacement with respect to the beam, and are more likely to have an impact on serial organs (such as esophagus), rather than on large parallel organs (such as lung)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosu, Mihaela; Chetty, Indrin J.; Balter, James M.; Kessler, Marc L.; McShan, Daniel L.; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0010 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.epa.gov/radiation/understand/perspective.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiation <span class="hlt">Doses</span> in Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Health Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation <span class="hlt">Doses</span> in Perspective Health Effects Main Page Exposure ... Sources <span class="hlt">Doses</span> from Common Radiation Sources Average U.S. Radiation <span class="hlt">Doses</span> and Sources All of us are exposed ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50768347"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimal trajectory planning with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> load carrying capacity for cable suspended robots</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, determination of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-payload trajectory of cable-based parallel robot on the basis of the optimal control approach is presented. For capacity prediction, optimality conditions are obtained using the Pontryagin's minimum principle (PMP) which leads to the bang-bang control in