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Sample records for mcfc component development

  1. MCFC component development at ANL.

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, I.

    1998-09-15

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing advanced cathode and electrolyte components for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Working in support of the MCFC developers, the goal of this effort is to extend the life of the MCFC cell and to improve its performance.

  2. ANL's development of conductive ceramic components for MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, G.H.; Brown, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    The emphasis of this project is to develop new, conductive ceramic materials and to produce structures from these materials for use as the components in the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The components under study include the cathode, anode, and interconnect, each of which is at a different stage of development. The cathode work focuses on assessing the viability of LiFeO{sub 2} as a replacement for the state-of-the-art NiO; this assessment relies on cell testing, with the performance data serving as the bases for component improvement. The anode studies seek to develop the required conductivity in a stable compound that exhibits little sensitivity to the range of anode oxygen partial pressures; this can be achieved through doping. The interconnect work emphasizes determining the effect of fuel and oxidant on conductivity, material properties, and structural integrity. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Research and development on porous components for MCFC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergaglio, E.; Sabattini, A.; Capobianco, P.

    A fuel cell is a complex system in which every single part must have optimal and long lasting characteristics to assure a good performance. Our research group has focused on a specific section of a cell, the porous components, the elements that directly come into play and more strongly influence the working and performance. Attention has been focused on matrix, in particular trying to improve it by intervening in the first step of raw powder choice. α-LiAlO 2 has been considered a new interesting and promising material to test. The purpose of this work is the study of the possibility of producing an α-LiAlO 2-based matrix with suitable properties for a MCFC cell. The subsequent steps of powder characterisation, tape preparation and final product analysis are presented as well as the various application techniques.

  4. ANL`s research and development of alternative components for MCFC`s

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, G.H.; Brown, A.P.; Roche, M.; Chu, D.; Indacochea, E.

    1992-09-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems are currently limited by several technical problems. The objectives of this project are to focus on these problems and develop materials . and cell components that will ameliorate or eliminate them. Specifically, new ceramic materials are being investigated for dimensionally stable electrode materials with improved chemical and electrochemical properties over the present NiO cathode and Ni/Cr and Ni/Al anodes. Also, altemative electrolyte formulations to the present Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} are being studied.

  5. Advanced component development of MCFC technology at M-C Power

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.S.; Haugh, E.J.; Benjamin, T.G.

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation (MCP) was founded in 1987 to commercialize Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) stacks. The first generation of active area cell components were successfully scaled-up from the 100-cm{sup 2} area laboratory scale to continuous production of commercial-area (1-m) components. These components have been tested in five commercial-area subscale (20-kW) stacks and one commercial-scale (250-kW) stack. The second 250 kW stack is being installed in the power plant for operation in late 1996 and components have already been manufactured for the third 250-kW stack which is scheduled to go on-line in the middle of 1997. Concurrent with commercial-area (1-m{sup 2}) active component manufacturing has been an ongoing effort to develop and test advanced component technologies that will enable MCP to meet its future cost and performance goals. The primary goal is to lower the total cell package cost, while attaining improvements in cell performance and endurance. This work is being completed through analysis of the cost drivers for raw materials and manufacturing techniques. A program is in place to verify the performance of the lower cost materials through pressurized (3 atm) bench scale (100-cm{sup 2}) cell tests. Bench-scale cell testing of advanced active area components has shown that simultaneous cost reduction and improvements in the performance and endurance are attainable. Following performance verification at the bench scale level, scale-up of the advanced component manufacturing processes to commercial-area has been ongoing in the past year. The following sections discuss some of the performance improvements and reductions in cost that have been realized.

  6. Status of MCFC stack development at Hitachi

    SciTech Connect

    Takashima, S.; Kahara, T.; Takeuchi, M.

    1996-12-31

    Hitachi, Ltd. has been developing Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in the New Sunshine project in Japan, and Hitachi is taking part in the development of 1,000kW MCFC pilot plant at Kawagoe. Hitachi is engaged in system planning of the 1,000kW pilot plant, design and manufacturing of the reformer subsystem and the fuel cell subsystem, and design and manufacturing of the 250kW stacks for the 1,000kW plant. The 250kW stacks are developed on the basis of the results of the 100kW stack in 1993 and the following 25kW stack in 1994. In parallel to the stack development, Hitachi is also conducting researches for long endurance cells and stacks. In addition to the researches for anode, cathode, electrolyte, and electrolyte matrix, improvement of temperature distribution in stacks is investigated to extend the stack life. This paper describes the planning status of the 250kW stacks for the 1,000kW MCFC plant and the developing status of stack cooling method for longer life.

  7. The `advanced DIR-MCFC development' project, an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortbeek, P. J.; Ottervanger, R.

    An overview is given of the approach and mid-term status of the joint European `Advanced DIR-MCFC Development' project, in which BCN, BG plc, GDF, ECN, Stork, Schelde and Sydkraft co-operate. Hospitals are identified as an attractive initial market for cogeneration direct internal reforming-molten carbonate fuel cell (DIR-MCFC) systems in the size of 400 kWe. Innovative system and stack design concepts are being developed for this application. The `SMARTER' system, based on DIR stacks, combines high electric efficiency and a wide operational window with optimal system simplicity and low cost.

  8. Development of aluminized coatings for MCFC wet seal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yuh, C.Y.; Singh, P.; Paetsch, L.; Maru, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) wet seal are has been found to experience accelerated corrosion in the presence of molten electrolyte because of simultaneous exposure to reducing and oxidizing atmospheres. Development of protective coatings plays an important role in minimizing this corrosion. Various aluminizing processes, such as flame spraying, slurry spraying, pack cementation, and ion vapor deposition, have been evaluated for their effectiveness. Continuous interdiffusion of aluminum and substrate Fe, Ni, and Cr occurred during high-temperature corrosion tests. Among the four aluminizing methods, ion-vapor deposition (IVD) with subsequent diffusion bonding appears to provide the most protective coating in the MCFC wet seal environment.

  9. MCFC technology development at M-C Power and the Institute of Gas Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.S.; Haugh, E.J.; Ong, E.T.; Sishtla, C.I.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of M-C Power Corporation (MCP) is to design, develop, scale-up, and demonstrate commercial molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stacks. In addition to stack manufacturing and power plant demonstrations, M-C Power, with the cooperation of the Institute of Gas Technology, is developing advanced cell component technologies. These advanced component technologies are designed to enable MCP to meet the cost per kilowatt and performance goals for the commercial MCFC power plants. Advanced component technologies which have reached the final stages of development prior to full-area manufacturing include a lower cost matrix and lower cost stabilized cathode. The development of advanced components capable of operating at market entry stack conditions including higher current densities (> 250 mA/cm{sup 2}) has been initiated. Initial bench scale test results at market entry conditions are encouraging.

  10. Development of 1000kW-class MCFC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ooue, M.; Yasue, H.; Takasu, K.; Tsuchitori, T.

    1996-12-31

    This pilot plant is a part of the New Sunshine Program which has proceeded by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MCFC Research Association is entrusted with the development of the pilot plant, and constructing it at Kawagoe site. Following items will be verified by this pilot plant operation. (a) Development of 250kW class stack and confirmation of stack performance and decay rate. (b) System verification such as basic process, control system and operation characteristics, toward commercialization. (c) To get design data for demonstration plant.

  11. Development of advanced concepts for DIR-MCFC cogeneration applications in the European Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kortbeek, P.J.; Ottervanger, R.G.; Dicks, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Early 1996 a three year (1996 - 1998) joint European project was launched under the name {open_quote}Advanced DIR-MCFC Development{close_quote}, aiming at the development of Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) systems for cogeneration applications for the European market. In this project participate: Brandstofcel Nederland BV (BCN), British Gas pic (BG), Gaz de France (GDF), Netherlands Energy Research foundation (ECN), Stork, Royal Schelde and Sydkraft AB. The European Fuel Cell User Group (EFCUG) supports the project as an advisory board. Whereas the US and Japanese programmes are aimed at large-scale demonstrations of the MCFC technology, this project focusses on the development of concepts and technology, required for MCFC systems that will be competative on the cogeneration market. The project partners provide the essential expertise: from end-user, system engineering, stack development up to fundamental material research.

  12. The influence of powders on the final properties of the porous components for MCFC application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabattini, A.; Bergaglio, E.

    A fuel cell life time and its correct working are strongly dependent on its main components characteristics: anode, cathode and matrix. The required performances are directly correlated to two very important parameters: porosity and average pore diameter. In particular the influence of raw powders on MCFC anode porosimetric properties was studied. Ni-Al spherical and non-spherical powders were tested for anode production and the final samples were analysed by mercury porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray.

  13. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) product development test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    M-C Power Corporation will design, fabricate, install, test, and evaluate a 250 kW Proof-of-Concept Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Power Plant. The plant is to be located at the Naval Air Station Miramar in San Diego, California. This report summarizes the technical progress that has occurred in conjunction with this project in 1994. M-C Power has completed the tape casting and sintering of cathodes and is proceeding with the tape casting and sintering of anodes for the first 250 cell stack. M-C Power and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) relocated the fuel cell demonstration project to an alternate site at the Naval Air Station Miramar. For the new project location, an Environmental Assessment has been prepared by the Department of Energy in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Environmental Assessment resulted in a categorical exclusion of the proposed action from all environmental permit requirements. Bechtel Corporation has completed the reformer process design coordination, a Process Description, the Pipe and Instrumentation Diagrams, a Design Criteria Document and General Project Requirement Document. Bechtel developed the requirements for soils investigation report and issued the following equipment bid packages to the suppliers for bids: inverter, reformer, desulfurization vessels, hot gas recycle blower, heat recovery steam generator, and recycle gas cooler. SDG&E has secured necessary site permits, conducted soils investigations, and is working on the construction plan. They are in final negotiations with the US Navy on a site agreement. Site drawings are required for finalization of the agreement.

  14. Development of a new electrolyte matrix for MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, I.; Higaki, K.; Terada, S.; Suemitsu, T.

    1996-12-31

    To prolong the life of cell is one of the most important issues for MCFC to be brought into actual application. In this respect, investigators have been proposing the addition of tungstate salt such as K2WO4 into MCFC electrolyte, which is supposed effectively to reduce the sintering of anode probably by precipitates formed through the reduction of tungstate with dissolved hydrogen near the anode surface. In this research, such effect upon sintering of anode was quantitatively examined by out-of-cell tests and the validity of above assumption for the mechanism was confirmed. Also other effects of tungstate salt addition into electrolyte, such upon corrosion of separator, solubility of cathode, stability of matrix substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}) were investigated.

  15. Development of 1000 kW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) pilot plant and 250 kW stack

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Kenichi

    1999-07-01

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is expected to be ready for commercial use early in the next century. This new power generation system has a higher thermal efficiency and can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. IHI has participated in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry's New Sunshine Program since 1993. Since joining the program, IHI has undertaken the development of the MCFC stack and 1,000 kW class power generation system under the supervision of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization and the MCFC Research Association. The development outline of the 1,000 kW MCFC pilot plant constructed at the Kawagoe test site and the present development stage of the plant control system and the 250 kW stacks developed and manufactured by IHI are described here.

  16. MOLCARE development towards MCFC commercial power plants based on 500 kW standard modules

    SciTech Connect

    Torazza, A.; Dufour, A.; Perfumo, A.; Ricerche, A.; Gegundez, J.; Sanson, F.; Moreno, A.

    1998-07-01

    Fuel cells technologies for stationary applications are expected to play a remarkable role in the field of next decade energy production systems ranging from some hundreds kW to some MW. The interest in using fuel cells to produce electric energy comes from the advantages that fuel cells offer in terms of high efficiency, good behavior at base and partial load, very low emissions, modularity (easy adjustment of plant capacity to power-demand increase), and reduced time to be spent for plant erection. At least four types of fuel cells can be considered suitable for stationary applications. With reference to their electrolyte they can be classified as: Polymeric Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC) and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Each of them works at a temperature level that is depending on the type of electrolyte. From a general point of view all the fuel cell technologies present, at various extents, the above listed advantages. Nevertheless specific features of each fuel cell type suggest to identify a specific field of application for each type of solution, in order to stress the potential advantages of any technology and minimize its possible drawbacks. Anyway the different level of maturity for the various fuel cell technologies does not allow an homogeneous comparison of technical and economical key parameters. PAFCs, due to their present commercial availability and operation experience, are well outlined in terms of performance and costs; on the contrary with regard to the other technologies--PEMFC, MCFC and SOFC--which are still under development, their commercialization is expected within a period of 7 to 13 years according to single technology maturity level (MCFC level seems to be more ready), kind of application, competitors, environmental constraints, etc.

  17. Development of spinel forming alloys with improved electronic conductivity for MCFC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parezanović, I.; Strauch, E.; Spiegel, M.

    The molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), as an alternative power source, present one of the most promising and environmental cleanest processes. As a high temperature fuel cell, problems arise due to corrosion of the metallic current collectors and voltage drop by formation of insulating corrosion products. The aim of this work is to develop Fe-Cr stainless steels, alloyed with different amounts of Mn, Co, Si, Ni, Mo, in order to obtain an acceptable thin corrosion scale with a low electrical resistivity by spinel formation. The formation of spinel layers as corrosion products, containing multivalent elements like Mn, Co and Mo is expected to give satisfactory results. In situ conductivity measurements and corrosion tests have been performed in the presence of a (Li, K) carbonate melt at 650 °C under an oxidizing gas atmosphere (15 vol.% CO 2 and synthetic air) up to 5000 h. Investigations of the corrosion scales on the hot rolled alloys indicated a solubility of Co and Mn in the spinel layer, formed under the simulated MCFC conditions. Outward diffusion of Mn and Co was observed after longer reaction times. An inner oxidation zone was also measured and connection between conductivity behaviour and the composition of this layers is found.

  18. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The following tasks are included in this project: Commercialization; Power plant development; Manufacturing facilities development; Test facility development; Stack research; and Advanced research and technology development. This report briefly describes the subtasks still to be completed: Power plant system test with reformed natural gas; Upgrading of existing, US government-owned, test facilities; and Advanced MCFC component research.

  19. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    SciTech Connect

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  20. MCFC diagnostics: HCl detection

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.A.; Oldenborgn, R.C.; Funk, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are being developed for large- scale power generation. One source of fuel is coal gasifiers, which presents the problem of coal gas contaminants and their effect on MCFC; HCl is the most serious and hence needs to be monitored. Different methods of detecting HCl in the gas phase were evaluated, and laser diode absorption is the most suitable. Temperature sensitivity and spectral interferences are discussed; it is shown that the P10 spectral line is the best. A diode for the P10 line is on order; experiments using the P5 line show the line to be unacceptable (overlap with CH{sub 4} line). Future planned work is outlined briefly. (DLC)

  1. MCFC diagnostics: HCl detection

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.A.; Oldenborgn, R.C.; Funk, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are being developed for large- scale power generation. One source of fuel is coal gasifiers, which presents the problem of coal gas contaminants and their effect on MCFC; HCl is the most serious and hence needs to be monitored. Different methods of detecting HCl in the gas phase were evaluated, and laser diode absorption is the most suitable. Temperature sensitivity and spectral interferences are discussed; it is shown that the P10 spectral line is the best. A diode for the P10 line is on order; experiments using the P5 line show the line to be unacceptable (overlap with CH{sub 4} line). Future planned work is outlined briefly. (DLC)

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) product development test. Annual report, September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    M-C Power Corporation will design, fabricate, install, test and evaluate a 250 kW Proof-of-Concept Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Power Plant. The plant is to be located at the Naval Air Station Miramar in San Diego, California. This report summarizes the technical progress that has occurred in conjunction with this project in 1994. M-C Power has completed the tape casting and sintering of cathodes and is proceeding with the tape casting and sintering of anodes for the first 250 cell stack. M-C Power and San Diego Gas and Electric relocated the fuel cell demonstration project to an alternate site at the Naval Air Station Miramar. For the new project location at the Naval Air Station Miramar, an Environmental Assessment has been prepared by the Department of Energy in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Environmental Assessment resulted in a categorical exclusion of the proposed action from all environmental permit requirements. Bechtel Corporation has completed the reformer process design coordination, a Process Description, the Pipe and Instrumentation Diagrams, a Design Criteria Document and General Project Requirement Document. Bechtel developed the requirements for soils investigation report and issued the following equipment bid packages to the suppliers for bids: Inverter, Reformer, Desulfurization Vessels, Hot Gas Recycle Blower, Heat Recovery Steam Generator, and Recycle Gas Cooler. SDG and E has secured necessary site permits, conducted soils investigations, and is working on the construction plan. They are in final negotiations with the US Navy on a site agreement. Site drawings are required for finalization of the agreement.

  3. Progress of MCFC stack technology at Toshiba

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, M.; Hayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba is working on the development of MCFC stack technology; improvement of cell characteristics, and establishment of separator technology. For the cell technology, Toshiba has concentrated on both the restraints of NiO cathode dissolution and electrolyte loss from cells, which are the critical issues to extend cell life in MCFC, and great progress has been made. On the other hand, recognizing that the separator is one of key elements in accomplishing reliable and cost-competitive MCFC stacks, Toshiba has been accelerating the technology establishment and verification of an advanced type separator. A sub-scale stack with such a separator was provided for an electric generating test, and has been operated for more than 10,000 hours. This paper presents several topics obtained through the technical activities in the MCFC field at Toshiba.

  4. Prediction of temperature profile in MCFC stack

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kab Soo; Kim, Hwayong; Hong, Seong-An; Lim, Hee Chun

    1996-12-31

    A simple three dimensional model was developed to simulate the temperature distribution and the performance of various flow types of the MCFC stack. The objective of this study was to understand the complicated phenomena occurring in the MCFC stack and to supply the basic data for optimizing the operating condition of the MCFC stack. Assuming that the stack consists of a number of differential elements which have uniform temperature and gas composition, the model was solved by finite difference method. The performance of this model was demonstrated by comparing the calculated value with experimental data of the 1.5kW class co-flow type MCFC stack operated in KIST. This model can be utilized as a simple diagnostic tool in case of the operational abnormality such as the hot spot which often occurs inside the stack.

  5. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant systems verification. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The following tasks are included in this project: Commercialization; Power plant development; Manufacturing facilities development; Test facility development; Stack research; and Advanced research and technology development. This report briefly describes the subtasks still to be completed: Power plant system test with reformed natural gas; Upgrading of existing, US government-owned, test facilities; and Advanced MCFC component research.

  6. MCFC performance diagnosis by using the current-pulse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Matsuoka, Hironori; Tanimoto, Kazumi

    Several problems prevent molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) operation for an extended period. However, if the degradation factors can be identified and resolved in a timely manner, MCFC could become a valuable technology. Therefore, a performance diagnosis should be developed which enables the simple and instantaneous determination of MCFC degradation factors. A suitable six parameter equation obtained by a current-pulse method, obtainable from MCFC's transient response in 100 ms, is expressible in an equivalent circuit composed of three sub-circuits. The relationship between these parameters and each degradation factor is evaluated by a single MCFC cell, the electrode area of which is 16 cm 2. Degradation factors include cross-leakage, electrolytic loss, cell temperature distribution and gas composition/flow rate. As a result, each of six parameters in the MCFC transient response corresponds to an ohmic potential drop, anode/cathode gas diffusion resistance, reactive resistance, three-phase interfacial resistance and electrolyte properties, respectively. The proposed performance diagnosis specifies the degradation factors by combining the six parameters. Performance diagnosis was applied to a single MCFC cell of an electrode area of 81 cm in extended operations, and the degradation factor diagnosed. As a result, the diagnosis was able to specify the cell degradation factors from the degradation factor ratio, corresponding to cell voltage, cell resistance and the N 2 concentration of MCFC single cell performance. Therefore, the proposed performance diagnosis is able to easily specify the driven MCFC degradation factors in a timely manner.

  7. Test results of a 2 kW internal manifold MCFC stack

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H C; Seol, J H; Ahn, K S

    1996-01-01

    A R&D program on MCFC, of which current target is to establish the fundamental technology through fabricating a 2k-W stack with the performance higher than 0.8V at 150mA/cm{sup 2}, has been started since 1993. The program consisted of two phases : a AW class MCFC stack and the test facility will be constructed and operated during the first phase (1993-1996) and then a 100k-W MCFC system will be constructed in the second phase (1997-2002) on the basement of first phase results. From this strategy, KEPRI former the MCFC developing group with Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) and Samsung Heavy Industry (SHI) for fabricating, operating and evaluating of 2k-W MCFC stack. This paper presents the results of this first phase program and some of the problems experienced during its operation and fabrication of stack components. Specification of the stack under operation is shown in Table 1.

  8. High temperature corrosion of separator materials for MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagida, Masahiro; Tanimoto, Kazumi; Kojima, Toshikatsu

    1996-12-31

    The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is one of promising high efficiency power generation devices with low emission. Molten carbonate used for its electrolyte plays an important role in MCFC. It separates between anode and cathode gas environment and provides ionic conductivity on MCFC operation. Stainless steel is conventionally used as separator/current collector materials in MCFC cathode environment. As corrosion of the components of MCFC caused by the electrolyte proceeds with the electrolyte consumption, the corrosion in the MCFC is related to its performance and life. To understand and inhibit the corrosion in the MCFC is important to realize MCFC power generation system. We have studied the effect of alkaline earth carbonate addition into carbonate on corrosion of type 316L stainless steel. In this paper, we describe the effect of the temperature on corrosion behavior of type 316L stainless steel with carbonate mixture, (Li{sub 0.62}K{sub 0.38}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, under the cathode environment in out-of-cell test.

  9. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Laurens, R.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    The overall program objective is the demonstration of a full-scale, full-height IMHEX {reg sign} molten carbonate fuel cell stack in a 250 kW dual-fuel power plant test on natural gas and simulated coal gas. Issues impeding development of manufacturing and testing facilities will be addressed in support of MCFC stack research and power plant development. Issues will be identified and resolved in engineering, manufacturing, assembling, cost, performance, and endurance of the stack repeat and non-repeat components. The program is being executed by M-C Power (MCP) and several major subcontractors.

  10. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Laurens, R.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1992-09-01

    The overall program objective is the demonstration of a full-scale, full-height IMHEX {reg_sign} molten carbonate fuel cell stack in a 250 kW dual-fuel power plant test on natural gas and simulated coal gas. Issues impeding development of manufacturing and testing facilities will be addressed in support of MCFC stack research and power plant development. Issues will be identified and resolved in engineering, manufacturing, assembling, cost, performance, and endurance of the stack repeat and non-repeat components. The program is being executed by M-C Power (MCP) and several major subcontractors.

  11. A compact MCFC power plant for industrial cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, P.

    1998-12-31

    Of all existing or emerging fuel cell technologies the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is specifically suited for stationary cogeneration applications in small to medium power range (several hundred kilowatts up to several megawatts). At a temperature level of 650 C the MCFC incorporates all the advantages of high temperature fuel cells: internal reforming of hydrocarbons for simplest system design and highest efficiency and useful high temperature heat for industrial steam generation, without having to cope with the problems of ceramic fuel cell manufacturing. The paper describes the fuel cell, the European MCFC development consortium, optimization by simplification and integration, scope of applications, and qualification and future development.

  12. Status of development of the power plants on the base of MCFC in TFNC-VNIIEF

    SciTech Connect

    Novitski, E.Z.; Savkin, G.G.

    1996-04-01

    VNIIF started work on Molten Carbonate Fuel cells and power plants in 1991. Some results of VNIIF work in the direction of Autonomous Power Engineering are presented. Topics include molten carbonate fuel cell components, separator plates, manufacturing and testing, design, and goals.

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) porous electrode and kinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, J.R. )

    1992-10-01

    This report sumarizes a research project undertaken to improve the performance and understand the limitations of porous electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). Using a novel MCFC rotating-disk'' electrode, the electrode kinetic and mass transfer properties of commonly used electrode materials were determined, and a practical performance model for MCFC electrodes was developed. The report also outlines a general strategy for designing a high-performance MCFC electrode, assesses the current understanding of porous electrode operation, and discusses some of the unresolved questions of the field. An appendix gives a complete list of the many theses, journal articles, and symposium contributions based on this research.

  14. MCFC and microturbine power plant simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchini, F.; Bocci, E.; Di Carlo, A.

    The consistent problem of the CO 2 emissions and the necessity to find new energy sources, are motivating the scientific research to use high efficiency electric energy production's technologies that could exploit renewable energy sources too. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) due to its high efficiencies and low emissions seems a valid alternative to the traditional plant. Moreover, the high operating temperature and pressure give the possibility to use a turbine at the bottom of the cells to produce further energy, increasing therefore the plant's efficiencies. The basic idea using this two kind of technologies (MCFC and microturbine), is to recover, via the microturbine, the necessary power for the compressor, that otherwise would remove a consistent part of the MCFC power generated. The purpose of this work is to develop the necessary models to analyze different plant configurations. In particular, it was studied a plant composed of a MCFC 500 kW Ansaldo at the top of a microturbine 100 kW Turbec. To study this plant it was necessary to develop: (i) MCFC mathematical model, that starting from the geometrical and thermofluidodynamic parameter of the cell, analyze the electrochemical reaction and shift reaction that take part in it; (ii) plate reformer model, a particular compact reformer that exploit the heat obtained by a catalytic combustion of the anode and part of cathode exhausts to reform methane and steam; and (iii) microturbine-compressor model that describe the efficiency and pressure ratio of the two machines as a function of the mass flow and rotational regime. The models developed was developed in Fortran language and interfaced in Chemcad © to analyze the power plant thermodynamic behavior. The results show a possible plant configuration with high electrical and global efficiency (over 50 and 74%).

  15. Status of the M-C Power MCFC commercialization program

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, T.G.; Erickson, D.S.; Haugh, E.J.; Petri, R.J.

    1997-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation`s (MCP) mission is to commercialize molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants based on an internally manifolded IMHEX stack concept patented by the Institute of Gas Technology. MCP has successfully scaled up the manufacturing and design of the MCFC technology to commercial area (1-m{sup 2}). Five commercial-area 20-kW stacks and two commercial-area 250-kW stack have been built and operated. A third commercial (250-kW) stack is being assembled. Continuous process improvements and yield increases have been demonstrated for the manufacturing run for each successive 250-kW stack. These improvements resulted in a 63% reduction in the cost of the active area components from the first to the third 250-kW stack. Concurrent with the production and testing of commercial-area fuel cell stacks, M-C Power has an ongoing effort to develop, test, and scale-up to commercial-area advanced component technologies that will enable M-C Power to meet cost and performance, and endurance goals. This effort focuses on developing lower cost stack components with improved endurance and performance and evaluating alternate manufacturing procedures and raw materials which significantly lower the stack costs. Following performance verification at the bench scale level, scale-up of the advanced component manufacturing processes to commercial-area has been ongoing in the past year.

  16. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Product Development Test. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-15

    This is the second annual report covering progress made under DOE cooperative agreement DE-FC21-92MC29237, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Product Development Test. The project is for the design, construction, and testing of a 2MW carbonate fuel cell power plant in the City of Santa Clara, California. The report is divided into sections which describe the progress in various program activities, and provides an overview of the program, including the project objectives, site location, and schedule.

  17. MCFC product development test. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This is the fourth annual report covering progress made under DOE cooperative agreement DE-FC21-92MC29237, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Product Development Test. The project is for the design, construction, and testing of a 2MW carbonate fuel cell power plant in the City of Santa Clara, California, and the period covered in this fourth annual report is October, 1995 to September, 1996. The report is divided into sections which describe the progress in various program activities. Section 2.0 provides an overview of the program, including the project objectives, site location, and schedule. Section 3 presents a summary by Task of the progress achieved in this fourth year of the program.

  18. MCFC product development test

    SciTech Connect

    Kush, A.K.; Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the 2MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project is the demonstration of the direct carbonate fuel cell technology at full scale. Specific objectives of the project include the demonstration of advantages of the carbonate fuel cell power plant, such as high efficiency, low emissions, reactive power capability, and high reliability and availability. The project will also provide a design basis for pre-commercial power plants.

  19. Operation result of 40kW class MCFC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, H.; Hatori, S.; Hosaka, M.; Uematsu, H.

    1996-12-31

    Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. developed unique Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) system based on our original concept. To demonstrate the possibility of this system, based on MCFC technology of consigned research from New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in Japan, we designed 40kW class MCFC pilot plant which had all equipments required as a power plant and constructed in our TO-2 Technical Center. This paper presents the test results of the plant.

  20. Low cost MCFC anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines a project, funded under a DOE SBIR grant, which tested a potentially lower cost method of manufacturing MCFC stack anodes and evaluated the feasibility of using the technology in the existing M-C Power Corp. manufacturing facility. The procedure involves adding activator salts to the anode tape casting slurry with the Ni and Cr or Al powders. Two different processes occur during heat treatment in a reducing environment: sintering of the base Ni structure, and alloying or cementation of the Cr or Al powders. To determine whether it was cost-effective to implement the cementation alloying manufacturing process, the M-C Power manufacturing cost model was used to determine the impact of different material costs and processing parameters on total anode cost. Cost analysis included equipment expenditures and facility modifications required by the cementation alloying process.

  1. Corrosion resistant materials in MCFC environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigeaud, A.; Yuh, C. Y.; Singh, P.

    A 24-month effort in the development of a corrosion resistant hardware material for molten carbonate fuel cell (MFC) application is described. The objective was to identify an inexpensive alloy for MCFC current collector/bipolar plate application. For this, 310S was selected as the base alloy composition and La, Ce and Si were added to improve corrosion resistance. Eight candidate alloys, including 310S and 316L, were screened in MCFC anode and cathode atmospheres. The techniques used include isothermal corrosion, acoustic emission, thermal cycling corrosion, thermogravimetric analyses, electrical surface resistance, and dual atmosphere corrosion testing. Oxide scales formed were analyzed by standard metallographic techniques. The results indicate that COLT-25+ and Crutemp-25 alloys (both containing 25Cr-25Ni and balance Fe) have the best corrosion resistance in the MCFC environment. Rare earth additives, La and Ce, do not appear to improve isothermal or thermal cycling resistance. Silicon addition appears to improve thermal cycling but not isothermal corrosion resistance. High Mn content (approx. 18%) appears detrimental based on this limited investigation. Currently used 316L has the least corrosion resistance of all the alloys tested. Pressurized tests have shown that high pressure (10 atm) reduces corrosion rate in the anode atmosphere whereas it only slightly affects corrosion rate in the cathode atmosphere.

  2. Experimental analysis of heat transfer mechanism in MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiura, K.; Naruse, I.; Ohtake, K.

    1998-07-01

    Characteristics of heat transfer in Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells(MCFC) installed with offset-type fins are studied by using a fuel cell model consisting of electrodes, a perforated plate and a corrugated current collector. In this study the effect of several kinds of reacting gas on heat transfer characteristics is elucidated by measuring gas and surface temperatures, gas species composition, cell components and vertical heat flux. As a result, Wieting's equation to evaluate heat transfer characteristics in heat exchangers is not appropriate to the MCFC since Reynolds number in operating the MCFC is far less than the applicable range of the equation. Most of the vertical heat flux is controlled by heat conduction in the cell components. The convective heat transfer coefficient depends on kinds of gas species rather than the gas flow rate. Thermal properties affect the convective heat transfer coefficient. Especially, the vertical heat flux increases with an increase of H{sub 2} concentration. The obtained fundamental results can elucidate phenomena of heat transfer in practical MCFC appropriately.

  3. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) porous electrode and kinetic studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report sumarizes a research project undertaken to improve the performance and understand the limitations of porous electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). Using a novel MCFC ``rotating-disk`` electrode, the electrode kinetic and mass transfer properties of commonly used electrode materials were determined, and a practical performance model for MCFC electrodes was developed. The report also outlines a general strategy for designing a high-performance MCFC electrode, assesses the current understanding of porous electrode operation, and discusses some of the unresolved questions of the field. An appendix gives a complete list of the many theses, journal articles, and symposium contributions based on this research.

  4. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  5. MCFC PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    This contract is supported by DOE and DOD/DARPA funds. The objective of the DOE program is to advance the direct carbonate fuel cell technology to a level suitable for commercial entry. The specific objectives of the DOD's initiative on 2 MW Fuel Cell Fixed Base Power Plant are: (A) to provide a detailed engineering design, development and cost estimate of the 2 MW fuel cell fixed base dual fuel power plant for DOD applications. Installation and operational support systems will also be developed. (B) To construct a full-size MW-class dual fuel power plant simulator.

  6. GCS component development cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  7. MCFC PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-04-30

    The objective of the DOE program is to advance the direct carbonate fuel cell technology to a level suitable for commercial entry. The specific objectives of the DOD's initiative on 2 MW Fuel Cell Fixed Base Power Plant are: (1) To provide a detailed engineering design, development and cost estimate of the 2 MW fuel cell fixed base dual fuel power plant for DOD applications. Installation and operational support systems will also be developed. (2) To construct a full-size MW-class dual fuel power plant simulator. These objectives are planned to be achieved in the program coordinated with the Department of Energy, which has been funding a multiyear natural gas fueled direct fuel cell power plant program (DE-FC21-95MC31184) for civilian applications. Because many DARPA and DOE objectives are similar, the coordinated program activities are considered the most cost-effective for accomplishment of the program objectives. The DARPA/DOE joint program was launched in 1994. The DOE part of the program is expected to continue to Year 2000. The final output of this DOE program is to construct and operate a 2 MW power plant on an East Coast site. The site will be accessible to DOD energy/environmental systems base planners and logistics personnel as well as mission and policy planners to refine deployment configurations of this new power generation system for fixed base applications.

  8. MCFC product design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-05-01

    This contract is supported by DOE and DOD/DARPA funds. The objective of the DOE program is to advance the direct carbonate fuel cell technology to a level suitable for commercial entry. The specific objectives of the DOE's initiative on 2 MW Fuel Cell Fixed Base Power Plant are: (A) To provide a detailed engineering design, development and cost estimate of the 2 MW fuel cell fixed base dual fuel power plant for DOD applications. Installation and operational support systems will also be developed; and (B) To construct a full-size MW-class dual fuel power plant simulator. These objectives are planned to be achieved in the program coordinated with the Department of Energy, which has been funding a multiyear natural gas fueled direct fuel cell power plant program for civilian applications. Because many DARPA and DOE objectives are similar, the coordinated program activities are considered the most cost-effective for accomplishment of the program objectives. The DARPA/DOE joint program was launched in 1994. The DOE part of the program is expected to continue to the year 2000. The final output of this DOE program is to construct and operate a 2 MW power plant on an East Coast site. The site will be accessible to DOD energy/environmental systems base planners and logistics personnel as well as mission and policy planners to refine deployment configurations of this new power generation system for fixed base applications. A dual fuel fixed base design for military fuels operation, as well as support system logistics will be the key deliverables for the DARPA part of the program.

  9. Mathematical modeling of MCFC cells/stacks and networks

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.; Wimer, J.; Sudhoff, F.; Archer, D.

    1993-11-01

    In this paper, various (molten carbonate fuel cell) MCFC cell/stack and network arid system models available in the public domain are discussed. Parametric and phenomenological fuel cell mathematical models are being used to simulate individual MCFC cell/stack performance. With initial demonstration of full-area, full-height 250-kW to 2-MW MCFC power plants, the spatial configuration of the MCFC stacks into networks in the fuel cell power plant takes on new importance. MCFC network and power plant system flowsheet performance is being modeled using-the ASPEN system model. ASPEN is a tear and iterate flowsheet simulator in the public domain. ASPEN is suitable for MCFC network simulation since it has strong systems and property database capabilities. With emergence of larger MCFC power plant system demonstrations, system modeling of MCFC power plants is now essential. DOE routinely uses MCFC models in making performance comparisons and in decision-making.

  10. Develop a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensey, Tyler S.

    2013-01-01

    During my internship at NASA, I was a model developer for Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The purpose of a model developer is to develop and unit test model component libraries (fluid, electrical, gas, etc.). The models are designed to simulate software for GSE (Ground Special Power, Crew Access Arm, Cryo, Fire and Leak Detection System, Environmental Control System (ECS), etc. .) before they are implemented into hardware. These models support verifying local control and remote software for End-Item Software Under Test (SUT). The model simulates the physical behavior (function, state, limits and 110) of each end-item and it's dependencies as defined in the Subsystem Interface Table, Software Requirements & Design Specification (SRDS), Ground Integrated Schematic (GIS), and System Mechanical Schematic.(SMS). The software of each specific model component is simulated through MATLAB's Simulink program. The intensiv model development life cycle is a.s follows: Identify source documents; identify model scope; update schedule; preliminary design review; develop model requirements; update model.. scope; update schedule; detailed design review; create/modify library component; implement library components reference; implement subsystem components; develop a test script; run the test script; develop users guide; send model out for peer review; the model is sent out for verifictionlvalidation; if there is empirical data, a validation data package is generated; if there is not empirical data, a verification package is generated; the test results are then reviewed; and finally, the user. requests accreditation, and a statement of accreditation is prepared. Once each component model is reviewed and approved, they are intertwined together into one integrated model. This integrated model is then tested itself, through a test script and autotest, so that it can be concluded that all models work conjointly, for a single purpose. The component I was assigned, specifically, was a

  11. R&D of MCFC matrix for long term operation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Takashi; Fujita, Yoji; Urushibata, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Akira

    1996-12-31

    Long term operation is an essential subject in the commercialization of the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC). Material stability is important for the development of the MCFC. particularly for long term operation. In this paper, the specification and the stabilization of MCFC matrix arc investigated, with the aim of producing 40000 hours of operation. It is common knowledge that matrix thickness has a large influence on shorting time, as shorting is caused by the dissolution of the nickel oxide cathodes. Therefore, the optimum thickness of a matrix designed for 40000 hours operation without the nickel shorting was sought. The influences of different electrolytes and matrix specifications on the shorting time were measured with accelerated cell tests. The internal resistance of the matrix was also estimated. Gamma( {gamma} )-lithium aluminate (LiAlO{sub 2}) powder with a sub-micron particle diameter is commonly used for a raw material of matrix to retain molten carbonate electrolytes. This is because most researchers found that {gamma}-LiA1O{sub 2} was the most stable material in the MCFC environment among the three allotropic forms alpha ( {alpha} ), beta ( {beta} ), and {gamma}. However. two problems with the stability of {gamma} -LiAlO{sub 2} are being vigorously discussed. especially in Japan: particle growth causes decreasing electrolyte retention, and the transformation of {gamma} to {alpha}. This transformation contradicts the accepted opinion that {gamma} is the most stable form. In this paper, the particle growth and the phase transformation of LiAlO{sub 2} are examined with post-test analyses. The influence of matrix degradation on cell performance is also considered.

  12. Electrolyte loss in corrosion of 30Cr-45Ni-1Al-0.03 Y-Fe alloy for MCFC separator

    SciTech Connect

    Masamura, Katsumi; Ohe, Koichiro; Takemura, Masahiro

    1996-12-31

    To establish high performance of MCFC, a new high corrosion resistant alloy (30%Cr-45%Ni-1 %Al-0.03%Y-Fe) for MCFC separator has been developed. The developed alloy has good corrosion resistance for both anode and cathode environments. On the other hand, one of the main factors to determine the life time of MCFC stack is electrolyte loss. A potential danger of electrolyte loss cased by corrosion of metal components is pointed out. Basic mechanism of electrolyte loss is proposed according to following reactions. High Cr content alloy such as type 310S(25%Cr-20%Ni) has disadvantages in view of electrolyte loss in spite of high corrosion resistance. It is said that the dissolution of Cr ion into electrolyte is detrimental for electrolyte loss, because a mole of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2+} ion combines 2 moles of K{sup +} ions as K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}, while a mole of Fe{sup 3+} ion combine a mole of Li{sup +} ion as LiFeO{sub 2}. To understand the mechanism of electrolyte loss due to corrosion of metal component, the distribution of metal ions in oxide and molten salt were studied.

  13. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  14. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is,. responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) is a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The purpose of the UCTS is to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems s:luring their development. As an intern at KSC, my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (drier) to model in Matlab. The drier was a Catch All replaceable core type filter-drier. The filter-drier provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-drier also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink to help aid in my assignment. The filter-drier was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure, velocity and temperature of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my model filter-drier in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements.

  15. Long term operation of the 100-cm{sup 2} class single cell of MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Kazumi; Yanagida, Masahiro; Kojima, Toshikatsu

    1996-12-31

    The R&D on Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is proceeding as one of the New Sun Shine Project sponsored by Japanese government. In ONRI (Osaka National Research Institute), the tested MCFCs were assembled with the state-of-the-art components and operated under the load condition for 40000 hours and 34000 hours. We analyzed the performance reduction.

  16. Studies of biomass fuelled MCFC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivisaari, Timo; Björnbom, Pehr; Sylwan, Christopher

    In the present work, the methods, techniques and results obtained during the studies of biomass fuelled molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems within the Swedish national fuel cell program are presented. The power plants are 60 MW class, utilising biomass (i.e. wood chips) as the primary fuel. The biomass is converted via pressurised gasification into a gaseous form that, after subsequent cleaning, can be used in the fuel cells. An investigation of the effects of gasification pressure, temperature and the influence of internal reforming on the overall system performance is presented. All studies were carried out using the Aspen Plus™ with Model Manager™ simulation package.

  17. MCFC power plant with CO{sub 2} separation

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Noboru

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell power plant has been developed for many years with expectation of high system efficiency. In the meantime the gas turbine combined cycle has shown its considerable progress in improving system efficiency. Fuel cell power plant will no longer be attractive unless it exceeds the gas turbine combined cycle at least in the system efficiency. It is said CO{sub 2} separation could improve the efficiency of fuel cell power plant. IHI has developed the CO{sub 2} separator for fuel cell power plant. This study describes that the CO{sub 2} separator can increase the efficiency of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant by 5% and the expected efficiency reaches 63 % in HHV basis.

  18. Nickel-hydrogen component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Light weight energy storage systems for future space missions are investigated. One of the systems being studied is the nickel hydrogen battery. This battery is designed to achieve longer life, improve performance, and higher energy densities for space applications. The nickel hydrogen component development is discussed. Test data from polarization measurements of the hydrogen electrode component is presented.

  19. Modeling studies in support of the IMHEX MCFC commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Jewulski, J.R.; Resnick, G.L.; Hu, W.C.S.

    1998-07-01

    Performance modeling studies are a necessary and cost effective element of the IMHEX-MCFC stack commercialization. Technologix Corporation, in cooperation with M-C Power, has developed the algorithms and computer code for two of the models in addition to modifying the PSI model for applications specific to IMHEX fuel cell concept. Three performance models support the product development effort: a modified PSI model; a two-dimensional cross-flow cell model and a three-dimensional stack model. The sizing, number and location of the stack inter-coolers in a fuel cell stack are typical model application. Recently M-C Power modified its stack configuration to cross-flow. The cross-flow allows simplified repeat parts manufacturing and reduces the risk of gas crossover. The MCFC cross-flow model developed at M-C Power supports heat loss from the stack edges, variable fuel flow rate regions and variable oxidant flow rate regions (coupled with the optimization module) among other features. Extensive computational experiments were conducted in support of the cross-flow geometry development for the MCFC stack. The oxidant flow distribution optimization was used to mitigate the hardware temperature hot-spot typical for the cross-flow geometry. The hardware temperature hot-spot increases corrosion rate, electrolyte loss, and leads to deterioration of the long-term MCFC stack performance. Under the normal operating conditions, the maximum local temperature of the cell hardware should not exceed 960 K. The mathematical optimization software was applied to find the optimum flow distribution. The minimization of the maximum hardware temperature was defined as an optimization goal. The gas flow rate in each region was selected as independent variable subjected to optimization. In some cases the authors have also added a distance between the fuel inlet and the flow region divider to the list of independent variables. The total gas flow rates, inlet gas temperatures and compositions

  20. Ammonia synthesis and ER-MCFC-technology - a profitable combination?

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, G.P.J.; Vervoort, J.; Daniels, R.J.E.; Luteijn, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    Similar to stand-alone ER-MCFC power systems industrial ammonia production facilities include hydrogen-rich synthesis-gas production. Therefore, integration of ER-MCFC stacks in a conventional industrial ammonia plant was investigated. By preliminary process design calculations three promising process structures were evaluated: (1) ER-MCFC is fed by the ammonia plant`s steam-reformer; anode off-gas to firing (2) similar to structure 1; in this case the anode off-gas is redirected to the ammonia process (3) ER-MCFC is fed by ammonia-synthesis purge gas The results indicate that for options 1 and 3 a return-on-investment for the ER-MCFC of around 8% is achievable at a stack cost of $250/kW and a revenue of 7c/kWh. Option 2 is not profitable, because of the associated reduction in ammonia production. The degree of hydrogen-utilization in the ER-MCFC to be selected for maximum profit varies with the process structure and indicates that there is scope for ER-MCFC stacks which operate at low hydrogen-utilization.

  1. Operating experience with a 250 kW el molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Manfred; Huppmann, Gerhard

    The MTU MCFC program is carried out by a European consortium comprising the German companies MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Ruhrgas AG and RWE Energie AG as well as the Danish company Energi E2 S/A. MTU acts as consortium leader. The company shares a license and technology exchange agreement with Fuel Cell Energy Inc., Danbury, CT, USA (formerly Energy Research Corp., ERC). The program was started in 1990 and covers a period of about 10 years. The highlights of this program to date are: Considerable improvements regarding component stability have been demonstrated on laboratory scale. Manufacturing technology has been developed to a point which enables the consortium to fabricate the porous components on a 250 cm 2 scale. Several large area stacks with 5000-7660 cm 2 cell area and a power range of 3-10 kW have been tested at the facilities in Munich (Germany) and Kyndby (Denmark). These stacks have been supplied by FCE. As far as the system design is concerned it was soon realized that conventional systems do not hold the promise for competitive power plants. A system analysis led to the conclusion that a new innovative design approach is required. As a result the "Hot Module" system was developed by the consortium. A Hot Module combines all the components of a MCFC system operating at the similar temperatures and pressures into a common thermally insulated vessel. In August 1997 the consortium started its first full size Hot Module MCFC test plant at the facilities of Ruhrgas AG in Dorsten, Germany. The stack was assembled in Munich using 292 cell packages purchased from FCE. The plant is based on the consortium's unique and proprietary "Hot Module" concept. It operates on pipeline natural gas and was grid connected on 16 August 1997. After a total of 1500 h of operation, the plant was intentionally shut down in a controlled manner in April 1998 for post-test analysis. The Hot Module system concept has demonstrated its functionality. The safety concept has been

  2. Development of hermetic, fiberoptic components

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D.P.; Beckman, T.M.; Ewick, D.W.

    1990-04-30

    The fabrication of hermetic, fiberoptic components using a variety of novel processing techniques has been demonstrated. These processing techniques are based on standard sealing technologies and include the sealing of optical ``pin`` feedthrough components and the sealing of lengths of optical fibers. Various types of optical fibers including typical, plastic-buffered fibers and metal-coated fibers, have been hermetically sealed into components. Background research has disclosed that the temperatures necessary for seal formation do not degrade the properties of the optical fibers. A series of pyrotechnic test components has been fabricated using one of the newly developed processing techniques, and the firing characteristics of these ``full- up`` components have been determined. 7 refs., 21 figs.

  3. Space storable propulsion components development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagler, R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The current development status of components to control the flow of propellants (liquid fluorine and hydrazine) in a demonstration space storable propulsion system is discussed. The criteria which determined the designs for the pressure regulator, explosive-actuated valves, propellant shutoff valve, latching solenoid-actuated valve and propellant filter are presented. The test philosophy that was followed during component development is outlined. The results from compatibility demonstrations for reusable connectors, flange seals, and CRES/Ti-6Al4V transition tubes and the evaluations of processes for welding (hand-held TIG, automated TIG, and EB), cleaning for fluorine service, and decontamination after fluorine exposure are described.

  4. Operation characteristics of a multiple type MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroe, S.; Kamo, T.; Fujimura, H.; Kahara, T.

    1996-12-31

    Multiple type structure of MCFC of which the separator of the cell is divided by four element cells has been studied. For the stable operation of this type cell, the effect of gas flow rate and temperature distribution on the cell voltage should be clear. In order to clarify these characteristics, a small sized mimic model has been made and tested. The flow rate distribution for the four element cells were varied and cell voltage and temperature distribution were measured for each cell. The decrease in cell voltage and the increase in maximum temperature became remarkable when the apparent utilization factor for one element cell became over 100%. The calculated results agreed fairly good with test results.

  5. Component characterization and development 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacqueline D.

    1993-09-01

    The effort entitled, 'Component Characterization and Development II' was established in the Rome Lab Photonics Center Analog & Lightwave Photonics Branch as part of the overall in-house program plan to advanced the state-of-the-art in optics and electrooptics. The objective of the effort is to specify, acquire, and/or develop components for Air Force Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) applications. The source of prototype devices was designated to include academia, industry, and government organizations. Actual performance data was measured for both electro-optic and fiber-optic based devices that were of interest to communications, spatial laser control, and optical beamforming applications. Additionally, several novel approaches to device fabrication were investigated through a BAA contract with Syracuse University.

  6. Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC): Structure and operation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The main components of an individual cell are the anode, the cathode, and the molten carbonate electrolyte. Electrode materials are usually porous nickel alloys for reducing atmospheres (anode) and nickel oxide for oxidizing atmospheres (cathode). The electrolyte, typically a combination of molten, alkali (Li, K, Na) carbonates, is contained within a porous ceramic matrix, commonly made of lithium aluminate (LiAlO{sub 2}). The molten carbonate electrolyte, sandwiched between the anode and cathode, partially fills these porous electrodes. Electrochemical reactions take place at a three-phase interface formed by the electrolyte, the electrodes, and the gas streams. Carbonate ions are formed at an oxidant/electrolyte interface in the cathode and are transported through the electrolyte to a fuel/electrolyte interface in the anode. There, the carbonate ions react with the fuel, releasing electrons into the anode. The electrons then travel through an external circuit and through the load, suffering a voltage drop. Finally, the circuit is completed as the electrons return to the cathode. The paper gives data on MCFC efficiency and NO{sub x} emissions compared with engines and turbines.

  7. The carbon dioxide concentrator by using MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Takei, Kenji; Tanimoto, Kazumi; Miyazaki, Yoshinori

    The removal characteristics of CO 2 in molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) were elucidated by the single cell whose electrode area was 81 cm 2 and electrolyte was 52Li 2CO 3/48Na 2CO 3. The experimental value of the CO 2 removal rate from cathode to anode was almost corresponding to the theoretical value. Cell voltage dropped drastically when concentration of CO 2 in cathode became 15% or less. This tendency showed strikingly, as concentration of O 2 in cathode became lower and lower. The cell performance is influenced with the pO 2/ pCO 2 ratio of the cathode gases, because cell voltage decreases by decreasing the pO 2/ pCO 2 ratio. Therefore, when the pO 2/ pCO 2 ratio is as low as the thermal power plant, it is necessary to add air to cathode for improving the cell performance. Consequently, the reduction target of CO 2 in COP3 can be achieved.

  8. MCFC integrated system in a biodiesel production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbani, F.; Freni, S.; Galvagno, A.; Chiodo, V.

    2011-03-01

    The continuous increasing in biodiesel production by transesterification process is leading to an excess of glycerol production as a byproduct. The utilization of this huge amount of glycerol appears as a not easy solvable problem and thus several authors have proposed alternative ways. The integration of the main production process with a glycerol feed molten carbonate fuel cells bottoming cycle, to satisfy plant energy requirements, seems to be one of the most promising one. The proposed paper reports the main results obtained by authors in the framework of an investigation on a possible use of glycerol as energy sources for a real pilot plant for biodiesel production. An overall evaluation of worldwide biodiesel production plants was made and especially about the production capacity in European Union in the last decade. To make a more detailed study, authors were taken into account a real production plant. After a preliminary step, purported to plant mass and energy flows determination, authors considered the integration of a bottoming cycle based on: (i) steam reforming of glycerol for syn-gas production; (ii) molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) system supplied by syn-gas for heat and electricity production. A mathematical model, based on experimental data, has been developed to calculate mass and energy balances for the proposed plant lay-out as well as plant energy efficiency enhancement has been determined. Results have evidenced the feasibility of this process and demonstrated that plant integrated with bottoming cycle can reach a very high level of energy self-production.

  9. The U.S. molten carbonate fuel-cell development and commercialization effort

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.; Mayfield, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    The authors discuss the status of molten carbonate fuel-cell (MCFC) development in the US, including the role of the US Department of Energy (DOE) in commercializing MCFC power-plant products for use by gas utility and electric power industries. The authors describe major fundamental stack research issues, as well as MCFC power-plant network and system issues, that need to be resolved before MCFC technology can be commercialized. A significant initiative in MCFC research is the spatial configuration of MCFC stacks into networks in a fuel-cell power plant.

  10. Technology base studies of long-term MCFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, J.R.; Yazici, M.S.

    1995-12-01

    Cathode dissolution into the electrolyte matrix and endurance of current collector/separator plate materials are the main life-limiting factors of the state-of-the art MCFC. These components are also major contributors to the total system cost. Therefore, to reduce capital cost, it is necessary to minimize hardware corrosion and increase cell life. This study consists of experimental evaluation of corrosion processes with the objective to further practical; understanding of corrosion behavior of alloys and alloy components under cathodic gas conditions. Nickel, iron, cobalt and stainless steels 310 and 316L are analyzed. The experimental study consists of: (1) Observation of open circuit potential (OCP) changes. Surface reactions occurring without net passage of current are proposed based on this measurement. (2) Applying cyclic voltammetry, which provides information about the possible electrode reactions at different stages of polarization. (3) Applying AC impedance to support the result of tasks 1 and 2 at different stages of oxidation, and data analysis by means of equivalent circuits. Open circuit conditions as well as positive and negative polarization are used in the impedance measurements. (4) Surface analysis of the electrodes by SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction. To obtain more information from electrochemical measurements a novel approach has been applied in cell design. In this two electrode approach, one electrode is fully immersed, and the other is wetted by carbonate melt via an alumina tube which has a thin film on it. While camera observation of these two different electrode conditions will identify the effect of carbonate wetting on the state of the surface, electrochemical measurements enable a quantitative comparison between complete submersion and wetting by a film of carbonate.

  11. Technology base studies of long-term MCFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, J.R.

    1995-08-01

    Cathode dissolution into the electrolyte matrix and endurance of current collector/separator plate materials are the main life-limiting factors of the state-of-the art MCFC. These components are also major contributors to the total system cost. Therefore, to reduce capital cost, it is necessary to minimize hardware corrosion and increase cell life. This study consists of experimental evaluation of corrosion processes with the objective to further practical; understanding of corrosion behavior of alloys and alloy components under cathodic gas conditions. Nickel, iron, cobalt and stainless steels 310 and 316L are analyzed. The experimental study consists of (1) Observation of open circuit potential (OCP) changes. Surface reactions occurring without net passage of current are proposed based on this measurement. (2) Applying cyclic voltammetry, which provides information about the possible electrode reactions at different stages of polarization. (3) Applying AC impedance to support the result of tasks 1 and 2 at different stages of oxidation, and data analysis by means of equivalent circuits. Open circuit conditions as well as positive and negative polarization are used in the impedance measurements. (4) Surface analysis of the electrodes by SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction. To obtain more information from electrochemical measurements a novel approach has been applied in cell design. In this two-electrode approach, one electrode is fully immersed, and the other is wetted by carbonate melt via an alumina tube which has a thin film on it. While camera observation of these two different electrode conditions will identify the effect of carbonate wetting on the state of the surface, electrochemical measurements enable a quantitative comparison between complete submersion and wetting by a film of carbonate.

  12. Fundamental stack and system issues in molten carbonate fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.; Mayfield, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    Stack research and system issues in molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology development and commercialization are discussed within context of status of MCFC development and commercialization in US. Status of MCFC development is addressed. Major known fundamental stack research issues remaining for the MCFC technology are identified and discussed. The cathode remains a focal point of performance improvement and cost reduction. The various aspects of MCFC power plant network and systems issues are also addressed and discussed. These include cost, heat loss management, startup and shutdown modes, dynamic response, footprint, packaging and integration, parasitic power losses, pressurization and reforming. Potential of MCFC networks is discussed. With the initial demonstration of full-area, fullheight 250-kW to 2-MW MCFC power plants, the spatial configuration of the MCFC stacks into networks in the fuel cell power plant takes on importance for the first time.

  13. Feasibility study of the co-generation system with direct internal reforming-molten carbonate fuel cell (DIR-MCFC) for residential use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Naruse, Ichiro

    The possibility of introducing a co-generation system with a direct internal reforming-molten carbonate fuel cell (DIR-MCFC) for residential use is examined by a feasibility study. First, the structure of a system, which can maintain the cell temperature (650 °C) without the heat supply, is constructed by calculating heat and material balances among the system components. Secondly, a model family, which might use the co-generation system with a DIR-MCFC, is constructed from the results of a questionnaire on room layout, number of family members, and the number of electric appliances and consumption of electric power in Osaka. Thirdly, calculating the electric power and hot-water demand supply balance optimizes the scale of the co-generation system with a DIR-MCFC for residential use. Finally, the running costs of this optimum system using city gas or propane gas are considered. As a result, the optimum scale of a co-generation system a with DIR-MCFC and using city gas is 3 kW, while it is 6 kW for the case using propane gas. The co-generation system using city gas is suitable for a house. On the other hand, the system using propane gas is suitable for an apartment.

  14. Multiple aperture imager component development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, David E.; Henshaw, Philip D.

    1991-03-01

    This final report presents results of an experimental and analytical effort to develop multiple aperture imagers built from unphased, direct-detection subapertures. An object was imaged using wave length shift instead of object motion to create multiple speckle pattern realizations. An analysis of subaperture geometry effects of autocorrelation estimate was performed. Experimental measurements of detector modulator transfer function were made. Finally, a new algorithm to reconstruct imagery with improved signal-to-noise ratio was developed.

  15. Electrochemical characterization of cobalt-encapsulated nickel as cathodes for MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durairajan, Anand; Colon-Mercado, Hector; Haran, Bala; White, Ralph; Popov, Branko

    The stability of the NiO cathodes in molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) has been improved through microencapsulation of the NiO cathode with nanostructured Co. Cobalt was deposited on the NiO cathode using an electroless deposition process. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of the Co-coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. The cobalt-coated electrodes have a lower solubility in the molten carbonate melt when compared to bare nickel oxide electrodes in the presence of cathode gas. The solubility decreased more than 50% due to microencapsulation with cobalt. The thermal oxidation rate was also lower in case of the cobalt-encapsulated electrode. Impedance data from the modified electrode indicate that the oxygen reduction reaction depended inversely on the CO 2 and directly on the oxygen partial pressures respectively suggesting a similar reaction mechanism to that of nickel oxide. The results indicated that cobalt-encapsulated NiO is a viable solution in the development of alternate cathodes for MCFC applications.

  16. Overview of molten carbonate fuel cell technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.; Mayfield, M.J.

    1993-11-01

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) has been identified as a promising energy conversion product for development and commercialization. Overall DOE MCFC program goal is to develop and commercialize low-cost, simple fuel cell systems. Objective of the MCFC program is to develop and demonstrate MCFC power plant systems. Significant progress has already been made in developing the MCFC technology in the US. Manufacturing and test facility development and testing by the MCFC developers has also been significant. Product improvement issues that need to be resolved to vector the MCFC technology from its current status to a multi-fuel, integrated, simple, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant product. MCFC`s must undergo continuing product refinement to ensure that durability and cost reduction through modularization and stack manufacturing scale-up occurs. MCFC developers need to continue to be responsive to end-users in potential markets. MCFC`s appear to have a place in a decentralized power industry future. Natural gas availability appears to play a key role in MCFC commercialization.

  17. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, E.L. Jr.; Williams, M.C.; George, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    The MCFC technology has been identified by the DOE as a promising product for commercialization. Development of the MCFC technology supports the National Energy Strategy. Review of the status of the MCFC technology indicates that the MCFC technology developers are making rapid and significant progress. Manufacturing facility development and extensive testing is occurring. Improvements in performance (power density), lower costs, improved packaging, and scale up to full height are planned. MCFC developers need to continue to be responsive to end-users in potential markets. It will be market demands for the correct product definition which will ultimately determine the character of MCFC power plants. There is a need for continued MCFC product improvement and multiple product development tests.

  18. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, E.L. Jr.; Williams, M.C.; George, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    The MCFC technology has been identified by the DOE as a promising product for commercialization. Development of the MCFC technology supports the National Energy Strategy. Review of the status of the MCFC technology indicates that the MCFC technology developers are making rapid and significant progress. Manufacturing facility development and extensive testing is occurring. Improvements in performance (power density), lower costs, improved packaging, and scale up to full height are planned. MCFC developers need to continue to be responsive to end-users in potential markets. It will be market demands for the correct product definition which will ultimately determine the character of MCFC power plants. There is a need for continued MCFC product improvement and multiple product development tests.

  19. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, E. L., Jr.; Williams, M. C.; George, T. J.

    The MCFC technology has been identified by the DOE as a promising product for commercialization. Development of the MCFC technology supports the National Energy Strategy. Review of the status of the MCFC technology indicates that the MCFC technology developers are making rapid and significant progress. Manufacturing facility development and extensive testing is occurring. Improvements in performance (power density), lower costs, improved packaging, and scale up to full height are planned. MCFC developers need to continue to be responsive to end-users in potential markets. It will be market demands for the correct product definition which will ultimately determine the character of MCFC power plants. There is a need for continued MCFC product improvement and multiple product development tests.

  20. Strategic planning for molten carbonate fuel cell development and commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.; Mayfield, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), a high-temperature fuel cell, is a promising energy conversion product for generating electricity. Natural gas availability appears to play a key role in MCFC commercialization; natural gas MCFC and Integrated gasification MCFC (IGMCFC) are emerging power generation options that are responsive to requirements of Clean Air Act amendments and to guidance in National Energy Strategy. Goal of DOE IGMCFC program is to demonstrate the commercial readiness of this technology by the year 2010. DOE MCFC development objectives and planned activities are outlined.

  1. Strategic planning for molten carbonate fuel cell development and commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.; Mayfield, M.J.

    1993-03-01

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), a high-temperature fuel cell, is a promising energy conversion product for generating electricity. Natural gas availability appears to play a key role in MCFC commercialization; natural gas MCFC and Integrated gasification MCFC (IGMCFC) are emerging power generation options that are responsive to requirements of Clean Air Act amendments and to guidance in National Energy Strategy. Goal of DOE IGMCFC program is to demonstrate the commercial readiness of this technology by the year 2010. DOE MCFC development objectives and planned activities are outlined.

  2. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    All aerospace systems require power management and distribution (PMAD) between the energy and power source and the loads. The PMAD subsystem can be broadly described as the conditioning and control of unregulated power from the energy source and its transmission to a power bus for distribution to the intended loads. All power and control circuits for PMAD require electrical components for switching, energy storage, voltage-to-current transformation, filtering, regulation, protection, and isolation. Advanced electrical materials and component development technology is a key technology to increasing the power density, efficiency, reliability, and operating temperature of the PMAD. The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and/or significantly improved electronic materials for capacitors, magnetic components, and semiconductor switches and diodes. The next important step is to develop the processing techniques to fabricate electrical and electronic components that exceed the specifications of presently available state-of-the-art components. The NASA Glenn Research Center's advanced electrical materials and component development technology task is focused on the following three areas: 1) New and/or improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased capacitance volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature; 2) New and/or improved high-frequency, high-temperature soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers and inductors with increased power density, energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature; 3) Packaged high-temperature, high-power density, high-voltage, and low-loss SiC diodes and switches.

  3. Bocca: A Development Environment for HPC Components

    SciTech Connect

    Elwasif, Wael R; Norris, Boyana; Benjamin, Allan A.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with the component glue code and software build processes to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error-prone. Component-based soft ware meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software-engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the languages commonly used in scientific applications: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  4. Advanced Electrical Materials and Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give a description and status of the internal and external research sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center on soft magnetic materials, dielectric materials and capacitors, and high quality silicon carbide (SiC) atomically smooth substrates. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will be briefly discussed.

  5. CATALYTIC COMBUSTION COMPONENT AND SYSTEM PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop the components required for catalytic combustion system operation and evaluation. The systems investigated (firetube boiler, watertube boiler, and gas turbine), when integrated with the catalytic combustor, have potential for both ...

  6. Wide range load controllable MCFC cycle with pressure swing operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiba, Fumihiko; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Takao

    Partial load efficiencies of a natural gas fuelled MCFC/GT system are calculated; the efficiencies of four systems are compared. A constant pressure air compressor is applied in system cases 1 and 2, whereas a pressure swing air compressor is provided in system cases 3 and 4. A gas cooler is integrated in the cathode gas recycling line of cases 2-4, and an anode recycling with sub-reformer is provided in case 4. The cathode pressure loss in the MCFC stack is kept below 3 kPa during the calculation procedure to avoid a leakage of cathode gas. The range of the power load is limited to 50-100% in the constant operating pressure system (cases 1 and 2), mainly because of the limited cathode gas pressure loss of 3 kPa. The range of the power load is enlarged to 20-100% in cases 3 and 4 by combining the pressure swing operation with gas cooling in the cathode recycling line. In system cases 3 and 4, the efficiency at the lowest load operation (approx. 20-30% load) remains over 35% HHV-CH 4, whereas the maximum efficiency is calculated to be 53% HHV-CH 4 in middle load operation; the efficiency of case 4 at 100% load is estimated to be 50% HHV-CH 4. The combination of the pressure swing operation and gas cooling in the cathode recycling line offers a high efficiency of the MCFC system in a wide range of loads.

  7. Technology base studies of long-term MCFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, J.R.; Yazici, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This project aims to identify the long-term endurance problems of the MCFC by investigating corrosion of stainless steel (310, 316L). This presentation focuses on results from SEM and cross-section analysis. Significant differences between immersed and film-wetted electrodes are summarized. Results suggest that pre-oxidation can be a solution to obtaining a compact oxide layer. Adding Al to alloy leads to a very stable oxide layer, but increases resistivity. Alloy behavior must be investigated under continuously polarized conditions. 4 figs.

  8. The U.S. molten carbonate fuel-cell development and commercialization effort

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.; Mayfield, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    The authors discuss the status of molten carbonate fuel-cell (MCFC) development in the U.S., including the role of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in commercializing MCFC power-plant products for use by gas utility and electric power industries. They describe major fundamental stack research issues, as well as MCF power-plant network and system issues, that need to be resolved before MCFC technology can be commercialized. A significant initiative in MCFC research is the spatial configuration of MCFC stacks into networks in a fuel-cell power plant.

  9. Using Cots Components in Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilani, Abdul Khader

    2008-10-01

    As commercial off-the-shelf components starts used effectively, in building Component based Systems and new methodologies and processes not only for development and maintenance, but also for other lifecycle phases that are strongly affected. For example, some software vendors have begun to successfully sell and license commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, and this fact leads to a considerable number of components being available for use. Thus, requirements engineering techniques have to change to deal with more flexible requirements to provide a match between stakeholder requirements and COTS component's services. In addition to changes in activities such as composition and component specification, that are specific to Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE), there are also a number of managerial issues that require change. Many of these issues are not yet established in practice or even developed. The main goal of this article is to present some characteristics of a CBSD and discuss some of the current issues associated with applying CBSE.

  10. The Talent Development Middle School. Essential Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhere, Serge; Mac Iver, Douglas J.

    The Talent Development approach to helping greater numbers of students succeed in middle school is based on a belief that all students can learn challenging material if the right types of support are given. This report presents the essential components of the Talent Development framework and describes their initial implementation in Evans Junior…

  11. Porous nickel MCFC cathode coated by potentiostatically deposited cobalt oxide. I. A structural and morphological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, M. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Mendoza, L.; Cassir, M.; Daza, L.

    Porous nickel cathode was protected by potentiostatically deposited cobalt at different experimental conditions: oxidation potential and electrolysis duration. The deposition growth increased with the oxidation potential yielding a more developed granular structure with smaller grains. Thin layers of Co 3O 4 were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. CoOOH was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before annealing treatment and Co 3O 4 after heating the sample at 500 °C during 4 h in air. After this treatment, some morphological changes were observed on the coated samples due to grain compaction and oxidation of the nickel substrate. The porosity of the coated samples was relatively close to that of the sole porous nickel. These coatings exhibited an appropriate dual-pore structure with macro and micro pores, a basic MCFC requirement.

  12. Demonstration of direct internal reforming for MCFC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Christensen, P.S.; Winther, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    The conversion of methane into hydrogen for an MCFC by steam reforming is accomplished either externally or internally in the stack. In the case of external reforming the plant electrical efficiency is 5% abs. lower mainly because more parasitic power is required for air compression for stack cooling. Furthermore, heat produced in the stack must be transferred to the external reformer to drive the endothermic steam reforming reaction giving a more complex plant lay-out. A more suitable and cost effective approach is to use internal steam reforming of methane. Internal reforming may be accomplished either by Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR) and Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) in series or by DIR-only as illustrated. To avoid carbon formation in the anode compartment higher hydrocarbons in the feedstock are converted into hydrogen, methane and carbon oxides by reaction with steam in ail adiabatic prereformer upstream the fuel cell stack. This paper discusses key elements of the desire of both types of internal reforming and presents data from pilot plants with a combined total of more than 10,000 operating hours. The project is being carried out as part of the activities of the European MCFC Consortium ARGE.

  13. Silicon Micromachining for Terahertz Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Reck, Theodore J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile; Siles, Jose V.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert; Mehdi, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Waveguide component technology at terahertz frequencies has come of age in recent years. Essential components such as ortho-mode transducers (OMT), quadrature hybrids, filters, and others for high performance system development were either impossible to build or too difficult to fabricate with traditional machining techniques. With micromachining of silicon wafers coated with sputtered gold it is now possible to fabricate and test these waveguide components. Using a highly optimized Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process, we are now able to fabricate silicon micromachined waveguide structures working beyond 1 THz. In this paper, we describe in detail our approach of design, fabrication, and measurement of silicon micromachined waveguide components and report the results of a 1 THz canonical E-plane filter.

  14. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell technology at M-C Power Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, D.

    1996-04-01

    M-C Power Corporation was founded in 1987 with the mission to further develop and subsequently commercialize molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC). The technology chosen for commercialization was initially developed by the Institute of Gas technology (IGT). At the center of this MCFC technology is the Internally Manifolded Heat EXchange (IMHEX) separator plate design. The IMHEX technology design provides several functions within one component assembly. These functions include integrating the gas manifold structure into the fuel cell stack, separating the fuel gas stream from the oxidant gas stream, providing the required electrical contact between cells to achieve desired power output, and removing excess heat generated in the electrochemical process. Development of this MCFC technology from lab-scale sizes too a commercial area size of 1m{sup 2} has focused our efforts an demonstrating feasibility and evolutionary progress. The development effort will culminate in a proof-of-concept- 250kW power plant demonstration in 1996. The remainder of our commercialization program focuses upon lowering the costs associated with the MCFC power plant system in low production volumes.

  15. Low-Temperature Electronic Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammond, Ahmad

    1999-01-01

    In many future NASA missions, such as deep space planetary exploration and the Next Generation Space Telescope, electrical components and systems must operate reliably and efficiently in extremely low temperature environments. Most modern electronic components cannot operate below moderately low operating temperatures (-40 to -55 C). The low-temperature electronics program at the NASA Lewis Research Center is focusing on the development and characterization of low-temperature components and the integration of the developed devices into demonstrable very low-temperature (-200 C) power systems such as dc-dc converters. Such low-temperature electronics will not only tolerate hostile environments but also will reduce system size and weight by eliminating radioisotope heating units, thereby reducing launch cost, improving reliability and lifetime, and increasing energy densities. Low-temperature electronic components will also have a great influence on terrestrial applications such as medical instrumentation, magnetic levitation transportation systems, and arctic and antarctic exploration. Lewis researchers are now performing extensive evaluations of commercially available as well as custom-made devices. These include various types of energy storage and signal capacitors, power switching devices, magnetic and superconducting materials, and primary lithium batteries, to name a few.

  16. Sustainable Development in Indian Automotive Component Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2013-01-01

    India is the world's second fastest growing auto market and boasts of the sixth largest automobile industry after China, the US, Germany, Japan and Brazil. The Indian auto component industry recorded its highest year-on-year growth of 34.2 % in 2010-2011, raking in revenue of US 39.9 billion; major contribution coming from exports at US five billion and fresh investment from the US at around US two billion. For inclusive growth and sustainable development most of the auto components manufacturers has adopted the cluster development approach. The objective is to study the technical efficiency (θ), peer weights (λ i ), input slacks (S-) and output slacks (S+) of four Auto Component Clusters (ACC) in India. The methodology adopted is using Data Envelopment Analysis of Input Oriented Banker Charnes Cooper Model by taking number of units and number of employments as inputs and sales and exports in crores as an outputs. The non-zero λ i 's represents the weights for efficient clusters. The S > 0 obtained for one ACC reveals the excess no. of units (S-) and employment (S-) and shortage in sales (S+) and exports (S+). However the variable returns to scale are increasing for three clusters, constant for one more cluster and with nil decrease. To conclude, for inclusive growth and sustainable development, the inefficient ACC should increase their turnover and exports, as decrease in no. of enterprises and employment is practically not possible. Moreover for sustainable development, the ACC should strengthen infrastructure interrelationships, technology interrelationships, procurement interrelationships, production interrelationships and marketing interrelationships to increase productivity and efficiency to compete in the world market.

  17. Analysis and optimization of hybrid MCFC gas turbines plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunghi, Piero; Bove, Roberto; Desideri, Umberto

    High temperature fuel cells are electricity producers that guarantee relevant energetic and environmental performances. They feature high electricity to input chemical energy ratios and availability of high temperature heat. Notwithstanding, the search for a further increase in electric efficiency, especially when applying a CHP solution is not feasible, has brought to plant integration with gas turbines (GTs) in several studies and some pilot installations. While for pressurized fuel cells the choice of internal combustion gas turbines seem to be the only one feasible, in ambient pressure fuel cells it seems useful to analyze the combination with indirect heated GT. This choice allows to optimize turbine pressure ratio and cell size. In this work, a parametric performance evaluation of a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) indirect heated gas turbine has been performed by varying the fuel cell section size and the fuel utilization coefficient. The analysis of performance variation with the latter parameter shows how a cell that is optimized for stand alone operation is not necessarily optimized for the integration in a hybrid cycle. Working with reduced utilization factors, in fact can reduce irreversible losses and does not necessarily yield to less electricity production since the heat produced in the post combustor is recovered by the gas turbine section. This aspect has not been taken into sufficient consideration in literature. The analysis illustrates the methodology to define new operating conditions so to allow global output and global efficiency maximization.

  18. Effects of system configuration and operating condition on MCFC system efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Byoung Sam; Koh, Joon-Ho; Lim, Hee Chun

    A process simulation model of an externally reformed molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system is used to analyze quantitatively parametric effects on system efficiency. In order to verify the MCFC process simulation model, a 25 kW system is analyzed on the basis of experimental data and its calculated efficiency is found to be reasonable. The overall system efficiency of a high-temperature fuel cell system, especially a MCFC, cannot be increased without proper thermal integration between the heat recovery units and without additional power from auxiliary power generation units such as turbines. The results of the simulation show that the configuration of the unit operators in a given system has a great effect on system efficiency, while system size and operating conditions have slightly less effects. Based on the system configuration, the optimal operating conditions (including fuel, oxidant utilization, and recycle ratio) can be specified to maximize the system efficiency.

  19. Guidelines for design and development of industrially relevant MCFC stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Torazza, A.; Dufour, A.; Giorgi, L.

    1996-12-31

    An interesting way of reducing the production costs of the electrical energy by improving efficiency and, at the same time, having a good integration between environment and power plants is offered by the utilization of the fuel cells operating at high temperatures. From this point of view, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs) seem to be one of the most promising technologies because of their environmental friendly operation for various fuels and potential low cost. In fact it is well known that the MCFCs overall plant efficiency is typically some 500% and can reach, as a consequence of their high operating temperature, 65% with a bottoming cycle. Moreover MCFCs will be particularly attractive for dispersed power plants of MW size located at user sites. Additional advantages of MCFCs are their good response to base and partial load, short time for plant erection and modularity.

  20. Status of Santa Clara MCFC product development test

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of the 2MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project is the demonstration of the carbonate fuel cell technology at full scale. Additional objectives of the project include the demonstration of specific advantages of the direct carbonate fuel cell power plant, such as high efficiency, low emissions, reactive power capability, and high reliability and availability. The project will also provide design input for precommercial early production power plants.

  1. Status of Santa Clara MCFC product development test

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    The 2MW plant is the world`s first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on an electric utility system. It is located at 1255 Space Park Drive in the City of Santa Clara, CA. The balance of plant pretesting effort will continue through Sept. 1995, when the stack installation effort will be initiated.

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cell research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, E.T. )

    1991-02-01

    Successful molten carbonate fuel cell development required the resolution of four significant technical problems: (1) the molten carbonate fuel cell nickel anode had excessive creep, (2) the nickel oxide cathode exhibited an excessively high dissolution rate, (3) electrolyte matrices have been prone to cracking, and (4) a comprehensive definition of component development requirements for the MCFC stack was lacking. This program addressed all of these issues and others. As a result of a series of studies on materials and manufacturing processes, anode creep (shrinkage) has been reduced significantly with the development of oxide-dispersion-strengthened nickel aluminum anodes. By increasing the basicity of the carbonate electrolyte with alkaline-earth additives, nickel dissolution has been reduced by a factor of 2 to 4, thus increasing MCFC cell life. Successful techniques for the simple and low-cost tape casting of MCFC matrices and carbonate layers have been developed, and successful endurance tests have been run on new cell anodes, cathodes, and matrices. 2 refs., 51 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Status of the M-C Power IMHEX{reg_sign} MCFC commercialization program

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, R.M.; Scroppo, J.A.; Petri, R.J.; Benjamin, T.G.

    1996-12-31

    Six years ago, M-C Power (MCP) developed a comprehensive business plan to commercialize molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants. On an annual basis the plan has been reviewed and modified to adapt to identified end user needs and technological advancements. As a result, product definition kept abreast with marketing requirements. Over the last five years, there was order and reason for subtle shifts in supply, demand, competition and pricing policies. Today, however, traditional market assessment assumptions must be challenged. There is a revolution taking place. The revolution can be summed up in one word ... deregulation. Deregulation of the airline industry led to consideration of the natural gas industry. Now that natural gas deregulation is behind us, it is electric power and telecommunications that are receiving attention. Increased emphasis is being placed on achieving market-priced power. The net result will be thinner margins for the seller and the end user. What does this mean for the commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cells?

  4. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, ceramic component developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teneyck, M. O.; Macbeth, J. W.; Sweeting, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    The ceramic component technology development activity conducted by Standard Oil Engineered Materials Company while performing as a principal subcontractor to the Garrett Auxiliary Power Division for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project (NASA Contract DEN3-167) is summarized. The report covers the period October 1979 through July 1987, and includes information concerning ceramic technology work categorized as common and unique. The former pertains to ceramic development applicable to two parallel AGT projects established by NASA contracts DEN3-168 (AGT100) and DEN3-167 (AGT101), whereas the unique work solely pertains to Garrett directed activity under the latter contract. The AGT101 Technology Development Project is sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA-Lewis. Standard Oil directed its efforts toward the development of ceramic materials in the silicon-carbide family. Various shape forming and fabrication methods, and nondestructive evaluation techniques were explored to produce the static structural components for the ceramic engine. This permitted engine testing to proceed without program slippage.

  5. Probabilistic Aeroelastic Analysis Developed for Turbomachinery Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Mital, Subodh K.; Stefko, George L.; Pai, Shantaram S.

    2003-01-01

    Aeroelastic analyses for advanced turbomachines are being developed for use at the NASA Glenn Research Center and industry. However, these analyses at present are used for turbomachinery design with uncertainties accounted for by using safety factors. This approach may lead to overly conservative designs, thereby reducing the potential of designing higher efficiency engines. An integration of the deterministic aeroelastic analysis methods with probabilistic analysis methods offers the potential to design efficient engines with fewer aeroelastic problems and to make a quantum leap toward designing safe reliable engines. In this research, probabilistic analysis is integrated with aeroelastic analysis: (1) to determine the parameters that most affect the aeroelastic characteristics (forced response and stability) of a turbomachine component such as a fan, compressor, or turbine and (2) to give the acceptable standard deviation on the design parameters for an aeroelastically stable system. The approach taken is to combine the aeroelastic analysis of the MISER (MIStuned Engine Response) code with the FPI (fast probability integration) code. The role of MISER is to provide the functional relationships that tie the structural and aerodynamic parameters (the primitive variables) to the forced response amplitudes and stability eigenvalues (the response properties). The role of FPI is to perform probabilistic analyses by utilizing the response properties generated by MISER. The results are a probability density function for the response properties. The probabilistic sensitivities of the response variables to uncertainty in primitive variables are obtained as a byproduct of the FPI technique. The combined analysis of aeroelastic and probabilistic analysis is applied to a 12-bladed cascade vibrating in bending and torsion. Out of the total 11 design parameters, 6 are considered as having probabilistic variation. The six parameters are space-to-chord ratio (SBYC), stagger angle

  6. Evaluation of volatile behaviour and the volatilization volume of molten salt in DIR-MCFC by using the image measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Yamauchi, Makoto; Tanimoto, Kazumi; Yoshitani, Yasumasa

    The volatilization of molten salt is one of the factors that control the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC). Volatilization of molten salt promotes the cross-leakage and corrosion of metallic components. Moreover, pipe blockage is caused by the solidification of volatile matter. Especially, because reforming catalysts filling the anode channel are polluted by molten salt volatile matter in direct internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cells (DIR-MCFC), volatilizing of the molten salt is a weighty subject. However, neither the behaviour nor the volatilization volume of molten salt volatile matter has been elucidated, because molten salt volatile matter that has strong alkalinity cannot be supplied directly to an analyzer, its volatilization volume is small, and the analytical accuracy is poor. Therefore, an attempt was made to elucidate the behaviour of vaporized alkali hydroxide by using a non-contact image measurement technique. The DIR-MCFC electrolyte is generally 62Li 2CO 3/38K 2CO 3. Consideration was given to the DIR-MCFC catalyst pollution mechanism as follows. Molten salt volatile matter is KOH generated as water generated in the cell reacts with the electrolyte. The generated KOH returns to K 2CO 3 again in high CO 2 concentration regions, and catalyst pollution is caused by the adherence of the K 2CO 3 to the catalyst. Moreover, the K 2CO 3 particles mutually cohere when the generated water assists bonding and blocks the piping. The present report experimentally evaluates the volatilization volume of KOH, the change from KOH to K 2CO 3, and the particulate growth of K 2CO 3, using the image measurement technique. In measuring the KOH volatilization volume, K 2CO 3 is generated as KOH volatilized by heating it in a crucible in an electric furnace reacts with CO 2, and is then injected into a reaction tube. The amount of K 2CO 3 is measured by measuring the image of the K 2CO 3 particle with a YAG laser and a CCD camera, thereby obtaining

  7. Instructional Staff Development. Component 5: Pupil Centered Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, John E.; Wright, Delivee L.

    This trainer's manual for the fifth of six components of the Instructional Staff Development (ISD) program is designed to prepare teachers to develop a model for use in Pupil Centered Inquiry teaching (PCI). This component is said to build on the teacher's knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained in the first four components; the entire program is…

  8. Development and Characterization of Boehmite Component Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Smith, Harry D.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Aker, Pamela M.; Buck, Edgar C.

    2009-03-10

    According to Bechtel National Inc.’s (BNI’s) Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0, “Simulant Development to Support the Development and Demonstration of Leaching and Ultrafiltration Pretreatment Processes,” simulants for boehmite, gibbsite, and filtration are to be developed that can be used in subsequent bench and integrated testing of the leaching/filtration processes. These simulants will then be used to demonstrate the leaching process and to help refine processing conditions that may impact safety basis considerations (Smith 2006). This report documents the results of the boehmite simulant development.

  9. Developments in space power components for power management and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced power electronic components development for space applications is discussed. The components described include transformers, inductors, semiconductor devices such as transistors and diodes, remote power controllers, and transmission lines.

  10. Development and Characterization of Gibbsite Component Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Smith, Harry D.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-01-29

    According to Bechtel National, Inc.’s (BNI’s) Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0, "Simulant Development to Support the Development and Demonstration of Leaching and Ultrafiltration Pretreatment Processes," simulants for boehmite, gibbsite, and filtration are to be developed so they can be used in subsequent bench and integrated testing of the leaching/filtration processes for the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP). These simulants will then be used to demonstrate the leaching process and to help refine processing conditions that may impact safety basis considerations (Smith 2006). This report documents PNNL’s results of the gibbsite simulant development.

  11. Non-Reactor Micro-Component Development

    SciTech Connect

    Palo, Daniel R.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; Holladay, Jamie D.; Humble, Paul H.; Dagle, Robert A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2007-02-01

    This book chapter will appear in a book being published by Wiley VCH, titled "Micro-Instrumentation for High Throughput Experimentation and Process Intensification." It represents a summary of microchannel-based research in all areas of non-reactive process development, such as heat exchange, mixing, emulsification, phase separation, distillation, mass-transfer, and biological applications.

  12. Development and Characterization of Boehmite Component Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Smith, Harry D.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Aker, Pamela M.; Buck, Edgar C.

    2009-06-03

    According to Bechtel National Inc.’s (BNI’s) Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0, “Simulant Development to Support the Development and Demonstration of Leaching and Ultrafiltration Pretreatment Processes,” simulants for boehmite, gibbsite, and filtration are to be developed that can be used in subsequent bench and integrated testing of the leaching/filtration processes. These simulants will then be used to demonstrate the leaching process and to help refine processing conditions that may impact safety basis considerations (Smith 2006). This report documents the results of the boehmite simulant development and blended simulant crossflow ultrafiltration leaching completed in accordance with the test plan TP-RPP-WTP-469 Rev 0 (WTP Doc. No. 24590- 101-TSA-W000-0004-182-00001 Rev 00A) prepared and approved in response to the cited test specification. This report also includes the results of the aluminate and anion effect on boehmite dissolution performed in accordance with the test plan TP-RPP-WTP-509, Rev 0 (WTP Doc. No. 24590-101-TSA-W000-0004-72-00019 Rev 00A) prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-07-004, Rev 0 (Sundar 2007).

  13. Improved MCFC performance with Li/Na/Ba/Ca carbonate electrolyte.

    SciTech Connect

    Centeno, C.-J.; Kaun, T. D.; Krumpelt, M.; Schoeler, A.

    1999-07-21

    Earlier electrolyte segregation tests of Li/Na carbonate used chemical analysis such as inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) of matrix strips wetted with carbonate and exposed to 5- to 20-V potential gradients. A segregation factor was correlated to the Li/Na carbonate composition. While fairly substantial segregation occurs at the eutectic composition of 52% Li, it is minimal at 60% to 75% Li. Such lithium-rich Li/Na carbonates may not be practical because the melting points are too high (i.e., liquidus point is 625 C). By adding calcium and barium to the lithium/sodium carbonates, we were able to lower the melting point and maintain nonsegregating behavior. This work is directed at examining the long-term stability of the quaternary Li/Na/Ba/Ca electrolytes. Electrolyte optimization work evaluates Li/Na ratio and Ba/Ca level to improve cell performance at 320 mA/cm{sup 2} and reduce temperature sensitivity. A number of cells with quaternary Li/Na/Ba/Ca electrolytes ranging from 3 to 5% Ba/Ca have operated well with stable, long-term performance. Congruent melting carbonate is important for commercial development. The best so far is 3.5% Ba/Ca/Na/Li (3.5 mol%/3.5 mol% Ba/Ca) carbonate (m.p. 440 C). Performance at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} is increased up to 150mV as compared with the baseline cell containing the Li/Na eutectic composition. Life stability has been reproduced by a number of bench-scale MCFC test with operations of 2000-4300 h and the electrolyte composition across the matrix little changed.

  14. Methodology Evaluation Framework for Component-Based System Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahanayake, Ajantha; Sol, Henk; Stojanovic, Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Explains component-based development (CBD) for distributed information systems and presents an evaluation framework, which highlights the extent to which a methodology is component oriented. Compares prominent CBD methods, discusses ways of modeling, and suggests that this is a first step towards a components-oriented systems development…

  15. Pyrotechnic component development at Sandia National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Pyrotechnic and explosive devices are designed at Sandia National Laboratories, SNL, which must satisfy high reliability requirements for reliable function and storage life. Since only a small number of devices may be built, high standards of quality of both the explosive and structural materials are necessary. We have developed special alloys and glass-ceramic seals for headers and structural parts of these devices to satisfy requirements for minimum size and weight but with increased ruggedness and safety. Hermetic sealing is used extensively to aid in the control of corrosion and aging effects. There is an increasing demand for the integration of these devices with safer (less sensitive) materials, better handling methods, and the use of electrical or fiber optic logic input elements. This paper addresses the trends in active materials, structural materials and a new method of ignition which enhances device designs compatible with low voltage and digital electronics.

  16. Engine component instrumentation development facility at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.; Buggele, Alvin E.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The Engine Components Instrumentation Development Facility at NASA Lewis is a unique aeronautics facility dedicated to the development of innovative instrumentation for turbine engine component testing. Containing two separate wind tunnels, the facility is capable of simulating many flow conditions found in most turbine engine components. This facility's broad range of capabilities as well as its versatility provide an excellent location for the development of novel testing techniques. These capabilities thus allow a more efficient use of larger and more complex engine component test facilities.

  17. Peridigm summary report : lessons learned in development with agile components.

    SciTech Connect

    Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Mitchell, John Anthony; Littlewood, David John; Parks, Michael L.

    2011-09-01

    This report details efforts to deploy Agile Components for rapid development of a peridynamics code, Peridigm. The goal of Agile Components is to enable the efficient development of production-quality software by providing a well-defined, unifying interface to a powerful set of component-based software. Specifically, Agile Components facilitate interoperability among packages within the Trilinos Project, including data management, time integration, uncertainty quantification, and optimization. Development of the Peridigm code served as a testbed for Agile Components and resulted in a number of recommendations for future development. Agile Components successfully enabled rapid integration of Trilinos packages into Peridigm. A cost of this approach, however, was a set of restrictions on Peridigm's architecture which impacted the ability to track history-dependent material data, dynamically modify the model discretization, and interject user-defined routines into the time integration algorithm. These restrictions resulted in modifications to the Agile Components approach, as implemented in Peridigm, and in a set of recommendations for future Agile Components development. Specific recommendations include improved handling of material states, a more flexible flow control model, and improved documentation. A demonstration mini-application, SimpleODE, was developed at the onset of this project and is offered as a potential supplement to Agile Components documentation.

  18. Energy efficient engine component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments in the Energy Efficient Engine Component Development and Integration program during the period of April 1, 1981 through September 30, 1981 are discussed. The major topics considered are: (1) propulsion system analysis, design, and integration; (2) engine component analysis, design, and development; (3) core engine tests; and (4) integrated core/low spool testing.

  19. Component-Based Approach in Learning Management System Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaitseva, Larisa; Bule, Jekaterina; Makarov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes component-based approach (CBA) for learning management system development. Learning object as components of e-learning courses and their metadata is considered. The architecture of learning management system based on CBA being developed in Riga Technical University, namely its architecture, elements and possibilities are…

  20. Development of internal manifold heat exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Marianowski, L.G.; Ong, E.T.; Petri, R.J.; Remick, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has been in the forefront of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) development for over 25 years. Numerous cell designs have been tested and extensive tests have been performed on a variety of gas manifolding alternatives for cells and stacks. Based upon the results of these performance tests, IGT's development efforts started focusing on an internal gas manifolding concept. This work, initiated in 1988, is known today as the IMHEX{reg sign} concept. MCP has developed a comprehensive commercialization program loading to the sale of commercial units in 1996. MCP's role is in the manufacture of stack components, stack assembly, MCFC subsystem testing, and the design, marketing and construction of MCFC power plants. Numerous subscale (1 ft{sup 2}) stacks have been operated containing between 3 and 70 cells. These tests verified and demonstrated the viability of internal manifolding from technical (no carbonate pumping), engineering (relaxed part dimensional tolerance requirements), and operational (good gas sealing) aspects. Simplified fabrication, ease of assembly, the elimination of external manifolds and all associated clamping requirements has significantly lowered anticipated stack costs. Ongoing 1 ft{sup 2} stack testing is generating performance and endurance characteristics as a function of system specified operating conditions. Commercial-sized, full-area stacks (10 ft{sup 2}) are in the process of being assembled and will be tested in November. This paper will review the recent developments the MCFC scale-up and manufacture work of MCP, and the research and development efforts of IGT which support those efforts. 17 figs.

  1. Experimental comparison of MCFC performance using three different biogas types and methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, Roberto; Lunghi, Piero

    Biogas recovery is an environmentally friendly and cost-effective practice that is getting consensus in both the scientific and industrial community, as the growing number of projects demonstrate. The use of fuel cells as energy conversion systems increases the conversion efficiency, as well as the environmental benefits. Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) operate at a temperature of about 650 °C, thus presenting a high fuel flexibility, compared to low temperature fuel cells. Aim of the present study is to compare the performance of an MCFC single cell, fuelled with different biogas types as well as methane. The biogases considered are derived from the following processes: (1) steam gasification in an entrained flow gasifier; (2) steam gasification in a duel interconnect fluidized bed gasifier; (3) biogas from an anaerobic digestion process. The performances are evaluated for different fuel utilization and current densities. The results are an essential starting point for a complete system design and demonstration.

  2. Steam reforming of ethanol on Ni/MgO catalysts: H 2 production for MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freni, S.; Cavallaro, S.; Mondello, N.; Spadaro, L.; Frusteri, F.

    H 2 production by ethanol steam reforming in simulating molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) conditions was explored. Ni/MgO catalysts exhibit very high selectivity to H 2 and CO 2 as a consequence of their low tendency to promote carbon monoxide methanation and ethanol decomposition reactions. Coke formation is strongly depressed due to the benefits induced by the use of basic carrier which positively modify the electronic properties of supported Ni.

  3. Ceramic component processing development for advanced gas-turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcentire, B. J.; Hengst, R. R.; Collins, W. T.; Taglialavore, A. P.; Yeckley, R. L.; Bright, E.; Bingham, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    A review of ceramic component advancements directed at developing manufacturing technologies for rotors, stators, vane-seat platforms and scrolls is presented. The first three components are being produced from HIPed Si3N4, while scrolls were prepared from a series of siliconized silicon-carbide materials. Developmental work has been conducted on all aspects of the fabrication process utilizing Taguchi experimental design methods. An assessment of material properties for various components from each process and material are made.

  4. Ceramic component development for the AGT101 gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, W. D.; Smith, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Under DOE/NASA sponsorship, a team is developing the AGT101, a highly efficient gas turbine engine for automotive application. The regenerated engine will operate at a maximum of 1370 C (2500 F) and 100,000 rpm, and will utilize a variety of Si3N4, SiC, lithium aluminum silicate and ceramic fiber insulation components. Engine design has been performed to consider the fabrication and material characteristics of these ceramic materials for both the static and rotating hot section components. Component fabrication has been performed, components have been screened in thermal and mechanical tests, and initial engine testing has been performed.

  5. Three Dimensional Forming Simulation of the Shielded Slot Plate for the MCFC Using a Ductile Fracture Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. H.; Yang, D. Y.; Lee, S. R.; Chang, I. G.; Lee, T. W.

    2011-08-01

    The shielded slot plate, which has a sheared corrugated trapezoidal pattern, is a component of the metallic bipolar plate for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). In order to increase the efficiency of the fuel cell, the unit cell of the shielded slot plate should have a relatively large upper area. Additionally, defects from the forming process should be minimized. In order to simulate the slitting process, whereby sheared corrugated patterns are formed, ductile fracture criteria based on the histories of stress and strain are employed. The user material subroutine VUMAT is employed for implementation of the material and ductile fracture criteria in the commercial FEM software ABAQUS. The variables of the ductile fracture criteria were determined by comparing the simulation results and the experimental results of the tension test and the shearing test. Parametric studies were conducted to determine the critical value of the ductile fracture criterion. Employing these ductile fracture criteria, the three dimensional forming process of the shielded slot plate was numerically simulated. The effects of the slitting process in the forming process of the shielded slot plate were analyzed through a FEM simulation and experimental studies. Finally, experiments involving microscopic and macroscopic observations were conducted to verify the numerical simulations of the 3-step forming process.

  6. Energy efficient engine. Volume 1: Component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technology for achieving lower installed fuel consumption and lower operating costs in future commercial turbofan engines are developed, evaluated, and demonstrated. The four program objectives are: (1) propulsion system analysis; (2) component analysis, design, and development; (3) core design, fabrication, and test; and (4) integrated core/low spoon design, fabrication, and test.

  7. Integrated disruptive components for 2µm fibre lasers (ISLA): project overview and passive component development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, G.; Legg, T.; Shardlow, P.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an overview of the EU FP7 project ISLA (Integrated disruptive componentS for 2 μm fibre Lasers) is given. The aim of ISLA was to develop a set of "building block" components and a "tool-kit" of processes to define an integrated modular common platform for two micron fibre lasers consisting of compatible and self-consistent active and passive fibres, fused fibre couplers and combiners, fibre-coupled isolators, modulators and high power pump laser diodes. We also present results from our work on developing passive components for 2 μm fibre lasers. This includes high power pump combiners that have been tested up to 0.5 kW and combiners for in-band pumping of holmium lasers. Couplers for use as splitters, power monitors and wavelength division multiplexers have also been demonstrated. Wideband couplers, with a coupling ratio that only varies ± 12% over 400 nm, have also been developed to exploit the wide tuning range possible with thulium fibre lasers. Research into different isolator materials was also conducted to find materials with large Verdet constants to be used in 2 μm isolators. Fibre-coupled isolators were then manufactured using a selection of these materials. Isolators that had insertion losses of < 1 dB and isolation of > 35 dB were demonstrated using PM and non-PM fibres. In the PM isolators, PER > 23 dB was achieved.

  8. Endurance test on a single cell of a novel cathode material for MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, J.; González, T.; Escudero, M. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Daza, L.

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is expected to be an efficient device for the conversion of chemical energy in the near future. However, one of the major limits to the lifetime is the dissolution of the nickel oxide cathode in the electrolyte. This problem can be overcome by the addition of new compounds to the nickel oxide. In this way, the performance and the endurance of a new Ni-Ce cathode for MCFC has been tested and the results compared to a commercial nickel cathode. The polarisation curves were measured in order to check the degradation of the cell performance with time. The results showed a better performance with the novel cathode material (136 mW/cm 2 at 200 mA/cm 2 during 2100 h) than the commercial one (the voltage decreased from 120 to 108 mW/cm 2 at 150 mA/cm 2 in 1000 h). The better performance of Ni-Ce cathode with respect to the Ni one can be attributed to the good effect of cerium in the cathode. The change in the nickel crystalline structure reduces the dissolution of nickel in the electrolyte and implies a greater endurance of the cell. The current-voltage curves were measured and showed the same trend for both cells. Postmortem analyses were done in order to characterise the cells. As a conclusion, the addition of cerium can be beneficial to overcome the dissolution of the nickel cathode in the electrolyte, which is considered one of the major limits to the lifetime of a MCFC.

  9. Component development for X-band above 100 MW

    SciTech Connect

    Fowkes, W.R.; Callin, R.S.; Studzinski, M.

    1991-05-01

    The requirement for some of the components described in this paper began with the Relativistic Klystron program done in collaboration with LLNL and LBL. This effort culminated in a klystron operating at 11.4 GHz delivering 330 MW into a pair of high-gradient accelerating structures. The electron beam for this klystron was formed in a 1 MeV induction linac at a very low duty cycle. The subsequent RF source development work at SLAC for the Next Linear Collider utilized some of these components, and required further and new development of others, work reliably at higher average power. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This technical progress report summarizes the objectives and progress on the following tasks associated with the project: Commercialization; Power plant development; Manufacturing facilities development; Testing facility development; Stack research; and Advanced research and technology development. The project will demonstrate a 250 kW molten carbonate fuel cell power plant based on the IMHEX stack design concept.

  11. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Development: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2005-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give an update of the Advanced Power Electronics and Components Technology being developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center for use in future Power Management and Distribution subsystems used in space power systems for spacecraft and lunar and planetary surface power. The initial description and status of this technology program was presented two years ago at the First International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference held at Portsmouth, Virginia, August 2003. The present paper will give a brief background of the previous work reported and a summary of research performed the past several years on soft magnetic materials characterization, dielectric materials and capacitor developments, high quality silicon carbide atomically smooth substrates, and SiC static and dynamic device characterization under elevated temperature conditions. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will also be briefly discussed.

  12. Component Development - Advanced Fuel Cells for Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, William

    2000-06-19

    Report summarizes results of second phase of development of Vairex air compressor/expander for automotive fuel cell power systems. Project included optimizing key system performance parameters, as well as reducing number of components and the project cost, size and weight of the air system. Objectives were attained. Advanced prototypes are in commercial test environments.

  13. The Clinical Supervision Cycle: A Component of Staff Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Susan R.; Koskela, Ruth A.

    Findings are reported from a statewide survey of middle and junior high schools in Wisconsin. The study had two major purposes: (1) to determine the extent to which the clinical supervision cycle was a component of staff development programs; and (2) to identify characteristics of existing clinical supervision practices within staff development…

  14. Ceramic Composite Development for Gas Turbine Engine Hot Section Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; VANrOODE, mARK

    2006-01-01

    The development of ceramic materials for incorporation into the hot section of gas turbine engines has been ongoing for about fifty years. Researchers have designed, developed, and tested ceramic gas turbine components in rigs and engines for automotive, aero-propulsion, industrial, and utility power applications. Today, primarily because of materials limitations and/or economic factors, major challenges still remain for the implementation of ceramic components in gas turbines. For example, because of low fracture toughness, monolithic ceramics continue to suffer from the risk of failure due to unknown extrinsic damage events during engine service. On the other hand, ceramic matrix composites (CMC) with their ability to display much higher damage tolerance appear to be the materials of choice for current and future engine components. The objective of this paper is to briefly review the design and property status of CMC materials for implementation within the combustor and turbine sections for gas turbine engine applications. It is shown that although CMC systems have advanced significantly in thermo-structural performance within recent years, certain challenges still exist in terms of producibility, design, and affordability for commercial CMC turbine components. Nevertheless, there exist some recent successful efforts for prototype CMC components within different engine types.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic projects at the CDIF (Component Development and Integration Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents the tasks accomplished at the Component Development and Integration Facility during the fourth quarter of FY90. Areas of technical progress this quarter included: coal system development; seed system development; test bay modification; channel power dissipation and distribution system development; oxygen system storage upgrade; iron core magnet thermal protection system oxygen checkout; TRW slag rejector/CDIF slag removal project; stack gas/environmental compliance upgrade; coal-fired combustor support; 1A channels fabrication and assembly; support of Mississippi State University diagnostic testing; test operations and results; data enhancement; data analysis and modeling; technical papers; and projected activities. 2 tabs.

  16. Morphological, structural and electrochemical analysis of sputter-deposited ceria and titania coatings for MCFC application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, Valérie; Mendoza, Leonardo; Goux, Aurélie; Ringuedé, Armelle; Billard, Alain; Briois, Pascal; Cassir, Michel

    In order to protect the MCFC nickel cathode, TiO 2 and CeO 2 coatings were prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. These oxides are stable thermodynamically whatever the cathode or anode gaseous conditions. Good quality, dense and homogeneous coatings were obtained at thicknesses lower than 1 μm. The structure of the deposits, as analysed by XRD, was the expected one. In this work only dense nickel substrates were used. After their direct immersion in a Li 2CO 3-Na 2CO 3 carbonate eutectic at 650 °C, which can be considered as extremely corrosive conditions with respect to the usual MCFC conditions, the coatings were affected. TiO 2 coatings were transformed into Li 2TiO 3, in agreement with thermodynamic predictions; however, they became progressively unstable, which was probably due to a problem of mechanical adhesion rather than to solubility. The thinner was the deposit, the higher was its conductance and the closer to that of a pure Ni electrode was its electrocatalytic activity. CeO 2 coatings were stable in a ceria form and their adhesion was better even though not fully satisfactory. These first preliminary results are promising regarding the direct contact of the coatings with the corrosive carbonate melt, but the improvement of the adhesion is one of the major problems to solve.

  17. Reusable Component Model Development Approach for Parallel and Distributed Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feng; Yao, Yiping; Chen, Huilong; Yao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Model reuse is a key issue to be resolved in parallel and distributed simulation at present. However, component models built by different domain experts usually have diversiform interfaces, couple tightly, and bind with simulation platforms closely. As a result, they are difficult to be reused across different simulation platforms and applications. To address the problem, this paper first proposed a reusable component model framework. Based on this framework, then our reusable model development approach is elaborated, which contains two phases: (1) domain experts create simulation computational modules observing three principles to achieve their independence; (2) model developer encapsulates these simulation computational modules with six standard service interfaces to improve their reusability. The case study of a radar model indicates that the model developed using our approach has good reusability and it is easy to be used in different simulation platforms and applications. PMID:24729751

  18. Structural Analysis Methods Development for Turbine Hot Section Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The structural analysis technologies and activities of the NASA Lewis Research Center's gas turbine engine Hot Section Technology (HOST) program are summarized. The technologies synergistically developed and validated include: time-varying thermal/mechanical load models; component-specific automated geometric modeling and solution strategy capabilities; advanced inelastic analysis methods; inelastic constitutive models; high-temperature experimental techniques and experiments; and nonlinear structural analysis codes. Features of the program that incorporate the new technologies and their application to hot section component analysis and design are described. Improved and, in some cases, first-time 3-D nonlinear structural analyses of hot section components of isotropic and anisotropic nickel-base superalloys are presented.

  19. An overview: Component development for solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, T.R.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, I review the significant issues and the development of solar concentrators and thermal receivers for central-receiver power plants and dish/engine systems. Due to the breadth of the topic area, I have arbitrarily narrowed the content of this paper by choosing not to discuss line-focus (trough) systems and energy storage. I will focus my discussion on the development of heliostats, dishes, and receivers since the 1970s with an emphasis on describing the technologies and their evolution, identifying some key observations and lessons learned, and suggesting what the future in component development may be.

  20. Development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'Development of Sensors for Ceramics Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems' program was divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objectives of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. A summary report of the Phase 2 effort, together with conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated, has been submitted to NASA. Emittance tests were performed on six materials furnished by NASA Lewis Research Center. Measurements were made of various surfaces at high temperature using a Thermogage emissometer. This report describes the emittance test program and presents a summary of the results.

  1. MATERIALS AND COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROJECT SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M A

    2010-06-18

    Future hydrogen-fired or oxy-fuel turbines will likely experience an enormous level of thermal and mechanical loading, as turbine inlet temperatures (TIT) approach 1425-1760C (2600-3200F) with pressures of 300-625 psig, respectively. Maintaining the structural integrity of future turbine components under these extreme conditions will require (1) durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), (2) high temperature creep resistant metal substrates, and (3) effective cooling techniques. While advances in substrate materials have been limited for the past decades, thermal protection of turbine airfoils in future hydrogen-fired and oxy-fuel turbines will rely primarily on collective advances in the TBCs and aerothermal cooling. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has continued its collaborative research efforts with the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University, while working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers. This paper presents the technical accomplishments that were made during FY09 in the initial areas of advanced materials, aerothermal heat transfer and non-destructive evaluation techniques for use in advanced land-based turbine applications in the Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems project, and introduces three new technology areas high temperature overlayer coating development, diffusion barrier coating development, and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy development that are being conducted in this effort.

  2. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  3. Hydrogen-bromine fuel cell advance component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, Joann; Reed, James

    1988-01-01

    Advanced cell component development is performed by NASA Lewis to achieve improved performance and longer life for the hydrogen-bromine fuel cells system. The state-of-the-art hydrogen-bromine system utilizes the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) technology, similar to the SPE technology developed for the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell system. These studies are directed at exploring the potential for this system by assessing and evaluating various types of materials for cell parts and electrode materials for Bromine-hydrogen bromine environment and fabricating experimental membrane/electrode-catalysts by chemical deposition.

  4. Valuing Professional Development Components for Emerging Undergraduate Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, I.

    2015-12-01

    In 2004 the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) at Oregon State University (OSU) established a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program to engage undergraduate students in hands-on research training in the marine sciences. The program offers students the opportunity to conduct research focused on biological and ecological topics, chemical and physical oceanography, marine geology, and atmospheric science. In partnership with state and federal government agencies, this ten-week summer program has grown to include 20+ students annually. Participants obtain a background in the academic discipline, professional development training, and research experience to make informed decisions about careers and advanced degrees in marine and earth system sciences. Professional development components of the program are designed to support students in their research experience, explore career goals and develop skills necessary to becoming a successful young marine scientist. These components generally include seminars, discussions, workshops, lab tours, and standards of conduct. These componentscontribute to achieving the following professional development objectives for the overall success of new emerging undergraduate researchers: Forming a fellowship of undergraduate students pursuing marine research Stimulating student interest and understanding of marine research science Learning about research opportunities at Oregon State University "Cross-Training" - broadening the hands-on research experience Exploring and learning about marine science careers and pathways Developing science communication and presentation skills Cultivating a sense of belonging in the sciences Exposure to federal and state agencies in marine and estuarine science Academic and career planning Retention of talented students in the marine science Standards of conduct in science Details of this program's components, objectives and best practices will be discussed.

  5. Development of x-ray laser architectural components

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, A.S.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the recent experimental and computational development of short-pulse, enhanced-coherence, and high-brilliance x-ray lasers (XRLs). The authors will describe the development of an XRL cavity by injecting laser photons back into an amplifying XRL plasma. Using a combination of LASNEX/GLF/SPECTRE-BEAM3 codes, they obtained good agreement with experimental results. They will describe the adaptive spatial filtering technique used to design small-aperture shaped XRLs with near diffraction-limited output. Finally they will discuss issues concerning the development of high-brilliance XRL architecture, with emphasis on scaling the XRL aperture. Combining these advances in XRL architectural components allows them to develop a short-pulse, high-brilliance, coherent XRL suitable for applications in areas such as biological holography, plasma interferometry, and nonlinear optics.

  6. Principal component analysis: a review and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Jolliffe, Ian T; Cadima, Jorge

    2016-04-13

    Large datasets are increasingly common and are often difficult to interpret. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a technique for reducing the dimensionality of such datasets, increasing interpretability but at the same time minimizing information loss. It does so by creating new uncorrelated variables that successively maximize variance. Finding such new variables, the principal components, reduces to solving an eigenvalue/eigenvector problem, and the new variables are defined by the dataset at hand, not a priori, hence making PCA an adaptive data analysis technique. It is adaptive in another sense too, since variants of the technique have been developed that are tailored to various different data types and structures. This article will begin by introducing the basic ideas of PCA, discussing what it can and cannot do. It will then describe some variants of PCA and their application. PMID:26953178

  7. Development of metal-forming machine for fabricating micromechanical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Isamu; Takahsashi, Toshinori

    1996-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a die-forming machine for fabricating 3D microcomponents. Today, most micromachines or devices are fabricated by chemical etching of silicon. From a practical point of view, fabrication using metals as the raw materials should be studied. In this study, die-forming of medical forceps, as an example of a typical medical microtool, was investigated. The forceps currently used are fabricated by a combination of precision machining and hand finishing, thus requiring a considerably long period of time and high costs. We have developed a fabrication technique for metal medical components based on mould-forming. Use of this method results in excellent productivity but there are restriction on the shape of fabricated components. In order to overcome this problem, a micropress system that exclusively fits the fabrication of 3D microcomponents was designed and developed. This is based on the turret punch press, and material processing operations such as rotation of the material and other functions are incorporated. Also, round wire is used as the raw material. The results of practical forming experiments confirmed that the developed micropress reliable for fabricating microcomponents.

  8. Optimum operating conditions of DIR-MCFC without vapor-phase carbonate pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Daimon, Mayumi; Tanimoto, Kazumi

    In direct internal reforming-molten carbonate fuel cells (DIR-MCFC), deterioration of catalytic activity takes place in the anode channel due to both liquid-phase pollution and vapor-phase pollution. Although the liquid-phase pollution can be solved by installing protective barrier, an effective defense method and a reactivation method of vapor-phase polluted catalyst have not established yet. In order to study the reactivation method, the adhesion form of potassium compounds in the polluted catalyst under the various gas conditions was evaluated by using a thermogravimetric analyzer in which water vapor can feed. Additionally, the activity of the treated catalyst was also tested by a differential reactor. As a result, KOH changes to K 2CO 3 under a CO 2 concentration of 25% or more. KOH becomes a solid-phase from the liquid-phase when it is changed into K 2CO 3. Therefore, the catalyst can not be reactive because K 2CO 3 chokes pores of the catalyst. However, the activity of the polluted catalyst is revived to 80% of the initial activity by controlling the gas species concentration, especially CO 2. Moreover, the catalytic activity can be revived under a steam-carbon ratio of 2.0 or more. Based on the results obtained by these fundamental experiments, the reactivation methods of catalyst polluted are proposed as follows: (i) catalyst should be loaded more upstream in the anode; (ii) in order to reactivate the polluted catalyst, the DIR-MCFC should maintain a steam-carbon ratio of 2.0 or more; (iii) gas conditions to activate the catalyst should be applied regularly.

  9. Impact on soot control measures on MCFC powerplants. Task report No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, D.P.

    1980-12-12

    Physical Sciences Inc. has performed a preliminary evaluation of the effects of soot control measures on the molten carbonate fuel cell powerplant. Soot control measures are required because of the temperature and humidity restrictions imposed on the system by the low temperature gas cleanup system. The system configuration chosen is the General Electric System 1 configuration. This system uses a Texaco, oxygen blown gasifier and a low temperature (Selexol) gas cleanup system. The pressure of this portion of the system is about 600 psi which drops to 500 psi at the exit of the gas cleanup system. The gas which at this point has dew point of 100/sup 0/F is expanded to about 105 psi. At this point, steam is injected. The function of this steam is to suppress soot formation both in the anode inlet preheater and in the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode. GE alludes that the function of the steam may also be to optimize the output of the steam turbines. Upon leaving the anode, the sensible heat in the anode exhaust is used to regeneratively preheat the anode inlet gas. Finally, the anode exhaust is fed to a catalytic combustor via a compressor. The combustor effluent is mixed with fresh cathode inlet air. This stream is then mixed with cathode exhaust recycle. The resulting mixture is fed to the MCFC cathode. The cathode exhaust is split into recycle and system exhaust streams. About 77% of the cathode exhaust is recycled. The system exhaust is expanded through a gas turbine, a regenerative heat exchanger and an economizer. Results of the study are reported. (WHK)

  10. Development of a 5-Component Balance for Water Tunnel Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of this research/development effort was to develop a multi-component strain gage balance to measure both static and dynamic forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. A balance was designed that allows measuring normal and side forces, and pitching, yawing and rolling moments (no axial force). The balance mounts internally in the model and is used in a manner typical of wind tunnel balances. The key differences between a water tunnel balance and a wind tunnel balance are the requirement for very high sensitivity since the loads are very low (typical normal force is 90 grams or 0.2 lbs), the need for water proofing the gage elements, and the small size required to fit into typical water tunnel models. The five-component balance was calibrated and demonstrated linearity in the responses of the primary components to applied loads, very low interactions between the sections and no hysteresis. Static experiments were conducted in the Eidetics water tunnel with delta wings and F/A-18 models. The data were compared to forces and moments from wind tunnel tests of the same or similar configurations. The comparison showed very good agreement, providing confidence that loads can be measured accurately in the water tunnel with a relatively simple multi-component internal balance. The success of the static experiments encouraged the use of the balance for dynamic experiments. Among the advantages of conducting dynamic tests in a water tunnel are less demanding motion and data acquisition rates than in a wind tunnel test (because of the low-speed flow) and the capability of performing flow visualization and force/moment (F/M) measurements simultaneously with relative simplicity. This capability of simultaneous flow visualization and for F/M measurements proved extremely useful to explain the results obtained during these dynamic tests. In general, the development of this balance should encourage the use of water tunnels for a

  11. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components

    SciTech Connect

    Haselkorn, M.H. )

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  12. Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

  13. Development of impact design methods for ceramic gas turbine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, J.; Cuccio, J.; Kington, H.

    1990-01-01

    Impact damage prediction methods are being developed to aid in the design of ceramic gas turbine engine components with improved impact resistance. Two impact damage modes were characterized: local, near the impact site, and structural, usually fast fracture away from the impact site. Local damage to Si3N4 impacted by Si3N4 spherical projectiles consists of ring and/or radial cracks around the impact point. In a mechanistic model being developed, impact damage is characterized as microcrack nucleation and propagation. The extent of damage is measured as volume fraction of microcracks. Model capability is demonstrated by simulating late impact tests. Structural failure is caused by tensile stress during impact exceeding material strength. The EPIC3 code was successfully used to predict blade structural failures in different size particle impacts on radial and axial blades.

  14. Review on surface mounting components (wire wound chip resistors) development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiota, Shigeo; Nakao, Masahiro; Shimizu, Akira

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the development review on surface mounting components (wire wound chip resistors) is presented. Temperature rise tests were conducted on wire wound chip resistors installing them on substrates made of alumina, glass epoxy resin, or polyimide to determine their temperature rise characteristics, and maximum load factors were determined taking substrate heat resisting temperature and solder melting temperature into consideration. Evaluation tests were conducted on the filters' resistance to environments (thermal shock, anti hydroscopicity, thermal stability, loaded life, shock, random vibration, radiation resistance, out gassing), and the subject filters functioned satisfactory with exception of difficulty of conducting the thermal stability test at 125 C which was lower than the temperature specified in the NASDA's (National Space Development Agency of Japan's) specification due to problems of heat resistance of the molding resin material.

  15. Development of "Course Components" for Astro 101 Lectures, Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stage, M. D.; Schneider, S. E.

    2005-12-01

    An estimated quarter-million students take introductory astronomy each year (Fraknoi, A.E.R., 2001). The range in the resources, experience, and interest level of the faculty charged with teaching these classes may be as wide as the range of the science backgrounds of the students. Since each instructor applies his own selection bias as to which topics are key, innovations in astronomical lecturing must be modular and ideally previously vetted if they are to be adopted. Specifically geared to improving learning within the lecture, we present course "components": units which we have pre-tested in the large UMass introductory classes of 300 students. The design is such that a highly experienced professor might use just one for a good new way to cover a single problem topic, or a new professor might incorporate a large number working up a course for the first time. There is no single recipe for "components"; they are developed to suit the particular educational needs of each topic. One might be as simple as a single element of a lecture, or as complex as a 300 student interactive survey, a physical or software demonstration, an instant, in-class assessment via an class-response system (e.g. one of Mazur's "ConcepTests"), and a written or online homework problem. We will show some example components on distance and size scales, mathematics in astronomy, and the properties of supernovae. As this project is ongoing, we are most interested to hear from instructors their perceptions of the topics most difficult to teach, most in need of better demonstrations, and most prone to misconceptions, to help focus our future research ("Part 2").

  16. Static Feed Water Electrolysis Subsystem Testing and Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koszenski, E. P.; Schubert, F. H.; Burke, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    A program was carried out to develop and test advanced electrochemical cells/modules and critical electromechanical components for a static feed (alkaline electrolyte) water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem. The accomplishments were refurbishment of a previously developed subsystem and successful demonstration for a total of 2980 hours of normal operation; achievement of sustained one-person level oxygen generation performance with state-of-the-art cell voltages averaging 1.61 V at 191 ASF for an operating temperature of 128F (equivalent to 1.51V when normalized to 180F); endurance testing and demonstration of reliable performance of the three-fluid pressure controller for 8650 hours; design and development of a fluid control assembly for this subsystem and demonstration of its performance; development and demonstration at the single cell and module levels of a unitized core composite cell that provides expanded differential pressure tolerance capability; fabrication and evaluation of a feed water electrolyte elimination five-cell module; and successful demonstration of an electrolysis module pressurization technique that can be used in place of nitrogen gas during the standby mode of operation to maintain system pressure and differential pressures.

  17. Development and production of two explosive components using SCB technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tarbell, W.W.; Sanchez, D.H.; Oestreich, M.L.; Prentice, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    For many years, explosive components have used hotwires to convert an electrical stimulus into the thermal energy required to initiate the device. A Semi-Conductor Bridge (SCB) performs the same function, but with the advantage of requiring approximately 1/10 the input energy of a comparable hotwire, while retaining excellent no-fire characteristics. The SCB also demonstrates faster function times due to its inherently-lower thermal mass. This paper discusses the development and production of two SCB-based devices, the MC4491 Initiator and the MC4492 Actuator. The initiator is designed to shock initiate a linear shaped charge by accelerating a thin metal plate across a small gap. The actuator functions several different components, serving as either an actuator by producing a rapidly expanding gas to activate piston mechanisms or as an ignitor by providing hot particles for initiating pyrotechnic mixtures. Details are provided on the construction of both devices, methods of assembly, and performance characteristics (function time, flyer velocity, pressure in a closed bomb, heat content, and no-fire and all-fire levels).

  18. Development and production of two explosive components using SCB technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, William W.; Sanchez, Daniel H.; Oestreich, Michael L.; Prentice, Jerry W.

    For many years, explosive components have used hotwires to convert an electrical stimulus into the thermal energy required to initiate the device. A Semi-Conductor Bridge (SCB) performs the same function, but with the advantage of requiring approximately 1/10 the input energy of a comparable hotwire, while retaining excellent no-fire characteristics. The SCB also demonstrates faster function times due to its inherently-lower thermal mass. This paper discusses the development and production of two SCB-based devices, the MC4491 Initiator and the MC4492 Actuator. The initiator is designed to shock initiate a linear shaped charge by accelerating a thin metal plate across a small gap. The actuator functions several different components, serving as either an actuator by producing a rapidly expanding gas to activate piston mechanisms or as an ignitor by providing hot particles for initiating pyrotechnic mixtures. Details are provided on the construction of both devices, methods of assembly, and performance characteristics (function time, flyer velocity, pressure in a closed bomb, heat content, and no-fire and all-fire levels).

  19. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Component Technology Development at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) has identified Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/Liquid Methane (LCH4) as a potential propellant combination for future space vehicles based upon exploration studies. The technology is estimated to have higher performance and lower overall systems mass compared to existing hypergolic propulsion systems. Besides existing in-house risk reduction activities, NASA has solicited from industry their participation on component technologies based on the potential application to the lunar ascent main engine (AME). Contracted and NASA efforts have ranged from valve technologies to engine system testbeds. The application for the AME is anticipated to be an expendable, pressure-fed engine for ascent from the moon at completion of its lunar stay. Additionally, the hardware is expected to provide an abort capability prior to landing, in the event that descent systems malfunction. For the past 4 years, MSFC has been working with the Glenn Research Center and the Johnson Space Center on methane technology development. This paper will focus on efforts specific to MSFC in pursuing ignition, injector performance, chamber material assessments and cryogenic valve technologies. Ignition studies have examined characteristics for torch, spark and microwave systems. Injector testing has yielded insight into combustion performance for shear, swirl and impinging type injectors. The majority of chamber testing has been conducted with ablative and radiatively cooled chambers with planned activities for regenerative and transpiration cooled chambers. Lastly, an effort is underway to examine the long duration exposure issues of cryogenic valve internal components. The paper will summarize the status of these efforts.

  20. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M.

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  1. Cryogenic system component development for fusion experimental reactor at JAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.; Kamiya, S.; Tada, E.; Hiyama, T.; Kawano, K.; Shimamoto, S.

    1986-11-01

    A supercritical helium (SHE) circulation pump, a jet pump, and a cold compressor were designed and manufactured as the first step of cryogenic component development for a large-scale cryogenic system which is required for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). The SHE circulation pump achieved 320-g/s flow rate with an 0.88-MPa pressure head at 4.6 K, making it the biggest cold pump in the world. The jet pump's mass flow ratio was about 1.0 with an 0.07-MPa pressure head at about 10 K. The cold compressor was successfully operated with an inlet vapor pressure of 0.053 MPa (3.7 K), and outlet pressure of 0.12 MPa, and a mass flow rate of 60 g/s. The designs and test results are described in this paper.

  2. A preliminary design and BOP cost analysis of M-C Power`s MCFC commerical unit

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit.

  3. MATERIALS AND COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Alvin

    2009-06-12

    Future hydrogen-fired or oxy-fuel turbines will likely experience an enormous level of thermal and mechanical loading, as turbine inlet temperatures (TIT) approach 1425-1760ºC with pressures of 300-625 psig, respectively. Maintaining the structural integrity of future turbine components under these extreme conditions will require durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), high temperature creep resistant metal substrates, and effective cooling techniques. While advances in substrate materials have been limited for the past decades, thermal protection of turbine airfoils in future hydrogen-fired and oxy-fuel turbines will rely primarily on collective advances in TBCs and aerothermal cooling. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) at the Office of Research and Development (ORD) has initiated a research project effort in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh (UPitt), and West Virginia University (WVU), working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers, to develop advanced materials, aerothermal configurations, as well as non-destructive evaluation techniques for use in advanced land-based gas turbine applications. This paper reviews technical accomplishments recently achieved in each of these areas.

  4. Development and fabrication of structural components for a scramjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, O. A.

    1990-01-01

    A program broadly directed toward design and development of long-life (100 hours and 1,000 cycles with a goal of 1,000 hours and 10,000 cycles) hydrogen-cooled structures for application to scramjets is presented. Previous phases of the program resulted in an overall engine design and analytical and experimental characterization of selected candidate materials and concepts. The latter efforts indicated that the basic life goals for the program can be reached with available means. The main objective of this effort was an integrated, experimental evaluation of the results of the previous program phases. The fuel injection strut was selected for this purpose, including fabrication development and fabrication of a full-scale strut. Testing of the completed strut was to be performed in a NASA-Langley wind tunnel. In addition, conceptual designs were formulated for a heat transfer test unit and a flat panel structural test unit. Tooling and fabrication procedures required to fabricate the strut were developed, and fabrication and delivery to NASA of all strut components, including major subassemblies, were completed.

  5. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 6, Operation of the Component Development Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the component development and laboratory binder test work at Wilsonville during Task 6. This Task included the construction and startup of the Component Development Test Facility (CDTF), coal procurement, evaluation of unit operation and dewatering performance, laboratory binder tests for diesel and heptane, production characterization, and vendor tests. Data evaluation, interpretation, and analysis are not included in this report, but will be discussed in the Task 7 report.

  6. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  7. Performance of new 10 kW class MCFC using Li/K and Li/Na electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Mugikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshiba, Fumihiko; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Takao

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) uses generally mixture of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate (Li/K) as the electrolyte. NiO cathode dissolution is one of serious problems for MCFC life. The NiO cathode has been found to dissolve into the electrolyte as Ni{sup 2+} ion which is reduced to metallic Ni by H{sub 2} in the fuel gas and bridges the anode and the cathode. The bridges short circuit and degrade cell performance and shorten cell life. Since solubility of NiO in mixture of lithium carbonate and sodium carbonate (Li/Na) is lower than in Li/K, it takes longer time to take place slowing by NiO cathode dissolution in Li/Na compared with in Li/K. The ionic conductivity of Li/Na is higher than of Li/K, however, oxygen solubility in Li/Na is lower 9 than in Li/K. A new 10 kW class MCFC stack composed of Li/K cells and Li/Na cells, was tested. Basic performance of the Li/K cells and Li/Na cells of the stack was reported.

  8. Development of components for waste management systems using aerospace technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rousar, D.; Young, M.; Sieger, A.

    1995-09-01

    An aerospace fluid management technology called ``platelets`` has been applied to components that are critical to the economic operation of waste management systems. Platelet devices are made by diffusion bonding thin metal plates which have been etched with precise flow passage circuitry to control and meter fluid to desired locations. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a promising waste treatment technology for safe and environmentally acceptable destruction of hazardous wastes. Performance and economics of current SCWO systems are limited by severe salt deposition on and corrosion of the reactor walls. A platelet transpiring-wall reactor has been developed that provides a protective layer of water adjacent to the reactor walls which prevents salt deposition and corrosion. Plasma arc processing is being considered as a method for stabilizing mixed radioactive wastes. Plasma arc torch systems currently require frequent shutdown to replace failed electrodes and this increases operating costs. A platelet electrode design was developed that has more than 10 times the life of conventional electrodes. It has water cooling channels internal to the electrode wall and slots through the wall for injecting gas into the arc.

  9. Energy efficient engine component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Energy Efficient Engine Component Development and Integration program is to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate the technology for achieving lower installed fuel consumption and lower operating costs in future commercial turbofan engines. Minimum goals have been set for a 12 percent reduction in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), 5 percent reduction in direct operating cost (DOC), and 50 percent reduction in performance degradation for the Energy Efficient Engine (flight propulsion system) relative to the JT9D-7A reference engine. The Energy Efficienct Engine features a twin spool, direct drive, mixed flow exhaust configuration, utilizing an integrated engine nacelle structure. A short, stiff, high rotor and a single stage high pressure turbine are among the major enhancements in providing for both performance retention and major reductions in maintenance and direct operating costs. Improved clearance control in the high pressure compressor and turbines, and advanced single crystal materials in turbine blades and vanes are among the major features providing performance improvement. Highlights of work accomplished and programs modifications and deletions are presented.

  10. Development of diode laser-ignited pyrotechnic and explosive components

    SciTech Connect

    Jungst, R.G.; Salas, F.J.; Watkins, R.D.; Kovacic, L.

    1990-01-01

    Studies are described which have led to the development of prototype diode laser-ignited pyrotechnic and explosive devices. These are of interest because they eliminate some concerns associated with ignition from hot wires such as conductance after firing, sensitivity to electromagnetic radiation and electrostatic discharge, and bridgewire corrosion. The availability of high power diode lasers is a key feature for the success of this concept. A pyrotechnic, Ti/KClO{sub 4}, and the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) explosive CP have been evaluated and found suitable for use in LDI components. Doping with materials such as carbon black to increase light absorption near 800 nm is a major factor in reducing the laser power required to ignite CP, but does not strongly affect the ignition of Ti/KClO{sub 4}. Other material and laser input parameters were also studied to determine their influence on ignition thresholds. Even though they contain different energetic materials, the energy-power relationship of these optical igniters was generally similar in shape to those of other thermal ignition devices such as stable and electric igniters. Prototype, hermetically sealed, optical headers have been fabricated, loaded, and test fired with CP and Ti/KClO{sub 4}. Glass to metal sealing technology has been developed to insert sapphire windows or optical fiber segments in these fixtures. Devices containing fiber segments demonstrated superior performance in threshold tests. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Density mapping and chemical component calibration development of four-component compacts via terahertz pulsed imaging.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Ryanne; Cogdill, Robert P; Short, Steven M; Drennen, James K; Taday, Philip F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate suitable procedures for generating multivariate prediction vectors for quantitative composition and density analysis of intact solid oral dosage forms using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) spectroscopy. Both frequency- (absorbance and refractive index) and time-domain data are presented. A set of calibration and prediction samples were created according to a quaternary mixture design with five levels of compaction at each concentration design point. Calibration models were generated by partial least-squares, type II (PLS-2) regression of the TPI spectra against nominal composition and relative density reference measurements. Quantitative frequency-domain composition calibration models were created for all crystalline components (R(2)>0.90), but the calibration models for individual amorphous components (R(2)<0.76) did not perform as well in testing. Combining both amorphous components into a single component variable for regression resulted in lower error statistics and equally good predictions of crystalline components. A non-linear attenuation of time-domain spectra was observed as a function of compaction force, which corresponded to compact density predictions (R(2)=0.948). While refractive index spectra were sensitive to density (R(2)=0.937), the absorbance spectra were not. Surface density maps were prepared based on refractive index calibrations. PMID:18053671

  12. COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT NEEDS FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

    2008-05-30

    Fiscal year 2008 studies in electrolyzer component development have focused on the characterization of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) after performance tests in the single cell electrolyzer, evaluation of electrocatalysts and membranes using a small scale electrolyzer and evaluating the contribution of individual cell components to the overall electrochemical performance. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies of samples taken from MEAs testing in the SRNL single cell electrolyzer test station indicates a sulfur-rich layer forms between the cathode catalyst layer and the membrane. Based on a review of operating conditions for each of the MEAs evaluated, we conclude that the formation of the layer results from the reduction of sulfur dioxide as it passes through the MEA and reaches the catalyst layer at the cathode-membrane interface. Formation of the sulfur rich layer results in partial delamination of the cathode catalyst layer leading to diminished performance. Furthermore we believe that operating the electrolyzer at elevated pressure significantly increases the rate of formation due to increased adsorption of hydrogen on the internal catalyst surface. Thus, identification of a membrane that exhibits much lower transport of sulfur dioxide is needed to reduce the quantity of sulfur dioxide that reaches the cathode catalyst and is reduced to produce the sulfur-rich layer. Three candidate membranes are currently being evaluated that have shown promise from preliminary studies, (1) modified Nafion{reg_sign}, (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI), and (3) sulfonated Diels Alder polyphenylene (SDAPP). Testing examined the activity for the sulfur dioxide oxidation of platinum (Pt) and platinum-alloy catalysts in 30 wt% sulfuric acid solution. Linear sweep voltammetry showed an increase in activity when catalysts in which Pt is alloyed with non-noble transition metals such as cobalt and chromium. However when Pt is alloyed with noble metals, such as iridium or ruthenium

  13. Development of a 6-component balance for the cryogenic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graewe, E.

    1984-06-01

    Criteria for wind tunnel strain gage component balances applicable in the temperature range 100 to 300 K were derived. An unheated six-component balance was constructed and examined. With the corresponding software this balance is practibable on quasi stationary temperatures in the range 100 to 300 K.

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Advanced fuel cell active components have been developed and scaled up from laboratory scale to commercial scale. Full width components of both the stabilized nickel cathodes and the low chrome anodes have been successfully cast on M-C Power`s production tape caster. An improved design for a fuel cell separator plate has been developed. The improved design meets the goals of lower cost and manufacturing simplicity, and addresses performance issues of the current commercial area plate. The engineering that the Bechtel Corporation has completed for the MCFC power plant includes a site design, a preliminary site layout, a Process Flow Diagram, and specification for the procurement of some of the major equipment items. Raw materials for anode and cathode components were ordered and received during the first half of 1993. Tape casting of anodes was started in late summer and continued through August. In addition to the technical progress mentioned above, an environment assessment was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). As a result, the PDT has received a categorical exclusion from the Air Pollution Control District permit requirements. The PDT is configured to demonstrate the viability of natural gas-fueled MCFC for the production of electricity and thermal energy in an environmentally benign manner for use in commercial and industrial applications.

  15. Natural-gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cell power plant development

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, C.A. )

    1990-12-01

    The high temperature molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) operating on natural gas fuel offers an exceptional opportunity for providing economically competitive, high efficiency, low emissions power generators for utilities and industrial and commercial cogenerators. The primary goal of this project is to establish a path to develop competitive natural gas fueled MCFC products with goals of less than $1000 per kW and 6000 Btu/kWhr heat rate (based on higher heating value). A coal fueled MCFC system study funded by DOE under contract AC21-MC23270 was used as a basis to define natural gas fuel products with a high degree of commonality with the coal gas systems. In this way, the natural gas systems could be derived from the DOE coal-fueled system with a minimum of non-recurring cost. The effort was carried out in three technical tasks. Task 1, Conceptual System Design Studies -- provides a conceptual design definition of a multimegawatt power plant system adapted from DOE coal-gas/natural gas design data and provides a preliminary design definition of a truck and/or rail transportable, megawatt scale power plant derived from a DOE coal-gas/natural gas power unit; Task 2, Integrated System Test Design -- provides a preliminary design of a kW-scale integrated system to resolve critical component and system integration issues specific to the natural gas products defined in Task 1; and Task 3, Critical Element Evaluation -- provides the analytical and experimental assessments of the critical non-stack components identified in Tasks 1 and 2. 32 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Factor Study for the Separator Plate of Mcfc Having Uniform Stiffness at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Jun, Joong-Hwan

    A molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is composed of several stacks of unit cells. A unit cell is composed of two electrodes and a matrix that is inserted between separator plates. Separator plates should properly contact the electrodes to reduce the electricity loss arising from contact resistance. To this end, a pressure of about 2 kgf/cm2 is usually applied on the top of the stack, which results in the separator plates being somewhat compacted. Furthermore, the stiffness of the separator plates becomes degraded at elevated temperatures due to softening of the plate materials. Therefore, a nonuniform temperature distribution across the separator plates induced by exothermic reactions of the oxidant and reactant gases leads to a non-uniform plate stiffness. This study has firstly evaluated the change in separator plate stiffness as temperature changes by applying pressure to the plates. Secondly, using the Taguchi method, several design factors that affect stiffness have been investigated to determine which has the most influence. Based on these results, a new design for the separators, which allows for uniform stiffness at elevated temperatures, has been proposed.

  17. Study of cobalt-doped lithium-nickel oxides as cathodes for MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Prabhu; Colon, Hector; Haran, Bala; White, Ralph; Popov, Branko N.

    Cobalt substituted lithium-nickel oxides were synthesized by a solid-state reaction procedure using lithium nitrate, nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxalate precursor and were characterized as cathodes for molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). LiNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2 cathodes were prepared using non-aqueous tape casting technique followed by sintering in air. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of sintered LiNi 1- xCo xO 2 indicated that lithium evaporation occurs during heating. The lithium loss decreases with an increase of the cobalt content in the mixed oxides. The stability studies showed that dissolution of nickel into the molten carbonate melt is smaller in the case of LiNi 1- xCo xO 2 cathodes compared to the dissolution values reported in the literature for state-of-the-art NiO. Pore volume analysis of the sintered electrode indicated a mean pore size of 3 μm and a porosity of 40%. A current density of 160 mA/cm 2 was observed when LiNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2 cathodes were polarized at 140 mV. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies done on LiNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2 cathodes under different gas conditions indicated that the rate of the cathodic discharge reaction depends on the O 2 and CO 2 partial pressures.

  18. Mechanical strength of porous nickel plates containing lithium and their performance as the cathode for MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Yoon, Sung Pil; Han, Jonghee; Nam, Suk Woo; Lim, Tae-Hoon; Oh, In-Hwan; Hong, Seong-Ahn

    To improve the mechanical properties of MCFC cathode materials, pre-lithiated porous nickel plates containing 1-5 mol% of lithium were fabricated by the tape casting method, and the microstructures, mechanical properties, and performance was examined. The microstructure and pore distribution was not changed until the lithum content reached 3 mol%. The sample containing 5 mol% of lithium had patch structure on the skeleton and a smaller volume of primary pores. XRD analysis showed that lithium-containing porous nickel plates can easily form solid solutions without any undesirable byproducts after the oxidation. Both the bending strength and Young's modulus of the porous plates increased with the increase of lithium content. The average bending strengths of the samples containing 1, 3, and 5 mol% of lithium were 1.29, 1.33, and 1.49 kgf/mm 2 which were 2.9, 3.0, and 3.4 times higher than that of pure porous nickel plate. The Young's modulus increased up to 1.35 kgf/mm in the case of the 5 mol% lithium containing sample that is 5.4 times higher than that of pure porous nickel plate. The OCV of single cells using pre-lithiated cathodes were between 1.065 and 1.067 V, and comparable cell performance was obtained for 500 h of single cell operation.

  19. Effect of lithium carbonate on nickel catalysts for direct internal reforming MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Yun, Jung-Sook; Kwon, Heock-Hoi; Lim, Tae-Hoon; Hong, Seong-Ahn; Lee, Ho-In

    Despite many advantages of the direct internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell (DIR-MCFC) in producing electricity, there are many problems to solve before practical use. The deactivation of reforming catalyst by alkali like lithium is one of the major obstacles to overcome. A promising method is addition of TiO 2 into the Ni/MgO reforming catalyst, which resulted in the increased resistance to lithium poisoning as we previously reported. To understand how added titania worked, it is necessary to elucidate the deactivation mechanism of the catalysts supported on metal oxides such as MgO and MgO-TiO 2 composite oxide. Several supported nickel catalysts deactivated by lithium carbonate were prepared, characterized and evaluated. The Ni/MgO catalyst turned out to be most vulnerable to lithium deactivation among the employed catalysts. The activity of the Ni/MgO gradually decreased to zero with increasing amount of lithium addition. Deactivation by lithium addition resulted from the decrease of active site due to sintering of nickel particles as well as the formation of the Li yNi xMg 1- x- yO ternary solid solution. These were evidenced by H 2 chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction, and XRD analyses. As an effort to minimize Li-poisoning, titanium was introduced to MgO support. This resulted in the formation of Ni/Mg 2TiO 4, which seemed to increase resistance against Li-poisoning.

  20. Language Development Component, Secondary Developmental Reading Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Donald; Chamberlain, Ed

    This report evaluates the Secondary Developmental Reading Program, a component of the Ohio Disadvantaged Pupil Program Fund (DPPF), in terms of the 1982-83 program objectives. Twelve project reading teachers worked in eight Columbus senior high schools with 843 pupils scoring at or below the 36th percentile in reading achievement. A pilot project…

  1. Energy efficient engine component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The design of an energy efficient commercial turbofan engine is examined with emphasis on lower fuel consumption and operating costs. Propulsion system performance, emission standards, and noise reduction are also investigated. A detailed design analysis of the engine/aircraft configuration, engine components, and core engine is presented along with an evaluation of the technology and testing involved.

  2. Power Systems Development Facility: Performance and development of components in the transport reactor train

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, C.A.; Vimalchand, P.; Leonard, R.F.

    1998-12-31

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) will develop and demonstrate advanced power generation technologies and system components needed to improve process reliability. This paper will provide an introduction to the PSDF and discuss in detail the operation and performance of the M.W. Kellogg Company`s (MWK) Transport reactor train system components. There will also be brief discussions on the operation and performance of the Transport reactor and the Particulate Collection Device (PCD). Discussions will focus on the major operational challenges faced during the commissioning and operation of various components and the significant equipment modifications that were made to improve the reliability and performance. These include: modifications to the pulverizers, corrective actions taken to the transport air and recycle gas systems, improvements to the process gas analysis system, and changes to the steam generation package. Also included are operational findings of the particle disengagement and collection system, experiences with solids handling systems, and continued development of the reactor`s startup burner, pressure letdown valve, process air systems and impacts of corrosion downstream of the PCD. Much can be inferred from the experiences gained at the PSDF as to the impact each component or system had on the successful operation of the MWK Transport reactor train and similar technologies in the future.

  3. Temporal expression of elastic fiber components in bladder development.

    PubMed

    Koo, H P; Macarak, E J; Chang, S L; Rosenbloom, J; Howard, P S

    1998-01-01

    Fetal and postnatal bovine bladders were examined for expression of elastic fiber components by immunohistochemistry as well as by measurement of steady state mRNA levels. Expression of fibrillin-1, microfibril-associated glycoprotein (MAGP) and elastin during the fetal period were compared with that of postnatal two year old animals (heifers) and adults. Each bladder was separated into two distinct tissue samples: 1) the outer smooth muscle layer (detrusor) and 2) the inner epithelium (urothelium) lined lamina propria (urotherial-lamina propria). Each of these samples was analyzed separately. Distribution of the elastic fiber components, determined by immunohistochemistry with matrix-specific antibodies, was different depending upon the region of the bladder wall examined and its developmental stage. In particular, MAGP and fibrillin-1 were conspicuously present in the urothelium during the later fetal stages. RNA products of elastic fiber genes were detectable both in the detrusor smooth muscle and urothelial-lamina propria fractions. The highest level of expression occurred in the urothelial-lamina propria fraction during the late second-early third trimester. Elastin expression was different from that of MAGP and fibrillin-1. The highest levels of steady-state elastin mRNA occurred at the earliest developmental stages examined and then progressively decreased through term. A high level of elastin expression occurred within the inner or lamina propria layer of the bladder. Since this layer is the functional capacitance layer within the bladder, its flexibility is likely related to the structural integration of elastin and associated microfibrillar components. PMID:9643643

  4. IR-UWB radio-over-fiber system components development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanov, Albert K.; Vinogradova, Irina L.; Meshkov, Ivan K.; Grakhova, Elizaveta P.; Shmidt, Svyatoslav P.; Abdrakhmanova, Guzel I.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the application of IR-UWB technology for organizing the radio part of Radio-over-Fiber system. Four physical layer components are proposed and designed in the paper: three microstrip filters and UWB antenna. Firstly the effective SCRF mask was calculated to ensure electromagnetic compatibility with existing radio services. Then this mask was considered as a cost function for filters design. The simulation was made with Agilent Genesys™ and CST Microwave Studio. All the devices have shown good performance and could be implemented on one circuit board for reducing losses.

  5. Recreation as a Component of the Community Youth Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outley, Corliss; Bocarro, Jason N.; Boleman, Chris T.

    2011-01-01

    Youth today develop within nested systems that either positively or negatively influence their development. Recent research shows that American youth have made tremendous progress: fewer teen births, fewer youth who are heavy drinkers or smokers, and more students completing high school. However, data also indicate that the number of youth living…

  6. Incorporating an Applied Economic Development Component into a Geography Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kale, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how applied economic development has been integrated into the economic geography curriculum at Oregon State University (Corvallis). States that coursework in applied economic development should lead to greater understanding of the causes of economic change, the problems associated with growth or decline, and methods for achieving…

  7. The FGM Concept in the Development of Fiber Cement Components

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, C. M. R.; John, V. M.; Savastano, H. Jr.

    2008-02-15

    The FGM concept appears promising in improving the mechanical performance and reducing production costs of fiber cement building components. However, it has not yet been broadly applied to fiber cement technology. In this study we analyze the functionally graded fiber cement concept and its potential for industrial application in Hatschek machines. The conventional Hatschek process is summarized as well as the proposed modifications to allow FGM fiber cement production. The feasibility of producing functionally graded fiber cement by grading PVA fiber content was experimentally evaluated. Thermogravimetric (TG) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate fiber distribution profiles. Four-point bending tests were applied to evaluate the mechanical performance of both conventional and functionally graded composites. The results shows that grading PVA fiber content is an effective way to produce functionally graded fiber cement, allowing the reduction of the total fiber volume without significant reduction on composite MOR. TG tests were found adequate to assess fiber content at different positions in functionally graded fiber cements.

  8. Ceramic component development analysis -- Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, D.E.

    1998-06-09

    The development of advanced filtration media for advanced fossil-fueled power generating systems is a critical step in meeting the performance and emissions requirements for these systems. While porous metal and ceramic candle-filters have been available for some time, the next generation of filters will include ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) (Techniweave/Westinghouse, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), DuPont Lanxide Composites), intermetallic alloys (Pall Corporation), and alternate filter geometries (CeraMem Separations). The goal of this effort was to perform a cursory review of the manufacturing processes used by 5 companies developing advanced filters from the perspective of process repeatability and the ability for their processes to be scale-up to produce volumes. Given the brief nature of the on-site reviews, only an overview of the processes and systems could be obtained. Each of the 5 companies had developed some level of manufacturing and quality assurance documentation, with most of the companies leveraging the procedures from other products they manufacture. It was found that all of the filter manufacturers had a solid understanding of the product development path. Given that these filters are largely developmental, significant additional work is necessary to understand the process-performance relationships and projecting manufacturing costs.

  9. Experience as a Component of Normal Development: Evolutionary Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenough, William T.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that experiential canalization is appropriately applied to constraints caused by the behavior of an organism or members of its species. When other aspects of the environment propel the organism to develop in certain ways, this process reflects adaptation to the environment. Conditions for evolution of experience as a guide to development…

  10. Energy efficient engine component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The development of the technology to improve energy efficiency of propulsion systems for subsonic commercial aircrafts was examined. Goals established include: (1) fuel consumption, reduction in flight propulsion system; (2) direct operation cost; (3) noise, with provision for engine growth corresponding to future engine application; and (4) emissions, EPA new engine standards.

  11. Gigabit optical interconnects: System and component analysis, design and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boncek, Raymond K.; Krol, Mark F.; Hayduk, Michael J.; Stacy, John L.; Johns, Steven T.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the results of experiments performed in various areas of technology required to develop gigabit optical interconnects for communication at 1.3 micrometer wavelength. First, we will summarize the analysis of optical correlation switches (i.e. optical AND gates) for use in time-division optical interconnects. Next, we describe the design and characterization of an all-optical, 30db contrast ratio GaAlInAs multiple quantum well asymmetric reflection modulator. Then, we comment on the characterization of polarization-dependent, strained-layer InGaAs/GaAs materials useful for light emitters and modulators. Finally, we report on the development of an optically transparent ATM packet switch testbed operating at 1.24416 Gbit/s. This work is a continuation of in-house efforts begun under 62702F, JON 4600P201 and summarized in RL-TR-91-398.

  12. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yue Him; Ryu, Taewoo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids. PMID:25300304

  13. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yue Him; Ryu, Taewoo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids. PMID:25300304

  14. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.; Yanar, N.; Chyu, M.; Mazzotta, D.; Slaughter, W.; Karaivanov, V.; Kang, B.; Feng, C.; Chen, R.; Fu, T-C.

    2008-10-01

    In order to meet the 2010-2020 DOE Fossil Energy goals for Advanced Power Systems, future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbines will need to be operated at higher temperatures for extended periods of time, in environments that contain substantially higher moisture concentrations in comparison to current commercial natural gas-fired turbines. Development of modified or advanced material systems, combined with aerothermal concepts are currently being addressed in order to achieve successful operation of these land-based engines. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has initiated a research program effort in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh (UPitt), and West Virginia University (WVU), working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers as Howmet International and Coatings for Industry (CFI), and test facilities as Westinghouse Plasma Corporation (WPC) and Praxair, to develop advanced material and aerothermal technologies for use in future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbine applications. Our program efforts and recent results are presented.

  15. MCFC Product Development Test. First annual report, [October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-18

    The project is for the design, construction, and testing of a 2MW carbonate fuel cell power plant in the City of Santa Clara, California. The report is divided into sections which describe the progress in various program activities. Section 2.0 provides an overview of the program, including the project objectives, site location, and schedule.

  16. Component Manufacturing Development for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX)

    SciTech Connect

    P.J. Heitzenroeder; T.G. Brown; J.H. Chrzanowski; M.J. Cole; P.L. Goranson; G.H. Neilson; B.E. Nelson; W.T. Reiersen; L.L Sutton; D.E. Williamson; M.E. Viola

    2004-10-28

    NCSX [National Compact Stellarator Experiment] is the first of a new class of stellarators called compact stellarators which hold the promise of retaining the steady state feature of the stellarator but at a much lower aspect ratio and using a quasi-axisymmetric magnetic field to obtain tokamak-like performance. Although much of NCSX is conventional in design and construction, the vacuum vessel and modular coils provide significant engineering challenges due to their complex shapes, need for high dimensional accuracy, and the high current density required in the modular coils due space constraints. Consequently, a three-phase development program has been undertaken. In the first phase, laboratory/industrial studies were performed during the development of the conceptual design to permit advances in manufacturing technology to be incorporated into NCSX's plans. In the second phase, full-scale prototype modular coil winding forms, compacted cable conductors, and 20 degree sectors of the vacuum vessel were fabricated in industry. In parallel, the NCSX project team undertook R&D studies that focused on the windings. The third (production) phase began in September 2004. First plasma is scheduled for January 2008.

  17. Autonomous robot software development using simple software components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Thomas M.; Chung, Chan-Jin

    2004-10-01

    Developing software to control a sophisticated lane-following, obstacle-avoiding, autonomous robot can be demanding and beyond the capabilities of novice programmers - but it doesn"t have to be. A creative software design utilizing only basic image processing and a little algebra, has been employed to control the LTU-AISSIG autonomous robot - a contestant in the 2004 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). This paper presents a software design equivalent to that used during the IGVC, but with much of the complexity removed. The result is an autonomous robot software design, that is robust, reliable, and can be implemented by programmers with a limited understanding of image processing. This design provides a solid basis for further work in autonomous robot software, as well as an interesting and achievable robotics project for students.

  18. Development of metrological NDE methods for microturbine ceramic components

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.-R.; Ellingson, W. A.

    1999-12-23

    In this work, X-ray computed tomographic imaging technology with high spatial resolution has been explored for metrological applications to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic turbine wheels. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) data were acquired by a charge-coupled device detector coupled to an image intensifier. Cone-beam XCT reconstruction algorithms were used to allow full-volume data acquisition from the turbine wheels. Special software was developed so that edge detection and complex blade contours could be determined from the XCT data. The feasibility of using the XCT for dimensional analyses was compared with that of a coordinate-measuring machine. Details of the XCT system, data acquisition, and dimensional comparisons will be presented.

  19. Seal Technology Development for Advanced Component for Airbreathing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Key aspects of the design of sealing systems for On Rotor Combustion/Wave Rotor (ORC/WR) systems were addressed. ORC/WR systems generally fit within a broad class of pressure gain Constant Volume Combustors (CVCs) or Pulse Detonation Combustors (PDCs) which are currently being considered for use in many classes of turbine engines for dramatic efficiency improvement. Technology readiness level of this ORC/WR approaches are presently at 2.0. The results of detailed modeling of an ORC/WR system as applied to a regional jet engine application were shown to capture a high degree of pressure gain capabilities. The results of engine cycle analysis indicated the level of specific fuel consumption (SFC) benefits to be 17 percent. The potential losses in pressure gain due to leakage were found to be closely coupled to the wave processes at the rotor endpoints of the ORC/WR system. Extensive investigation into the sealing approaches is reported. Sensitivity studies show that SFC gains of 10 percent remain available even when pressure gain levels are highly penalized. This indicates ORC/WR systems to have a high degree of tolerance to rotor leakage effects but also emphasizes their importance. An engine demonstration of an ORC/WR system is seen as key to progressing the TRL of this technology. An industrial engine was judged to be a highly advantageous platform for demonstration of a first generation ORC/WR system. Prior to such a demonstration, the existing NASA pressure exchanger wave rotor rig was identified as an opportunity to apply both expanded analytical modeling capabilities developed within this program and to identify and fix identified leakage issues existing within this rig. Extensive leakage analysis of the rig was performed and a detailed design of additional sealing strategies for this rig was generated.

  20. Analysis of Multi-step Forming of Metallic Bipolar Plate for MCFC Using Various Shapes of Preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Ryu, Seung-Min; Yang, Dong-Yol; Kang, Dong-Woo; Chang, In-Gab; Lee, Tae-Won

    2010-06-01

    The metallic bipolar plates of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) consist of a shielded slot plate and a center plate. Among these, the shielded slot plate (the current collector) supports the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) mechanically. The anode gases and the cathode gases pass through a space between individual slot patterns. The catalysts are located in the upper part of the shielded slot plate. Therefore, triple phase boundaries can be generated, and carbonate ions can act as the mobile charge carrier for the MCFC. Due to these properties, the shielded slot plate should have a sheared corrugated pattern. In order to form a sheared corrugated pattern, a slitting process is required during the first stage of the forming process. However, it is not possible to obtain a high aspect ratio in a sheared corrugated trapezoidal pattern due to the plastic strain concentration on the upper round region of the pattern. Therefore additional forming processes are required to form a high aspect-ratio pattern. For example, the two additional processes such as a "stretching process using a preform" and a "final forming process" can be done subsequent to the first slitting process. Before the final forming process, a stretching process, which forms an intermediate shape (perform), can make the strain distribution more uniform. Hence, various examples of performs were evaluated by using FEM simulation employing simplified boundary conditions. Finally, experiments involving microscopic and macroscopic observations using the proposed shape of a preform were conducted to characterize the formability of the sheared corrugated pattern. It was found that the numerical simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Component Development to Accelerate Commercial Implementation of Ultra-Low Emissions Catalytic Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, Jon; Berry, Brian; Lundberg, Kare; Anson, Orris

    2003-03-31

    This final report describes a 2000-2003 program for the development of components and processes to enhance the commercialization of ultra-low emissions catalytic combustion in industrial gas turbines. The range of project tasks includes: development of more durable, lower-cost catalysts and catalytic combustor components; development and design of a catalytic pre-burner and a catalytic pilot burner for gas turbines, and on-site fuel conversion processing for utilization of liquid fuel.

  2. Development of Underwater Laser Cladding and Underwater Laser Seal Welding Techniques for Reactor Components (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Masataka Tamura; Shohei Kawano; Wataru Kouno; Yasushi Kanazawa

    2006-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the major reasons to reduce the reliability of aged reactor components. Toshiba has been developing underwater laser welding onto surface of the aged components as maintenance and repair techniques. Because most of the reactor internal components to apply this underwater laser welding technique have 3-dimensional shape, effect of welding positions and welded shapes are examined and presented in this report. (authors)

  3. A Character Development Component in a Correctional Education Curriculum. Section 353 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Elaine M.

    This report details a project that explored the utility of adding a character development component to the academic curriculum for a correctional education program. In addition to the academic curriculum, a character component based on Steven Covey's "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" was taught to a demonstration group; only the…

  4. Development and testing of CMC components for automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, Pramod K.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials are currently being developed and evaluated for advanced gas turbine engine components because of their high specific strength and resistance to catastrophic failure. Components with 2D and 3D composite architectures have been successfully designed and fabricated. This is an overview of the test results for a backplate, combustor, and a rotor.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CAPE-OPEN COMPLIANT PROCESS MODELING COMPONENTS IN MICROSOFT .NET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CAPE-OPEN middleware standards were created to allow process modeling components (PMCs) developed by third parties to be used in any process modeling environment (PME) utilizing these standards. The CAPE-OPEN middleware specifications were based upon both Microsoft's Compone...

  6. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  7. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  8. Development of a Novel Brayton-Cycle Cryocooler and Key Component Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieczkoski, S. J.; Mohling, R. A.

    2004-06-01

    Brayton-cycle cryocoolers are being developed to provide efficient cooling in the 6 K to 70 K temperature range. The cryocoolers are being developed for use in space and in terrestrial applications where combinations of long lifetime, high efficiency, compactness, low mass, low vibration, flexible interfacing, load variability, and reliability are essential. The key enabling technologies for these systems are a mesoscale expander and an advanced oil-free scroll compressor. Both these components are nearing completion of their prototype development phase. The emphasis on the component and system development has been on invoking fabrication processes and techniques that can be evolved to further reduction in scale tending toward cryocooler miniaturization.

  9. Toward Interoperable Mesh, Geometry and Field Components for PDE Simulation Development

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, K K; Diachin, L F; Li, X; Ollivier-Gooch, C; Seol, E S; Shephard, M; Tautges, T; Trease, H

    2005-07-11

    Mesh-based PDE simulation codes are becoming increasingly sophisticated and rely on advanced meshing and discretization tools. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to interchange or interoperate tools developed by different communities to experiment with various technologies or to develop new capabilities. To address these difficulties, we have developed component interfaces designed to support the information flow of mesh-based PDE simulations. We describe this information flow and discuss typical roles and services provided by the geometry, mesh, and field components of the simulation. Based on this delineation for the roles of each component, we give a high-level description of the abstract data model and set of interfaces developed by the Department of Energy's Interoperable Tools for Advanced Petascale Simulation (ITAPS) center. These common interfaces are critical to our interoperability goal, and we give examples of several services based upon these interfaces including mesh adaptation and mesh improvement.

  10. The Development of a Scale to Explore the Multidimensional Components of Good Student-Teacher Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The Student-Teacher Relationship Survey: Student Version was developed and assessed for factor structure using principal components analysis. No instruments measuring students' perceptions of student-teacher relationships have been developed for high school students, and scales that measure related constructs tend to view good student-teacher…

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD AND CORRELATED DIMENSIONS OF MATERIAL-COMPONENTS IN SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRAHAM, LEON R.

    THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO DEVELOP A CORRELATED MODULAR SYSTEM OF SCHOOL DESIGN WHICH WOULD PERMIT A VARIETY OF COMPETITIVE MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS TO BE MASS PRODUCED FOR SCHOOLS AND USED INTERCHANGEABLY AND FLEXIBLY. THE DEVELOPED SYSTEM PROPOSES FUNDAMENTAL AND SIGNIFICANT INNOVATIONS WHICH HAVE NOT BEEN ADVANCED BY EARLIER PROGRAMS. THIS…

  12. Chemistry research and development. Progress report, December 1978-May 1979. [Component, pilot plant, instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, F. J.

    1980-06-30

    Progress and activities are reported on component development, pilot plant development, and instrumentation and statistical systems. Specific items studied include processing of pond sludge, transport of radioactive materials and wastes, corrosion, decontamination and cleaning, fluidized-bed incineration, Pu contamination of soils, chemical analysis, radiometric analysis, security. (DLC)

  13. AGT 101: Ceramic component development: Advanced Gas Turbine Program: Topical report, October 1979-July 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Eyck, M.O.; MacBeth, J.W.; Sweeting, T.B.

    1987-11-01

    This topical report summarizes the ceramic component technology development activity conducted by Standard Oil Engineered Materials Company. Standard Oil, acting as a principal subcontractor and supplier of ceramic components, directed its efforts toward the development of ceramic materials in the silicon-carbide family. Various shape forming and fabrication methods, and non-destructive evaluation techniques were explored to produce the static structural components for the ceramic engine. This enabled engine testing to proceed without program slippage, and developed the approaches for producing low-cost, production quantity processes. Standard Oil contributed to the acceptance of ceramics as a viable approach for automotive gas turbine engines and to the advancement of this vital ceramic technology. 174 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. The two-component model of memory development, and its potential implications for educational settings.

    PubMed

    Sander, Myriam C; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Gerjets, Peter; Shing, Yee Lee; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-02-15

    We recently introduced a two-component model of the mechanisms underlying age differences in memory functioning across the lifespan. According to this model, memory performance is based on associative and strategic components. The associative component is relatively mature by middle childhood, whereas the strategic component shows a maturational lag and continues to develop until young adulthood. Focusing on work from our own lab, we review studies from the domains of episodic and working memory informed by this model, and discuss their potential implications for educational settings. The episodic memory studies uncover the latent potential of the associative component in childhood by documenting children's ability to greatly improve their memory performance following mnemonic instruction and training. The studies on working memory also point to an immature strategic component in children whose operation is enhanced under supportive conditions. Educational settings may aim at fostering the interplay between associative and strategic components. We explore possible routes towards this goal by linking our findings to recent trends in research on instructional design. PMID:22682913

  15. Development of hermetic, fiberoptic components: 2, Integral window laser-initiated devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D.P.; Beckman, T.M.; Ewick, D.W.

    1991-07-25

    Two laser-initiated devices have been fabricated using the developed integral window sealing technology. Integral window components are distinctly different from standard window components in that the integral window is formed in place by the use of a glass preform. Standard window devices require the use of a separate piecepart, the window, which must be sealed in place with an intermediate material. Integral window sealing technology can use either a continuous belt or batch furnace, and it allows the fabrication of components with various window thicknesses. Laser-initiated components fabricated using this process have excellent transmission properties and are hermetic (helium leak rates <1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 3}/s). This work demonstrates that there are no fundamental barriers limiting the application of integral window technology. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Development and testing of hermetic, laser-ignited pyrotechnic and explosive components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Beckman, Thomas M.; Spangler, Ed M.; Munger, Alan C.; Woods, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing interest in the use of lasers in place of electrical systems to ignite various pyrotechnic and explosive materials. The principal driving force for this work was the requirement for safer energetic components which would be insensitive to electrostatic and electromagnetic radiation. In the last few years this research has accelerated since the basic concepts have proven viable. At the present time it is appropriate to shift the research emphasis in laser initiation from the scientific arena--whether it can be done--to the engineering realm--how it can be put into actual practice in the field. Laser initiation research and development at EG&G Mound was in three principal areas: (1) laser/energetic material interactions; (2) development of novel processing techniques for fabricating hermetic (helium leak rate of less than 1 x 10(exp -8) cu cm/s) laser components; and (3) evaluation and testing of laser-ignited components. Research in these three areas has resulted in the development of high quality, hermetic, laser initiated components. Examples are presented which demonstrate the practicality of fabricating hermetic, laser initiated explosive or pyrotechnic components that can be used in the next generation of ignitors, actuators, and detonators.

  17. 24 CFR 1000.324 - How is the need component developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Households with housing cost burden greater than 50 percent of formula annual income weighted at 22 percent... under NAHASDA weighted at 15 percent; (d) AIAN households with annual income less than or equal to 30... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the need component...

  18. The Components of Effective Professional Development Activities in Terms of Teachers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparedness is linked to student achievement, yet regularly teachers are entering the profession unprepared. In-service training, or professional development activities, are increasingly being used to remedy this situation. There is little agreement regarding exactly what key components should be included in an effective professional…

  19. The Individual Regulation Component of Group Emotional Intelligence: Measure Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christina Hamme

    2012-01-01

    Counseling work is increasingly conducted in team format. The methods counseling teams use to manage the emotional component of their group life, or their group emotional intelligence, have been proposed as significantly contributing to group member trust, cooperation, and ultimate performance. Item development, exploratory factor analysis, and…

  20. Fabrication development of full-sized components for GCFR core assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, J.R.; Flynn, P.W.; Foster, L.C.

    1980-05-01

    This paper presents the status of the development of full-sized components for gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) core assemblies. Methods for ribbing of the fuel rod cladding, fabrication of grid spacers of two different designs, drawing of assembly flow ducts, and fabrication of fission gas collection manifolds by several methods are discussed.

  1. Enhancing the Mental Health Promotion Component of a Health and Personal Development Programme in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Carol; Conlon, Andrea; Cleary, Deirdre; Power, Mike; King, Frances; Guerin, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to examine the impact of a health and personal development programme (the Social, Personal and Health Education Programme) which had been "enhanced" by the addition of a mental health promotion component. Students aged 12-16 years attending 17 secondary schools were randomly allocated as clusters to participate in…

  2. Collaborative Development and Component Trials of a Comprehensive School-Based Intervention for Children with HFASDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomeer, Marcus L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the collaborative development of a comprehensive school-based intervention (CSBI) and component feasibility for seven children, aged 7 to 8 years, with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs). In Phase I, focus groups were conducted in two school districts with school staff and/or parents of children with HFASDs.…

  3. Supporting Component-Based Courseware Development Using Virtual Apparatus Framework Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Albert; Fritze, Paul

    This paper reports on the latest development of the Virtual Apparatus (VA) framework, a contribution to efforts at the University of Melbourne (Australia) to mainstream content and pedagogical functions of curricula. The integration of the educational content and pedagogical functions of learning components using an XML compatible script,…

  4. Developing standard performance testing procedures for MC&A components at a site

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements, documentation and the human factor, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following elements and subsystems or components for a material control and accountability system: (1) MC&A Elements: Information subsystem, Measurement subsystem, NM access subsystem, including a tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated information-gathering subsystem; and (2) Detecting NM Loses Elements: Inventory differences, Shipper/receiver differences, Confirmatory measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or seal violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems (from the list above). Additionally this work includes a review of the status of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system components and potential criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a pilot Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the MBAs of SSC RF IPPE.

  5. Development of a component centered fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge based system for space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. C.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    The overall approach currently being taken in the development of AMPERES (Autonomously Managed Power System Extendable Real-time Expert System), a knowledge-based expert system for fault monitoring and diagnosis of space power systems, is discussed. The system architecture, knowledge representation, and fault monitoring and diagnosis strategy are examined. A 'component-centered' approach developed in this project is described. Critical issues requiring further study are identified.

  6. Development of RT-components for the M-3 Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Tanaka, Motomasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Saito, Sadafumi; Sugano, Shigeki

    We are now developing the strawberry harvest robot called “M-3” prototype robot system under the 4th urgent project of MAFF. In order to develop the control software of the M-3 robot more efficiently, we innovated the RT-middleware “OpenRTM-aist” software platform. In this system, we developed 9 kind of RT-Components (RTC): Robot task sequence player RTC, Proxy RTC for image processing software, DC motor controller RTC, Arm kinematics RTC, and so on. In this paper, we discuss advantages of RT-middleware developing system and problems about operating the RTC-configured robotic system by end-users.

  7. Development of a butterfly multiprocessor test bed description of butterfly components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, J.; Starr, E.

    1985-03-01

    In this, the first in a series of quarterly technical reports on the development of a 128-node Butterfly (TM) testbed we present descriptions of the major components of the Butterfly Parallel Processor: the Processor Node (BPN), the MSI Switch Node (BSN), the VLSI Switch Node (BVSN), the Butterfly I/O Board (BI1), the Multibus Adapter (BMA), and the Butterfly Fantail (BFAN). At the end of the report, there is a set of tables that summarize the important characteristics of each component.

  8. Adding Vectors across the North: Development of Laboratory Component of Distance Education Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, V. K.; Solie, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Bush Physics for the 21st Century (BP21) is a distance education physics course offered through the Interior Aleutians Campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It provides an opportunity for rural Alaskan high school and community college students, many of whom have no other access to advanced science courses, to earn university science credit. The curriculum is mathematically rigorous and includes a laboratory component to prepare students who wish to pursue science and technology careers. The laboratory component has been developed during the past 3 years. Students learn lab safety, basic laboratory technique, experiment components and group collaboration. Experiments have place-based themes and involve skills that translate to rural Alaska when possible. Preliminary data on the general effectiveness of the labs have been analyzed and used to improve the course.

  9. Study of LiFeO 2 coated NiO as cathodes for MCFC by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Yu, Qing-chun; Wang, Hui-min; Chen, Gang; Hu, Ke-ao

    LiFeO 2 was coated on porous NiO cathode using a simple combustion process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed in the cathode characterizations. The electrochemical behaviors of LiFeO 2 coated NiO cathode (LFO-NiO) were also evaluated in a molten 62 mol% Li 2CO 3 + 38 mol% K 2CO 3 eutectic at 650 °C under the standard cathode gas condition by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The impedance response of the NiO and LFO-NiO at different immersion time is characterized by the presence of depressed semicircles in the high frequency range changing over into the lines with the angle of which observed with the real axis differing 45° or 90° in the low frequency range. The experimental Nyquist plots can be well analyzed theoretically with a modified model based on the well known Randles-Ershler equivalent circuit model. In the new model, the double layer capacity ( Cd) is replaced by the parallel combination of Cd and b/ ω to take into consideration the non-uniform of electric field at the electrode/electrolyte interface owing to the roughness of electrode surface. The LFO-NiO showed a lower dissolution and a good catalytic efficiency close to the state-of-the-art NiO value. In the unit cell test, the performance of the cell composed of LiFeO 2 coated NiO cathode maintained more stable values than that of the cell composed of NiO cathode. Thus the cathode prepared with coating method to coat LiFeO 2 on the surface of NiO cathode is able to reduce the solubility of NiO to lengthen the lifetime of MCFC while maintaining the advantages of NiO cathode.

  10. Judicious use of custom development in an open source component architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.; Latysh, N.; Long, D.; Tekell, S.; Allen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern software engineering is not as much programming from scratch as innovative assembly of existing components. Seamlessly integrating disparate components into scalable, performant architecture requires sound engineering craftsmanship and can often result in increased cost efficiency and accelerated capabilities if software teams focus their creativity on the edges of the problem space. ScienceBase is part of the U.S. Geological Survey scientific cyberinfrastructure, providing data and information management, distribution services, and analysis capabilities in a way that strives to follow this pattern. ScienceBase leverages open source NoSQL and relational databases, search indexing technology, spatial service engines, numerous libraries, and one proprietary but necessary software component in its architecture. The primary engineering focus is cohesive component interaction, including construction of a seamless Application Programming Interface (API) across all elements. The API allows researchers and software developers alike to leverage the infrastructure in unique, creative ways. Scaling the ScienceBase architecture and core API with increasing data volume (more databases) and complexity (integrated science problems) is a primary challenge addressed by judicious use of custom development in the component architecture. Other data management and informatics activities in the earth sciences have independently resolved to a similar design of reusing and building upon established technology and are working through similar issues for managing and developing information (e.g., U.S. Geoscience Information Network; NASA's Earth Observing System Clearing House; GSToRE at the University of New Mexico). Recent discussions facilitated through the Earth Science Information Partners are exploring potential avenues to exploit the implicit relationships between similar projects for explicit gains in our ability to more rapidly advance global scientific cyberinfrastructure.

  11. Development of high performance scientific components for interoperability of computing packages

    SciTech Connect

    Gulabani, Teena Pratap

    2008-01-01

    Three major high performance quantum chemistry computational packages, NWChem, GAMESS and MPQC have been developed by different research efforts following different design patterns. The goal is to achieve interoperability among these packages by overcoming the challenges caused by the different communication patterns and software design of each of these packages. A chemistry algorithm is hard to develop as well as being a time consuming process; integration of large quantum chemistry packages will allow resource sharing and thus avoid reinvention of the wheel. Creating connections between these incompatible packages is the major motivation of the proposed work. This interoperability is achieved by bringing the benefits of Component Based Software Engineering through a plug-and-play component framework called Common Component Architecture (CCA). In this thesis, I present a strategy and process used for interfacing two widely used and important computational chemistry methodologies: Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics. To show the feasibility of the proposed approach the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) has been coupled with NWChem code and its CCA components. Results show that the overhead is negligible when compared to the ease and potential of organizing and coping with large-scale software applications.

  12. Further Developments in Modeling Creep Effects Within Structural SiC/SiC Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jerry; DiCarlo, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Anticipating the implementation of advanced SiC/SiC composites into turbine section components of future aero-propulsion engines, the primary objective of this on-going study is to develop physics-based analytical and finite-element modeling tools to predict the effects of constituent creep on SiC/SiC component service life. A second objective is to understand how to possibly manipulate constituent materials and processes in order to minimize these effects. Focusing on SiC/SiC components experiencing through-thickness stress gradients (e.g., airfoil leading edge), prior NASA creep modeling studies showed that detrimental residual stress effects can develop globally within the component walls which can increase the risk of matrix cracking. These studies assumed that the SiC/SiC composites behaved as isotropic viscoelastic continuum materials with creep behavior that was linear and symmetric with stress and that the creep parameters could be obtained from creep data as experimentally measured in-plane in the fiber direction of advanced thin-walled 2D SiC/SiC panels. The present study expands on those prior efforts by including constituent behavior with non-linear stress dependencies in order to predict such key creep-related SiC/SiC properties as time-dependent matrix stress, constituent creep and content effects on composite creep rates and rupture times, and stresses on fiber and matrix during and after creep.

  13. A hypertext display component for a graphical user interface development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Love, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Hypertext is often used in the World Wide Web and in application help tools, but it is certainly capable of much more. If it was available to application programmers as another graphical user interface component, like a button or an image, a wider range of use could be enabled. The Hypertext Display System (HDS), provides a hypertext component which can then be incorporated into a graphical user interface (GUI) development environment. The HDS consists of a hypertext display component, called the HyperDisplay, and a test-bed in the form of a local HTML file browser. Its distinctive characteristics are (1) it was developed with an object-oriented design, using C++, for the Motif X toolkit, (2) it encapsulates the hypertext display capability in the reusable HyperDisplay object, so that it can be easily included in other applications, and (3) the HyperDisplay object is designed with portability in mind, so it can be ported to additional systems. This paper describes the HDS and the HyperDisplay component with: an introduction and design overview, including the class subsystems; a high-level view of their implementation; and a discussion of future directions.

  14. Evolution of JAK-STAT Pathway Components: Mechanisms and Role in Immune System Development

    PubMed Central

    Liongue, Clifford; O'Sullivan, Lynda A.; Trengove, Monique C.; Ward, Alister C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Lying downstream of a myriad of cytokine receptors, the Janus kinase (JAK) – Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is pivotal for the development and function of the immune system, with additional important roles in other biological systems. To gain further insight into immune system evolution, we have performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the JAK-STAT pathway components, including the key negative regulators of this pathway, the SH2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP), Protein inhibitors against Stats (PIAS), and Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins across a diverse range of organisms. Results Our analysis has demonstrated significant expansion of JAK-STAT pathway components co-incident with the emergence of adaptive immunity, with whole genome duplication being the principal mechanism for generating this additional diversity. In contrast, expansion of upstream cytokine receptors appears to be a pivotal driver for the differential diversification of specific pathway components. Conclusion Diversification of JAK-STAT pathway components during early vertebrate development occurred concurrently with a major expansion of upstream cytokine receptors and two rounds of whole genome duplications. This produced an intricate cell-cell communication system that has made a significant contribution to the evolution of the immune system, particularly the emergence of adaptive immunity. PMID:22412924

  15. Development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs: customer and competitor orientation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F

    2008-08-01

    Atheoretical measure purification may lead to construct deficient measures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretically driven procedure for the development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs. Particular emphasis is placed on establishing a formalized three-step procedure for achieving a posteriori content validity. Then the procedure is applied to development and empirical validation of two symmetrical component measures of market orientation, customer orientation and competitor orientation. Analysis suggests that average variance extracted is particularly critical to reliability in the respecification of multi-indicator measures. In relation to this, the results also identify possible deficiencies in using Cronbach alpha for establishing reliable and valid measures. PMID:18982953

  16. Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems. Phase 2; Temperature Sensor Systems Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems' program is divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objective of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. Six materials, mutually agreed upon by NASA and Pratt & Whitney, were investigated under this program. This report summarizes the Phase 2 effort and provides conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated.

  17. Development of ATLID-MSI synergy for retrieving the vertical profiles of aerosol components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, R.; Nishizawa, T.; Higurashi, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Oikawa, E.

    2014-12-01

    EarthCARE is an earth observation satellite and will be launched in 2016. Using its two sensors, ATLID (High spectral resolution lidar) and MSI (Multi-spectral imager), we are developing the synergy algorithm to retrieve the vertical profiles of extinction coefficients at 355 nm of four aerosol components (Water-soluble, black carbon, dust, and sea-salt particles), and the column mean of mode radii of water-soluble and dust particles. The ATLID data are extinction coefficient, backscatter coefficient, and depolarization ratio for total aerosols at 355 nm. The MSI data are radiances at 670 and 865 nm. The dry volume concentrations of four aerosol components at each altitude and the mode radii of water-soluble and dust particles in the column are simultaneously optimized to ATLID and MSI data by the gauss newton method. After the optimization, the vertical profiles of the extinction coefficient at 355 nm of four aerosol components are obtained. The size distributions of four aerosol components are assumed to be a lognormal distribution. The refractive indices of four aerosol components are given from previously observational studies. The humidity growth is considered for water-soluble and sea-salt particles. The volume concentration and the mode radius of the sea-salt particle are parameterized using the surface wind speed on the ocean. We assumed that the shape of the water-soluble, black carbon, and sea-salt particles are spherical, and the shape of the dust particle is spheroidal. We tested the algorithm using the ATLID and MSI data simulated using clean, dust-transported, and smoke-transported aerosols. The extinction coefficients of each component at 355 nm are retrieved well. The mode radius of water-soluble and dust particles were somehow overestimated.

  18. Development and test of advanced composite components. Center Directors discretionary fund program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faile, G.; Hollis, R.; Ledbetter, F.; Maldonado, J.; Sledd, J.; Stuckey, J.; Waggoner, G.; Engler, E.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the design, analysis, fabrication, and test of a complex bathtub fitting. Graphite fibers in an epoxy matrix were utilized in manufacturing of 11 components representing four different design and layup concepts. Design allowables were developed for use in the final stress analysis. Strain gage measurements were taken throughout the static load test and correlation of test and analysis data were performed, yielding good understanding of the material behavior and instrumentation requirements for future applications.

  19. Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) component research and development for army missile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Tracy D.; McMillen, Deanna K.; Ashley, Paul R.; Ruffin, Paul B.; Baeder, Janet

    1999-07-01

    The US Army Aviation and Missile Command Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center has identified MEMS as an emerging technology with high potential for fulfilling the mission of future missiles. The technology holds the promise of reducing the size, weight, cost, and power requirements for performing existing functions in Army missile systems, as well las providing opportunities for new computing, sensing, and actuation functions that cannot be achieved with conventional electromechanical technology. MEMS will enable the Army's next generation of smaller and lighter missiles. The military market drives the thrust for development of miniature sensor with applications such as: competent and smart munitions, aircraft and missile autopilots, tactical missile guidance, fire control system, platform stabilization, smart structures with embedded inertial sensors, missile system health monitoring, missile and ground-based radar, radio frequency seekers, aerodynamic flow control, IR imagers, and multiple intelligent small projectiles. Current efforts at AMCOM include the development of MEMS-based inertial components to include accelerometers with wide dynamic range, tactical grade gyros with high rate range, and miniature three-axis inertial measurement unit with common interface electronics. Performance requirements of such components will be presented in terms of current and future Army missile systems. Additional MEMS based efforts under investigation at AMCOM include missile storage health monitoring, RF MEMS components, encoders for actuators, and aerodynamic flow control will also be discussed.

  20. Defensive components in insect eggs: are anthraquinones produced during egg development?

    PubMed

    Pankewitz, Florian; Hilker, Monika

    2006-09-01

    Eggs of several insect species are protected against natural enemies by noxious components. However, almost nothing is known about the fate of these defensive substances during egg development nor their site of biosynthesis. The eggs of several leaf beetle species of the taxon Galerucini contain components that are unusual in insects: 1,8-dihydroxylated anthraquinones and anthrones that deter predators such as ants and birds. These components, i.e., the anthrones dithranol and chrysarobin, and the anthraquinones chrysazin and chrysophanol, are not sequestered from host plants. We asked whether the amounts of these components in the overwintering eggs of Galeruca tanaceti change from deposition to larval hatching. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analyses of eggs revealed a significant decrease in total amounts of dithranol and chrysophanol from egg deposition in autumn to the next spring 5 months later. Thus, these results do not provide any hint of active anthraquinone biosynthesis within eggs. Instead, the anthrones and anthraquinones that must be incorporated by the female into the eggs seem to be degraded to some extent either by the embryo or endosymbionts. GC-MS analyses showed that parasitization of eggs had some effects on the quantities of anthrones and anthraquinones. PMID:16835809

  1. Manual development: A strategy for identifying core components of integrated health programs.

    PubMed

    Mooss, Angela; Hartman, Megan; Ibañez, Gladys

    2015-12-01

    Integrated care models are gaining popularity as a clinical strategy to reduce costs and improve client outcomes; however, implementation of such complex models requires an understanding of programmatic core components essential to producing positive outcomes. To promote this understanding, evaluators can work collaboratively with organization staff and leaderships to gather information on program implementation, adaptations, organizational buy-in, and project outcomes. In 2011, SAMHSA funded two Miami health clinics to implement integrated care models in co-located settings. Changes in the federal healthcare landscape, non-Medicaid expansion for Florida, and the complexity of projects goals led evaluators to facilitate a core component review as part of evaluation. A manual was developed throughout the project and captured a description, adaptations, inputs needed, lessons learned, and sustainability for each integrated care component. To increase chances for program success, evaluators should institute a method to better define core components of new programs and implementation adaptations, while keeping program replication in mind. Breaking down the program structurally gave the evaluation utility for stakeholders, and ultimately served as a resource for organizations to better understand their program model. The manual also continues to serve as a dissemination and replication source for other providers looking to implement integrated care. PMID:26298862

  2. Development of an Automated LIBS Analytical Test System Integrated with Component Control and Spectrum Analysis Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yu; Tian, Di; Chen, Feipeng; Chen, Pengfei; Qiao, Shujun; Yang, Guang; Li, Chunsheng

    2015-08-01

    The present paper proposes an automated Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) analytical test system, which consists of a LIBS measurement and control platform based on a modular design concept, and a LIBS qualitative spectrum analysis software and is developed in C#. The platform provides flexible interfacing and automated control; it is compatible with different manufacturer component models and is constructed in modularized form for easy expandability. During peak identification, a more robust peak identification method with improved stability in peak identification has been achieved by applying additional smoothing on the slope obtained by calculation before peak identification. For the purpose of element identification, an improved main lines analysis method, which detects all elements on the spectral peak to avoid omission of certain elements without strong spectral lines, is applied to element identification in the tested LIBS samples. This method also increases the identification speed. In this paper, actual applications have been carried out. According to tests, the analytical test system is compatible with components of various models made by different manufacturers. It can automatically control components to get experimental data and conduct filtering, peak identification and qualitative analysis, etc. on spectral data. supported by the National Major Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development Special Funds of China (No. 2011YQ030113)

  3. Development of multi-component explosive lenses for arbitrary phase velocity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Huneault, Justin; Petel, Oren; Goroshin, Sam; Frost, David; Higgins, Andrew; Zhang, Fan

    2013-06-01

    The combination of explosives with different detonation velocities and lens-like geometric shaping is a well-established technique for producing structured detonation waves. This technique can be extended to produce nearly arbitrary detonation phase velocities for the purposes of sequentially imploding pressurized tubes or driving Mach disks through high-density metalized explosives. The current study presents the experimental development of accelerating, multi-component lenses designed using simple geometric optics and idealized front curvature. The fast explosive component is either Composition C4 (VOD = 8 km/s) or Primasheet 1000 (VOD = 7 km/s), while the slow component varies from heavily amine-diluted nitromethane (amine mass fraction exceeding 20%) to packed metal and glass particle beds wetted with amine-sensitized nitromethane. The applicability of the geometric optic analog to such highly heterogeneous explosives is also investigated. The multi-layered lens technique is further developed as a means of generating a directed mass and momentum flux of metal particles via Mach-disk formation and jetting in circular and oval planar lenses.

  4. Models and frameworks: a synergistic association for developing component-based applications.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Diego; Sánchez-Ledesma, Francisco; Sánchez, Pedro; Pastor, Juan A; Álvarez, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The use of frameworks and components has been shown to be effective in improving software productivity and quality. However, the results in terms of reuse and standardization show a dearth of portability either of designs or of component-based implementations. This paper, which is based on the model driven software development paradigm, presents an approach that separates the description of component-based applications from their possible implementations for different platforms. This separation is supported by automatic integration of the code obtained from the input models into frameworks implemented using object-oriented technology. Thus, the approach combines the benefits of modeling applications from a higher level of abstraction than objects, with the higher levels of code reuse provided by frameworks. In order to illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach, two representative case studies that use both an existing framework and an ad hoc framework, are described. Finally, our approach is compared with other alternatives in terms of the cost of software development. PMID:25147858

  5. Models and Frameworks: A Synergistic Association for Developing Component-Based Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ledesma, Francisco; Sánchez, Pedro; Pastor, Juan A.; Álvarez, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The use of frameworks and components has been shown to be effective in improving software productivity and quality. However, the results in terms of reuse and standardization show a dearth of portability either of designs or of component-based implementations. This paper, which is based on the model driven software development paradigm, presents an approach that separates the description of component-based applications from their possible implementations for different platforms. This separation is supported by automatic integration of the code obtained from the input models into frameworks implemented using object-oriented technology. Thus, the approach combines the benefits of modeling applications from a higher level of abstraction than objects, with the higher levels of code reuse provided by frameworks. In order to illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach, two representative case studies that use both an existing framework and an ad hoc framework, are described. Finally, our approach is compared with other alternatives in terms of the cost of software development. PMID:25147858

  6. Flow simulation of the Component Development Integration Facility magnetohydrodynamic power train system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report covers application of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) computer codes to simulation and analysis of components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train system at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF). Major components of the system include a 50-MWt coal-fired, two-stage combustor and an MHD channel. The combustor, designed and built by TRW, includes a deswirl section between the first and the second-stage combustor and a converging nozzle following the second-stage combustor, which connects to the MHD channel. ANL used computer codes to simulate and analyze flow characteristics in various components of the MHD system. The first-stage swirl combustor was deemed a mature technology and, therefore, was not included in the computer simulation. Several versions of the ICOMFLO computer code were used for the deswirl section and second-stage combustor. The MGMHD code, upgraded with a slag current leakage submodel, was used for the MHD channel. Whenever possible data from the test facilities were used to aid in calibrating parameters in the computer code, to validate the computer code, or to set base-case operating conditions for computations with the computer code. Extensive sensitivity and parametric studies were done on cold-flow mixing in the second-stage combustor, reacting flow in the second-stage combustor and converging nozzle, and particle-laden flow in the deswirl zone of the first-stage combustor, the second-stage combustor, and the converging nozzle. These simulations with subsequent analysis were able to show clearly in flow patterns and various computable measures of performance a number of sensitive and problematical areas in the design of the power train. The simulations of upstream components also provided inlet parameter profiles for simulation of the MHD power generating channel. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Through the Lens of Teacher Professional Development Components: The "Dialogic Video Cycle" as an Innovative Program to Foster Classroom Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gröschner, Alexander; Seidel, Tina; Kiemer, Katharina; Pehmer, Ann-Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    For developing professional development (PD) programs, research suggests referring to effective components. In developing a PD program on classroom dialogue, we explored to what extent effective components could be addressed. We conducted a study with two groups. In the "Dialogic Video Cycle" (DVC), six German teachers participated in a…

  8. Iterative development of Stand Up Australia: a multi-component intervention to reduce workplace sitting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sitting, particularly in prolonged, unbroken bouts, is widespread within the office workplace, yet few interventions have addressed this newly-identified health risk behaviour. This paper describes the iterative development process and resulting intervention procedures for the Stand Up Australia research program focusing on a multi-component workplace intervention to reduce sitting time. Methods The development of Stand Up Australia followed three phases. 1) Conceptualisation: Stand Up Australia was based on social cognitive theory and social ecological model components. These were operationalised via a taxonomy of intervention strategies and designed to target multiple levels of influence including: organisational structures (e.g. via management consultation), the physical work environment (via provision of height-adjustable workstations), and individual employees (e.g. via face-to-face coaching). 2) Formative research: Intervention components were separately tested for their feasibility and acceptability. 3) Pilot studies: Stand Up Comcare tested the integrated intervention elements in a controlled pilot study examining efficacy, feasibility and acceptability. Stand Up UQ examined the additional value of the organisational- and individual-level components over height-adjustable workstations only in a three-arm controlled trial. In both pilot studies, office workers’ sitting time was measured objectively using activPAL3 devices and the intervention was refined based on qualitative feedback from managers and employees. Results Results and feedback from participants and managers involved in the intervention development phases suggest high efficacy, acceptance, and feasibility of all intervention components. The final version of the Stand Up Australia intervention includes strategies at the organisational (senior management consultation, representatives consultation workshop, team champions, staff information and brainstorming session with information

  9. Methodology Development for Passive Component Reliability Modeling in a Multi-Physics Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Aldemir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Catalyurek, Umit; Unwin, Stephen

    2015-01-23

    Reduction in safety margin can be expected as passive structures and components undergo degradation with time. Limitations in the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology constrain its value as an effective tool to address the impact of aging effects on risk and for quantifying the impact of aging management strategies in maintaining safety margins. A methodology has been developed to address multiple aging mechanisms involving large numbers of components (with possibly statistically dependent failures) within the PRA framework in a computationally feasible manner when the sequencing of events is conditioned on the physical conditions predicted in a simulation environment, such as the New Generation System Code (NGSC) concept. Both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties can be accounted for within the same phenomenological framework and maintenance can be accounted for in a coherent fashion. The framework accommodates the prospective impacts of various intervention strategies such as testing, maintenance, and refurbishment. The methodology is illustrated with several examples.

  10. Development of a stochastic dynamical model for hermetic compressor's components with experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanela, F.; Silva, O. M.; Lenzi, A.; Ritto, T. G.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of household compressor's components is typically evaluated by using mathematical-mechanical models, and many decisions are taken based on simulations. However, such an investigation is usually performed in a deterministic framework, which cannot consider manufacturing variabilities and epistemic uncertainties. In this paper, a stochastic structural model that considers data and model uncertainties is developed for a discharge pipe connected to a hermetic compressor's shell. An experimental test rig is constructed to test each part separately, and an identification strategy is proposed to fit the stochastic model to experimental results. Finally, the impact of the uncertainties in each structural component on the dynamical responses of the whole system is investigated. It turns out that: (1) the proposed stochastic dynamical model presented very good results when compared to the experimental responses, and (2) uncertainties in the discharge pipe model play an important role in the coupled system dynamics.

  11. Developing standard performance testing procedures for material control and accounting components at a site

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn P; Bushlya, Anatoly V; Efimenko, Vladimir F; Ilyanstev, Anatoly; Regoushevsky, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements and documentation, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following subsystems, MC&A and Detecting Material Losses, and their respective elements for the material control and accountability system: (a) Elements of the MC&A Subsystem - Information subsystem (Accountancy/Inventory), Measurement subsystem, Nuclear Material Access subsystem, including tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated Information-gathering subsystem; (b) Elements for Detecting Nuclear Material Loses Subsystem - Inventory Differences, Shipper/receiver Differences, Confirmatory Measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or Seal Violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems from the list above. Additionally this work includes a review of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system component characteristics and criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the material balance areas (MBAs) of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE).

  12. Progress in Materials and Component Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha, M.; Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the Moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the- art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance the power systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities spacesuit, and rovers and portable utility pallets for Lunar Surface Systems. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This report on interim progress of the development efforts will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities, proposed strategies to overcome technical issues, and present performance of materials and cell components.

  13. Cryogenic system component development for the fusion experimental reactor at JAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.; Kamiya, S.; Tada, E.; Hiyama, T.; Kawano, K.; Shimamoto, S.

    1986-01-01

    The major objective of fusion R and D at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is to construct the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) to follow JT-60. The construction of FER inevitably requires development of a large, reliable, and efficient helium liquefier/refrigerator and the more advanced cryogenic technology for cooling superconducting toroidal and poloidal coils. Typical characteristics required for the cryogenic system of FER are 10 to 20 kW at 4 K as one unit, reliability for > 8000 h, a stable pulsed heat load, and high-energy efficiency of > 1/500. In this cryogenic system, the major components such as the helium compressor, turbo-expander, cold circulation pump for supercritical helium, and cold compressor to reduce operating temperature below 4 K should be scaled up to a mass flow rate of > 1000 g/s. For this purpose, JAERI has developed cryogenics since 1980 in accordance with the development program in which the scaling up of the major components mentioned above are involved as well as cooling technology development.

  14. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-Ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, liberation points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project battery development effort at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is continuing advanced lithium-ion cell development efforts begun under the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level in order to meet the performance goals for NASA s High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells. NASA s overall approach to advanced cell development and interim progress on materials performance for the High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells after approximately 1 year of development has been summarized in a previous paper. This paper will provide an update on these materials through the completion of 2 years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  15. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing advanced High Energy and Ultra High Energy lithium-ion cells to address these needs. In order to meet the performance goals, advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level. This paper will provide an update on the performance of experimental materials through the completion of two years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  16. RNA-binding proteins in eye development and disease: implication of conserved RNA granule components.

    PubMed

    Dash, Soma; Siddam, Archana D; Barnum, Carrie E; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Lachke, Salil A

    2016-07-01

    The molecular biology of metazoan eye development is an area of intense investigation. These efforts have led to the surprising recognition that although insect and vertebrate eyes have dramatically different structures, the orthologs or family members of several conserved transcription and signaling regulators such as Pax6, Six3, Prox1, and Bmp4 are commonly required for their development. In contrast, our understanding of posttranscriptional regulation in eye development and disease, particularly regarding the function of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), is limited. We examine the present knowledge of RBPs in eye development in the insect model Drosophila as well as several vertebrate models such as fish, frog, chicken, and mouse. Interestingly, of the 42 RBPs that have been investigated for their expression or function in vertebrate eye development, 24 (~60%) are recognized in eukaryotic cells as components of RNA granules such as processing bodies, stress granules, or other specialized ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. We discuss the distinct developmental and cellular events that may necessitate potential RBP/RNA granule-associated RNA regulon models to facilitate posttranscriptional control of gene expression in eye morphogenesis. In support of these hypotheses, three RBPs and RNP/RNA granule components Tdrd7, Caprin2, and Stau2 are linked to ocular developmental defects such as congenital cataract, Peters anomaly, and microphthalmia in human patients or animal models. We conclude by discussing the utility of interdisciplinary approaches such as the bioinformatics tool iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) to prioritize RBPs for deriving posttranscriptional regulatory networks in eye development and disease. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:527-557. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27133484

  17. Development of HVOF Sprayed Erosion/Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Composite Structural Components in Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivosevic, M.; Twardowski, T.; Kalidindi, S.; Knight, R.; Sutter, J.; Kim, D. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are being studied and developed as methods of enabling lightweight composites to be used more extensively as structural components in propulsion applications in order to reduce costs and improve efficiency through weight reductions. The primary goal of this work is the development of functionally graded material [FGM] polymer/metal matrix composite coatings to provide improved erosion/oxidation resistance to polyimide-based polymer matrix composite [PMC] substrates. The goal is to grade the coating composition from pure polyimide, similar to the PMC substrate matrix on one side, to 100% WC-Co on the other. Both step-wise and continuous gradation of the loading of the WC-Co reinforcing phase are being investigated, Details of the coating parameter development will be presented, specifically the high velocity oxy-fuel [HVOF] combustion spraying of pure PMR-I1 matrix material and layers of various composition PMR-II/WC-Co blends onto steel and PMR-15 composite substrates. Results of the HVOF process optimization, microstructural characterization, and analysis will be presented. The sprayed coatings were evaluated using standard metallographic techniques - optical and scanning electron microscopy [SEMI. An SEM + electron dispersive spectroscopy [EDS] technique has also been used to confirm retention of the PMR-I1 component. Results of peel/butt adhesion testing to determine adhesion will also be presented.

  18. Development of HVOF Sprayed Erosion/Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Composite Structural Components in Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, R.; Ivosevic, M.; Twardowski, T. E.; Kalidindi, S. R.; Sutter, James K.; Kim, D. Y.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are being studied and developed as methods of enabling lightweight composites to be used more extensively as structural components in propulsion applications in order to reduce costs and improve efficiency through weight reductions. The primary goal of this work is the development of functionally graded material [FGM] polymer/metal matrix composite coatings to provide improved erosion/oxidation resistance to polyimide-based polymer matrix composite [PMC] substrates. The goal is to grade the coating composition from pure polyimide, similar to the PMC substrate matrix on one side, to 100 % WC-Co on the other. Both step-wise and continuous gradation of the loading of the WC-Co reinforcing phase are being investigated. Details of the coating parameter development will be presented, specifically the high velocity oxy-fuel [HVOF] combustion spraying of pure PMR-11 matrix material and layers of various composition PMR-II/WC-Co blends onto steel and PMR-15 composite substrates. Results of the HVOF process optimization, microstructural characterization, and analysis will be presented. The sprayed coatings were evaluated using standard metallographic techniques - optical and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]. An SEM + electron dispersive spectroscopy [EDS] technique has also been used to confirm retention of the PMR-II component. Results of peel/butt adhesion testing to determine adhesion will also be presented.

  19. Development of ultrasonic data recording system for three dimensionally curved components

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, K.

    1995-08-01

    Semi-automatic man-machine system for ultrasonic inspection of three dimensionally curved components such as water pump impeller blade made of steel casting was investigated. In respect to the curved components inspection, results of the detected flaw data are very complicated because of surface configuration varies very much during the probe scanning. Therefore, much more reliable ultrasonic inspection technique and equipments have been required which are available for random probe scanning on a three dimensional curved surface in the field. The developed ultrasonic system is constructed of portable and handy manual scanning mechanism and ultrasonic data acquisition and processor. One of the feature of this system is that the precise defect location and defect sizing are conducted considering the three dimensional configuration of the components. In this paper, a measuring method of ultrasonic beam direction on curved surface was proposed, which is calculated by the collected search unit position data, and the effect of this method was verified. The position of reflectors were exactly decided according to the beam path length of detected echo signal, the probe refraction angle and the search unit position data. And as a results, the calculated reflector positions were automatically processed and analyzed for defect location and sizing, and defects image were three dimensionally displayed on CRT.

  20. Development of Advanced In-Cylinder Components and Tribological Systems for Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, T. M.; Wiczynski, P. D.; Myers, M. R.; Anderson, D. D.; McDonald, A. C.; Weber, H. G.; Richardson, D. E.; Stafford, R. J.; Naylor, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    In-cylinder components and tribological system concepts were designed, fabricated and tested at conditions anticipated for a 55% thermal efficiency heavy duty diesel engine for the year 2000 and beyond. A Cummins L10 single cylinder research engine was used to evaluate a spherical joint piston and connecting rod with 19.3 MPa (2800 psi) peak cylinder pressure capability, a thermal fatigue resistant insulated cylinder head, radial combustion seal cylinder liners, a highly compliant steel top compression ring, a variable geometry turbocharger, and a microwave heated particulate trap. Components successfully demonstrated in the final test included spherical joint connecting rod with a fiber reinforced piston, high conformability steel top rings with wear resistant coatings, ceramic exhaust ports with strategic oil cooling and radial combustion seal cylinder liner with cooling jacket transfer fins. A Cummins 6B diesel was used to develop the analytical methods, materials, manufacturing technology and engine components for lighter weight diesel engines without sacrificing performance or durability. A 6B diesel engine was built and tested to calibrate analytical models for the aluminum cylinder head and aluminum block.

  1. ATF (Advanced Toroidal Facility) ECH (Electron Cyclotron Heating) waveguide component development and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.; White, T.L.; Kimrey, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) system presently under construction will consist of two 53.2-GHz, 200-kW continuous-wave (cw) gyrotrons with a mode-controlled waveguide system and polarized launcher optimized for maximum power in the ATF plasma. Several components, such as a waveguide mode-analyzing directional coupler, a TiO/sub 2/ mode absorber, miter bends, and a polarization-selectable beamed launcher, have been developed and tested. Laboratory results and initial high-power operation of the system are presented. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Further two-dimensional code development for Stirling space engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Tew, Roy C.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1990-01-01

    The development of multidimensional models of Stirling engine components is described. Two-dimensional parallel plate models of an engine regenerator and a cooler were used to study heat transfer under conditions of laminar, incompressible oscillating flow. Substantial differences in the nature of the temperature variations in time over the cycle were observed for the cooler as contrasted with the regenerator. When the two-dimensional cooler model was used to calculate a heat transfer coefficient, it yields a very different result from that calculated using steady-flow correlations. Simulation results for the regenerator and the cooler are presented.

  3. Development of improved and corrosion-resistant surfaces for fossil power system components

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop the corrosion-resistant surfaces on a variety of fossil power system components. The Fe-Al alloys ranging in aluminum from 16 to 36 @ % are of interest. The surfaces of Fe-Al alloys can be produced by weld overlay. However, because of their limited room-temperature ductility, the production of weld wire for these compositions is not commercially feasible. The alloying element dilution during weld overlay also makes depositing exact surface composition rather difficult.

  4. Program for the development of high temperature electrical materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, W. S.; Lowry, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Evaluation of high temperature, space-vacuum performance of selected electrical materials and components, high temperature capacitor development, and evaluation, construction, and endurance testing of compression sealed pyrolytic boron nitride slot insulation are described. The first subject above covered the aging evaluation of electrical devices constructed from selected electrical materials. Individual materials performances were also evaluated and reported. The second subject included study of methods of improving electrical performance of pyrolytic boron nitride capacitors. The third portion was conducted to evaluate the thermal and electrical performance of pyrolytic boron nitride as stator slot liner material under varied temperature and compressive loading. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  5. Development of Ocean Bottom Multi-component Seismic System for Methane Hydrate Dissociation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Asakawa, E.; Hayashi, T.; Inamori, T.; Saeki, T.

    2011-12-01

    A 2D multi-component seismic survey was carried out in the Nankai Trough using the RSCS (Real-time Seismic Cable System) system in 2006. The RSCS is the newly developed ocean bottom cable system which is usable in more than 2000m water depth. The results of the PP and data PS components gave us much information of the methane hydrates bearing zone. Based on RSCS technology, we are developing a new monitoring system using multi-component seismic sensors to delineate the methane hydrate dissociation zone for the offshore methane hydrate production test scheduled in FY2012. Conventional RSCS is composed of three component gimbaled geophones which require a large volume inside the receiver. We will adopt accelerometers to achieve a small receiver that is 2/3 the size of conventional RSCS. The accelerometer data can be corrected into horizontal or vertical directions based on the gravity acceleration. The receiver case has a protective metallic exterior and the cable is protected with steel-screened armoring, allowing for burial usage using ROV for sub-seabed deployment. It will realize a unique survey style that leaves the system on the seabed between pre-test baseline survey and post-test repeated survey, which might be up to 6 months. The fixed location of the receiver is very important for time-lapse monitoring survey. We name the new system as DSS (Deep-sea Seismic System). A feasibility study to detect the methane hydrate dissociation with the DSS was carried out and we found that the methane hydrate dissociation could be detected with the DSS depending on the area of the dissociation. The first experiment of the DSS performance test in a marine area is planned in November 2011. The main features of DSS are described as follows: (1) Deep-sea /Ultra Deep-sea Operation Methane hydrate exists in equilibrium temperature and pressure holds at water depths greater than 500m. The system water depth resistance target up to 2000m. The receiver case has a protective

  6. Development of an animal-component free medium for vero cells culture.

    PubMed

    Rourou, Samia; van der Ark, Arno; van der Velden, Tiny; Kallel, Héla

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the development of an animal-component free medium (IPT-AFM) that allows an optimal growth of Vero cells, an adherent cell line used for the production of viral vaccines. Statistical experimental design was applied to identify crucial nutrients that affect cell growth. Using Medium 199 or MEM as a basal medium, a serum-free medium (SFM) referred as IPT-SFM that only enclosed transferrin as a component of animal origin was developed at first. Then, the composition of IPT-SFM was further improved to obtain an animal-component free medium named IPT-AFM. IPT-AFM contains M199 as a basal medium, plant hydrolysates, epidermal growth factor, ethanolamine, ferric citrate, and vitamin C. Among various plant hydrolysates, specific combinations of soy (Hypep 1510) and wheat gluten (Hypeps 4601 and 4605) hydrolysates, were identified to promote cell growth; whereas individual Hypeps had a minor positive effect on cell growth. Nevertheless, the removal of serum did influence cell attachment. Coating tissue-culture flasks with teleostean, a product extracted from cold water fish skin, had not only enhanced cell attachment but also improved cell growth performance in static cultures. Different non-animal proteases were also assessed as an alternative to trypsin. TrypLE Select, a recombinant trypsin, gave the best cell growth performances. Kinetics of cell growth in IPT-AFM were investigated in T-flasks, cell growth was comparable with that obtained in MEM+10% fetal calf serum (FCS). A mean cell division number equal to 2.26 +/- 0.18 and a specific growth rate micro 0.019 +/- 0.003 h(-1) were achieved in IPT-AFM. PMID:19768803

  7. Development of system level integration of compact RF components on multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, David

    element antenna array, the concept of beam steering is shown. Using this antenna array as a building block, an 8 x 8 element antenna array is shown with the measured results when conformed around a cylinder. Further expanding the antenna array, a 16 x 16 element antenna array is designed, fabricated, and measured. All of these antenna arrays use LCP as a platform for lightweight and low cost satellite communication applications. Finally, using the integration technology and expertise developed from the previous work, a 60 GHz transceiver front end is designed on LCP for high speed wireless communication applications. Two dual mode filters and high-gain vertical dipoles are integrated at the packaging level on LCP to create a low cost system. A PA and LNA are included in the system to increase the system gain. The measurements of the dual mode filters are presented as well as the fully integrated transceiver pattern measurements and gain measurements of each of the transmitting and receiving mode. This research contributes to LCP integration technology with more compact and higher frequency multilayer applications while focusing on integration of the components at the system packaging level to achieve optimal compactness. The highlight of this work is in developing key technologies for multilayer integration on organic LCP such as HDI interconnects and RF MEMS; applying the technology to create reconfigurable RF components such as reconfigurable antennas and compact low voltage phase shifters; and integrating the components to create compact low cost multilayer RF front end systems.

  8. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alva, T.; Henkel, J.; Johnson, R.; Carll, B.; Jackson, A.; Mosesian, B.; Brozovic, R.; Obrien, R.; Eudaily, R.

    1982-01-01

    This is the final report of technical work conducted during the fourth phase of a multiphase program having the objective of the design, development and flight evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component manufactured in a production environment at a cost competitive with those of its metal counterpart, and at a weight savings of at least 20 percent. The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes front and rear spars. During Phase 4 of the program, production quality tooling was designed and manufactured to produce three sets of covers, ribs, spars, miscellaneous parts, and subassemblies to assemble three complete ACVF units. Recurring and nonrecurring cost data were compiled and documented in the updated producibility/design to cost plan. Nondestruct inspections, quality control tests, and quality acceptance tests were performed in accordance with the quality assurance plan and the structural integrity control plan. Records were maintained to provide traceability of material and parts throughout the manufacturing development phase. It was also determined that additional tooling would not be required to support the current and projected L-1011 production rate.

  9. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haselkorn, M.H.

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  10. Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development Program, final report - tasks 4-14

    SciTech Connect

    Kaushal, T.S.; Weber, K.E.

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program is a multi-year, multi-phase effort to develop and demonstrate the critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection (LHR) engine concept for the long-haul, heavy-duty truck market. The ADECD Program has been partitioned into two phases. The first phase, Phase 1, was completed in 1986, resulting in definition of the Advanced Diesel Reference Engine (ADRE)III. The second phase, Phase 11/111, examines the feasibility of the ADRE concepts for application to the on-highway diesel engine. Phase 11/111 is currently underway. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies. The work has been performed by the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) under Contract DEN3-329 with the NASA Lewis Research Center, who provide project management and technical direction.

  11. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  12. Standards for PV Modules and Components -- Recent Developments and Challenges: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-10-01

    International standards play an important role in the Photovoltaic industry. Since PV is such a global industry it is critical that PV products be measured and qualified the same way everywhere in the world. IEC TC82 has developed and published a number of module and component measurement and qualification standards. These are continually being updated to take advantage of new techniques and equipment as well as better understanding of test requirements. Standards presently being updated include the third edition of IEC 61215, Crystalline Silicon Qualification and the second edition of IEC 61730, PV Module Safety Requirements. New standards under development include qualification of junction boxes, connectors, PV cables, and module integrated electronics as well as for testing the packaging used during transport of modules. After many years of effort, a draft standard on Module Energy Rating should be circulated for review soon. New activities have been undertaken to develop standards for the materials within a module and to develop tests that evaluate modules for wear-out in the field (International PV Module QA Task Force). This paper will discuss these efforts and indicate how the audience can participate in development of international standards.

  13. Heat flux process flow analysis at the component development and integration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ying-Ming

    1993-12-31

    The Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) is a Department of Energy test facility operated by MSE, Inc. MSE personnel are responsible for the integration of topping cycle components for the national coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) development program. During the past several years, a large amount of data has been collected as part of the proof-of-concept (POC) MHD test series. Some of the data collected, e.g. heat loss, pressure distribution in the channel, and other process flow data, have not been analyzed. For example, one area of interest is the flow pattern in the nozzle and channel (i.e. how complete the mixing is in the second stage of the combustor). This paper discusses some of the areas of interest (including the mixing issue), data collected during recent testing, and modeling results obtained from in-house numerical modeling tools. It is believed the collected data can be analyzed to provide valuable information for the future development of MHD technology. In the spring of 1992, a 50-MW{sub t} pressurized, slag rejecting coal-fired prototypic combustor was installed in the integrated topping cycle test train. Testing during the past year emphasized prototypic hardware start-up and Design Verification Testing (DVT), including both combustor and channel/diffuser DVT. With the new combustor and prototypic channel/diffuser testing, large amount of data were generated and analyzed to improve the understanding of the hardware. One area presented here is evaluation of the relationship between second-stage channel heat loss and nominal operating conditions using various inner diameter second stage oxygen injectors. By using a statistical approach, it appears smaller-sized oxygen injectors provide more uniform heat loss distribution in the nozzle region between left and right walls. The heat loss distribution in the channel area behaves in the opposite way.

  14. The Development, Application And Testing Of Diamond-Like Coatings For Infra-Red Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettington, A. H.

    1986-05-01

    The lack of durability of the outermost coated lens or window of thermal imaging systems had been a problem for many years. It was overcome in the mid-seventies by the development within RSRE of the infra-red transparent diamond-like carbon coating. This material was chemically durable, abrasion resistant and a near perfect match to germanium as a single layer anti-reflection coating. Originally the coatings had reasonable infra-red transmission but their hardness and adhesion were variable. Using our own processes we obtained consistently good coatings with optimised transmission. The application and excellent performance of these coatings on germanium components is described. Another application is the protection of diamond flycut aluminium surfaces where the off-normal reflectivity in the infra-red using conventional coatings can be poor. Having developed these coatings it was then necessary to develop specifications before they could be used in service. The development of coatings test procedures and specifications is also described.

  15. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  16. High temperature ceramics for automobile gas turbines. Part 2: Development of ceramic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walzer, P.; Koehler, M.; Rottenkolber, P.

    1978-01-01

    The development of ceramic components for automobile gas turbine engines is described with attention given to the steady and unsteady thermal conditions the ceramics will experience, and their anti-corrosion and strain-resistant properties. The ceramics considered for use in the automobile turbines include hot-pressed Si3N4, reaction-sintered, isostatically pressed Si3N4, hot-pressed SiC, reaction-bonded SiC, and glass ceramics. Attention is given to the stress analysis of ceramic structures and the state of the art of ceramic structural technology is reviewed, emphasizing the use of ceramics for combustion chambers and ceramic shrouded turbomachinery (a fully ceramic impeller).

  17. Development of NDE to monitor bond degradation in aircraft honeycomb components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Susan J.; Scala, Christine M.

    1999-12-01

    This paper presents results of recent research at DSTO Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory to develop NDE techniques to assess bond degradation in metal-skin honeycomb and composite skin honeycomb control surfaces. In particular, it covers the detection of fillet bond failure where the honeycomb core and adhesive separate. Realistic fillet bond failure specimens, one of which had only 20% of the good bond strength, were generated by the application of spray-release agent to the honeycomb. 20MHz ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging was successfully used to detect fillet bond failure in these specimens. This technique was successful in detecting defined areas of fillet bond failure for a range of skin type and thickness Promising results were also obtained for the application to actual components, whilst also highlighting effects due to the presence of repairs. Further work will involve the evaluation of a range of other NDE methods to the detection and sizing of fillet bond failure.

  18. Development of On-Line Monitoring Systems for High Temperature Components in Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. PMID:24233026

  19. Development of a Probabilistic Component Mode Synthesis Method for the Analysis of Non-Deterministic Substructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Ferri, Aldo A.

    1995-01-01

    Standard methods of structural dynamic analysis assume that the structural characteristics are deterministic. Recognizing that these characteristics are actually statistical in nature, researchers have recently developed a variety of methods that use this information to determine probabilities of a desired response characteristic, such as natural frequency, without using expensive Monte Carlo simulations. One of the problems in these methods is correctly identifying the statistical properties of primitive variables such as geometry, stiffness, and mass. This paper presents a method where the measured dynamic properties of substructures are used instead as the random variables. The residual flexibility method of component mode synthesis is combined with the probabilistic methods to determine the cumulative distribution function of the system eigenvalues. A simple cantilever beam test problem is presented that illustrates the theory.

  20. The Development of Engineering Tomography for Monolithic and Composite Materials and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemann, John

    1997-01-01

    The research accomplishments under this grant were very extensive in the areas of the development of engineering tomography for monolithic and composite materials and components. Computed tomography was used on graphite composite pins and bushings to find porosity, cracks, and delaminations. It supported the following two programs: Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) and Southern Research institute (SRI). Did research using CT and radiography on Nickel based Superalloy dogbones and found density variations and gas shrinkage porosity. Did extensive radiography and CT of PMC composite flywheels and found delamination and non-uniform fiber distribution. This grant supported the Attitude Control Energy Storage Experiment (ACESE) program. Found broken fibers and cracks of outer stainless steel fibers using both radiographic and CT techniques on Pratt and Whitney fuel lines; Supported the Pratt & Whitney and Aging Aircraft engines program. Grant research helped identify and corroborate thickness variations and density differences in a silicon nitride "ROTH" tube using computed tomography.

  1. Design, process development, manufacture, test and evaluation of boron-aluminum for space shuttle components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, R. A.; Niemann, J. T.; Otto, O. R.; Brown, N. M.; Heinrich, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A multi phase boron-aluminum design and evaluation program for space shuttle components was conducted, culminating in the fabrication of a 1.22 m (48 inch) x 1.83 m (72 inch) boron-aluminum compression panel capable of distributing a point load of 1555 kN (350,000 lbs) into a uniform running load at a temperature of 589 K (600 F). This panel was of the skin-stringer construction with two intermediate frame supports; seven unidirectional stringers varied in thickness from 5 plies to 52 plies and the skin was contoured to thicknesses ranging from 10 plies to 62 plies. Both the stringers and the skin incorporated Ti-6Al-4V titanium interleaves to increase bearing and in-plane shear strength. The discrete program phases were materials evaluation, design studies, process technology development, fabrication and assembly, and test and evaluation.

  2. Development of on-line monitoring systems for high temperature components in power plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. PMID:24233026

  3. Rethinking blood components and patients: Patient blood management. Possible ways for development in France.

    PubMed

    Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    As any therapeutic means, blood transfusion requires regular evaluation, particularly for its indications, effectiveness and risks. A better awareness of the risks of blood transfusion, the availability of randomized clinical trials, the evolution of the quality of blood components, and the economic constraints shared by all countries, all have led to rethink both transfusion therapy as a whole and the organization of the transfusion chain from donor to recipient. In this context, patient blood management (PBM) appears as an evidence-based, patient centred, multidisciplinary approach, aiming to optimise the care of patients who might need transfusion and consequently the use of blood products. This paper presents updated scientific bases of PBM and the three pillars founding it. As PBM is developing fast in other European countries, this review proposes ways to explore for its development in France. It finally proposes to integrate PBM in a wider and coordinated approach of the blood supply management, with tools to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfusion chain, starting with the needs of the patients and ending with an optimum treatment of the patient, including the appropriate number of blood components of the required quality. A better understanding, implementation and assessment of this coordinated global approach, allowing to adapt donor collections to the patients' needs in compliance with safety requirements for patients and donors, in a coordinated way, will certainly be a major challenge for transfusion medicine in the near future, for the benefit of patients, donors and all other stakeholders involved in the transfusion chain. PMID:27476011

  4. Development of traveling wave resonator based test bed for high power transmission line component testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Akhil; Harikrishna, JVS; Ajesh, P.; Anand, Rohit; Trivedi, Rajesh; Mukherjee, Aparajita

    2015-12-01

    India is responsible for delivery of 8+1(prototype) RF sources to ITER Organization. Each RF source will provide 2.5MW of RF power at 2 VSWR in the frequency range of 35 to 65MHz. Eight such RF sources will generate total 20MW of RF power. A large number of high power transmission line components are required for connecting various stages of RF source. To test these passive transmission line components at high power, prior to connecting with RF source system, a test facility is required. India is developing a 3MW test facility based on the concept of Traveling Wave Resonator (TWR) for testing of transmission line components. TWR is basically a ring resonator which will build high power under certain operation condition at resonant frequency (˜55MHz in this case). In TWR, power is fed to the ring via a directional coupler continuously which leads to development of high circulating power in the ring. The voltage and current magnitude inside the ring increases with the increasing circulating power. Detailed RF simulation and design of the TWR test bed has been done using high frequency simulator Microwave Studio (MWS). Calculations done for the ring gain, transmission loss, resonance frequency etc. and are verified with the simulation results. Concept validated using 3-1/8 inch prototype TWR test bed, where experiments were carried out with a ˜10dB (λ/4 coupled) coupler to feed the ring. Ring gain of ˜13.24dB (˜21times) was achieved with ˜0.17 dB of ring loss. Around 9.2 kW ring power is achieved with an input power of 440W. At present, the 3-1/8inch TWR test bed is being upgraded with a ˜15dB coupler to achieve ring gain ˜19-20dB (˜80-100 times). This concept will be finally adopted for 12inch TWR test bed to achieve 3MW ring power with ˜30-40kW of input power. In this paper, detailed design, simulation, test results out of prototype activity and future plan for establishing MW level transmission line test bed is described.

  5. Simulated Propellant Loading System: Testbed for cryogenic component and control systems research & development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro Medina, J.; Sass, J.; Youney, J.; Schmitz, W.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies in the fields of cryogenic components and control systems are constantly evolving to advance the state of current cryogenic operations that will support future space exploration missions. To meet new demanding requirements, these missions will increasingly rely upon research and development in energy-efficient storage, transfer and use of cryogens and cryogenic propellants on Earth and in space. The capability to test these technologies is sometimes limited to isolated subsystems with a narrow application spectrum. The initiative to develop the Simulated Propellant Loading System (SPLS) is to provide an integrated multipurpose generic testbed to allow dedicated test and evaluation of new technologies in a field environment on a scale that is relevant to launch facility propellant systems. The Cryogenic Test Laboratory (CTL) at the Kennedy Space Center has more than two years of operational experience of using the SPLS to support independent and integrated technology maturation. This paper presents the development of a highly repeatable automated cold flow test sequence that was used in the evaluation and advancement of autonomous control system technologies. A range of other recent applications and capabilities of the SPLS will also be presented in this paper.

  6. Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Röβler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

    In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

  7. Effect of dilution of stool soluble component on growth and development of Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Maleewong Intapan, Pewpan; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Chamavit, Pennapa; Kaewsawat, Supreecha; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion or dilution of stool by water from heavy rainfall may affect Strongyloides stercoralis free-living development producing infective filariform larvae (FL). This study examined effect of water dilution of stool on survival of S. stercoralis free-living development. One g of stool was prepared in water so that its soluble component was diluted sequentially from 1:2 to 1:480. Three dishes were used to compare FL production in three culture conditions: stool suspension, stool sediment deposited in soil, and isolated rhabditiform larvae (RhL) deposited in soil. The fourth dish was for developmental observation of RhL into free-living stages. Numerous FL were generated from undiluted or 1:2 diluted stool and stool sediment placed on soil. However, starting from dilution 1:5, FL production continuously decreased in both stool suspensions and stool sediments placed on soil. RhL isolated from stool dilutions placed on soil gave rise to few FL. Worm mating were seen at 24-30 hours in dilutions 1:20-1:120 only. Highest numbers of FL from indirect free-living cycle were 1/3 of those from control. FL production decreased as stool dilution increased, and reached zero production at 1:160 dilution. Rainfall may disperse or dilute stool so that nutritional supplement for S. stercoralis free-living development is insufficient. PMID:26035061

  8. Effect of dilution of stool soluble component on growth and development of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Chamavit, Pennapa; Kaewsawat, Supreecha; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion or dilution of stool by water from heavy rainfall may affect Strongyloides stercoralis free-living development producing infective filariform larvae (FL). This study examined effect of water dilution of stool on survival of S. stercoralis free-living development. One g of stool was prepared in water so that its soluble component was diluted sequentially from 1:2 to 1:480. Three dishes were used to compare FL production in three culture conditions: stool suspension, stool sediment deposited in soil, and isolated rhabditiform larvae (RhL) deposited in soil. The fourth dish was for developmental observation of RhL into free-living stages. Numerous FL were generated from undiluted or 1:2 diluted stool and stool sediment placed on soil. However, starting from dilution 1:5, FL production continuously decreased in both stool suspensions and stool sediments placed on soil. RhL isolated from stool dilutions placed on soil gave rise to few FL. Worm mating were seen at 24-30 hours in dilutions 1:20-1:120 only. Highest numbers of FL from indirect free-living cycle were 1/3 of those from control. FL production decreased as stool dilution increased, and reached zero production at 1:160 dilution. Rainfall may disperse or dilute stool so that nutritional supplement for S. stercoralis free-living development is insufficient. PMID:26035061

  9. Potassium improved stability of Ni/MgO in the steam reforming of ethanol for the production of hydrogen for MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frusteri, F.; Freni, S.; Chiodo, V.; Spadaro, L.; Bonura, G.; Cavallaro, S.

    The catalytic behavior of the bare and K-promoted 21% Ni/MgO catalyst in the ethanol steam reforming at MCFC operative conditions has been investigated. The effect of K loading (1-3 wt.%) on the catalytic activity, stability and coking rate have been addressed. K addition stabilizes Ni catalyst mainly by depressing the metal sintering, while coke formation does not seem to be influenced by alkali addition. Endurance test (500 h -1) performed at 20,000 h -1 allows foresee a very long catalyst life in the case of practical application. High H 2 productivity (>5 mol H 2/mol fed ethanol) was obtained. A change in the electronic properties of the active phase accounts for the effect of K addition on the catalytic behavior of the Ni/MgO catalyst.

  10. The Development of the Integrated Three-Component Model of Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croom, D. Barry

    2008-01-01

    This research project sought to determine the origin of the three-component model of agricultural education in the United States and provided a contextual base for future research into the three-component model for agricultural education. The study concluded that each of the three components of the agricultural education model originated at…

  11. Development of a solid polymer electrolyte electrolysis cell module and ancillary components for a breadboard water electrolysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology in a water electrolysis system along with ancillary components to generate oxygen and hydrogen for a manned space station application are considered. Standard commercial components are utilized wherever possible. Presented are the results of investigations, surveys, tests, conclusions and recommendations for future development efforts.

  12. Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Technology: Earth Observing-1 PPT Operational and Advanced Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Frus, John; Hoskins, W. Andrew; Burton, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 the pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) mounted on the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft was operated successfully in orbit. The two-axis thruster system is fully incorporated in the attitude determination and control system and is being used to automatically counteract disturbances in the pitch axis of the spacecraft. The first tests conducted in space demonstrated the full range of PPT operation, followed by calibration of control torques from the PPT in the attitude control system. Then the spacecraft was placed in PPT control mode. To date, it has operated for about 30 hr. The PPT successfully controlled pitch momentum during wheel de-spin, solar array acceleration and deceleration during array rewind, and environmental torques in nominal operating conditions. Images collected with the Advanced Landsat Imager during PPT operation have demonstrated that there was no degradation in comparison to full momentum wheel control. In addition, other experiments have been performed to interrogate the effects of PPT operation on communication packages and light reflection from spacecraft surfaces. Future experiments will investigate the possibility of orbit-raising maneuvers, spacecraft roll, and concurrent operation with the Hyperion imager. Future applications envisioned for pulsed plasma thrusters include longer life, higher precision, multiaxis thruster configurations for three-axis attitude control systems or high-precision, formationflying systems. Advanced components, such as a "dry" mica-foil capacitor, a wear-resistant spark plug, and a multichannel power processing unit have been developed under contract with Unison Industries, General Dynamics, and C.U. Aerospace. Over the last year, evaluation tests have been conducted to determine power processing unit efficiency, atmospheric functionality, vacuum functionality, thruster performance evaluation, thermal performance, and component life.

  13. Process development for electron beam joining of ceramic and glass components

    SciTech Connect

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Yang, P.; Gerstle, F.P.; Halbleib, J.A.; Voth, T.E.; McKenzie, B.; Clifford, J.R.; Habiger, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and extend the electron beam joining process to applications related to Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cermets for neutron tube fabrication, glass seals for flat panel displays, and ceramics for structural applications. The key issue is the identification of the allowable operating ranges that produce thermal conditions favorable to robust joining and sealing. High strength, hermetic braze joints between ceramic components have been produced using high energy electron beams. With a penetration depth into a typical ceramic of {approximately} 1 cm for a 10 MeV electron beam, this method provides the capability for rapid, transient brazing operations where temperature control of heat sensitive components is essential. The method deposits energy directly into a buried joint, allowing otherwise inaccessible interfaces to be brazed. The combination of transient heating, with higher thermal conductivity, lower heat capacity, and lower melting temperature of braze metals relative to the ceramic materials, enables a pulsed high power beam to melt a braze metal without producing excessive ceramic temperatures. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of this process related to ceramic coupons a well as ceramic and glass tubes and cylindrical shapes. The transient thermal response was predicted, using as input the energy absorption predicted from the coupled electron-photon and thermal transport analysis. The joining experiments were conducted with an RF linear accelerator at 10--13 MV. Joining experiments have provided high strength joints between alumina and alumina and between alumina and cermet joints in cylindrical geometry. These joints provided good hermetic seals.

  14. Mammalian COPII coat component SEC24C is required for embryonic development in mice.

    PubMed

    Adams, Elizabeth J; Chen, Xiao-Wei; O'Shea, K Sue; Ginsburg, David

    2014-07-25

    COPII-coated vesicles mediate the transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. SEC24 is the COPII component primarily responsible for recruitment of protein cargoes into nascent vesicles. There are four Sec24 paralogs in mammals, with mice deficient in SEC24A, -B, and -D exhibiting a wide range of phenotypes. We now report the characterization of mice with deficiency in the fourth Sec24 paralog, SEC24C. Although mice haploinsufficient for Sec24c exhibit no apparent abnormalities, homozygous deficiency results in embryonic lethality at approximately embryonic day 7. Tissue-specific deletion of Sec24c in hepatocytes, pancreatic cells, smooth muscle cells, and intestinal epithelial cells results in phenotypically normal mice. Thus, SEC24C is required in early mammalian development but is dispensable in a number of tissues, likely as a result of compensation by other Sec24 paralogs. The embryonic lethality resulting from loss of SEC24C occurs considerably later than the lethality previously observed in SEC24D deficiency; it is clearly distinct from the restricted neural tube phenotype of Sec24b null embryos and the mild hypocholesterolemic phenotype of adult Sec24a null mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the four Sec24 paralogs have developed unique functions over the course of vertebrate evolution. PMID:24876386

  15. Development and validation of a BEAMnrc component module for a miniature multileaf collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerner, E.; Hartmann, G. H.

    2012-05-01

    A new component module (CM) named mini multileaf collimator (mMLC) was developed for the Monte Carlo code BEAMnrc. It models the geometry of the add-on miniature multileaf collimator ModuLeaf (MRC Systems GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany, now part of Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The new CM is partly based on the existing CM called DYNVMLC. The development was performed using a modified EGSnrc platform which enables us to work in the Microsoft Visual Studio environment. In order to validate the new CM, the PRIMUS linac with 6 MV x-rays (Siemens OCS, Concord, CA, USA) equipped with the ModuLeaf mMLC was modelled. Validation was performed by two methods: (a) a ray-tracing method to check the correct geometry of the multileaf collimator (MLC) and (b) a comparison of calculated and measured results of the following dosimetrical parameters: output factors, dose profiles, field edge position penumbra, MLC interleaf leakage and transmission values. Excellent agreement was found for all parameters. It was, in particular, found that the relationship between leaf position and field edge depending on the shape of the leaf ends can be investigated with a higher accuracy by this new CM than by measurements demonstrating the usefulness of the new CM.

  16. Toxicokinetic Model Development for the Insensitive Munitions Component 2,4-Dinitroanisole.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Goodwin, Michelle R; Hulgan, Angela D; Gut, Chester P; Bannon, Desmond I

    2015-01-01

    The Armed Forces are developing new explosives that are less susceptible to unintentional detonation (insensitive munitions [IMX]). 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is a component of IMX. Toxicokinetic data for DNAN are required to support interpretation of toxicology studies and refinement of dose estimates for human risk assessment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed by gavage (5, 20, or 80 mg DNAN/kg), and blood and tissue samples were analyzed to determine the levels of DNAN and its metabolite 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). These data and data from the literature were used to develop preliminary physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. The model simulations indicated saturable metabolism of DNAN in rats at higher tested doses. The PBPK model was extrapolated to estimate the toxicokinetics of DNAN and DNP in humans, allowing the estimation of human-equivalent no-effect levels of DNAN exposure from no-observed adverse effect levels determined in laboratory animals, which may guide the selection of exposure limits for DNAN. PMID:26173616

  17. Localization of extracellular matrix components in developing mouse salivary glands by confocal microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in developing organisms is well established. Proteoglycans and interstitial collagens are required for the growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation of epithelial organs and the distribution of these molecules has been described. However, much less is known about other ECM macromolecules in developing epithelial organs. We used confocal microscopy to examine the distribution of laminin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, fibronectin, and collagen types I, IV, and V, in mouse embryonic salivary glands. Organ rudiments were isolated from gestational day 13 mouse embryos and cultured for 24, 48, or 72 hours. Whole mounts were stained by indirect immunofluorescence and then examined using a Zeiss Laser Scan Microscope. We found that each ECM component examined had a distinct distribution and that the distribution of some molecules varied with culture time. Laminin was mainly restricted to the basement membrane. BM-1 proteoglycan was concentrated in the basement membrane and also formed a fine network throughout the mesenchyme. Type IV collagen was mainly located in the basement membrane of the epithelium, but it was also present throughout the mesenchyme. Type V collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at 24 hours, but at 48 hours was principally located in the basement membrane. Type I collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at all culture times, and accumulated in the clefts and particularly at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface as time in culture increased. Fibronectin was observed throughout the mesenchyme at all times.

  18. Development and validation of a BEAMnrc component module for a miniature multileaf collimator.

    PubMed

    Doerner, E; Hartmann, G H

    2012-05-21

    A new component module (CM) named mini multileaf collimator (mMLC) was developed for the Monte Carlo code BEAMnrc. It models the geometry of the add-on miniature multileaf collimator ModuLeaf (MRC Systems GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany, now part of Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The new CM is partly based on the existing CM called DYNVMLC. The development was performed using a modified EGSnrc platform which enables us to work in the Microsoft Visual Studio environment. In order to validate the new CM, the PRIMUS linac with 6 MV x-rays (Siemens OCS, Concord, CA, USA) equipped with the ModuLeaf mMLC was modelled. Validation was performed by two methods: (a) a ray-tracing method to check the correct geometry of the multileaf collimator (MLC) and (b) a comparison of calculated and measured results of the following dosimetrical parameters: output factors, dose profiles, field edge position penumbra, MLC interleaf leakage and transmission values. Excellent agreement was found for all parameters. It was, in particular, found that the relationship between leaf position and field edge depending on the shape of the leaf ends can be investigated with a higher accuracy by this new CM than by measurements demonstrating the usefulness of the new CM. PMID:22538509

  19. Development of Standardized Power Electronic Components, Subsystems, and Systems for Increased Modularity and Scalability

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Pink, C.; Price, J.; Kroposki, B.; Kern, G.

    2007-11-01

    Power electronics devices hold substantial promise for making distributed energy applications more efficient and cost effective. This project is motivated towards developing and testing inverters that will allow distributed energy systems to provide ancillary services such as voltage and VAR regulation, and increased grid reliability by seamlessly transitioning between grid-tied and stand-alone operation modes. The objectives of this project are to identify system integration and optimization issues and technologies and to provide solutions through research, analysis, and testing of power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications that are cost-competitive and have substantially faster response times than conventional technologies. In addition, the testing of power electronics interfaces will develop a technical basis for performance assessment for distributed energy systems, subsystems, and components that will finally create a foundation for standardized measurements and test procedures. The ultimate goal for this research is to advance the potential benefits of distributed energy to provide ancillary services, enhance power system reliability, and allow customer choice.

  20. Development of active polyvinyl alcohol/β-cyclodextrin composites to scavenge undesirable food components.

    PubMed

    López-de-Dicastillo, Carol; Jordá, María; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar

    2011-10-26

    Active food packaging systems based on the incorporation of agents into polymeric package walls are being designed to purposely release or retain compounds to maintain or even increase food quality. The objective of this work was to develop polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)/β-cyclodextrin (βCD) composite films that can be applied to reduce undesirable component content such as cholesterol in foods through active retention of the compounds in the package walls during storage. Cyclodextrins were added to PVOH in a proportion of 1:1 and cross-linked with glyoxal under acidic media to reduce its water-soluble character. Three different cross-linking procedures were used: cross-linking of the polymer/polysaccharide mixture in solution and film casting, PVOH. βCD*; cross-linking of the polymer, addition of βCD, and casting of the mixture, PVOH*.CD; and casting of a PVOH film, addition of a βCD/glyoxal solution onto the film, and cross-linking during drying, PVOH.CD*. Characterization studies showed that the PVOH*.CD and PVOH.CD* films provided the best physical characteristics with the lowest release values and the highest barrier properties. As a potential application, materials were tested as potential cholesterol-scavenging films. There was a significant reduction in the cholesterol concentration in milk samples when they were exposed to the materials developed. PMID:21905652

  1. Materials Development for Auxiliary Components for Large Compact Mo/Au TES Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, F. m.; Chervenak, J. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Brekosky, R.; Brown, A. D.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.; Smith, S.

    2007-01-01

    We describe our current fabrication process for arrays of superconducting transition edge sensor microcalorimeters, which incorporates superconducting Mo/Au bilayers and micromachined silicon structures. We focus on materials and integration methods for array heatsinking with our bilayer and micromachining processes. The thin superconducting molybdenum bottom layer strongly influences the superconducting behavior and overall film characteristics of our molybdenum/gold transition-edge sensors (TES). Concurrent with our successful TES microcalorimeter array development, we have started to investigate the thin film properties of molybdenum monolayers within a given phase space of several important process parameters. The monolayers are sputtered or electron-beam deposited exclusively on LPCVD silicon nitride coated silicon wafers. In our current bilayer process, molybdenum is electron-beam deposited at high wafer temperatures in excess of 500 degrees C. Identifying process parameters that yield high quality bilayers at a significantly lower temperature will increase options for incorporating process-sensitive auxiliary array components (AAC) such as array heat sinking and electrical interconnects into our overall device process. We are currently developing two competing technical approaches for heat sinking large compact TES microcalorimeter arrays. Our efforts to improve array heat sinking and mitigate thermal cross-talk between pixels include copper backside deposition on completed device chips and copper-filled micro-trenches surface-machined into wafers. In addition, we fabricated prototypes of copper through-wafer microvias as a potential way to read out the arrays. We present an overview on the results of our molybdenum monolayer study and its implications concerning our device fabrication. We discuss the design, fabrication process, and recent test results of our AAC development.

  2. Ecdysteroid signalling components in metamorphosis and development of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Lenaerts, Cynthia; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Peeters, Paulien; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Marchal, Elisabeth

    2016-08-01

    The arthropod-specific hormone family of ecdysteroids plays an important role in regulating diverse physiological processes, such as moulting and metamorphosis, reproduction, diapause and innate immunity. Ecdysteroids mediate their response by binding to a heterodimeric complex of two nuclear receptors, the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and the retinoid-X-receptor/ultraspiracle (RXR/USP). In this study we investigated the role of EcR and RXR in metamorphosis and development of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. The desert locust is a voracious, phytophagous, swarming pest that can ruin crops and harvests in some of the world's poorest countries. A profound knowledge of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway can be used in the development of more target-specific insecticides to combat this harmful plague insect. Here we report an in-depth profiling study of the transcript levels of EcR and RXR, as well as its downstream response genes, in different tissues isolated throughout the last larval stage of a hemimetabolous insect, showing a clear correlation with circulating ecdysteroid titres. Using RNA interference (RNAi), the role of SgEcR/SgRXR in moulting and development was investigated. We have proven the importance of the receptor components for successful moulting of locust nymphs into the adult stage. Some SgEcR/SgRXR knockdown females were arrested in the last larval stage, and 65 % of them initiated vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation, which normally only occurs in adults. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that at the peak of ecdysteroid synthesis, on day six of the last larval stage, knockdown of SgEcR/SgRXR is affecting the transcript levels of the Halloween genes, Spook, Shadow and Shade. PMID:27180725

  3. Development of a component design tool for metal hydride heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Essene L.

    Given current demands for more efficient and environmentally friendly energy sources, hydrogen based energy systems are an increasingly popular field of interest. Within the field, metal hydrides have become a prominent focus of research due to their large hydrogen storage capacity and relative system simplicity and safety. Metal hydride heat pumps constitute one such application, in which heat and hydrogen are transferred to and from metal hydrides. While a significant amount of work has been done to study such systems, the scope of materials selection has been quite limited. Typical studies compare only a few metal hydride materials and provide limited justification for the choice of those few. In this work, a metal hydride component design tool has been developed to enable the targeted down-selection of an extensive database of metal hydrides to identify the most promising materials for use in metal hydride thermal systems. The material database contains over 300 metal hydrides with various physical and thermodynamic properties included for each material. Sub-models for equilibrium pressure, thermophysical data, and default properties are used to predict the behavior of each material within the given system. For a given thermal system, this tool can be used to identify optimal materials out of over 100,000 possible hydride combinations. The selection tool described herein has been applied to a stationary combined heat and power system containing a high-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, a hot water tank, and two metal hydride beds used as a heat pump. A variety of factors can be used to select materials including efficiency, maximum and minimum system pressures, pressure difference, coefficient of performance (COP), and COP sensitivity. The targeted down-selection of metal hydrides for this system focuses on the system's COP for each potential pair. The values of COP and COP sensitivity have been used to identify pairs of highest interest for

  4. Development of an analytical hydrogen isotope exchange model in fusion relevant plasma facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Joseph; Wang, Yongquang; Doerner, Russell; Tynan, George

    2014-10-01

    A simple model for H isotope retention depth profiles in W is developed, which can easily be extended to other plasma facing components (PFCs). This retention model is subsequently used to model how the depth profile changes after H isotope exchange. We calculate how trapping defects in W trap D (or H) inventory as W is being exposed to plasma. The model characterizes each trapping site by a trapping rate and a release rate, where the only free parameters are the distribution of these trapping sites in the material. The filled trap concentrations for each trap type are modeled as a diffusion process because post-mortem D depth profiles indicate that traps are filled well beyond the ion implantation zone (3--4 nm with 100 eV ions). Using this retention model, an isotope exchange rate is formulated. The retention model and isotope exchange rate are compared to low temperature (100 °C) isotope exchange experiments in W with good agreement. Experimental retention profiles were measured using the D(3He,p) α nuclear reaction after plasma treatment. We additionally discuss how a uniform damage profile up to 1 micron in W induced by Cu ions using incident energies of 0.5, 2, and 5 MeV affect retention in W and the retention model.

  5. Effect of seed on ripening control components during avocado fruit development.

    PubMed

    Hershkovitz, Vera; Friedman, Haya; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Feygenberg, Oleg; Pesis, Edna

    2011-12-15

    Seedless avocado fruit are produced alongside seeded fruit in the cultivar Arad, and both reach maturity at the same time. Using this system, it was possible to show that avocado seed inhibits the ripening process: seedless fruits exhibited higher response to exogenous ethylene already at the fruitlet stage, and also at the immature and mature fruit stages. They produced higher CO₂ levels, and the ethylene peak was apparent at the fruitlet stage of seedless fruit, but not of seeded ones. The expression levels of PaETR, PaERS1 and PaCTR1 on the day of harvest at all developmental stages were very similar between seeded and seedless fruit, except that PaCTR1 was higher in seedless fruit only at very early stages. This expression pattern suggests that the seed does not have an effect on components of the ethylene response pathway when fruits are just picked. The expression of MADS-box genes, PaAG1 and PaAGL9, preceded the increase in ethylene production of mature seeded fruit, but not at earlier stages. However, only PaAGL9 was induced in seedless fruit at early stages of development. Taken together, these data suggest that these genes are perhaps involved in climacteric response in seeded fruit, and the seed is responsible for their induction at normal fruit ripening. PMID:21930327

  6. Prediction of resistance development against drug combinations by collateral responses to component drugs

    PubMed Central

    Munck, Christian; Gumpert, Heidi K.; Nilsson Wallin, Annika I.; Wang, Harris H.; Sommer, Morten O. A.

    2015-01-01

    Resistance arises quickly during chemotherapeutic selection and is particularly problematic during long-term treatment regimens such as those for tuberculosis, HIV infections, or cancer. Although drug combination therapy reduces the evolution of drug resistance, drug pairs vary in their ability to do so. Thus, predictive models are needed to rationally design resistance-limiting therapeutic regimens. Using adaptive evolution, we studied the resistance response of the common pathogen Escherichia coli to 5 different single antibiotics and all 10 different antibiotic drug pairs. By analyzing the genomes of all evolved E. coli lineages, we identified the mutational events that drive the differences in drug resistance levels and found that the degree of resistance development against drug combinations can be understood in terms of collateral sensitivity and resistance that occurred during adaptation to the component drugs. Then, using engineered E. coli strains, we confirmed that drug resistance mutations that imposed collateral sensitivity were suppressed in a drug pair growth environment. These results provide a framework for rationally selecting drug combinations that limit resistance evolution. PMID:25391482

  7. Development of a knowledge-based system for the design of composite automotive components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynihan, Gary P.; Stephens, J. Paul

    1997-01-01

    Composite materials are comprised of two or more constituents possessing significantly different physical properties. Due to their high strength and light weight, there is an emerging trend to utilize composites in the automotive industry. There is an inherent link between component design and the manufacturing processes necessary for fabrication. To many designers, this situation may be intimidating, since there is frequently little available understanding of composites and their processes. A direct results is high rates of product scrap and rework. Thus, there is a need to implement a systematic approach to composite material design. One such approach is quality function deployment (QFD). By translating customer requirements into design parameters, through the use of heuristics, QFD supports the improvement of product quality during the planning stages prior to actual production. The purpose of this research is to automate the use of knowledge pertaining to the design and application of composite materials within the automobile industry. This is being accomplished through the development of a prototype expert system incorporating a QFD approach. It will provide industry designers with access to knowledge of composite materials that might not be otherwise available.

  8. A multi-component meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB): the clinical development program.

    PubMed

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Stoddard, Jeffrey; Toneatto, Daniela; Wassil, James; Dull, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Recently approved in Europe and Australia, the multi-component meningococcal B vaccine, 4CMenB (Bexsero®, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics), contains three surface-exposed recombinant proteins (fHbp, NadA, and NHBA) and New Zealand strain outer membrane vesicles (NZ OMV) with PorA 1.4 antigenicity. This comprehensive review of the 4CMenB clinical development program covers pivotal phase I/IIb/III studies in over 7,000 adults, adolescents, and infants. The immunological correlate for clinical protection used was human complement-mediated serum bactericidal activity titers ≥4 or 5 against indicator strains for individual antigens. Based on achievement of protective titers, a four-dose schedule (three primary doses and one booster dose) for infants and a two-dose schedule for adolescents provided the best results. Observed increases in injection site pain/tenderness and fever in infants, and injection site pain, malaise, and headache in adolescents compared with routine vaccines, were mostly mild to moderate; frequencies of rare events (Kawasaki disease, juvenile arthritis) were not significantly different from non-vaccinated individuals. 4CMenB is conservatively estimated to provide 66-91 % coverage against meningococcal serogroup B strains worldwide. PMID:24338083

  9. GFRα1 Is an Essential Receptor Component for GDNF in the Developing Nervous System and Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Cacalano, Grace; Fariñas, Isabel; Wang, Li-Chong; Hagler, Kelly; Forgie, Alison; Moore, Mark; Armanini, Mark; Phillips, Heidi; Ryan, Anne M.; Reichardt, Louis F.; Hynes, Mary; Davies, Alun; Rosenthal, Arnon

    2009-01-01

    Summary Glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a distant member of the TGFβ protein family that is essential for neuronal survival and renal morphogenesis. We show that mice who are deficient in the glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) -linked protein GFRα1 (GDNFRα) display deficits in the kidneys, the enteric nervous system, and spinal motor and sensory neurons that are strikingly similar to those of the GDNF-and Ret-deficient mice. GFRα1-deficient dopaminergic and nodose sensory ganglia neurons no longer respond to GDNF or to the structurally related protein neurturin (NTN) but can be rescued when exposed to GDNF or neurturin in the presence of soluble GFRα1. In contrast, GFRα1-deficient submandibular parasympathetic neurons retain normal response to these two factors. Taken together with the available genetic and biochemical data, these findings support the idea that GFRα1 and the transmembrane tyrosine kinase Ret are both necessary receptor components for GDNF in the developing kidney and nervous system, and that GDNF and neurturin can mediate some of their activities through a second receptor. PMID:9697851

  10. Prediction of resistance development against drug combinations by collateral responses to component drugs.

    PubMed

    Munck, Christian; Gumpert, Heidi K; Wallin, Annika I Nilsson; Wang, Harris H; Sommer, Morten O A

    2014-11-12

    Resistance arises quickly during chemotherapeutic selection and is particularly problematic during long-term treatment regimens such as those for tuberculosis, HIV infections, or cancer. Although drug combination therapy reduces the evolution of drug resistance, drug pairs vary in their ability to do so. Thus, predictive models are needed to rationally design resistance-limiting therapeutic regimens. Using adaptive evolution, we studied the resistance response of the common pathogen Escherichia coli to 5 different single antibiotics and all 10 different antibiotic drug pairs. By analyzing the genomes of all evolved E. coli lineages, we identified the mutational events that drive the differences in drug resistance levels and found that the degree of resistance development against drug combinations can be understood in terms of collateral sensitivity and resistance that occurred during adaptation to the component drugs. Then, using engineered E. coli strains, we confirmed that drug resistance mutations that imposed collateral sensitivity were suppressed in a drug pair growth environment. These results provide a framework for rationally selecting drug combinations that limit resistance evolution. PMID:25391482

  11. Analytical Method to Evaluate Failure Potential During High-Risk Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Stone, Robert B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Communicating failure mode information during design and manufacturing is a crucial task for failure prevention. Most processes use Failure Modes and Effects types of analyses, as well as prior knowledge and experience, to determine the potential modes of failures a product might encounter during its lifetime. When new products are being considered and designed, this knowledge and information is expanded upon to help designers extrapolate based on their similarity with existing products and the potential design tradeoffs. This paper makes use of similarities and tradeoffs that exist between different failure modes based on the functionality of each component/product. In this light, a function-failure method is developed to help the design of new products with solutions for functions that eliminate or reduce the potential of a failure mode. The method is applied to a simplified rotating machinery example in this paper, and is proposed as a means to account for helicopter failure modes during design and production, addressing stringent safety and performance requirements for NASA applications.

  12. Evaluation of Preproduction Hardware Components for IMS Station Upgrades to Reduce Manufacturers Development Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Darren; Pearce, Nathan; Starovoit, Yuri; Guralp, Cansun

    2014-05-01

    Since the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty was opened for signature in 1996, nearly 80% of the network has been certified as operational, and those stations are sending data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. Several International Monitoring System (IMS) monitoring facilities have been in operation for close to 15 years, and several certified stations are facing equipment obsolescence issues. The search for engineering solutions to replace obsolete hardware components is guided by two primary goals: 1) be compliant with IMS minimum technical requirements and 2) be able to be integrated with the existing system. To reduce the development and verification time necessary to address obsolescence in equipment, the PTS has requested the preproduction testing of the recently revised Guralp CMG-DM24AM digitizer. Performing preproduction testing has helped in identifying issues, which Guralp Systems has resolved. In our poster, we will review the reasons for the digitizer updates, present results of the preproduction testing of the Guralp digitizer, and comment on the value this process has provided to the IMS operation.

  13. The Component Packaging Problem: A Vehicle for the Development of Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadel, Georges; Bridgewood, Michael; Figliola, Richard; Greenstein, Joel; Kostreva, Michael; Nowaczyk, Ronald; Stevenson, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes academic research which has resulted in an increased appreciation for multidisciplinary efforts among our students, colleagues and administrators. It has also generated a number of research ideas that emerged from the interaction between disciplines. Overall, 17 undergraduate students and 16 graduate students benefited directly from the NASA grant: an additional 11 graduate students were impacted and participated without financial support from NASA. The work resulted in 16 theses (with 7 to be completed in the near future), 67 papers or reports mostly published in 8 journals and/or presented at various conferences (a total of 83 papers, presentations and reports published based on NASA inspired or supported work). In addition, the faculty and students presented related work at many meetings, and continuing work has been proposed to NSF, the Army, Industry and other state and federal institutions to continue efforts in the direction of multidisciplinary and recently multi-objective design and analysis. The specific problem addressed is component packing which was solved as a multi-objective problem using iterative genetic algorithms and decomposition. Further testing and refinement of the methodology developed is presently under investigation. Teaming issues research and classes resulted in the publication of a web site, (http://design.eng.clemson.edu/psych4991) which provides pointers and techniques to interested parties. Specific advantages of using iterative genetic algorithms, hurdles faced and resolved, and institutional difficulties associated with multi-discipline teaming are described in some detail.

  14. 76 FR 71313 - U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... visits to automotive assembly plants and component manufacturers. The U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service... distribution network. GM's newest plant was built in St. Petersburg in 2008. It has a production capacity of 50... than 200 automotive component manufacturer suppliers in the Samara region to improve the quality...

  15. 76 FR 77974 - U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... to automotive assembly plants and component manufacturers. The U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service is... distribution network. GM's newest plant was built in St. Petersburg in 2008. It has a production capacity of 50... than 200 automotive component manufacturer suppliers in the Samara region to improve the quality...

  16. 76 FR 58778 - U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... visits to automotive assembly plants and component manufacturers. The U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service... distribution network. GM's newest plant was built in St. Petersburg in 2008. It has a production capacity of 50... than 200 automotive component manufacturer suppliers in the Samara region to improve the quality...

  17. Ultrastructural characterization of porcine oocytes and adjacent follicular cells during follicle development: lipid component evolution.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renata C; Báo, Sônia N; Jivago, José Luiz P R; Lucci, Carolina M

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the morphometry and ultrastructure of porcine preantral and antral follicles, especially the lipid component evolution. Ovarian tissue was processed for light microscopy. Ovarian tissue and dissected antral follicles (< 2, 2-4, and 4-6 mm) were also processed for transmission electron microscopy using routine methods and using an osmium-imidazole method for lipid detection. Primordial follicles (34 ± 5 μm in diameter, mean ± SD) had one layer of flattened-cuboidal granulosa cells around the oocyte, primary follicles (40 ± 7 μm) had a single layer of cuboidal granulosa cells around the oocyte, and secondary follicles (102 ± 58 μm) had two or more layers of cuboidal granulosa cells around the oocyte. Preantral follicle oocytes had many round mitochondria and both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In oocytes of primordial and primary follicles, lipid droplets were abundant and were mostly located at the cell poles. In secondary and antral follicles, the zona pellucida completely surrounded the oocyte, whereas some microvilli and granulosa cells projected through it. Numerous electron-lucent vesicles and vacuoles were present in the oolemma of secondary and antral follicles. Based on osmium-imidazole staining, most of these structures were shown to be lipid droplets. As the follicle developed, the appearance of the lipid droplets changed from small and black to large and gray, dark or dark with light streaks, suggesting that their nature may change over time. In summary, although porcine follicles and oocytes had many similarities to those of other mammalian species, they were rich in lipids, with lipid droplets with varying morphological patterns as the follicle developed. PMID:21835450

  18. Development of output signal-to-noise ratio tester for microchannel plate and fluorescent screen component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinglin; Qiu, Yafeng; Zhou, Jin; Qian, Yunsheng

    The core components of Image intensifier is microchannel plate (MCP) and fluorescent screen component. The present paper deeply studies output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) characteristics of MCP and fluorescent screen component. A tester system using to the evaluation of characteristics of the output SNR of MCP and fluorescent screen component, consists of a vacuum system, a surface electron source, mechanical mechanism components ,a high-voltage power supply system, a signal processing system, communication interfaces, a data acquisition and control system, computer system, and testing software. a hot cathode used as an electron source, generates a surface electron flow to provide the input signal. A photomultiplier tube is used to detection faceplate output brightness of the light spot. Then, the output SNR of MCP and fluorescent screen component is processed with a combination of methods of the hardware filter and digital filtering software. The output SNR of MCP and fluorescent screen component is measured under different conditions, and the results are analyzed. This test system Provide a technical to promote the image intensifier research, and experience to testing other parameters or in other areas of research.

  19. FISCAL YEAR 2006 REPORT ON ELECTROLYZER COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D; Daryl Coleman, D; Amy Ekechukwu, A

    2006-08-03

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small volumetric footprint that is crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate different membrane and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid, sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole membranes. Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium

  20. Component and system evaluation for the development of a handheld point-of-care spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, K. P.; Khoury, P.; Mazhar, A.; Cuccia, D.; Durkin, A. J.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, digital photography has become an efficient and economic method to assist dermatologists in monitoring skin characteristics. Although this technology has advanced a great deal in resolution and costs, conventional digital cameras continue to only provide qualitative recording of color information. To address this issue, we are developing a compact, quantitative skin imaging camera by employing spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI), a non-contact approach for determining tissue optical properties over a wide field-of-view. SFDI uses knowledge of optical properties at multiple wavelengths to recover concentrations of tissue constituents such as oxy/deoxy-hemoglobin, water, and melanin. This method has been well researched and presented in laboratory and research settings. The next step in the development of SFDI systems is to make typical systems compact and cheaper using commercial components. We present our findings by performing a component-by-component analysis of key SFDI system components including light sources, projectors, and cameras.

  1. Crankshaft and component adequacy: Update of analysis and testing developed for nuclear standby engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. Some of the topics are: reliability improvement of diesels in nuclear standby applications, diesel engine crankshaft torsional vibrations, pendulum dampers, transportation fatalities,and diesel component life predictions.

  2. Analysis and Modeling of the Galvanic Skin Response Spontaneous Component in the context of Intelligent Biofeedback Systems Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unakafov, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an approach to galvanic skin response (GSR) spontaneous component analysis and modeling. In the study a classification of biofeedback training methods is given, importance of intelligent methods development is shown. The INTENS method, which is perspective for intellectualization, is presented. An important problem of biofeedback training method intellectualization - estimation of the GSR spontaneous component - is solved in the main part of the work. Its main characteristics are described; results of GSR spontaneous component modeling are shown. Results of small research of an optimum material for GSR probes are presented.

  3. SOFC technology development at Rolls-Royce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, F. J.; Day, M. J.; Brandon, N. P.; Pashley, M. N.; Cassidy, M.

    Fuel cells have the prospect for exploiting fossil fuels more benignly and more efficiently than alternatives. The various types represent quite different technologies, with no clear winner, yet. Nevertheless, the high temperature MCFC and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) types seem better suited to power generation in a hydrocarbon fuel economy. Presently, the costs of MCFCs and SOFCs are too high to compete directly with contemporary power generation plant. Seeking to overcome the drawbacks of first generation fuel cells, over the past 7 years an innovative second generation SOFC concept has been evolved in the Rolls-Royce Strategic Research Centre, with encouraging results. It is distinguished from other types by the name: Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IP-SOFC). It is a family of integrated system concepts supporting product flexibility with evolutionary stretch potential from a common SOFC module. Fabrication of the key component of the IP-SOFC, the "multi-cell membrane electrode assembly (multi-cell MEA) module" carrying many series connected cells with supported electrolyte membranes only 10 to 20 μm thick, has been proved. Development of the internal reforming subsystem, the next big hurdle, is now in hand. Following an outline of its salient features and test results, the methodology and results of recent IP-SOFC stack costing studies are presented, and the continuing research and development programme indicated.

  4. Reorganization of Thylakoid Components during Chloroplast Development in Higher Plants after Transfer to Darkness 1

    PubMed Central

    Akoyunoglou, Agapios; Akoyunoglou, George

    1985-01-01

    It was shown earlier that in etiolated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. red kidney) leaves exposed to continuous light for a short time and then transferred to darkness a reorganization of their photosystem II (PSII) unit components occurs. This reorganization involves disorganization of the light-harvesting complex of PSII (LHC-II), destruction of its chlorophyll b and the 25 kilodalton polypeptide, and reuse of its chlorophyll a for the formation of additional, small in size, PSII units (Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou, Akoyunoglou, Kalosakas, Akoyunoglou 1982 Plant Physiol 70: 1242-1248). The present study further shows that parallel to the PSII unit reorganization a reorganization of the PSI unit components also occurs: upon transfer to darkness the 24, 23, and 21 kilodalton polypeptides, components of the light-harvesting complex of PSI (LHC-I), are decreased, the 69 kilodalton polypeptide, component of the chlorophyll a-rich P700-protein complex (CPI), is increased and new smallsized PSI units are formed. Concomitantly, the cytochrome f/chlorophyll and the cytochrome b/chlorophyll ratios are gradually increased. This suggests that the concentration of the electron transport components is also modulated in darkness to allow for adequate electron flow to occur between the newly synthesized PSII and PSI units. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16664426

  5. Gravitational effects on the rearrangement of cytoplasmic components during axial formation in amphibian development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. R.; Whalon, B.; Moore, J.; Danilchik, M.

    The spatial positioning of the dorsal-ventral axis in the amphibian, Xenopus laevis, can be experimentally manipulated either by tipping the embryo relative to Earth's gravitational force vector or by centrifugation. Experimental evidence suggests that certain cytoplasmic components are redistributed during the first cell cycle and that these components are, in part, responsible for the establishment of this axis. Further studies indicate that at least some of the cytoplasmic components responsible for establishing this axis may be RNA. Recombinant cDNA and PCR technology are utilized to isolate DNA clones for messenger RNA which becomes spatially localized to the dorsal side of the embryo. These clones are being used to study the mechanisms of spatial localization and the function of the localized RNA transcripts.

  6. Developing interpretable models with optimized set reduction for identifying high risk software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Basili, Victor R.; Hetmanski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    Applying equal testing and verification effort to all parts of a software system is not very efficient, especially when resources are limited and scheduling is tight. Therefore, one needs to be able to differentiate low/high fault frequency components so that testing/verification effort can be concentrated where needed. Such a strategy is expected to detect more faults and thus improve the resulting reliability of the overall system. This paper presents the Optimized Set Reduction approach for constructing such models, intended to fulfill specific software engineering needs. Our approach to classification is to measure the software system and build multivariate stochastic models for predicting high risk system components. We present experimental results obtained by classifying Ada components into two classes: is or is not likely to generate faults during system and acceptance test. Also, we evaluate the accuracy of the model and the insights it provides into the error making process.

  7. Helium Gas Permeability of SiC/SiC Composite Developed for Blanket Component

    SciTech Connect

    Hino, Tomoaki; Jinushi, Takahiro; Hirohata, Yuko; Hashiba, Masao; Yamauchi, Yuji; Katoh, Yutai; Kohyama, Akira

    2003-03-15

    To employ SiC/SiC composite as blanket components of a fusion reactor, permeation behavior of helium gas has to be investigated since the helium is used as the coolant. For this purpose, a vacuum system consisting of upstream and downstream chambers was fabricated for the measurement of permeability, and the permeability was measured for several SiC/SiC composite materials recently developed. For the pressure range from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 5} Pa in the upstream chamber, the pressure rise due to the permeation of helium in the downstream chamber linearly increased with the pressure of the upstream chamber. Then, the permeability was roughly constant for the pressure range of the upstream chamber.The permeabilities of SiC/SiC composites produced by polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP), hot pressing (HP) and melt-infiltration-finished PIP were 5 x 10{sup -5}, 4 x 10{sup -6}, and 9 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/s, respectively. In the matrix structure of the SiC/SiC composite made by the PIP method with a high permeability, cracking in the matrix and pores of micron size were observed. Compared to these materials, SiC/SiC composites produced by liquid phase sintering using submicron or nanopowder of {beta}-SiC and the HP method had extremely low permeabilities. The permeability of the SiC/SiC composite made by using submicron or nanopowder of {beta}-SiC became 1.5 x 10{sup -9} or 4 x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2}/s.Based upon the present data, the helium gas flow was analyzed for a blanket module consisting of only SiC/SiC composite. If a vacuum pump is attached to the module, the helium leak into a plasma can be ignored, compared to the heliums produced by fusion reactions. Hence, the entire module can be made by only SiC/SiC composite, from a viewpoint of helium permeation.

  8. Development of silicon nitride rotors for the ATTAP program at Garrett Ceramic Components. [Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busovne, B. J., Jr.; Pollinger, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    The development and fabrication of reliable high temperature-high strength silicon nitride rotors by Garrett Ceramic Components (GCC) for the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) is discussed. GCC's progress will be presented, including mechanical properties characterization, in-process monitoring development, and extensive NDE analysis. The current status of material, process, and part properties of the rotors being developed will be compared to properties required for implementation and successful operation of advanced gas turbine engines at 2500 F.

  9. Development of modified vibration test criteria for qualifying space vehicle components. [subjected to broadband random acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. Y.; Kao, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    Simplified methods are described to estimate the test criteria of primary structures at component attachment points subjected to broadband random acoustic excitations. The current method utilizes a constant smeared component mass attenuation factor across the frequency range of interest. The developed method indicates that the attenuation factor is based on a frequency dependent ratio of the mechanical impedances of both the component and primary structures. The procedures used to predict the structural responses are considered as the present state-of-the-art and provide satisfactory prediction results. Example problems are used to illustrate the application procedures of the two methods and to compare the significant difference. It was found that the lower test criteria obtained by the impedance ratio method is due to the results of considering the effects of component/primary structure interaction.

  10. Rapid Naming Speed Components and Reading Development in a Consistent Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Fella, Argyro; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--predict word and text reading fluency in a consistent orthography (Greek). In total, 68 children were followed from Grade 2 to Grade 6 and were assessed three times on RAN (Digits and Objects), phonological awareness, orthographic processing, speed of…

  11. Components of Reading Ability: Multivariate Evidence for a Convergent Skills Model of Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vellutino, Frank R.; Tunmer, William E.; Jaccard, James J.; Chen, RuSan

    2007-01-01

    Elementary and middle school children were given a large battery of tests evaluating reading subskills and reading-related cognitive abilities. These measures were used to define latent representing skills and abilities believed to be important components of reading comprehension. Hypothesized relationships among these constructs were specified…

  12. Study and program plan for improved heavy duty gas turbine engine ceramic component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel economy in a commercially viable gas turbine engine was demonstrated through use of ceramic materials. Study results show that increased turbine inlet and generator inlet temperatures, through the use of ceramic materials, contribute the greatest amount to achieving fuel economy goals. Improved component efficiencies show significant additional gains in fuel economy.

  13. RAN Components and Reading Development from Grade 3 to Grade 5: What Underlies Their Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno; Kirby, John R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined (a) how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--predict reading accuracy and reading fluency in Grades 4 and 5, and (b) what cognitive-processing skills (phonological processing, orthographic processing, or speed of processing) mediate the RAN-reading relationship. Sixty children were followed from…

  14. Designing and Developing a Work Experience Component for a Vocational Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Otto, Jr.; Olinzock, Anthony

    A work experience component for vocational educator teacher education based on demonstrated competence is proposed. Its basis is research concerning vocational education; sociometric conditions and needs; analyses of the past, present, and future of vocational education; and the current state of the art relative to curriculum systems. This…

  15. Research gaps and technology needs in development of PHM for passive AdvSMR components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henagar, Chuck H., Jr.

    2014-02-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near-term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically because of losses in economy of scale; thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components.

  16. Research gaps and technology needs in development of PHM for passive AdvSMR components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Henagar, Chuck H. Jr.; Coble, Jamie B.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2014-02-18

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near-term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically because of losses in economy of scale; thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components.

  17. Research Gaps and Technology Needs in Development of PHM for Passive AdvSMR Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically due to losses in economy of scale, thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance (O&M) costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components. state-of-the-art in PHM.

  18. Energy efficient engine: Low-pressure turbine subsonic cascade component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, O. P.; Kopper, F. C.; Knudsen, L. K.; Yustinich, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A subsonic cascade test program was conducted to provide technical data for optimizing the blade and vane airfoil designs for the Energy Efficient Engine Low-Pressure Turbine component. The program consisted of three parts. The first involved an evaluation of the low-chamber inlet guide vane. The second, was an evaluation of two candidate aerodynamic loading philosophies for the fourth blade root section. The third part consisted of an evaluation of three candidate airfoil geometries for the fourth blade mean section. The performance of each candidate airfoil was evaluated in a linear cascade configuration. The overall results of this study indicate that the aft-loaded airfoil designs resulted in lower losses which substantiated Pratt & Whitney Aircraft's design philosophy for the Energy Efficient Engine low-pressure turbine component.

  19. Improvement of electricity generating performance and life expectancy of MCFC stack by applying Li/Na carbonate electrolyte. Test results and analysis of 0.44 m 2/10 kW- and 1.03 m 2/10 kW-class stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiba, Fumihiko; Morita, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Mugikura, Yoshihiro; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Takao; Komoda, Mineo; Masuda, Yuji; Zaima, Nobuyuki

    Following the development of a 10 kW-class MCFC stack with a reactive area of 0.44 and 1.03 m 2, which applies a Li/Na carbonate electrolyte and a press stamping separator, many tests have now been carried out. In the installation tests, the observed cell voltages of the 0.44 m 2/10 kW-class stack agreed with the voltage predicted from the test results of the 100 cm 2 bench scale cell. This agreement proves that the installing procedure of the bench scale cell can be applied to the 0.44 m 2/10 kW-class stacks. The temperature distribution analysis model applied to the 100 kW-class stack was modified to calculate the temperature distribution of the 0.44 m 2/10 kW-class stack. Taking the heat loss and the heat transfer effect of the stack holder into account, the calculated temperature was close to the measured temperature; this result proves that the modification was adequate for the temperature analysis model. In the high current density operating tests on the 0.44 m 2/10 kW-class stack, an electrical power density of 2.46 kW/m 2 was recorded at an operating current density of 3000 A/m 2. In the endurance test on the 0.44 m 2/10 kW-class stack, however, unexpected Ni shortening occurred during the operating period 2500-4500 h, which had been caused by a defective formation of the electrolyte matrix. The shortening seems to have been caused by the crack, which appeared in the electrolyte matrix. The voltage degradation rate of the 0.44 m 2/10 kW-class stack was 0.52% over 1000 h, which proves that the matrix was inadequate for a long life expectancy of the MCFC stack. A final endurance test was carried out on the 1.03 m 2/10 kW-class stack, of which the matrix had been revised. The fuel utilisation and the leakage of anode gas never changed during the 10,000 h operating test. This result suggests that no shortening occurred during the 10,000 h endurance test. The cell voltage degradation rate was around 0.2-0.3% over 1000 h in the 1.03 m 2/10 kW-class stack

  20. The development and testing of ceramic components in piston engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McEntire, B.J.; Willis, R.W.; Southam, R.E.

    1994-10-01

    Within the past 10--15 years, ceramic hardware has been fabricated and tested in a number of piston engine applications including valves, piston pins, roller followers, tappet shims, and other wear components. It has been shown that, with proper design and installation, ceramics improve performance, fuel economy, and wear and corrosion resistance. These results have been obtained using rig and road tests on both stock and race engines. Selected summaries of these tests are presented in this review paper.

  1. The development of pyro shock test requirements for Viking Lander Capsule components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, S.

    1975-01-01

    The procedure used to derive component-level pyro shock specifications for the Viking Lander Capsule (VLC) is described. Effects of shock path distance and mechanical joints between the device and the point at which the environment is to be estimated are accounted for in the method. The validity of the prediction technique was verified by a series of shock tests on a full-scale structural model of the lander body.

  2. Personal Control over Development, Identity Formation, and Future Orientation as Components of Life Orientation: A Developmental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkkinen, Lea; Ronka, Anna

    1994-01-01

    Two components of life orientation emerged in study of 145 men and 142 women at age 26: Positive Orientation (PO), which included self-percepts of personal control over development; and Motivated Questioning (MQ), which consisted of identity exploration and dissatisfaction with present achievements. In comparison with MQ, PO was more strongly…

  3. Utilizing the CIPP Model as a Means to Develop an Integrated Service-Learning Component in a University Health Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent; Conrad, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the enhancement of a university health course through the utilization of the CIPP Model as a means to develop an integrated service-learning component. Methods: The CIPP model was utilized in two concurrent semesters of an undergraduate health course in order to design and evaluate the implementation of a drug and alcohol…

  4. Development of a non-invasive diagnostic technique for acetabular component loosening in total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Alshuhri, Abdullah A; Holsgrove, Timothy P; Miles, Anthony W; Cunningham, James L

    2015-08-01

    Current techniques for diagnosing early loosening of a total hip replacement (THR) are ineffective, especially for the acetabular component. Accordingly, new, accurate, and quantifiable methods are required. The aim of this study was to investigate the viability of vibrational analysis for accurately detecting acetabular component loosening. A simplified acetabular model was constructed using a Sawbones(®) foam block. By placing a thin silicone layer between the acetabular component and the Sawbones block, 2- and 4-mm soft tissue membranes were simulated representing different loosening scenarios. A constant amplitude sinusoidal excitation with a sweep range of 100-1500 Hz was used. Output vibration from the model was measured using an accelerometer and an ultrasound probe. Loosening was determined from output signal features such as the number and relative strength of observed harmonic frequencies. Both measurement methods were sufficient to measure the output vibration. Vibrational analysis reliably detected loosening corresponding to both 2 and 4 mm tissue membranes at driving frequencies between 100 and 1000 Hz (p < 0.01) using the accelerometer. In contrast, ultrasound detected 2-mm loosening at a frequency range of 850-1050 Hz (p < 0.01) and 4-mm loosening at 500-950 Hz (p < 0.01). PMID:26054805

  5. Enhanced selectivity and search speed for method development using one-segment-per-component optimization strategies.

    PubMed

    Tyteca, Eva; Vanderlinden, Kim; Favier, Maxime; Clicq, David; Cabooter, Deirdre; Desmet, Gert

    2014-09-01

    Linear gradient programs are very frequently used in reversed phase liquid chromatography to enhance the selectivity compared to isocratic separations. Multi-linear gradient programs on the other hand are only scarcely used, despite their intrinsically larger separation power. Because the gradient-conformity of the latest generation of instruments has greatly improved, a renewed interest in more complex multi-segment gradient liquid chromatography can be expected in the future, raising the need for better performing gradient design algorithms. We explored the possibilities of a new type of multi-segment gradient optimization algorithm, the so-called "one-segment-per-group-of-components" optimization strategy. In this gradient design strategy, the slope is adjusted after the elution of each individual component of the sample, letting the retention properties of the different analytes auto-guide the course of the gradient profile. Applying this method experimentally to four randomly selected test samples, the separation time could on average be reduced with about 40% compared to the best single linear gradient. Moreover, the newly proposed approach performed equally well or better than the multi-segment optimization mode of a commercial software package. Carrying out an extensive in silico study, the experimentally observed advantage could also be generalized over a statistically significant amount of different 10 and 20 component samples. In addition, the newly proposed gradient optimization approach enables much faster searches than the traditional multi-step gradient design methods. PMID:25039066

  6. Adiabatic diesel engine component development: Reference engine for on-highway applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakim, Nabil S.

    1986-01-01

    The main objectives were to select an advanced low heat rejection diesel reference engine (ADRE) and to carry out systems analysis and design. The ADRE concept selection consisted of: (1) rated point performance optimization; (2) study of various exhaust energy recovery scenarios; (3) components, systems and engine configuration studies; and (4) life cycle cost estimates of the ADRE economic worth. The resulting ADRE design proposed a reciprocator with many advanced features for the 1995 technology demonstration time frame. These included ceramic air gap insulated hot section structural components, high temperature tribology treatments, nonmechanical (camless) valve actuation systems, and elimination of the cylinder head gasket. ADRE system analysis and design resulted in more definition of the engine systems. These systems include: (1) electro-hydraulic valve actuation, (2) electronic common rail injection system; (3) engine electronic control; (4) power transfer for accessory drives and exhaust energy recovery systems; and (5) truck installation. Tribology and performance assessments were also carried out. Finite element and probability of survival analyses were undertaken for the ceramic low heat rejection component.

  7. Development of an ASPEN PLUS physical property database for biofuels components

    SciTech Connect

    Wooley, R.J.; Putsche, V.

    1996-04-01

    Physical property data for many of the key components used in the simulation for the ethanol from lignocellulose process are not available in the standard ASPEN PLUS property databases. Indeed, many of the properties necessary to successfully simulate this process are not available anywhere. In addition, inputting the available properties into each simulation is awkward and tedious, and mistakes can be easily introduced when a long list of physical property equation parameters is entered. Therefore, one must evaluate the literature, estimate properties where necessary, and determine a set of consistent physical properties for all components of interest. The components must then be entered into an in-house NREL ASPEN PLUS database so they can be called on without being retyped into each specific simulation. The first phase of this work is complete. A complete set of properties for the currently identifiable important compounds in the ethanol process is attached. With this as the starting base the authors can continue to search for and evaluate new properties or have properties measured in the laboratory and update the central database.

  8. Assessment of the components of the Kalimantan and Sulawesi power development project: Volume 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-31

    This report, conducted by Utility Consulting was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The report concerns a power development project on the islands of Kalimantan and Sulawesi. This is TDA Volume 2, the main text (Report Volume 1), and it includes the following: (1) Introduction; (2) Transmission line and substation investment plan; (3) The distribution component; (4) Telecommunications; (5) PLN information systems; and Appendix: Figures and tables.

  9. Extracellular Matrix Components Regulate Cellular Polarity and Tissue Structure in the Developing and Mature Retina

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Shweta; Hunter, Dale D.; Brunken, William J.

    2015-01-01

    While genetic networks and other intrinsic mechanisms regulate much of retinal development, interactions with the extracellular environment shape these networks and modify their output. The present review has focused on the role of one family of extracellular matrix molecules and their signaling pathways in retinal development. In addition to their effects on the developing retina, laminins play a role in maintaining Müller cell polarity and compartmentalization, thereby contributing to retinal homeostasis. This article which is intended for the clinical audience, reviews the fundamentals of retinal development, extracellular matrix organization and the role of laminins in retinal development. The role of laminin in cortical development is also briefly discussed. PMID:26730321

  10. A database of wavefront measurements for laser system modeling, optical component development and fabrication process qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.; Aikens, D.M.; English, R.E.

    1995-04-12

    In the second half of the 1990`s, LLNL and others anticipate designing and beginning construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF will be capable of producing the worlds first laboratory scale fusion ignition and bum reaction by imploding a small target. The NIF will utilize approximately 192 simultaneous laser beams for this purpose. The laser will be capable of producing a shaped energy pulse of at least 1.8 million joules (MJ) with peak power of at least 500 trillion watts (TV). In total, the facility will require more than 7,000 large optical components. The performance of a high power laser of this kind can be seriously degraded by the presence of low amplitude, periodic modulations in the surface and transmitted wavefronts of the optics used. At high peak power, these phase modulations can convert into large intensity modulations by non-linear optical processes. This in turn can lead to loss in energy on target via many well known mechanisms. In some cases laser damage to the optics downstream of the source of the phase modulation can occur. The database described here contains wavefront phase maps of early prototype optical components for the NIF. It has only recently become possible to map the wavefront of these large aperture components with high spatial resolution. Modem large aperture static fringe and phase shifting interferometers equipped with large area solid state detectors have made this possible. In a series of measurements with these instruments, wide spatial bandwidth can be detected in the wavefront.

  11. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kenny, Joseph P.; Janssen, Curtis L.; Gordon, Mark S.; Sosonkina, Masha; Windus, Theresa L.

    2008-01-01

    Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE) has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also addressmore » interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.« less

  12. Development of a rubber component model suitable for being implemented in railway dynamic simulation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, A.; Gil-Negrete, N.; Nieto, J.; Giménez, J. G.

    2013-06-01

    Rubber elements are widely used in the railway industry in order to achieve vibration transmission requirements. Although they are critical components in railway vehicles, their modelling in the dynamic models of railway vehicles is usually relatively simple: it is usual to characterise them using a simple linear model formed by a spring and a viscous dashpot in parallel. In this paper the behaviour of typical rubber elements is analysed and a model that allows more accurately the prediction of its behaviour is proposed. The methodology to implement this model in railway simulation programs is also discussed.

  13. Metallic wear debris sensors: promising developments in failure prevention for wind turbine gearsets and similar components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poley, Jack; Dines, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Wind turbines are frequently located in remote, hard-to-reach locations, making it difficult to apply traditional oil analysis sampling of the machine's critical gearset at timely intervals. Metal detection sensors are excellent candidates for sensors designed to monitor machine condition in vivo. Remotely sited components, such as wind turbines, therefore, can be comfortably monitored from a distance. Online sensor technology has come of age with products now capable of identifying onset of wear in time to avoid or mitigate failure. Online oil analysis is now viable, and can be integrated with onsite testing to vet sensor alarms, as well as traditional oil analysis, as furnished by offsite laboratories. Controlled laboratory research data were gathered from tests conducted on a typical wind turbine gearbox, wherein total ferrous particle measurement and metallic particle counting were employed and monitored. The results were then compared with a physical inspection for wear experienced by the gearset. The efficacy of results discussed herein strongly suggests the viability of metallic wear debris sensors in today's wind turbine gearsets, as correlation between sensor data and machine trauma were very good. By extension, similar components and settings would also seem amenable to wear particle sensor monitoring. To our knowledge no experiments such as described herein, have previously been conducted and published.

  14. Development of optical components for in-vessel viewing systems used for fusion experimental reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Tada, Eisuke; Morita, Yosuke; Seki, Masahiro

    1994-12-01

    Optical components including imagefiber, periscope, glass, reflecting mirror and adhesive for lens are essential elements of in-vessel viewing system use for fusion experimental reactor and extensive of gamma irradiation tests have been conducted. These components were irradiated in the range of 1 MGy - 100 MGy under the average exposure dose rate of 1 X 106 R/h. As a result, the observation limit of the imagefiber specially fabricated for radiation hard is obtained to be 12 MGy at a illuminance of 8500 lx. Deterioration of transmissivity of three kinds of glass (alkaline barium glass, lead glass and synthetic quartz glass) is small compared with standard glass for commercial periscope. A periscope which was made of these glasses is visible even after 20 MGy at 8500 lx and in case of the standard periscope, the observation limit is 1 kGy at 8500 lx. Decrease in the reflectance on chromium nitride coated reflecting mirror is extremely small than aluminum coated and platinum coated mirrors at accumulated dose of 100 MGy. Two types of adhesive made of polyester resin and epoxy resin became discolored and exfoliated after 50 MGy.

  15. Developments for a Relativistic Four-Component Many-1/2-Fermion Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmen, Benjamin; Mátyus, Edit; Reiher, Markus

    2014-03-01

    Explicitly correlated configuration interaction methods have proven to be highly successful in the study of non-relativistic many-electron systems. They are also suited for pre-Born-Oppenheimer calculations where nuclei and electrons are treated on equal footing. Relativistic quantum chemistry is based on the no-pair approximation and provides a four-component Hamiltonian capturing the essential aspects of special relativity for molecular systems. Two fundamental issues arise when aiming at four-component pre-Born-Oppenheimer calculations. The concept of a center of mass cannot be exploited for the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian: It is not possible to separate the overall motion of the system through a linear transformation of the one-particle Cartesian coordinates. Second, a finite number of basis functions leads to an artificial decrease of the bound state energies since the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian is not bounded from below. Kinetic balance solves this for Slater determinants, but its explicitly correlated variant is considerably more involved.

  16. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.

    2014-06-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft.

  17. Development of an analytical approach to study a three-component hetero-association by means of spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Buchelnikov, Anatoly S; Khrustalev, Alexander F; Evstigneev, Maxim P

    2013-01-01

    A case of 1:m:n complexation in a three-component system containing any possible heterocomplexes formed between the non-self-aggregating, absorbing ligand A and two self-aggregating, non-absorbing ligands B and C was considered for the first time in an application for molecular spectroscopy. All expressions necessary for full quantitative analysis of experimental data in three-component mixtures were obtained, viz., the law of conservation of mass and the expression for an experimentally observed parameter. These expressions can be directly utilized in mathematical software for performing standard curve-fitting procedures or solutions of specific tasks such as calculations of the concentration of various types of complexes. The numerical test of the 1:m:n model, accomplished with the aid of ultraviolet-visible light experimental data in a three-component system (proflavine-caffeine-nicotinamide), proved the validity of the developed approach. PMID:23317667

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis of major components of milk and the development of analysis instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingwei; Ji, Zhongpeng; Tian, Mi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we introduce a new spectroscopy analysis instrument, along with applied research based on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the major components of milk. Firstly, we analyzed and compared the characteristics of existing near-infrared spectrometers. Then, according to the major component spectra of milk, the spectral range, spectral resolution, and other parameters of the analysis instrument were determined, followed by the construction of a spectroscopy-analysis instrument based on acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs). Secondly, on the basis of application requirements, we obtained spectral information from a variety of test samples. Finally, qualitative and quantitative testing of the major components of the milk samples was carried out via typical analysis methods and a mathematical model of NIRS. Thus, this study provides a technical reference for the development of spectroscopy instruments and their applied research.

  19. Discovery and Development of a Three-Component Oxidopyrylium [5 + 2] Cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    D'Erasmo, Michael P; Meck, Christine; Lewis, Chad A; Murelli, Ryan P

    2016-05-01

    α-Hydroxy-γ-pyrone-based oxidopyrylium cycloaddition reactions are useful methods for accessing a highly diverse range of oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane products. Intermolecular variants of the reaction require the formation of a methyl triflate-based pre-ylide salt that upon treatment with base in the presence of alkenes or alkynes leads to α-methoxyenone-containing bicyclic products. Herein, we describe our discovery that the use of ethanol-stabilized chloroform as solvent leads to the generation of α-ethoxyenone-containing bicyclic byproducts. This three-component process was further optimized by gently heating a mixture of a purified version of the oxidopyrylium dimer in the presence of an alcohol prior to addition of a dipolarophile. Using this convenient procedure, several new oxidopyrylium cycloaddition products can be generated in moderate yields. We also highlight the method in a tandem ring-opening/debenzylation method for the generation of α-hydroxytropolones. PMID:27018974

  20. Development and testing of a 20-kHz component test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Brush, Andrew S.; Sundberg, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    A history of the General Dynamics Space Systems Division 20 kHz Breadboard is presented including its current configuration and its role in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program. Highlights and results are presented on a series of tests conducted on the 20 kHz Breadboard. The first test presented is the 20 kHz Breadboard Acceptance test. This test verified the operation of the delivered Breadboard and also characterized the main components of the system. Next, an indepth efficiency testing effort is presented. The tests attempted to apportion all the power losses in the 20 kHz Breadboard Main Invert Units. Distortion test data is presented showing the distortion characteristics of a Mapham inverter. Lastly, current work on the 20 kHz Breadboard is presented including Main Inverter Unit paralleling tests. Conclusions are summarized and references given.

  1. Dynamic analysis of a flexible spacecraft with rotating components. Volume 1: Analytical developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodley, C. S.; Devers, A. D.; Park, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical procedures and digital computer code are presented for the dynamic analysis of a flexible spacecraft with rotating components. Topics, considered include: (1) nonlinear response in the time domain, and (2) linear response in the frequency domain. The spacecraft is assumed to consist of an assembly of connected rigid or flexible subassemblies. The total system is not restricted to a topological connection arrangement and may be acting under the influence of passive or active control systems and external environments. The analytics and associated digital code provide the user with the capability to establish spacecraft system nonlinear total response for specified initial conditions, linear perturbation response about a calculated or specified nominal motion, general frequency response and graphical display, and spacecraft system stability analysis.

  2. Development and tests of molybdenum armored copper components for MITICA ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavei, Mauro; Böswirth, Bernd; Greuner, Henri; Marcuzzi, Diego; Rizzolo, Andrea; Valente, Matteo

    2016-02-01

    In order to prevent detrimental material erosion of components impinged by back-streaming positive D or H ions in the megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement beam source, a solution based on explosion bonding technique has been identified for producing a 1 mm thick molybdenum armour layer on copper substrate, compatible with ITER requirements. Prototypes have been recently manufactured and tested in the high heat flux test facility Garching Large Divertor Sample Test Facility (GLADIS) to check the capability of the molybdenum-copper interface to withstand several thermal shock cycles at high power density. This paper presents both the numerical fluid-dynamic analyses of the prototypes simulating the test conditions in GLADIS as well as the experimental results.

  3. Using Components of Mathematical Ability for Initial Development and Identification of Mathematically Promising Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkomir, T.; O'Donoghue, J.

    2009-01-01

    Kruteskii's work on the mathematical abilities of school children is a seminal work on the nature of mathematical ability. However, the task of developing methods for the practical application of his work is still a significant problem in mathematics education. The authors have developed a practical application of Kruteskii's approach to the…

  4. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the first quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD Proof-of-Concept project; mine waste technology pilot program; plasma projects; resource recovery project; sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate project; soil washing project; and spray casting project.

  5. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the first quarter of FY93. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD proof-of-concept project; mine waste pilot program; plasma projects; resource recovery project; sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate project; soil washing project; and spray casting project.

  6. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the second quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: Biomass Remediation Project; Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil Project; MHD Shutdown; Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; and Spray Casting Project.

  7. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the third quarter of FY93. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD Proof-of-Concept Project; Mine Waste Technology Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; Soil Washing Project; and Spray Casting Project.

  8. Germ-granule components prevent somatic development in the C. elegans germline

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Andrew Kekūpa'a; Egelhofer, Thea A.; Campbell, Anne C.; Strome, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Specialized ribonucleoprotein organelles collectively known as germ granules are found in the germline cytoplasm from worms to humans [1]. In Drosophila, germ granules have been implicated in germline determination [2]. C. elegans germ granules, known as P granules, do not appear to be required for primordial germ cell (PGC) determination [3], but their components are still needed for fertility [4–6]. One potential role for P granules is to maintain germline fate and totipotency. This is suggested by the loss of P granules from germ cells that transform into somatic cell types, e.g. in germlines lacking MEX-3 and GLD-1 or upon neuronal induction by CHE-1 [7, 8]. However, it has not been established whether loss of P granules is the cause or effect of cell-fate transformation. To test cause-effect, we severely compromised P granules by simultaneously knocking down factors that nucleate granule formation (PGL-1 and PGL-3) and promote their perinuclear localization (GLH-1 and GLH-4) [9], and investigated if that causes germ cells to lose totipotency and initiate somatic reprogramming. We found that compromising P granules causes germ cells to express neuronal and muscle markers and send out neurite-like projections, suggesting that P granules maintain totipotency and germline identity by antagonizing somatic fate. PMID:24746798

  9. Modeling solute redistribution and microstructural development in fusion welds of multi-component alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, J.N.; Robino, C.V.; Newbury, B.D.

    1999-12-15

    Solute redistribution and microstructural evolution have been modeled for gas tungsten arc fusion welds in experimental Ni base superalloys. The multi-component alloys were modeled as a pseudo-ternary {gamma}-Nb-C system. The variation in fraction liquid and liquid composition during the primary L {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} and eutectic type L {r{underscore}arrow} ({gamma} + NbC) stages of solidification were calculated for conditions of negligible Nb diffusion and infinitely rapid C diffusion in the solid phase. Input parameters were estimated by using the Thermo-Calc NiFe Alloy data base and compared to experimentally determined solidification parameters. The solidification model results provide useful information for qualitatively interpreting the influence of alloy composition on weld microstructure. The quantitative comparisons indicate that, for the alloy system evaluated, the thermodynamic database provides sufficiently accurate values for the distribution coefficients of Nb and C. The calculated position of the {gamma}-NbC two-fold saturation line produces inaccurate results when used as inputs for the model, indicating further refinement to the database is needed for quantitative estimates.

  10. Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) Component Enhancement, Testing and Expert Fault Diagnostics Development, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallinak, E. S.

    1987-01-01

    A wide variety of Space Station functions will be managed via computerized controls. Many of these functions are at the same time very complex and very critical to the operation of the Space Station. The Environmental Control and Life Support System is one group of very complex and critical subsystems which directly affects the ability of the crew to perform their mission. Failure of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems are to be avoided and, in the event of failure, repair must be effected as rapidly as possible. Due to the complex and diverse nature of the subsystems, it is not possible to train the Space Station crew to be experts in the operation of all of the subsystems. By applying the concepts of computer-based expert systems, it may be possible to provide the necessary expertise for these subsystems in dedicated controllers. In this way, an expert system could avoid failures and extend the operating time of the subsystems even in the event of failure of some components, and could reduce the time to repair by being able to pinpoint the cause of a failure when one cannot be avoided.

  11. Plant and fungal food components with potential activity on the development of microbial oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Daglia, Maria; Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Grisoli, Pietro; Giusto, Giovanni; Lingström, Peter; Pratten, Jonathan; Signoretto, Caterina; Spratt, David A; Wilson, Michael; Zaura, Egija; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the content in macronutrients, free sugars, polyphenols, and inorganic ions, known to exert any positive or negative action on microbial oral disease such as caries and gingivitis, of seven food/beverages (red chicory, mushroom, raspberry, green and black tea, cranberry juice, dark beer). Tea leaves resulted the richest material in all the detected ions, anyway tea beverages resulted the richest just in fluoride. The highest content in zinc was in chicory, raspberry and mushroom. Raspberry is the richest food in strontium and boron, beer in selenium, raspberry and mushroom in copper. Beer, cranberry juice and, especially green and black tea are very rich in polyphenols, confirming these beverages as important sources of such healthy substances. The fractionation, carried out on the basis of the molecular mass (MM), of the water soluble components occurring in raspberry, chicory, and mushroom extracts (which in microbiological assays revealed the highest potential action against oral pathogens), showed that both the high and low MM fractions are active, with the low MM fractions displaying the highest potential action for all the fractionated extracts. Our findings show that more compounds that can play a different active role occur in these foods. PMID:22013381

  12. Plant and Fungal Food Components with Potential Activity on the Development of Microbial Oral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Daglia, Maria; Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Grisoli, Pietro; Giusto, Giovanni; Lingström, Peter; Pratten, Jonathan; Signoretto, Caterina; Spratt, David A.; Wilson, Michael; Zaura, Egija; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the content in macronutrients, free sugars, polyphenols, and inorganic ions, known to exert any positive or negative action on microbial oral disease such as caries and gingivitis, of seven food/beverages (red chicory, mushroom, raspberry, green and black tea, cranberry juice, dark beer). Tea leaves resulted the richest material in all the detected ions, anyway tea beverages resulted the richest just in fluoride. The highest content in zinc was in chicory, raspberry and mushroom. Raspberry is the richest food in strontium and boron, beer in selenium, raspberry and mushroom in copper. Beer, cranberry juice and, especially green and black tea are very rich in polyphenols, confirming these beverages as important sources of such healthy substances. The fractionation, carried out on the basis of the molecular mass (MM), of the water soluble components occurring in raspberry, chicory, and mushroom extracts (which in microbiological assays revealed the highest potential action against oral pathogens), showed that both the high and low MM fractions are active, with the low MM fractions displaying the highest potential action for all the fractionated extracts. Our findings show that more compounds that can play a different active role occur in these foods. PMID:22013381

  13. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region.

  14. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference.

  15. Measuring symptoms as a critical component of drug development and evaluation in hematological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Loretta A; Yucel, Emre; Cortes, Jorge E; Cleeland, Charles S

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of new therapies for patients with hematological malignancies, there is an increasing need for patient report of symptom status during all phases of drug testing. The patient’s perspective on new treatments reflects treatment tolerability as well as symptom benefit, and may assist patients and clinicians in choosing treatments. Inclusion of patient-reported outcomes, more common in solid-tumor than hematological trials, provides early information about symptoms to guide decisions about appropriate dosing and supportive care needs. We provide a historical overview of the use of patient-reported outcomes and symptom assessment in solid-tumor and hematological drug development, and offer recommendations about methodological issues in the monitoring of symptoms in the drug development process in hematological clinical trials. PMID:24910769

  16. Energy efficient engine. Volume 2. Appendix A: Component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moracz, D. J.; Cook, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    The large size and the requirement for precise lightening cavities in a considerable portion of the titanium fan blades necessitated the development of a new manufacturing method. The approach which was selected for development incorporated several technologies including HIP diffusion bonding of titanium sheet laminates containing removable cores and isothermal forging of the blade form. The technology bases established in HIP/DB for composite blades and in isothermal forging for fan blades were applicable for development of the manufacturing process. The process techniques and parameters for producing and inspecting the cored diffusion bonded titanium laminate blade preform were established. The method was demonstrated with the production of twelve hollow simulated blade shapes for evaluation. Evaluations of the critical experiments conducted to establish procedures to produce hollow structures by a laminate/core/diffusion bonding approach are included. In addition the transfer of this technology to produce a hollow fan blade is discussed.

  17. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Work continued toward the development of tooling and processing concepts required for a cocured hat/skin cover assembly. A plan was developed and implemented to develop the process for using preimpregnated T300/5208 with a resin content of 34 + or - 2 percent by weight. Use of this material results in a simplified laminating process because removal by bleeding or prebleeding is no longer required. The approach to this task basically consists of fabricating and testing flat laminated panels and simulated structural panels to verify known processing techniques relative to end-laminate quality. The flat panels were used to determine air bleeding arrangement and required cure cycle. Single and multihat-stiffened panels were fabricated using the established air bleeding arrangement and cure cycle with the resulting cured parts yielding excellent correlation of ply thickness with all surfaces clear of porosity and voids.

  18. Nondestructive testing of ceramic components: Cooperative research and development agreement completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.A.; Dews, T.W.; Moyer, M.W.; Oakes, R.E.

    1994-12-22

    In a joint Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) and an industrial partner, Y-12 has been evaluating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to identify the quality of high strength aluminum oxide tubes used in laser applications. In Phase I, several NDE techniques were developed to inspect the tubes. In Phase II a correlation between detected defects, actual failure mode and strength of the tubes was developed. In Phase II the industrial partner supplied tubes manufactured under a variety of conditions and containing material defects expected from process control variations. The tubes were inspected at MMES utilizing a variety of available acoustic techniques. After inspection, ring tensile specimens were fabricated to determine the tensile strength. The data were evaluated utilizing Weibull statistics to determine the statistical impact of the defects upon strength and correlate the data with the nondestructive evaluations of the tubes and observed defect distribution.

  19. Development of Acid Functional Groups and Lactones During the Thermal Degradation of Wood and Wood Components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, David W.; Wershaw, Robert L.; Reeves, James B., III

    2008-01-01

    Black carbon (pyrogenic materials including chars) in soils has been recognized as a substantial portion of soil organic matter, and has been shown to play a vital role in nutrient cycling; however, little is known concerning the properties of this material. Previous studies have largely been concerned with the creation of high-surface-area materials for use as sorbents. These materials have been manufactured at high temperature and have often been activated. Chars occurring in the environment can be formed over a wide range of temperature. Because it is extremely difficult to isolate black carbon once it has been incorporated in soils, chars produced in the laboratory under controlled conditions can be used to investigate the range of properties possible for natural chars. This report shows that charring conditions (temperature and time) have substantial impact on the acid functional group and lactone content of chars. Low temperatures (250?C) and long charring times (greater than 72 hours) produce chars with the highest acid functional group and lactone content. The charring of cellulose appears to be responsible for the creation of the acid functional group and lactones. The significance of this study is that low-temperature chars can have acid functional group contents comparable to humic materials (as high as 8.8 milliequivalents per gram). Acid functional group and lactone content decreases as charring temperature increases. The variation in formation conditions expected under natural fire conditions will result in a wide range of sorption properties for natural chars which are an important component of soil organic matter. By controlling the temperature and duration of charring, it is possible to tailor the sorption properties of chars, which may be used as soil amendments.

  20. Development of integrated mode reformatting components for diffraction-limited spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, David G; Harris, Robert J; Choudhury, Debaditya; Simmonds, Richard D; Salter, Patrick S; Booth, Martin J; Allington-Smith, Jeremy R; Thomson, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of our work on developing fully integrated devices (photonic dicers) for reformatting multimode light to a diffraction limited pseudo-slit. These devices can be used to couple a seeing limited telescope point spread function to a spectrograph operating at the diffraction limit, thus potentially enabling compact, high-resolution spectrographs that are free of modal noise. PMID:26696162

  1. Recent Developments in the IDA Component of the IRIS Global Seismographic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P.; Berger, J.

    2002-12-01

    The IRIS Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is leaving a period of rapid expansion to its present extent of nearly 140 stations worldwide and entering a phase in which emphasis is placed upon developing efficient operations and maintenance procedures as well as improving telemetry capabilities to the most remote GSN sites. We describe some of the efforts being made to exploit the rapid development of the Internet around the globe and how that development can be used to establish or improve data transmission from GSN sites once far less accessible. These are achieved with modest modifications to the IDA Near Real Time System (NRTS), a body of software developed at UCSD with funding from IRIS to provide GSN stations with Internet access and data request management capabilities. We also discuss how concurrent innovation in wireless technology impacts the so-called "last kilometer problem," and show how new wireless devices coupled with the growing capabilities of seismic data acquisition equipment are changing how GSN stations at key sites can be reconfigured to become more accessible and reliable. Finally, we discuss the shared use of GSN facilities with cooperating organizations and how these associations can be used to reduce overall maintenance costs.

  2. A Cognitive Component Analysis Approach for Developing Game-Based Spatial Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Pi-Hsia; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Lee, Yueh-Hsun; Su, I-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability has been recognized as one of the most important factors affecting the mathematical performance of students. Previous studies on spatial learning have mainly focused on developing strategies to shorten the problem-solving time of learners for very specific learning tasks. Such an approach usually has limited effects on improving…

  3. The Talent Development Middle School Model: Context, Components, and Initial Impacts on Students' Performance and Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, Corinne M.; Kemple, James J.

    2004-01-01

    The Talent Development Middle School model was created to make a difference in struggling urban middle schools. The model is part of a trend in school improvement strategies whereby whole-school reform projects aim to improve performance and attendance outcomes for students through the use of major changes in both the organizational structure and…

  4. Employing the Components of the Human Development Index to Drive Resources to Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sant'Anna, Annibal Parracho; de Araujo Ribeiro, Rodrigo Otavio; Dutt-Ross, Steven

    2011-01-01

    A new form of composition of the indicators employed to generate the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) is presented here. This form of composition is based on the assumption that random errors affect the measurement of each indicator. This assumption allows for replacing the vector of evaluations according to each indicator by vectors…

  5. Technical Guidelines and References: Crops Training Component. From: Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume III: Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This reference manual for training Peace Corps agricultural development workers deals with crops. The document begins with common units of area, length, weight, volume, and conversions between them. A practice problem is worked and other conversion problems are given. The second section is intended to show agricultural field workers how to survey…

  6. Job Development Services, DPPF. Evaluation, Fund Number 97--Component 14, 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calendine, Jerry; Fleming, Margaret

    Job Development Service provides special activities designed to achieve the following objectives: (1) to increase student knowledge of employment opportunities and procedures; (2) to strengthen employment opportunities for students of inner-city high schools; and, (3) to identify jobs available with local employers and refer students for job…

  7. Teacher Leadership Development as a Critical Component of Systemic Reform: The San Joaquin Valley Mathematics Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Carol Fry

    Since its inception in 1982, the California Mathematics Project (CMP) has sought to develop the mathematics skills and leadership capabilities of K-12 teachers through intensive summer institutes and a variety of academic year programs sponsored by regional CMP sites. This chapter focuses on ways in which one of the fifteen regional CMP sites, the…

  8. Development of a Piezoelectric Vacuum Sensing Component for a Wide Pressure Range

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing-Yu; Hsieh, Fan-Chun; Lin, Che-Yu; Chen, Shao-En; Chen, Fong-Zhi; Wu, Chia-Che

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we develop a clamped–clamped beam-type piezoelectric vacuum pressure sensing element. The clamped–clamped piezoelectric beam is composed of a PZT layer and a copper substrate. A pair of electrodes is set near each end. An input voltage is applied to a pair of electrodes to vibrate the piezoelectric beam, and the output voltage is measured at the other pair. Because the viscous forces on the piezoelectric beam vary at different air pressures, the vibration of the beam depends on the vacuum pressure. The developed pressure sensor can sense a wide range of pressure, from 6.5 × 10−6 to 760 Torr. The experimental results showed that the output voltage is inversely proportional to the gas damping ratio, and thus, the vacuum pressure was estimated from the output voltage. PMID:25421736

  9. Fabrication and nondestructive examination development for advanced components and materials for the SP-100 space reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Peter J.; Dobrzynski, Walter J.

    1993-01-01

    Significant progress has now been made in the development of fabrication and Nondestructive Examination techniques for the SP-100 Space Reactor. All major fabrication challenges have been faced and overcome. Methods are in place for the fabrication and inspection of composite fuel cladding, the reactor honeycomb core, cold forging of the core support nozzle course, and electron beam welding of the auxiliary cooling loop system. Specifications and procedures have been developed and proven on actual hardware for electron beam welding, gas tungsten arc welding, heat treatment, solvent cleaning, chemical cleaning, ultrasonic inspection, helium leak testing, dye penetrant and microfocus rod anode radiography. Signicant work remains to be done but no problems have been identified which would prevent fabrication of the high temperature SP-100 Space Reactor.

  10. Development of multi-component explosive lenses for arbitrary phase velocity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, J.; Huneault, J.; Petel, O. E.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.; Higgins, A. J.; Zhang, F.

    2014-05-01

    The combination of explosives with different detonation velocities and lens-like geometric shaping is a well-established technique for producing phased detonation waves of a desired shape. This technique can be extended to produce nearly arbitrary detonation phase velocities for the purposes of sequentially imploding pressurized tubes, driving Mach disks or directing blast and fragmentation. This paper presents the theoretical development and experimental testing of two types of explosive lenses designed to produce either of these effects.

  11. Development of a propulsion system and component test facility for advanced radioisotope powered Mars Hopper platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. O'Brien; Nathan D. Jerred; Steven D. Howe

    2011-02-01

    Verification and validation of design and modeling activities for radioisotope powered Mars Hopper platforms undertaken at the Center for Space Nuclear Research is essential for proof of concept. Previous research at the center has driven the selection of advanced material combinations; some of which require specialized handling capabilities. The development of a closed and contained test facility to forward this research is discussed within this paper.

  12. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 7, Evaluation of bench-scale and component tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report presents the Task 7 findings of the project entitled Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration'' to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1992. The objectives of this report are to summarize the work completed as a part of Task 7, which includes engineering analysis of process deficiencies, analysis of all project test results, and evaluation and selection of an agglomeration process for further development in Phase II. Other objectives of this task included evaluation of the selective agglomeration technology and analysis of all the major deficiencies remaining at the conclusion of Phase I of the project. An overview of the agglomeration processes that were under consideration is presented, along with a discussion of the various test parameters that were found to be important during project testing. This report includes a comprehensive evaluation of all test data and a summary of the major findings; it also provides characterization data for all the project coals and presents the agglomeration process selected for Phase II along with a discussion of the criteria and rationale for the selection.

  13. Development of Hydrometeorological Monitoring and Forecasting as AN Essential Component of the Early Flood Warning System:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, V.

    2012-12-01

    Defining issue The river inundations are the most common and destructive natural hazards in Ukraine. Among non-structural flood management and protection measures a creation of the Early Flood Warning System is extremely important to be able to timely recognize dangerous situations in the flood-prone areas. Hydrometeorological information and forecasts are a core importance in this system. The primary factors affecting reliability and a lead - time of forecasts include: accuracy, speed and reliability with which real - time data are collected. The existing individual conception of monitoring and forecasting resulted in a need in reconsideration of the concept of integrated monitoring and forecasting approach - from "sensors to database and forecasters". Result presentation The Project: "Development of Flood Monitoring and Forecasting in the Ukrainian part of the Dniester River Basin" is presented. The project is developed by the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Service in a conjunction with the Water Management Agency and the Energy Company "Ukrhydroenergo". The implementation of the Project is funded by the Ukrainian Government and the World Bank. The author is nominated as the responsible person for coordination of activity of organizations involved in the Project. The term of the Project implementation: 2012 - 2014. The principal objectives of the Project are: a) designing integrated automatic hydrometeorological measurement network (including using remote sensing technologies); b) hydrometeorological GIS database construction and coupling with electronic maps for flood risk assessment; c) interface-construction classic numerical database -GIS and with satellite images, and radar data collection; d) providing the real-time data dissemination from observation points to forecasting centers; e) developing hydrometeoroogical forecasting methods; f) providing a flood hazards risk assessment for different temporal and spatial scales; g) providing a dissemination of

  14. Searching for Components of Conceptual Ecology That Mediate Development of Epistemological Beliefs in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Hasan

    2011-12-01

    This paper articulates the importance of epistemological beliefs (EBs) and draws a parallel between EBs literature in educational psychology and nature of science (NOS) literature in science education. The paper stresses that EBs in science and NOS ideas have common ground and they can be best improved through explicit-reflective instruction informed by conceptual change theory. The paper concludes that future studies should explore the factors that mediate the development of EBs in science and NOS ideas rather than documenting the changes in students' and teachers' EBs in science and NOS ideas after explicit-reflective instruction through pre- and post assessments.

  15. Development of critical life stage assays: Teratogenic effects of SRS effluent components on freshwater fish, gambusia

    SciTech Connect

    Guram, M.S.

    1990-11-01

    The final report of the research carried out at Voorhees College contains a composite compilation of the last two years work. The data note variation in the number of young fish delivered per female vary markedly between several ponds on the SRS and of SRS ponds. The reasons for this are unknown at present. Initial research was carried out on the effects on the developing fish fetus of various substances that may have produced these variations. Further study is necessary to identify the factors that produce the observed alterations. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Development of a six component flexured two shell internal strain gage balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mole, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a new wind tunnel balance designed to meet the load requirements of the new advanced aircraft. Based on the floating frame or two-shell concept, the Flexured Balance incorporates a separate axial element, thus allowing for higher load per unit diameter, reduced primary load interaction, and greater flexibility in load range selection. Described is the design process, fabrication, gaging, calibration results, and performance during tunnel testing of the first prototype balance. Supporting data and accuracies are provided.

  17. Development of The Fundamental Components of A Superconducting Qubit Quantum Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialczak, Radoslaw Radek Cezary

    Superconducting qubits have emerged as a promising architecture for building a scalable quantum computer. In this thesis we use a particular type of superconducting qubit architecture, the flux-biased phase qubit, to build and characterize the fundamental components of a quantum computer: universal quantum gates and a scalable qubit coupling architecture. A universal quantum gate allows for the construction of any arbitrary quantum computing operations, and is the analog of classical universal logic gates like the NAND gate. We build this gate using a pair of coupled flux-biased phase qubits where the coupling magnitude is fixed. We characterize this coupled qubit system and show how to construct the gate from the Hamiltonian of this two-qubit system. The universal quantum gate must also be characterized to verify that it has been constructed properly. However, to completely characterize a quantum gate, its output must be mapped out for any arbitrary input. Due to the infinite Hilbert space of qubits, such a characterization is more involved than simply obtaining a truth table, as would be done for classical computational logic. To achieve a complete characterization of a quantum gate we use a technique called quantum process tomography (QPT). We perform QPT on our universal gate, the "square-root of i-swap" gate, and for the first time in any solid state qubit architecture we completely characterize a universal quantum gate. As a result of this gate characterization, we discover that our gate performance is limited by qubit dephasing times. We are also able to measure noise correlations in the coupled qubit system using QPT.We find that by increasing the coupling strength between the qubits, we can build faster gates. This lets us get around the limits imposed by dephasing times by increasing the speed at which we can execute our universal gate. However, increasing the coupling strength of our fixed coupling scheme leads to increased errors during single qubit

  18. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Work on process verification and tooling development continued. The cover process development was completed with the decision to proceed with low resin content prepreg material (34 + or - 3% by weight) in the fabrication of production readiness verification test (PRVT) specimens and the full-scale covers. The structural integrity of the cover/joint design was verified with the successful test of the cover attachment to fuselage ancillary test specimen (H25). Failure occurred, as predicted, in the skin panel away from the fuselage joint at 141 percent of the design ultimate load. With the successful completion of the H25 test, the PRVT cover specimens, which are identical to the H25 ancillary test specimen, were cleared for production. Eight of the twenty cover specimens were fabricated and are in preparation for test. All twenty of the PRVT spar specimens were fabricated and also were prepared for test. The environmental chambers used in the durability test of ten cover and ten spar PRVT specimens were completed and installed in the load reaction frames.

  19. Development of components and subsystems for low noise receivers at micro- and millimeter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltonen, Juhani K.

    1990-09-01

    The development of low noise receivers at micro- and millimeter wave frequencies mainly intended for radio astronomical studies and remote sensing applications are discussed. The work is divided into three parts: design and construction of cryogenic, low noise MESFET (Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) and HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) amplifiers, studies on semiconductor local oscillators and phase locking of mm wave Gunn oscillators. The basic theory of low noise transistor amplifiers employing scattering and noise parameters of an active device is reviewed. Stability problems of amplifiers and noise measurement techniques especially applicable to cryogenic systems are discussed. Several low noise amplifiers were constructed for the frequency range of 1 to 22 GHz. As an example, a 4 GHz cryogenic MESFET IF amplifier with 20 K noise temperature was developed. A two stage coaxial HEMT amplifier with T(sub A) = 300 K at room temperature was constructed. Various designs of semiconductor local oscillators needed for mm wave receivers are reviewed. Experimental verification of the theoretical model for the waveguide mounting structure of Gunn diodes is given at frequencies of 35 to 53 GHz. Fundamental frequency local oscillators with an output power of approximately 50 mW and mechanical tuning range of 5 to 10 GHz (center frequency of 45 GHz) were constructed. Description of the phase locking scheme (exploiting bias tuning of Gunn oscillators) of the 72 to 115 GHz receiver is given. The additional factors needed in application of the basic phaselock theory to mm wave oscillators are discussed.

  20. What develops during emotional development? A component process approach to identifying sources of psychopathology risk in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Garrad, Megan C.; Somerville, Leah H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a phase of the lifespan associated with widespread changes in emotional behavior thought to reflect both changing environments and stressors, and psychological and neurobiological development. However, emotions themselves are complex phenomena that are composed of multiple subprocesses. In this paper, we argue that examining emotional development from a process-level perspective facilitates important insights into the mechanisms that underlie adolescents' shifting emotions and intensified risk for psychopathology. Contrasting the developmental progressions for the antecedents to emotion, physiological reactivity to emotion, emotional regulation capacity, and motivation to experience particular affective states reveals complex trajectories that intersect in a unique way during adolescence. We consider the implications of these intersecting trajectories for negative outcomes such as psychopathology, as well as positive outcomes for adolescent social bonds. PMID:26869841

  1. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  2. Educator professional development as a component of earthquake and tsunami readiness and early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Butler, R. F.; Lillie, R. J.; Hunter, N.; Magura, B.; Groom, R.; Hedeen, C.; Johnson, J. A.; Olds, S. E.; Charlevoix, D.; Coe, M.

    2014-12-01

    The implementation of any real-time earthquake analysis for disaster mitigation requires not just scientific expertise and equipment but thoughtful, far-reaching, and long term education for emergency management personnel and the public. The "Cascadia EarthScope Earthquake and Tsunami Education Program" (CEETEP) is working to mitigate these potential disasters through collaboration building and professional development for K-12 teachers, park and museum interpreters, and emergency management outreach educators in communities along the Oregon and Washington coast (2013-2016). In this project nearly 150 coastal Cascadia educators are being introduced to critical knowledge about (among other things) earthquake monitoring and earthquake early warning systems. In collaboration last year with UNAVCO, CEETEP developed an animation explaining how GPS and seismic systems can work in concert to greatly enhance earthquake early warning systems for Cascadia and other subduction zone areas (www.youtube.com/user/unavcovideos, "animations"). Science and preparedness educators are key partners in the endeavor of implementing earthquake and tsunami early warning systems. The knowledge of how to run effective professional development programs for such educators will greatly enhance outreach efforts. Initial results from CEETEP are very encouraging. Four of the planned six workshops were held in 2013 (northern coastal Oregon) and 2014 (Olympic Peninsula, Washington). Results from Year 1 show that participant content knowledge improved from 50% to 86% over the course of the workshop. Similarly, confidence in teaching about workshop topics increased from an average of 2.8 to 5.2 on a 6-point scale. Participant optimism about the efficacy and tractability of community-level planning also increased from 5.7 to 7.4 on a 9-point scale. Nearly 90% of participants continued to be active with the program through the time of the March 8, 2014 Share-a-thon and presented on a wide range of

  3. Development of nondestructive-evaluation techniques for high-temperature ceramic heat-exchanger components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupperman, D. S.; Yuhas, D.; Michaels, T. E.; Michaels, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    An assessment was made of ultrasonic techniques developed to date for nondestructive evaluation of SiC heat exchanger tubes. The results suggest that ultrasonic inspection is a useful and valuable technique for inspecting these tubes, including ceramic butt joints. However, this method alone is currently not sufficiently effective to detect all critical flaws because of (1) the difficulties in following the surface of an out of round tube; (2) the high velocity and thus the large angle of refraction of sound in SiC, which for small diameter tubes leads to significant beam distortion; and (3) insuffient resolution, relative to the small critical flaw size in ceramics, at conventional ultrasonic testing frequencies. The experiments show that higher frequencies (up to 35 MHz) are required for effective wall thickness measurements and detection of laminar type flaws.

  4. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for l-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Tooling concepts were developed which would permit co-couring of the hat stiffeners to the skin to form the cover assembly in a single autoclave cycle. These tooling concepts include the use of solid rubber mandrels, foam mandrels, and formed elastometric bladders. A simplification of the root end design of the cover hat stiffeners was accomplished in order to facilitate fabrication. The conversion of the 3D NASTRAN model from level 15 to level 16 was completed and a successful check run accomplished. A detailed analysis of the thermal load requirement for the environmental chambers was carried out. Based on the thermal analysis, best function requirements, load inputs and ease of access, a system involving four chambers, two for the covers containing 6 and 4 specimens, respectively, and two for the spares containing 6 and 4 specimens, respectively, evolved.

  5. Development of Continuous, Direct Feedback Control Systems for Sintering of Metallic Components

    SciTech Connect

    Diran Apelian; Marc M. Baum

    2006-09-18

    N,N.-Ethylenebisstearimide (EBS) is one of the most commonlyused lubricants in the powder metallurgy (PM) industry in the sintering process. During sintering, the lubricated powder compacts are heat-treated to temperatures in excess of 1,200 °C thus fusing adjacent particles and yielding a part with improved mechanical strength. Delubrication commonly is achieved in the first zone of a sintering furnace by heating the part to temperatures in the 500-600 °C temperature range at a fixed rate and under controlled atmospheric conditions; this strategy minimizes defects, carbon contamination, and compact deformation. The de-lubricated part then enters the second zone (commonly in the 1200-1300 °C temperature range) for sintering. The third zone cools the sintered part at a desired rate to obtain the requisite micro-structural properties. Controlled delubrication is imperative towards achieving high quality parts for the following reasons: the elevated thermal gradient at the transition between the first and second zones can cause parts to expand rapidly and develop microscopic fissures (.blistering.); improper gas flows and belt speeds can lead to carbon deposition on the part and at the grain boundaries (sooting); delubrication products deposit throughout the furnace, even in the coolers, which are far removed from the preheating chamber, leading to significant maintenance costs; pollutants emitted in the exhaust stream of furnaces operating inefficiently are increasingly of environmental concern. In practice, lubricant removal is difficult to control, which often leads to reduced yields in PM manufacturing processes. Throughput is another important issue: process control ideally should lead to a delubrication cycle that yields defect-free parts in a minimum of furnace time, thereby increasing productivity and reducing the net energy consumption. Efficient process control requires rapid monitoring of suitable indicators, preferably gasphase products of delubrication

  6. FY00 LDRD Final Report High Power IFE Driver Component Development 00-SI-009

    SciTech Connect

    Bibeau, C; Schaffers, K; Tassano, J; Waide, P; Bayramian, A

    2001-02-26

    We have begun building the ''Mercury'' laser system as the first in a series of new generation diode-pumped solid-state lasers for target physics research. Mercury will integrate three key technologies: diodes, crystals, and gas cooling, within a unique laser architecture that is scalable to kilojoule and megajoule energy levels for fusion energy applications. The primary near-term performance goals include 10% electrical efficiencies at 10 Hz and 100 J with a 2-10 ns pulse length at 1.047 {micro}m wavelength. Currently, this review concentrates on the critical development and production of Yb:S-FAP crystals. After solving many defect issues that can be present in the crystals, reproducibility is the final issue that needs to be resolved. We have enlisted the help of national experts and have strongly integrated two capable commercial crystal growth companies (Litton-Airton/Synoptics and Scientific Materials) into the effort, and have solicited the advice of Robert Morris (retired from Allied Signal), a recognized international expert in high temperature oxide growth.

  7. Fabrication process development of SiC/superalloy composite sheet for exhaust system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornie, J. A.; Cook, C. S.; Anderson, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical compatibility study was conducted between SiC filament and the following P/M matrix alloys: Waspaloy, Hastelloy-X, NiCrAlY, Ha-188, S-57, FeCrAlY, and Incoloy 800. None of the couples demonstrated sufficient chemical compatibility to withstand the minimum HIP consolidation temperatures (996 C) or intended application temperature of the composite (982 C). However, Waspaloy, Haynes 188, and Hastelloy-X were the least reactive with SiC of the candidate alloys. Chemical vapor deposited tungsten was shown to be an effective diffusion barrier between the superalloy matrix and SiC filament providing a defect-free coating of sufficient thickness. However, the coating breaks down when the tungsten is converted into intermetallic compounds by interdiffusion with matrix constituents. Waspaloy was demonstrated to be the most effective matrix alloy candidate in contact with the CVD tungsten barrier because of its relatively low growth rate constant of the intermediate compound and the lack of formation of Kirkendall voids at the matrix-barrier interface. Fabrication methods were developed for producing panels of uniaxial and angle ply composites utilizing CVD tungsten coated filament.

  8. Component development for 500 watt diesel fueled portable thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBellis, Crispin L.; Scotto, Mark V.; Fraas, Lewis; Samaras, John; Watson, Ron C.; Scoles, Stephen W.

    1999-03-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) and JX Crystals have developed an innovative design for a compact, 500-watt, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supply using diesel fuel. Under a contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and managed by the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM), this design is being reduced to hardware. Prototypes of the two main subsystems, the power converter assembly (PCA) and the burner/emitter/recuperator (BER), have been designed, fabricated, and tested. The PCA uses low-band-gap gallium antimonide (GaSb) photovoltaic (PV) cells for high efficiency and power density. The prototype PCA will be air cooled for system simplicity and portability. However, initial testing was performed on a water-cooled PCA. The BER uses a thermal vaporizer to produce a stable, high-intensity, low-emissions combustion zone inside an impervious emitter. A thermally integrated recuperator is utilized to boost system efficiency by transferring the unused energy in the exhaust stream to the incoming fuel and combustion air. This paper describes the design, testing and performance of the first-generation PCA and BER along with model predictions used for design and evaluation.

  9. Can watching football be a component of developing a state of mental health for men?

    PubMed

    Pringle, Alan

    2004-05-01

    Football supporters, by and large, continue to have a negative image and be presented in a very destructive way by the media generally. This has been reflected academically by the fact that much of the research that has been done into football and football fans has focused on negative aspects of small numbers of supporters' behaviours such as hooliganism and racism. This paper describes a two stage study exploring some of the more positive effects noted during studies with football fans from Mansfield Town, a team currently in the third division of the English Football League. The study explores the perceived benefits to mental health for fans gained from the supporting experience in such areas as stress relief, catharsis and the development of good parent-child relationships. Discussion takes place around the paradox that some of the behaviours described by supporters as beneficial and done in 'the spirit of carnival' may challenge liberal beliefs and be viewed as antisocial and offensive. The key feature in health promotional terms is the overwhelming view of fans that the 'carnivalesque' behaviours stay in the football ground where such behaviours are viewed as acceptable and socially sanctioned. PMID:15195452

  10. The SAMGrid database server component: its upgraded infrastructure and future development path

    SciTech Connect

    Loebel-Carpenter, L.; White, S.; Baranovski, A.; Garzoglio, G.; Herber, R.; Illingworth, R.; Kennedy, R.; Kreymer, A.; Kumar, A.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A.; Merritt, W.; Terekhov, I.; Trumbo, J.; Veseli, S.; Burgon-Lyon, M.; St. Denis, R.; Belforte, S.; Kerzel, U.; Bartsch, V.; Leslie, M.; /Oxford U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Texas Tech.

    2004-12-01

    The SAMGrid Database Server encapsulates several important services, such as accessing file metadata and replica catalog, keeping track of the processing information, as well as providing the runtime support for SAMGrid station services. Recent deployment of the SAMGrid system for CDF has resulted in unification of the database schema used by CDF and D0, and the complexity of changes required for the unified metadata catalog has warranted a complete redesign of the DB Server. We describe here the architecture and features of the new server. In particular, we discuss the new CORBA infrastructure that utilizes python wrapper classes around IDL structs and exceptions. Such infrastructure allows us to use the same code on both server and client sides, which in turn results in significantly improved code maintainability and easier development. We also discuss future integration of the new server with an SBIR II project which is directed toward allowing the DB Server to access distributed databases, implemented in different DB systems and possibly using different schema.

  11. Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) component enhancement, testing and expert fault diagnostics development, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, L. S.; Zdankiewicz, E. M.

    1987-01-01

    Vapor compression distillation technology for phase change recovery of potable water from wastewater has evolved as a technically mature approach for use aboard the Space Station. A program to parametrically test an advanced preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) was completed during 1985 and 1986. In parallel with parametric testing, a hardware improvement program was initiated to test the feasibility of incorporating several key improvements into the advanced preprototype VCDS following initial parametric tests. Specific areas of improvement included long-life, self-lubricated bearings, a lightweight, highly-efficient compressor, and a long-life magnetic drive. With the exception of the self-lubricated bearings, these improvements are incorporated. The advanced preprototype VCDS was designed to reclaim 95 percent of the available wastewater at a nominal water recovery rate of 1.36 kg/h achieved at a solids concentration of 2.3 percent and 308 K condenser temperature. While this performance was maintained for the initial testing, a 300 percent improvement in water production rate with a corresponding lower specific energy was achieved following incorporation of the improvements. Testing involved the characterization of key VCDS performance factors as a function of recycle loop solids concentration, distillation unit temperature and fluids pump speed. The objective of this effort was to expand the VCDS data base to enable defining optimum performance characteristics for flight hardware development.

  12. Dynamic temporal and cell type-specific expression of Wnt signaling components in the developing midbrain

    SciTech Connect

    Rawal, Nina; Castelo-Branco, Goncalo; Sousa, Kyle M.; Kele, Julianna; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Okano, Hideyuki; Arenas, Ernest . E-mail: Ernest.Arenas@ki.se

    2006-05-15

    Wnt1 and -5a have been shown to modulate the proliferation and differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. However, it is not known whether other Wnts or which Frizzled (Fz) receptors are expressed in the developing midbrain. We found that 13 out of 19 Wnts, all 10 Fzs, and several intracellular Wnt signaling modulators, including Axin, FRAT, Naked, Par-1, and Ltap are developmentally regulated between embryonic days (E) 10.5 and 15.5. Next, we studied whether Fzs are differentially expressed in different cell types and examined neuronal-progenitor- or glial-enriched cultures and DA neurons isolated from TH-GFP reporter mice. We found that Fz8 is expressed at high levels in DA neurons at E11.5 and E13.5. Fz6 and -7 are the predominant transcripts in glial precursors, and Fz9, which is absent in DA neurons at E11.5, is the main receptor expressed in neuronal precursors. We therefore examined the function of Fz9 in DA cells and found that overexpression of Fz9 reduced Wnt5a- but not Wnt3a-induced hyperphosphorylation of Dishevelled. Thus, our results show that Fzs are developmentally regulated and differentially expressed in VM precursors, DA neurons, and glia. These findings suggest that Fz expression contributes to provide specificity to Wnt-mediated effects.

  13. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Work in process verification and tooling development continued. The decision was made to redesign the ribs to a more producible design. The bead was eliminated and the truss ribs changed to plain C sections. The solid web rib stiffeners were eliminated as well as the beads and the webs are now reinforced with a syntactic core. Syntectic is an epoxy containing glass microballoons. Two cover specimens were successfully tested. The first specimen (H27) was designed to verify the stability and compression strength of the cover when it is hot and wet. Failure occurred at 120 percent of design ultimate load. As the failure appeared to be fixture induced and was limited to one end of the panel, the remainder of the panel will be tested. The second specimen (H28) was designed to verify the failsafe aspects of the design. The test verified the design. Preparation of the PRVT test facility is nearing completion and all ten spar durability specimens were installed in the test chambers.

  14. Development of a multi-component fiber-reinforced composite implant for load-sharing conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D S; Moritz, N; Laurila, P; Mattila, R; Lassila, L V J; Strandberg, N; Mäntylä, T; Vallittu, P K; Aro, H T

    2009-05-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) have the potential for use as load-bearing orthopaedic implants if the high strength and elastic modulus of FRC implant can be matched with local requirements. This study tested the in vivo performance of novel FRC implants made of unidirectional glass fibers (E-glass fibers in Bis-GMA and TEGDMA polymeric matrix). The implant surface was covered with bioactive glass granules. Control implants were made of surface-roughened titanium. Stress-shielding effects of the implants were predicted by finite element modelling (FEM). Surgical stabilization of bone metastasis in the subtrochanteric region of the femur was simulated in 12 rabbits. An oblong subtrochanteric defect of a standardized size (reducing the torsional strength of the bones approximately by 66%) was created and an intramedullary implant made of titanium or the FRC composite was inserted. The contralateral femur served as the intact control. At 12 weeks of healing, the femurs were harvested and analyzed by radiography, torsional testing, micro-CT imaging and hard tissue histology. The functional recovery was unremarkable in both groups, although the final analysis revealed two healed undisplaced peri-implant fractures in the group of FRC implants. FEM studies demonstrated differences in stress-shielding effects of the titanium and FRC implants, but the expected biological consequences did not become evident during the follow-up time of the animal study. Biomechanical testing of the retrieved femurs showed no significant differences between the groups. The torsional strength of the fixed bones had returned the level of contralateral intact femurs. Both implants showed ongrowth of intramedullary new bone. No adverse tissue reactions were observed. Based on these favorable results, a large-scale EU-project (NewBone, www.hb.se/ih/polymer/newbone) has been launched for development of orthopaedic FRC implants. PMID:19109047

  15. Development of analytical techniques to study H2s poisoning of PEMFCs and components

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L; Rockward, Tommy; Uribe, Francisco A; Garzon, Fernando H

    2008-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are sensitive to impurities that may be present in either the oxidizer or fuel. H{sub 2}S, even at the ppb level, will have a dramatic and adverse affect on fuel cell performance. Not only is it important to know a particular material's affinity to adsorb H{sub 2}S, when considering materials for PEMFC applications, issues such as permeation and crossover rates also become extremely important Several experimental methods have been developed to quantify H{sub 2}S adsorption onto surfaces and to quantify H{sub 2}S permeation through Nafion(reg.) membranes using readily available and inexpensive Ag/AgS ion probes. In addition to calculating the H{sub 2}S uptake on commonly used XC-72 carbon supports and PtlXC-72 catalysts, the H{sub 2}S permeability through dry and humidified Nafion(reg.) PEMFC membranes was also studied using these specialized techniques. In each ion probe experiment performed, a sulfide anti-oxidant buffer solution was used to trap and concentrate trace quantities of H{sub 2}S during the course of the measurement. Crossover experiments were conducted for up to 24 hours in order to achieve sulfide ion concentrations high enough to be precisely determined by subsequent titration with Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. By using these techniques, we have confirmed H{sub 2}S crossover in Nafion(reg.) membranes and have calculated preliminary rates of H{sub 2}S crossover.

  16. Modern astronomical knowledge as component of general education for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgaliev, I.

    {It is shown that 1) astronomical knowledge was a foundation of emerging modern physics and natural sciences based on mathematics, 2) mathematical basis of the natural sciences serves as an orientation of progress in the true objective of social sciences. The last example for this chain of impacts is the discovery of the fundamental demographic equation (N=aN^2-bN) full of the astronomical analogy [9]. Modern age endorses new imperatives on education. Reckless exploitation of the natural resources will cause irreversible exhaustion of the agro- and bio-potential of the planet during lifetime of a few generations. The adequate respond to the challenge lies in modern technologies and educating responsible (socially oriented) professionals. That is why the importance of teaching modern technologies along with providing the students with the understanding of global long term consequences of the human industrial activities is growing. The course ``Theoretical Foundations of Modern Technologies" at the Moscow State Agricultural University (Timiryazev Academy) taught by the author is discussed. New experimental project ``Space Technologies, Ecology and Safe Energetics in School of the Future" is presented as a project of a new age in the process of implementing at the Moscow city secondary schools by the colleagues and by the author. The new cosmological models in the frame of the Newtonian and general relativistic treatments developed by the author are considered in this report as an example of immediate implementation of new astro-knowledge into the education for modern agrarian students. The centrifugal forces acting between particles rotating randomly around each other are shown to be able to reverse gravitational collapse.

  17. Modular and coordinated expression of immune system regulatory and signaling components in the developing and adult nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Monzón-Sandoval, Jimena; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Crampton, Sean; McKelvey, Laura; Nolan, Aoife; O’Keeffe, Gerard; Gutierrez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    During development, the nervous system (NS) is assembled and sculpted through a concerted series of neurodevelopmental events orchestrated by a complex genetic programme. While neural-specific gene expression plays a critical part in this process, in recent years, a number of immune-related signaling and regulatory components have also been shown to play key physiological roles in the developing and adult NS. While the involvement of individual immune-related signaling components in neural functions may reflect their ubiquitous character, it may also reflect a much wider, as yet undescribed, genetic network of immune–related molecules acting as an intrinsic component of the neural-specific regulatory machinery that ultimately shapes the NS. In order to gain insights into the scale and wider functional organization of immune-related genetic networks in the NS, we examined the large scale pattern of expression of these genes in the brain. Our results show a highly significant correlated expression and transcriptional clustering among immune-related genes in the developing and adult brain, and this correlation was the highest in the brain when compared to muscle, liver, kidney and endothelial cells. We experimentally tested the regulatory clustering of immune system (IS) genes by using microarray expression profiling in cultures of dissociated neurons stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, and found a highly significant enrichment of immune system-related genes among the resulting differentially expressed genes. Our findings strongly suggest a coherent recruitment of entire immune-related genetic regulatory modules by the neural-specific genetic programme that shapes the NS. PMID:26379506

  18. The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) component of the NIH MRI study of normal brain development (PedsDTI).

    PubMed

    Walker, Lindsay; Chang, Lin-Ching; Nayak, Amritha; Irfanoglu, M Okan; Botteron, Kelly N; McCracken, James; McKinstry, Robert C; Rivkin, Michael J; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Rumsey, Judith; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The NIH MRI Study of normal brain development sought to characterize typical brain development in a population of infants, toddlers, children and adolescents/young adults, covering the socio-economic and ethnic diversity of the population of the United States. The study began in 1999 with data collection commencing in 2001 and concluding in 2007. The study was designed with the final goal of providing a controlled-access database; open to qualified researchers and clinicians, which could serve as a powerful tool for elucidating typical brain development and identifying deviations associated with brain-based disorders and diseases, and as a resource for developing computational methods and image processing tools. This paper focuses on the DTI component of the NIH MRI study of normal brain development. In this work, we describe the DTI data acquisition protocols, data processing steps, quality assessment procedures, and data included in the database, along with database access requirements. For more details, visit http://www.pediatricmri.nih.gov. This longitudinal DTI dataset includes raw and processed diffusion data from 498 low resolution (3 mm) DTI datasets from 274 unique subjects, and 193 high resolution (2.5 mm) DTI datasets from 152 unique subjects. Subjects range in age from 10 days (from date of birth) through 22 years. Additionally, a set of age-specific DTI templates are included. This forms one component of the larger NIH MRI study of normal brain development which also includes T1-, T2-, proton density-weighted, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) imaging data, and demographic, clinical and behavioral data. PMID:26048622

  19. Cancer Screening: Should Cancer Screening be Essential Component of Primary Health Care in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Balasubramanium, Ganesh; Kumar, Abhinendra; Jain, Aanchal

    2015-01-01

    primary health care package in developing countries. PMID:26236443

  20. Development of a New and Fast Linear Solver for Multi-component Reactive Transport Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, C.; Li, L.; Bao, C.; Hu, X.; Johns, R.; Xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Reactive transport models (RTM) have been extensively used to understand the coupling between solute transport and (bio) geochemical reactions in complex earth systems. RTM typically involves a large number of primary and secondary species with a complex reaction network in large domains. The computational expenses increase significantly with the number of grid blocks and the number of chemical species. Within both the operator splitting approach (OS) and the global implicit approach (GI) that are commonly used, the steps that involve Newton-Raphson method are typically one of the most time-consuming parts (up to 80% to 90% of CPU times). Under such circumstances, accelerating reactive transport simulation is very essential. In this research, we present a physics-based linear system solution strategy for general reactive transport models with many species. We observed up to five times speed up for the linear solver portion of the simulations in our test cases. Our new linear solver takes advantage of the sparsity of the Jacobian matrix arising from the reaction network. The Jacobian matrix for the speciation problem is typically considered as a dense matrix and solved with a direct method such as Gaussian elimination. For the reactive transport problem, the graph of the local Jacobian matrix has a one-to-one correspondence to the reaction network graph. The Jacobian matrix is commonly sparse and has the same sparsity structure for the same reaction network. We developed a strategy that performs a minimum degree of reordering and symbolic factorization to determine the non-zero pattern at the beginning of the OS and GI simulation. During the speciation calculation in OS, we calculate the L and U factors and solve the triangular matrices according to the non-zero pattern. For GI, our strategy can be applied to inverse the diagonal blocks in the block-Jacobi preconditioner and smoothers of the multigrid preconditioners in iterative solvers. Our strategy is naturally

  1. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on several different projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the second quarter of FY93. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD Proof-of-Concept Project; Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program; Plasma Furnace Projects for waste destruction; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; Soil Washing Project for removal of radioactive materials; and Spray Casting Project.

  2. A review of component analysis based on magnetization curves: state-of-the art and future developments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, R.

    2005-05-01

    hosting sediment. For example, the coercivity of all detrital magnetites is tuned by the transport mechanism (air/water), and the ARM of biogenic magnetites is controlled by the (paleo)redox conditions of the sediment. The consistency of these results supports the linear additivity principle upon which all current magnetic unmixing methods are based. Once the rock magnetic properties of individual components and their statistical distribution is known, the solution of unmixing problems provides important benefits including a great simplification which makes it accessible to non-specialized users. Simplified unmixing algorithms are robust and deliver reliable results based on relatively fast measurements. Two key examples will be presented. In the first example, the magnetic composition of lake sediments is used to develop a model that describes the nonlinear response of a lake to environmental changes. The response function can be used to deconvolute magnetic measurements for paleoclimatology reconstructions. The second example deals with an application of component analysis to obtain a low-cost and fast assessment of the air quality in urban areas. A community effort in setting up a database of magnetic components occurring in the most varied environments will provide us with a new, powerful tool for rock- paleo- and environmental magnetism research.

  3. Building Capacity for Community-Engaged Scholarship: Evaluation of the Faculty Development Component of the Faculty for the Engaged Campus Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmon, Sherril; Blanchard, Lynn; Ryan, Katharine; Seifer, Sarena D.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an evaluation of the faculty development component of the Faculty for the Engaged Campus initiative. For this component, the Community-Engaged Scholarship Faculty Development Charrette was attended by 20 university teams from across the United States, and six teams subsequently received 2 years of funding and…

  4. How Do the Different Components of Episodic Memory Develop? Role of Executive Functions and Short-Term Feature-Binding Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Laurence; Cousin, Sidonie; Guillery-Girard, Berenere; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the development of all 3 components of episodic memory (EM), as defined by Tulving, namely, core factual content, spatial context, and temporal context. To this end, a novel, ecologically valid test was administered to 109 participants aged 4-16 years. Results showed that each EM component develops at a different rate.…

  5. Development of a cell formation heuristic by considering realistic data using principal component analysis and Taguchi's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shailendra; Sharma, Rajiv Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Over the last four decades of research, numerous cell formation algorithms have been developed and tested, still this research remains of interest to this day. Appropriate manufacturing cells formation is the first step in designing a cellular manufacturing system. In cellular manufacturing, consideration to manufacturing flexibility and production-related data is vital for cell formation. The consideration to this realistic data makes cell formation problem very complex and tedious. It leads to the invention and implementation of highly advanced and complex cell formation methods. In this paper an effort has been made to develop a simple and easy to understand/implement manufacturing cell formation heuristic procedure with considerations to the number of production and manufacturing flexibility-related parameters. The heuristic minimizes inter-cellular movement cost/time. Further, the proposed heuristic is modified for the application of principal component analysis and Taguchi's method. Numerical example is explained to illustrate the approach. A refinement in the results is observed with adoption of principal component analysis and Taguchi's method.

  6. Development of Novel Pre-alloyed PM Steels for Optimization of Machinability and Fatigue Resistance of PM Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardan, Milad; Blais, Carl

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that a large proportion of ferrous PM components require secondary machining operations for dimensional conformance or for producing geometrical features that cannot be generated during die compaction. Nevertheless, the machining behavior of PM parts is generally characterized as being "difficult" due to the presence of residual porosity that lowers thermal conductivity and induces interrupted cutting. Several admixed additives such as MnS and BN-h can be used to improve the machining behavior of PM steels. Nevertheless, their negative effect on mechanical properties, especially fatigue resistance, makes their utilization uninteresting for the fabrication of high-performance PM steel components. This article summarizes the work carried out to develop a novel PM steel that was especially engineered to form machinability enhancing precipitates. This new material is pre-alloyed with tin (Sn) in order to form Cu-Sn (Cu(α)) precipitates during transient liquid phase sintering. The newly developed material presents machinability improvement of 165% compared to reference material used in the PM industry as well as increases in toughness and fatigue resistance of 100% and 13%, respectively.

  7. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, ``Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.`` This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft{sup 2} cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  8. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.'' This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft[sup 2] cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  9. X-37 C-Sic CMC Control Surface Components Development [Status of the NASA/Boeing/USAF Orbital Vehicle and Related Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G; Rivers, H. Kevin; Chen, Victor L.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon/Silicon-Carbide (C-Sic) ceramic matrix composite (CMC) flaperon and ruddervator control surface components are being developed for the X-37 Orbital Vehicle (OV). The results of the prior NASA LaRC led work, aimed at developing C-Sic flaperon and ruddervator components for the X-37, will be reviewed. The status of several on-going and/or planned NASA, USAF, and Boeing programs that will support the development of control surface components for the X-37 OV will also be reviewed. The overall design and development philosophy being employed to assemble a team(s) to develop both: (a) C-Sic hot structure control surface components for the X-37 OV, and (b) carbon-carbon (C-C) hot structure components (a risk-reduction backup option for the OV), will be presented.

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ``Capabilities Activation`` and ``Capabilities Demonstration`` to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ``Small Glass Shell Deliveries`` and ``Composite Polymer Capsules`` for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ``Onsite Support`` at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ``Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats`` and established ``Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities`` at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ``Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.`` We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process.

  11. Development and Function of the Human Fetal Adrenal Cortex: A Key Component in the Feto-Placental Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to unraveling the biophysiology and development of the human fetal adrenal cortex, which is structurally and functionally unique from other species. It plays a pivotal role, mainly through steroidogenesis, in the regulation of intrauterine homeostasis and in fetal development and maturation. The steroidogenic activity is characterized by early transient cortisol biosynthesis, followed by its suppressed synthesis until late gestation, and extensive production of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, precursors of placental estrogen, during most of gestation. The gland rapidly grows through processes including cell proliferation and angiogenesis at the gland periphery, cellular migration, hypertrophy, and apoptosis. Recent studies employing modern technologies such as gene expression profiling and laser capture microdissection have revealed that development and/or function of the fetal adrenal cortex may be regulated by a panoply of molecules, including transcription factors, extracellular matrix components, locally produced growth factors, and placenta-derived CRH, in addition to the primary regulator, fetal pituitary ACTH. The role of the fetal adrenal cortex in human pregnancy and parturition appears highly complex, probably due to redundant and compensatory mechanisms regulating these events. Mounting evidence indicates that actions of hormones operating in the human feto-placental unit are likely mediated by mechanisms including target tissue responsiveness, local metabolism, and bioavailability, rather than changes only in circulating levels. Comprehensive study of such molecular mechanisms and the newly identified factors implicated in adrenal development should help crystallize our understanding of the development and physiology of the human fetal adrenal cortex. PMID:21051591

  12. Developing Statistical Evaluation Model of Introduction Effect of MSW Thermal Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Makoto; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    For the effective utilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) through a thermal recycling, new technologies, such as an incineration plant using a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC), are being developed. The impact of new technologies should be evaluated statistically for various municipalities, so that the target of technological development or potential cost reduction due to the increased cumulative number of installed system can be discussed. For this purpose, we developed a model for discussing the impact of new technologies, where a statistical mesh data set was utilized to estimate the heat demand around the incineration plant. This paper examines a case study by using a developed model, where a conventional type and a MCFC type MSW incineration plant is compared in terms of the reduction in primary energy and the revenue by both electricity and heat supply. Based on the difference in annual revenue, we calculate the allowable investment in MCFC-type MSW incineration plant in addition to conventional plant. The results suggest that allowable investment can be about 30 millions yen/(t/day) in small municipalities, while it is only 10 millions yen/(t/day) in large municipalities. The sensitive analysis shows the model can be useful for discussing the difference of impact of material recycling of plastics on thermal recycling technologies.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2003-01-01

    The microwave processing of materials is a new emerging technology with many attractive advantages over the conventional methods. The advantages of microwave technology for various ceramic systems has already been demonstrated and proven. The recent developments at Penn State have succeeded in applying the microwave technology for the commercialization of WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools, effectively sintering of metallic materials, and fabrication of transparent ceramics for advanced applications. In recent years, the Microwave Processing and Engineering Center at Penn State University in collaboration with our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. has succeeded in commercializing the developed microwave technology partially funded by DOE for WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools for gas and oil exploration operations. In this program we have further developed this technology to make diamond-carbide composites and metal-carbide-diamond functionally graded materials. Several actual product of diamond-carbide composites have been processed in microwave with better performance than the conventional product. The functionally graded composites with diamond as one of the components has been for the first time successfully developed. These are the highlights of the project.

  14. Development of a dual phantom technique for measuring the fast neutron component of dose in boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Yoshinori Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Research and development of various accelerator-based irradiation systems for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is underway throughout the world. Many of these systems are nearing or have started clinical trials. Before the start of treatment with BNCT, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the fast neutrons (over 10 keV) incident to the irradiation field must be estimated. Measurements of RBE are typically performed by biological experiments with a phantom. Although the dose deposition due to secondary gamma rays is dominant, the relative contributions of thermal neutrons (below 0.5 eV) and fast neutrons are virtually equivalent under typical irradiation conditions in a water and/or acrylic phantom. Uniform contributions to the dose deposited from thermal and fast neutrons are based in part on relatively inaccurate dose information for fast neutrons. This study sought to improve the accuracy in the dose estimation for fast neutrons by using two phantoms made of different materials in which the dose components can be separated according to differences in the interaction cross sections. The development of a “dual phantom technique” for measuring the fast neutron component of dose is reported. Methods: One phantom was filled with pure water. The other phantom was filled with a water solution of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) capitalizing on the absorbing characteristics of lithium-6 (Li-6) for thermal neutrons. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the ideal mixing ratio of Li-6 in LiOH solution. Changes in the depth dose distributions for each respective dose component along the central beam axis were used to assess the LiOH concentration at the 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 wt. % levels. Simulations were also performed with the phantom filled with 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution for 95%-enriched Li-6. A phantom was constructed containing 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution based on the simulation results. Experimental characterization of the

  15. Construction and start-up of a 250 kW natural gas fueled MCFC demonstration power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, R.A.; Carter, J.; Rivera, R.; Otahal, J.

    1996-12-31

    San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) is participating with M-C Power in the development and commercialization program of their internally manifolded heat exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) carbonate fuel cell technology. Development of the IMHEX technology base on the UNOCAL test facility resulted in the demonstration of a 250 kW thermally integrated power plant located at the Naval Air Station at Miramar, California. The members of the commercialization team lead by M-C Power (MCP) include Bechtel Corporation, Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). MCP produced the fuel cell stack, Bechtel was responsible for the process engineering including the control system, Stewart & Stevenson was responsible for packaging the process equipment in a skid (pumps, desulfurizer, gas heater, turbo, heat exchanger and stem generator), IHI produced a compact flat plate catalytic reformer operating on natural gas, and SDG&E assumed responsibility for plant construction, start-up and operation of the plant.

  16. Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Kadolkar, Puja; Ott, Ronald D

    2006-02-01

    A recent review by the U.S. Advanced Ceramics Association, the Aluminum Association, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (DOE/OIT) described the status of advanced ceramics for aluminum processing, including monolithics, composites, and coatings. The report observed that monolithic ceramics (particularly oxides) have attractive properties such as resistance to heat, corrosion, thermal shock, abrasion, and erosion [1]. However, even after the developments of the past 25 years, there are two key barriers to commercialization: reliability and cost-effectiveness. Industry research is therefore focused on eliminating these barriers. Ceramic coatings have likewise undergone significant development and a variety of processes have been demonstrated for applying coatings to substrates. Some processes, such as thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines, exhibit sufficient reliability and service life for routine commercial use. Worldwide, aluminum melting and molten metal handling consumes about 506,000 tons of refractory materials annually. Refractory compositions for handling molten aluminum are generally based on dense fused cast silica or mullite. The microstructural texture is extremely important because an interlocking mass of coarser grains must be bonded together by smaller grains in order to achieve adequate strength. At the same time, well-distributed microscopic pores and cracks are needed to deflect cracks and prevent spalling and thermal shock damage [2]. The focus of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective, low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both smelting and casting environments. The primary goal was to develop improved coatings and functionally graded materials that will possess superior combinations of properties, including resistance to thermal shock, erosion, corrosion, and wetting. When these materials are successfully deployed in

  17. Development of a multi-component Damage Assessment Model (MDAM) for time-dependent mixture toxicity with toxicokinetic interactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Landrum, Peter F

    2006-02-15

    A new mixture toxicity model was developed to predict the time-dependent toxicity of a mixture with toxicokinetic interactions directed specifically toward addressing biotransformation. The Damage Assessment Model (DAM), a toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model that describes and predicts the time-dependent toxicity of a single compound, was extended to a multicomponent model for mixture toxicity. The model assumes that cumulative damage from the parent compound, metabolites, and/or a biotransformation inhibitor are additive, and the sum of the cumulative damage determines mixture toxicity. Since incorporation of the damage addition hypothesis into the DAM was equivalent to an independent action model for mixture toxicity, it was applied to describe the combined effect of mixture components with potentially dissimilar modes of action. From the multicomponent DAM, a time-dependent toxic unit model was derived and applied to determine the toxic units of mixture components. This model suggests a series of experimental designs required to assess the role of biotransformation in the toxicity of metabolized organic compounds and a data analysis method to separately estimate toxicodynamic parameters forthe parent compound and metabolites. PMID:16572795

  18. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase I and Phase II. Volume V. Component development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, C.; McBee, W.; Matthews, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamental inventions which motivate this program are system concepts centered on a novel heat engine cycle and the use of downwell heat exchange. Here, the primary emphasis is on downwell hardware. The only surface equipment included is the surface portion of the instrumentation and control systems. Downwell instrumentation is reported. Downwell conduits and techniques for installing, connecting and sealing them are covered. The downwell turbine-pump unit (TPU) is a critical component since it is relatively inaccessible and operates in a hostile environment. Its development is reported. The TPU for the gravity-head system requires a different type of turbine because of the large flow-rate through it and the small pressure difference across it. The design study for a Francis turbine to meet these requirements is reported. A feature of these systems is use of a downwell heat exchanger. There were extensive studies of tube-bundle configuration, tube-sheet seals, structural integrity, and flow and heat transfer, as well as the research on welded connections and sliding elastomeric seals. Another innovative component in these systems is the enthalpy recovery unit (ERU). This direct-contact heat exchanger compensates for under-cooling in the condenser and superheat in the main turbine exhaust.

  19. Talented football players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Philip; Höner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is regarded as a key developmental phase in the course of talented football players' careers. The present study focuses on early adolescent players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions. Based on the multidimensional and dynamic nature of talent, the development of multifaceted personality characteristics is an important issue in the context of sports talent research. According to previous findings in psychology, personality characteristics' development is defined by both stability and change, and the current study analyses four different types: differential stability (I), mean-level change (II), individual-level change (III), and structural stability (IV). The sample consists of 151 male players in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. Psychological diagnostics of the personality characteristics are implemented across longitudinal sections over a time period of three seasons, from the U12 to U14 age classes. The results reveal that the personality characteristics show (I) moderate test-retest correlations over one-year intervals (.43 ≤ rtt ≤ .62), and lower coefficients for a two-year period (.26 ≤ rtt ≤ .53). (II) Most of the personality characteristics' mean values differ significantly across the age classes with small effect sizes (.01 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ .03). (III) Only minor individual-level changes in the football players' development are found. (IV) The personality characteristics' associations within a two-factor structure do not stay invariant over time. From the results of the present study, conclusions are drawn regarding the talent identification and development process. PMID:26313875

  20. Development of an annoyance model based upon elementary auditory sensations for steady-state aircraft interior noise containing tonal components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angerer, James R.; Mccurdy, David A.; Erickson, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a noise annoyance model, superior to those already in use, for evaluating passenger response to sounds containing tonal components which may be heard within current and future commercial aircraft. The sound spectra investigated ranged from those being experienced by passengers on board turbofan powered aircraft now in service to those cabin noise spectra passengers may experience within advanced propeller-driven aircraft of the future. A total of 240 sounds were tested in this experiment. Sixty-six of these 240 sounds were steady state, while the other 174 varied temporally due to tonal beating. Here, the entire experiment is described, but the analysis is limited to those responses elicited by the 66 steady-state sounds.

  1. Toxicokinetic Model Development for the Insensitive Munitions Component 3-Nitro-1,2,4-Triazol-5-One.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Phillips, Elizabeth A; Goodwin, Michelle R; Bannon, Desmond I

    2015-01-01

    3-Nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) is a component of insensitive munitions that are potential replacements for conventional explosives. Toxicokinetic data can aid in the interpretation of toxicity studies and interspecies extrapolation, but only limited data on the toxicokinetics and metabolism of NTO are available. To supplement these limited data, further in vivo studies of NTO in rats were conducted and blood concentrations were measured, tissue distribution of NTO was estimated using an in silico method, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic models of the disposition of NTO in rats and macaques were developed and extrapolated to humans. The model predictions can be used to extrapolate from designated points of departure identified from rat toxicology studies to provide a scientific basis for estimates of acceptable human exposure levels for NTO. PMID:26060267

  2. New developments and test of high power transmission components for ECRH on ASDEX-Upgrade and W7-AS

    SciTech Connect

    Empacher, L.; Foerster, W.; Gantenbein, G.; Kasparek, W.; Kumric, H.

    1995-12-31

    The installation of new 140 GHz systems for electron cyclotron heating on the tokamak ASDEX-Upgrade and the stellarator W7-AS with a power of 2 MW each and 3 s pulse length is underway. These systems use gyrotrons, developed by the Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod, and built by Toriy in Russia, as high power mm-wave sources. The gyrotrons can be operated for 3 s with 0.5 MW and for 1 s with 0.7 MW EHF output. The transmission of the millimetre wave power is realized by a combination of beam waveguides and corrugated HE{sub 11} waveguides. Components for transmission and high power diagnostics as well as first results are described together with the system.

  3. Flight service evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component on commercial transport aircraft. Phase 1: Engineering development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ary, A.; Axtell, C.; Fogg, L.; Jackson, A.; James, A. M.; Mosesian, B.; Vanderwier, J.; Vanhamersveld, J.

    1976-01-01

    The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes the front and rear spars. Various design options were evaluated to arrive at a configuration which would offer the highest potential for satisfying program objectives. The preferred configuration selected consists of a hat-stiffened cover with molded integrally stiffened spars, aluminum trussed composite ribs, and composite miniwich web ribs with integrally molded caps. Material screening tests were performed to select an advanced composite material system for the Advanced Composite Vertical Fin (ACFV) that would meet the program requirements from the standpoint of quality, reproducibility, and cost. Preliminary weight and cost analysis were made, targets established, and tracking plans developed. These include FAA certification, ancillary test program, quality control, and structural integrity control plans.

  4. Development of Low-Cost Austenitic Stainless Gas-Turbine and Diesel Engine Components with Enhanced High-Temperature Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.; Browning, P.F.; Frary, M.E.; Pollard, M.J.; Siebenaler, C.W.; McGreevy, T.E.

    2004-06-01

    In July of 1999, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Solar Turbines, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. (Caterpillar Technical Center) to evaluate commercial cast stainless steels for gas turbine engine and diesel engine exhaust component applications relative to the materials currently being used. If appropriate, the goal was to develop cast stainless steels with improved performance and reliability rather than switch to more costly cast Ni-based superalloys for upgraded performance. The gas-turbine components considered for the Mercury-50 engine were the combustor housing and end-cover, and the center-frame hot-plate, both made from commercial CF8C cast austenitic stainless steel (Fe-l9Cr-12Ni-Nb,C), which is generally limited to use at below 650 C. The advanced diesel engine components considered for truck applications (C10, C12, 3300 and 3400) were the exhaust manifold and turbocharger housing made from commercial high SiMo ductile cast iron with uses limited to 700-750 C or below. Shortly after the start of the CRADA, the turbine materials emphasis changed to wrought 347H stainless steel (hot-plate) and after some initial baseline tensile and creep testing, it was confirmed that this material was typical of those comprising the abundant database; and by 2000, the emphasis of the CRADA was primarily on diesel engine materials. For the diesel applications, commercial SiMo cast iron and standard cast CN12 austenitic stainless steel (Fe-25Cr-13Ni-Nb,C,N,S) baseline materials were obtained commercially. Tensile and creep testing from room temperature to 900 C showed the CN12 austenitic stainless steel to have far superior strength compared to SiMo cast iron above 550 C, together with outstanding oxidation resistance. However, aging at 850 C reduced room-temperature ductility of the standard CN12, and creep-rupture resistance at 850 C was less than expected, which triggered a focused

  5. Recent progress in developing a 170 GHz, 500 kW gyrotron for testing ITER transmission line components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felch, Kevin; Blank, Monica; Borchard, Philipp; Cahalan, Pat; Cauffman, Steve

    2011-10-01

    A 170 GHz, 500 kW CW gyrotron has been developed for testing ITER transmission line components. Although specified as a 500 kW source, the electrical design has been conceived with the goal of generating up to 1 MW of continuous output power. The design employs a double-anode electron gun, an interaction cavity operating in the TE31,8 cavity mode, a three-mirror internal converter to produce a fundamental Gaussian output beam, a CVD diamond output window and a depressed collector to safely dissipate the spent electron beam power. Fabrication of the gyrotron is nearly complete and initial high-power tests will soon be carried out. Details of the gyrotron design, results of low-power tests on the internal converter and initial high-power tests will be presented.

  6. Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Dale E. Brown; Puja B. Kadolkar

    2005-12-15

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both melting and casting environments. Three approaches were employed with partial to full success to achieve this goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; and (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions. The results of the research work and the field tests performed utilizing these three approaches are listed below: (1) It was demonstrated that high-density IR heating could be a tool for altering and sealing the surface porosity of fused silica. However, the process was not very cost-effective. (2) A low-cost glaze composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) similar to that of a DFS tube was identified and was successfully tested for its integrity and adherence to DFS. Although the glaze acted as a barrier between the molten aluminum and the DFS, persistent porosity and crazing within the glaze affected its performance during the reactivity tests, thus acting as an obstacle in scaling up production of this glaze. (3) Pyrotek's XL glaze showed great success in improving the life of the DFS tubes. Pyrotek has reported an increasing market demand for the XL-coated DFS tubes, which exhibit useful lifetimes three times better than those of uncoated tubes. (4) A computer model to optimize particle size distribution for reduced permeability was developed and successfully applied to casting formulations. Silica riser tubes produced using these new formulations have been tested in a commercial aluminum casting facility and have been reported to

  7. Development of UPLC Fingerprint with Multi-Component Quantitative Analysis for Quality Consistency Evaluation of Herbal Medicine "Hyangsapyeongwisan".

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dipak Kumar; Kim, Se-Gun; Lamichhane, Ramakanta; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Poudel, Amrit; Jung, Hyun-Ju

    2016-04-01

    Hyangsapyeongwisan (HSPWS), known as traditional herbal medicine, has been used in the treatment of gastric disease. Standardization of HSPWS is a necessary step for the establishment of a consistent biological activity for the production and manufacturing of HSPWS herbal preparations. A simple, sensitive and accurate method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) fingerprinting with a diode array detector (DAD) was developed and validated for systematic quality evaluation of HSPWS. Separation conditions were optimized using a Halo C18 2.7 µm, 4.6 × 100 mm column with a mobile phase of 0.1% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile, and detection wavelengths of 215, 250 and 350 nm. Validation of the analytical method was evaluated by tests of linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. All calibration curves of components showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.9996). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were within the ranges of 0.004-0.134 and 0.012-0.406 µg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of intra- and inter-day testing were within the range of 0.01-3.84%. The result of the recovery test was 96.82-104.62% with an RSD value of 0.14-3.84%. Robustness values of all parameters as well as the stability test of analytical solutions were within the standard limit. It showed that the developed method was simple, specific, sensitive, accurate, precise, reproducible and robust for the quantification of active components of HSPWS. Chromatographic fingerprinting with quantitative analysis of marker compounds in HSPWS prepared by different methods and commercial formulation was also evaluated successfully. PMID:26711584

  8. Hyperfrequency components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

  9. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support. Annual report, January 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  10. Geoscientific Model Development: A new EGU Journal for Descriptions of Numerical Models of the Earth System and its components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutt, I.; Lunt, D.; Hargreaves, J.; Annan, J.; Sander, R.

    2007-12-01

    Geoscientific Model Development (GMD), launching in January 2008, will be an international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and public discussion of the description, development and benchmarking of numerical models of the Earth System and its components. Manuscript types considered for peer-reviewed publication will be: model descriptions, model inter-comparisons, benchmarking papers, and technical papers. In encouraging full publication of Earth System Models we have two main goals. The primary goal is to promote the efficient and effective development of the models, through the clear presentation of the techniques from which all other developers can improve their own models. A secondary goal is to provide increased credibility to the Earth System Science field by creating a space within which models can be openly presented and critically discussed, and their results reproduced and validated. A welcome side-effect will be the formal, peer-reviewed, recognition of the work of Earth System Model developers. It is anticipated that model description papers will form the backbone of GMD. These will comprehensively describe the underlying science behind the models, and will also include details often omitted from more traditional papers, such as the numerical schemes employed. The papers should be somewhat more advanced than internal technical reports. For example, the inclusion of discussion of the scope of applicability and limitations of the approach adopted is expected. In order to enable full peer review of the models, evidence of model output should also be provided, with comparison to standard benchmarks, observations and/or other model output included as appropriate. The publication will potentially consist of three parts: the main paper, a user manual, and the source code (ideally supported by some summary outputs from test case simulations).

  11. 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and independent components analysis: A new way to monitor bread dough development.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rebeca; Boussard, Aline; Rakotozafy, Lalatiana; Nicolas, Jacques; Potus, Jacques; Rutledge, Douglas N; Cordella, Christophe B Y

    2016-01-15

    Following bread dough development can be a hard task as no reliable method exists to give the optimal mixing time. Dough development is linked to the evolution of gluten proteins, carbohydrates and lipids which can result in modifications in the spectral properties of the various fluorophores naturally present in the system. In this paper, we propose to use 3-D-front-face-fluorescence (3D-FFF) spectroscopy in the 250-550nm domain to follow the dough development as influenced by formulation (addition or not of glucose, glucose oxidase and ferulic acid in the dough recipe) and mixing time (2, 4, 6 and 8min). In all the 32 dough samples as well as in flour, three regions of maximum fluorescence intensities have been observed at 320nm after excitation at 295nm (Region 1), at 420nm after excitation at 360nm (Region 2) and 450nm after excitation at 390nm (Region 3). The principal components analysis (PCA) of the evolution of these maxima shows that the formulations with and without ferulic acid are clearly separated since the presence of ferulic acid induces a decrease of fluorescence in Region 1 and an increase in Regions 2 and 3. In addition, a kinetic effect of the mixing time can be observed (decrease of fluorescence in the Regions 1 and 2) mainly in the absence of ferulic acid. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) on these maximum values statistically confirms these observations. Independent components analysis (ICA) is also applied to the complete 3-D-FFF spectra in order to extract interpretable signals from spectral data which reflect the complex contribution of several fluorophores as influenced by their environment. In all cases, 3 signals can be clearly separated matching the 3 regions of maximal fluorescence. The signals corresponding to regions 1 and 2 can be ascribed to proteins and ferulic acid respectively, whereas the fluorophores associated with the 3rd signal (corresponding to region 3) remain unidentified. Good correlations are obtained between the IC

  12. Variance components, heritability and correlation analysis of anther and ovary size during the floral development of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zifeng; Chen, Dijun; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Anther and ovary development play an important role in grain setting, a crucial factor determining wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. One aim of this study was to determine the heritability of anther and ovary size at different positions within a spikelet at seven floral developmental stages and conduct a variance components analysis. Relationships between anther and ovary size and other traits were also assessed. The thirty central European winter wheat genotypes used in this study were based on reduced height (Rht) and photoperiod sensitivity (Ppd) genes with variable genetic backgrounds. Identical experimental designs were conducted in a greenhouse and field simultaneously. Heritability of anther and ovary size indicated strong genetic control. Variance components analysis revealed that anther and ovary sizes of floret 3 (i.e. F3, the third floret from the spikelet base) and floret 4 (F4) were more sensitive to the environment compared with those in floret 1 (F1). Good correlations were found between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size in both greenhouse and field, suggesting that anther and ovary size are good predictors of each other, as well as spike dry weight in both conditions. Relationships between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size at F3/4 positions were stronger than at F1, suggesting that F3/4 anther and ovary size are better predictors of spike dry weight. Generally, ovary size showed a closer relationship with spike dry weight than anther size, suggesting that ovary size is a more reliable predictor of spike dry weight. PMID:25821074

  13. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model.

    PubMed

    Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1). PMID:25028031

  14. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model

    SciTech Connect

    Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. V.

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a “shelf Coulomb” model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The “shelf Coulomb” model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ε parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ε and γ = βe{sup 2}n{sup 1/3} (where β = 1/k{sub B}T, n is the particle's density, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ε and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ε{sub crit}≈13(T{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.076),γ{sub crit}≈1.8(v{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.17),P{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ{sup 3} and reduced temperature T{sup *} = ε{sup −1}.

  15. Development of meniscus substitutes using a mixture of biocompatible polymers and extra cellular matrix components by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    López-Calzada, G; Hernandez-Martínez, A R; Cruz-Soto, M; Ramírez-Cardona, M; Rangel, D; Molina, G A; Luna-Barcenas, G; Estevez, M

    2016-04-01

    Despite the significant advances in the meniscus tissue engineering field, it is difficult to recreate the complex structure and organization of the collagenous matrix of the meniscus. In this work, we developed a meniscus prototype to be used as substitute or scaffold for the regeneration of the meniscal matrix, recreating the differential morphology of the meniscus by electrospinning. Synthetic biocompatible polymers were combined with the extracellular matrix component, collagen and used to replicate the meniscus. We studied the correlation between mechanical and structural properties of the polymer blend as a function of collagen concentration. Fibers were collected on a surface of a rapidly rotating precast mold, to accurately replicate each sectional morphology of the meniscus; different electro-tissues were produced. Detailed XRD analyses exhibited structural changes developed by electrospinning. We achieved to integrate all these electro-tissues to form a complete synthetic meniscus. Vascularization tests were performed to assess the potential use of our novel polymeric blend for promising meniscus regeneration. PMID:26838921

  16. Developing the snow component of a distributed hydrological model: a step-wise approach based on multi-objective analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, S. M.; Colohan, R. J. E.

    1999-09-01

    A snow component has been developed for the distributed hydrological model, DIY, using an approach that sequentially evaluates the behaviour of different functions as they are implemented in the model. The evaluation is performed using multi-objective functions to ensure that the internal structure of the model is correct. The development of the model, using a sub-catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains in Scotland, demonstrated that the degree-day model can be enhanced for hydroclimatic conditions typical of those found in Scotland, without increasing meteorological data requirements. An important element of the snow model is a function to account for wind re-distribution. This causes large accumulations of snow in small pockets, which are shown to be important in sustaining baseflows in the rivers during the late spring and early summer, long after the snowpack has melted from the bulk of the catchment. The importance of the wind function would not have been identified using a single objective function of total streamflow to evaluate the model behaviour.

  17. BnC15 and BnATA20, the different putative components, control anther development in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Wan, Lili; Hu, Qin; Hong, Dengfeng; Yang, Guangsheng

    2012-10-01

    In Brassica napus, male fertility depends on proper cell differentiation in the anther. However, relatively little is known about the genes regulating anther cell differentiation and function. Here, we report two floral organ specific genes, BnC15 and BnATA20, derived from a B. napus two-line Rs1046A/B floral subtractive library. Although BnC15 and BnATA20 genes have a different expression pattern in anthers demonstrated by in situ hybridization and real-time PCR analysis, silencing of both genes in B. napus by antisense suppression resulted in pollen abortion after microspore release. Light and electron microscopy observation revealed the lack of plastoglobuli, lipid bodies and sporopollenin secreted from the tapetum leading to aberrations in exine sculpturing and the formation of a pollen coat. In addition, the microspores were squeezed to the irregular shape in the locule in the end. As shown by gene expression analysis in transgenic plants and the comparison of anther development between bnc15 or bnata20 mutants and Rs1046A, BnC15 and BnATA20 were positively regulated downstream of Rf gene controlling the fertility of Rs1046B in the same pathway. The results support the hypothesis that BnC15 and BnATA20 are crucial components of a genetic network that controls tapetum development and exine sculpturing. PMID:22841791

  18. Development and Characterization of the Bonding and Integration Technologies Needed for Fabricating Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig,Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding technology, titanium interlayers (coatings and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness, and processing time were investigated. Electron microprobe analysis was used to identify the reaction formed phases. In the diffusion bonds, an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner interlayers of pure titanium and/or longer processing times resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Nondestructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho and Component Development and Integration Facility, Butte, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), conducted September 14 through October 2, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the INEL and CDIF. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations' carried on at the INEL and the CDIF, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the INEL/CDIF Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 90 refs., 95 figs., 77 tabs.

  20. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume III. Strategy for international collaborations in the areas of plasma materials interactions and high heat flux materials and components development

    SciTech Connect

    Gauster, W.B.; Bauer, W.; Roberto, J.B.; Post, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this summary is to assess opportunities for such collaborations in the specific areas of Plasma Materials Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Development, and to aid in developing a strategy to take advantage of them. After some general discussion of international collaborations, we summarize key technical issues and the US programs to address them. Then follows a summary of present collaborations and potential opportunities in foreign laboratories.

  1. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test. Final report, September 30, 1992--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for manufacturing and demonstrating the performance of its 250-kW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack in an integrated system at the Naval Air Station Miramar (NAS Miramar) located in San Diego, California. The stack constructed for the demonstration test at the NAS Miramar consisted of 250 cells. It was manufactured using M-C Power`s patented Internally Manifolded Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) stack design. The demonstration test at NAS Miramar was designed to operate the 250-kW MCFC stack in a cogeneration mode. This test represented the first attempt to thermally integrate an MCFC stack in a cogeneration system. The test was started on January 10, 1997, and voluntarily terminated on May 12, 1997, after 2,350 hours of operation at temperatures above 1,100 F and at a pressure of three atmospheres. It produced 160 MWh of d.c. power and 346,000 lbs of 110 psig steam for export during 1,566 hours of on-load operations. The test demonstrated a d.c. power output of 206 kW. Most of the balance of the plant (BOP) equipment operated satisfactorily. However, the off-the-shelf automotive turbocharger used for supplying air to the plant failed on numerous occasions and the hot gas blower developed seal leakage problems which impacted continuous plant operations. Overall the demonstration test at NAS Miramar was successful in demonstrating many critical features of the IMHEX technology. Lessons learned from this test will be very useful for improving designs and operations for future MCFC power plants.

  2. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.

  3. [Self-responsibility as a component of quality-oriented care-reflections on further development of nursing care insurance].

    PubMed

    Gohde, J

    2005-08-01

    Further development of nursing care insurance must consider both ethical aspects and scarcity of resources. An economy that serves human life has two principal targets: safeguarding the basis of existence and extension of the fulfillment of life. From an ethical perspective welfare and personal responsibility have to be equilibrated by promoting individuality and self-responsibility and maintaining relatives' willingness to become a caregiver. Discussing the role of prevention and rehabilitation in nursing care it is argued that the legally committed primacy of prevention and rehabilitation over care has still not been put into practise due to unresolved problems at the interface of health insurance and nursing care insurance as well as at the interface of inpatient and outpatient providers. Moreover, it seems necessary to strengthen prevention and rehabilitation in the context of care. A comprehensive understanding of individual demands for help, support, and care requires a revision of the common definition of need for care in terms of activities of daily living which neglects particularly psycho-social needs. Case management is a suitable approach to provide adequate and coordinated support as a prerequisite for quality of life in people in need for care. Overcoming compartmentalization of inpatient and outpatient sectors and crosslinking of services are described as essential challenges for future provision of nursing care insurance. Intensification of counseling and advice for patients and relatives, extension and diversification of local providers, upgrading of ambulant services, daily care and short-term care, diversification of nursing homes and other housing arrangements, further development of hospices and palliative care, and acceptance of institutions for the elderly as indispensable components of the future care system are discussed as specific tasks in the further development of nursing care insurance. PMID:16133754

  4. Analytical and experimental investigation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites. Phase 3: Major component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, L. L.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations, performed to establish the feasibility of reinforcing metal aircraft structures with advanced filamentary composites, are reported. Aluminum-boron-epoxy and titanium-boron-epoxy were used in the design and manufacture of three major structural components. The components were representative of subsonic aircraft fuselage and window belt panels and supersonic aircraft compression panels. Both unidirectional and multidirectional reinforcement concepts were employed. Blade penetration, axial compression, and inplane shear tests were conducted. Composite reinforced structural components designed to realistic airframe structural criteria demonstrated the potential for significant weight savings while maintaining strength, stability, and damage containment properties of all metal components designed to meet the same criteria.

  5. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Roche, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and BaCO.sub.3, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO.sub.3 enables lower temperature fuel cell operation.

  6. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1999-08-24

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system is described. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO{sub 3} enables lower temperature fuel cell operation. 15 figs.

  7. Development of nondestructive evaluation techniques for high-temperature ceramic heat exchanger components. Ninth quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress in developing and evaluating nondestructive methods for testing ceramic components for high-temperature heat exchangers is reported. The sensitivity of the ultrasonic bore-side probe was demonstrated for detection of 125-..mu..m-deep circumferential EDM notches on ID and OD surfaces of sintered and siliconized tubes. The signal to noise ratios for the ultrasonic echoes are better than 10 to 1, beyond the initial expectations for detection of small reflectors. This results from focussing of the beam in the tube wall. Preliminary data were presented on microprocessor-controlled operation of the ultrasonic probe. Some problems involving the computer interfacing have to be resolved, but detection and recording of an EDM notch located was demonstrated. The acoustic microscope was modified to handle 30-MHz sound waves. This was done to improve the penetration ability of the sound in SiC tube walls. The modification results in less acoustic noise. The ability to detect a notch only 75 ..mu..m in width was demonstrated.

  8. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``Onsite Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  9. Professional Development Graduate Courses and a Masters of Arts in Physics Education with Web Based Course Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Richard; Thornton, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Professional development courses offered in physical/Earth science and physics by the Department of Physics are delivered by different venues to accommodate the needs of the K-12 teaching community. The majority of teachers take our courses off-site or through our distance-learning web-based program on the Internet for endorsement or recertification, but with a gradually increasing number enrolling in our 30 credit Masters of Arts in Physics Education degree (MAPE) program. The purpose of the Masters program is to provide increased physics content to those teachers who feel inadequately prepared to teach high school physics. The increase in numbers and success of this program is partly due to the convenience of taking online web-based courses which is made possible by using the latest communication technologies on the high speed internet. There is also a residential component of the MAPE program, which requires the candidates to earn 14 credits of calculus-based core physics in residence in the summer at the University. We have graduated a total of 91 teachers since the program began in 2000. )

  10. Development of a novel technique to assess the vulnerability of micro-mechanical system components to environmentally assisted cracking.

    SciTech Connect

    Enos, David George; Goods, Steven Howard

    2006-11-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) will play an important functional role in future DOE weapon and Homeland Security applications. If these emerging technologies are to be applied successfully, it is imperative that the long-term degradation of the materials of construction be understood. Unlike electrical devices, MEMS devices have a mechanical aspect to their function. Some components (e.g., springs) will be subjected to stresses beyond whatever residual stresses exist from fabrication. These stresses, combined with possible abnormal exposure environments (e.g., humidity, contamination), introduce a vulnerability to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). EAC is manifested as the nucleation and propagation of a stable crack at mechanical loads/stresses far below what would be expected based solely upon the materials mechanical properties. If not addressed, EAC can lead to sudden, catastrophic failure. Considering the materials of construction and the very small feature size, EAC represents a high-risk environmentally induced degradation mode for MEMS devices. Currently, the lack of applicable characterization techniques is preventing the needed vulnerability assessment. The objective of this work is to address this deficiency by developing techniques to detect and quantify EAC in MEMS materials and structures. Such techniques will allow real-time detection of crack initiation and propagation. The information gained will establish the appropriate combinations of environment (defining packaging requirements), local stress levels, and metallurgical factors (composition, grain size and orientation) that must be achieved to prevent EAC.

  11. Equity in health care in Namibia: developing a needs-based resource allocation formula using principal components analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zere, Eyob; Mandlhate, Custodia; Mbeeli, Thomas; Shangula, Kalumbi; Mutirua, Kauto; Kapenambili, William

    2007-01-01

    Background The pace of redressing inequities in the distribution of scarce health care resources in Namibia has been slow. This is due primarily to adherence to the historical incrementalist type of budgeting that has been used to allocate resources. Those regions with high levels of deprivation and relatively greater need for health care resources have been getting less than their fair share. To rectify this situation, which was inherited from the apartheid system, there is a need to develop a needs-based resource allocation mechanism. Methods Principal components analysis was employed to compute asset indices from asset based and health-related variables, using data from the Namibia demographic and health survey of 2000. The asset indices then formed the basis of proposals for regional weights for establishing a needs-based resource allocation formula. Results Comparing the current allocations of public sector health car resources with estimates using a needs based formula showed that regions with higher levels of need currently receive fewer resources than do regions with lower need. Conclusion To address the prevailing inequities in resource allocation, the Ministry of Health and Social Services should abandon the historical incrementalist method of budgeting/resource allocation and adopt a more appropriate allocation mechanism that incorporates measures of need for health care. PMID:17391533

  12. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1997-02-01

    On December 30, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. In September 1995 this contract ended and a second contract was issued for us to continue this ICF target support work. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. During this period, GA and our partners WJ Schafer Associates (WJSA) and Soane Technologies, Inc. (STI) were assigned 14 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). We fabricated and delivered over 800 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. We produced nearly 1,200 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We also delivered over 100 flat foil targets for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and SNLA in FY96. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require capsules containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. We are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Substantial progress has been made on ways to both create and characterize viable layers. During FY96, significant progress was made in the design of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA.

  13. Development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems: Survey and evaluation of measurement techniques for temperature, strain and heat flux for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    The report presents the final results of Tasks 1 and 2, Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems (NASA program NAS3-25141). During Task 1, an extensive survey was conducted of sensor concepts which have the potential for measuring surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. Each sensor concept was analyzed and evaluated under Task 2; sensor concepts were then recommended for further development. For temperature measurement, both pyrometry and thermographic phosphors are recommended for measurements up to and beyond the melting point of ceramic materials. For lower temperature test programs, the thin-film techniques offer advantages in the installation of temperature sensors. Optical strain measurement techniques are recommended because they offer the possibility of being useful at very high temperature levels. Techniques for the measurement of heat flux are recommended for development based on both a surface mounted sensor and the measurement of the temperature differential across a portion of a ceramic component or metallic substrate.

  14. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. During this period, GA and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 13 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). Over 700 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels were fabricated and delivered to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. More than 1600 glass and plastic target capsules were produced for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). Nearly 2000 various target foils and films were delivered for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY97. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This project is part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. During FY97, significant progress was made in the design and component testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. This included major design changes, reduction in equipment, and process simplifications. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  15. Predictive modeling of biomass component tradeoffs in Brassica napus developing oilseeds based on in silico manipulation of storage metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schwender, Jörg; Hay, Jordan O

    2012-11-01

    Seed oil content is a key agronomical trait, while the control of carbon allocation into different seed storage compounds is still poorly understood and hard to manipulate. Using bna572, a large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of rapeseed (Brassica napus) oilseeds, we present an in silico approach for the analysis of carbon allocation into seed storage products. Optimal metabolic flux states were obtained by flux variability analysis based on minimization of the uptakes of substrates in the natural environment of the embryo. For a typical embryo biomass composition, flux sensitivities to changes in different storage components were derived. Upper and lower flux bounds of each reaction were categorized as oil or protein responsive. Among the most oil-responsive reactions were glycolytic reactions, while reactions related to mitochondrial ATP production were most protein responsive. To assess different biomass compositions, a tradeoff between the fractions of oil and protein was simulated. Based on flux-bound discontinuities and shadow prices along the tradeoff, three main metabolic phases with distinct pathway usage were identified. Transitions between the phases can be related to changing modes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, reorganizing the usage of organic carbon and nitrogen sources for protein synthesis and acetyl-coenzyme A for cytosol-localized fatty acid elongation. The phase close to equal oil and protein fractions included an unexpected pathway bypassing α-ketoglutarate-oxidizing steps in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The in vivo relevance of the findings is discussed based on literature on seed storage metabolism. PMID:22984123

  16. Definition, analysis and development of an optical data distribution network for integrated avionics and control systems. Part 2: Component development and system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, H. W.; Morrison, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic transmission is emerging as an attractive concept in data distribution onboard civil aircraft. Development of an Optical Data Distribution Network for Integrated Avionics and Control Systems for commercial aircraft will provide a data distribution network that gives freedom from EMI-RFI and ground loop problems, eliminates crosstalk and short circuits, provides protection and immunity from lightning induced transients and give a large bandwidth data transmission capability. In addition there is a potential for significantly reducing the weight and increasing the reliability over conventional data distribution networks. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is a candidate method for data communication between the various avionic subsystems. With WDM all systems could conceptually communicate with each other without time sharing and requiring complicated coding schemes for each computer and subsystem to recognize a message. However, the state of the art of optical technology limits the application of fiber optics in advanced integrated avionics and control systems. Therefore, it is necessary to address the architecture for a fiber optics data distribution system for integrated avionics and control systems as well as develop prototype components and systems.

  17. Development and testing of laser Doppler system components for wake vortex monitoring. Volume 2: Scanner operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. B.; Coffey, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The theory and operation of the scanner portion of the laser Doppler system for detecting and monitoring aircraft trailing vortices in an airport environment are discussed. Schematics, wiring diagrams, component values, and operation and checkout procedures are included.

  18. On Possible Similarity Solutions for Three-Dimensional Incompressible Laminar Boundary-Layer Flows Over Developable Surfaces and with Proportional Mainstream Velocity Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Arthur G.

    1958-01-01

    Analysis is presented on the possible similarity solutions of the three-dimensional, laminar, incompressible, boundary-layer equations referred to orthogonal, curvilinear coordinate systems. Requirements of the existence of similarity solutions are obtained for the following: flow over developable surface and flow over non-developable surfaces with proportional mainstream velocity components.

  19. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Myles, K.M.; Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1)Development of LiFeO{sub 2} and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life) (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2}and >100 kW/m{sup 3}in an integrated MCFC system) (4)Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  20. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-08-01

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1) Development of lithium ferrate (LiFeO{sub 2}) and lithium cobaltate (LiCoO{sub 2}) cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life; (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life); (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power-density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2} and >100 kW/m{sup 3} in an integrated MCFC system); and (4) Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  1. Design, manufacture, development, test, and evaluation of boron/aluminum structural components for space shuttle. Volume 4: Repairability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. F.; Christian, J. L.; Doyal, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The repairability of boron/aluminum structural components was investigated. It was demonstrated that metal matrix composite material, damaged in service, can be repaired by techniques that are not very different from those currently in use for conventional materials. A list of repair guidelines was prepared to aid in determining the proper repair techniques for a given structure. The guidelines include specifying types of repair material and their applicability, corrosion prevention procedures, design criteria, and inspection criteria. Boron/aluminum structural components were repaired and tested to compare as-fabricated and repaired performance. All but one set of specimens, when repaired, exceeded the strength of the original specimens.

  2. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  3. Application of High-Pressure Treatment to Enhancement of Functional Components in Agricultural Products and Development of Sterilized Foods.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Eri; Kawamura, Mariko; Ogino, Miyuki; Hoshino, Eri; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Hoshino, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Nishiumi, Tadayuki

    2015-01-01

    addition, energy consumption in the high-pressure treatment is less than that in the heat treatment. For the reasons mentioned above, the high-pressure treatment has thus been regarded as suitable for future food processing, and much attention has been paid to the researches of high-pressure treatment again. Then, we reviewed the previous researches in which little interest had been taken because of imperfectness of non-heat sterilization. Surprisingly, we discovered some novel findings about the effect of high-pressure treatment, that is, pressure history on the subsequent event. Then, we decided to present two theses on the themes, "Application of High-pressure Treatment to Enhancement of Functional Components in Agricultural Products" and "Application of High-pressure Treatment to Development of Sterilized Foods". PMID:26174399

  4. Development of molten-carbonate fuel-cell technology. Final report, February-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the work was to focus on the basic technology for producing molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) components. This included the development and fabrication of stable anode structures, preparation of lithiated nickel oxide cathodes, synthesis and characterization of a high surface area (gamma-lithium-aluminate) electrolyte support, pressurized cell testing and modeling of the overall electrolyte distribution within a cell to aid performance optimization of the different cell components. The electrode development program is highlighted by two successful 5000 hour bench-scale tests using stabilized anode structures. One of these provided better performance than in any previous state-of-the-art, bench-scale cell (865 mV at 115 mA/cm/sup 2/ under standard conditions). Pressurized testing at 10 atmosphere of a similar stabilized, high surface area, Ni/Co anode structure in a 300 cm/sup 2/ cell showed that the 160 mA/cm/sup 2/ performance goal of 850 mV on low Btu fuel (80% conversion) can be readily met. A study of the H/sub 2/S-effects on molten carbonate fuel cells showed that ERC's Ni/Co anode provided better tolerance than a Ni/Cr anode. Prelithiated nickel oxide plaques were prepared from materials made by a low temperature and a high temperature powder-production process. The methods for fabricating handleable cathodes of various thicknesses were also investigated. In electrolyte matrix development, accelerated out-of-cell and in-cell tests have confirmed the superior stability of ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/.

  5. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.

    1992-03-01

    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  6. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  7. Laser materials processing of complex components. From reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgl, R.; Brandstätter, E.

    2016-03-01

    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser welding, laser cladding and additive laser manufacturing are given.

  8. Seeing Is Believing: Effective Components of Professional Development Training for County Extension Educators on an Innovation Perceived as Risky--Food Irradiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, B. M.; Schielack, J. F.; Vestal, T. A.

    2004-01-01

    Decades of research have provided evidence that food irradiation is a safe technology that can decrease the incidence of foodborne diseases; however, adoption of this technology has been slow. The purpose of our study was to qualitatively explore the effectiveness of various components of a professional development training on family and consumer…

  9. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented. PMID:22843351

  10. Development and application of the analytical energy gradient for the normalized elimination of the small component method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2011-06-01

    The analytical energy gradient of the normalized elimination of the small component (NESC) method is derived for the first time and implemented for the routine calculation of NESC geometries and other first order molecular properties. Essential for the derivation is the correct calculation of the transformation matrix U relating the small component to the pseudolarge component of the wavefunction. The exact form of {partial {U}}/{partial λ } is derived and its contribution to the analytical energy gradient is investigated. The influence of a finite nucleus model and that of the picture change is determined. Different ways of speeding up the calculation of the NESC gradient are tested. It is shown that first order properties can routinely be calculated in combination with Hartree-Fock, density functional theory (DFT), coupled cluster theory, or any electron correlation corrected quantum chemical method, provided the NESC Hamiltonian is determined in an efficient, but nevertheless accurate way. The general applicability of the analytical NESC gradient is demonstrated by benchmark calculations for NESC/CCSD (coupled cluster with all single and double excitation) and NESC/DFT involving up to 800 basis functions.

  11. Developing a complex independent component analysis technique to extract non-stationary patterns from geophysical time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Geodetic/geophysical observations, such as the time series of global terrestrial water storage change or sea level and temperature change, represent samples of physical processes and therefore contain information about complex physical interactionswith many inherent time scales. Extracting relevant information from these samples, for example quantifying the seasonality of a physical process or its variability due to large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, is not possible by rendering simple time series approaches. In the last decades, decomposition techniques have found increasing interest for extracting patterns from geophysical observations. Traditionally, principal component analysis (PCA) and more recently independent component analysis (ICA) are common techniques to extract statistical orthogonal (uncorrelated) and independent modes that represent the maximum variance of observations, respectively. PCA and ICA can be classified as stationary signal decomposition techniques since they are based on decomposing the auto-covariance matrix or diagonalizing higher (than two)-order statistical tensors from centered time series. However, the stationary assumption is obviously not justifiable for many geophysical and climate variables even after removing cyclic components e.g., the seasonal cycles. In this paper, we present a new decomposition method, the complex independent component analysis (CICA, Forootan, PhD-2014), which can be applied to extract to non-stationary (changing in space and time) patterns from geophysical time series. Here, CICA is derived as an extension of real-valued ICA (Forootan and Kusche, JoG-2012), where we (i) define a new complex data set using a Hilbert transformation. The complex time series contain the observed values in their real part, and the temporal rate of variability in their imaginary part. (ii) An ICA algorithm based on diagonalization of fourth-order cumulants is then applied to decompose the new complex data set in (i

  12. A research project to develop and evaluate a technical education component on materials technology for orientation to space-age technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A project was initiated to develop, implement, and evaluate a prototype component for self-pacing, individualized instruction on basic materials science. Results of this project indicate that systematically developed, self-paced instruction provides an effective means for orienting nontraditional college students and secondary students, especially minorities, to both engineering technology and basic materials science. In addition, students using such a system gain greater chances for mastering subject matter than with conventional modes of instruction.

  13. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.L.

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well. (LSP)

  14. Research and development of the effective components of panaxdiol saponin as new Chinese patent medicine for treating hemocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui-lan; Chong, Beng Hock

    2012-12-01

    Pancytopenia (hemocytopenia) such as pr imary immune primary thrombocytopenia (ITP), aplastic anemia and chronic neutropenia (agnogenic leukocytopenia) were of ten t reated by glucocor t icoids, androgen and often treated glucocorticoids, immunosuppressive agents at present, but the response to these treatments has not been always satisfactory, and may cause serious adverse events. Our research has identified a biological active component in ginseng extract and the active component, panaxadiol saponins component (PDS-C), was isolated from total saponins of ginsenosides, and formulated into capsules named as Painengda. We successfully obtained approval from State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of China in 2010 to conduct clinical trials of PDS-C as class-five new Chinese patent medicine. Phase I and phase II clinical trials of PDS-C and Painengda Capsule were carried out in the treatment of ITP and agnogenic leukocytopenia. The composition and content of PDS-C have been analyzed and defined by high-performance liquid chromatography-chromatographymass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and HPLC using specific monomers of ginsenosides as the reference standards. mass PDS-C is very efficacious for treating mice and rats with ITP and aplastic anemia, and myelosuppression caused by chemotherapy or radiation. Our animal model studies and cell biology and molecular biology experiments demonstrated that PDS-C possessed dual activities, namely that of promoting proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells, and that of regulating the immune function. PDS-C and Painengda Capsule as a new Chinese patent medicine have been successfully transferred to industry. We believe that PDS-C is effective and safe in the treatment of refractory hemocytopenia. The advantages are that it is effective in small doses, it is convenient to use because of its oral administration, its lack of adverse events, it could be used alone or in combination with pharmacological agents

  15. The SEDL/Regional Exchange: One Component of an Emerging Effort to Disseminate the Outcomes of Educational Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronkosky, Preston C.

    This paper describes the need for a regional dissemination system; the conceptualization of the Southwest Educational Development Labortory (SEDL) Regional Exchange as part of the nation-wide Research and Development Exchange (RDx); and the operation of the SEDL Regional Exchange (RX). It emphasizes that the Research and Development Exchange is…

  16. Development of a fatigue-life methodology for composite structures subjected to out-of-plane load components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumich, Mark; Kedward, Keith T.

    1991-01-01

    The efforts to identify and implement a fatigue life methodology applicable to demonstrate delamination failures for use in certifying composite rotor blades are presented. The RSRA/X-Wing vehicle was a proof-of-concept stopped rotor aircraft configuration which used rotor blades primarily constructed of laminated carbon fiber. Delamination of the main spar during ground testing demonstrated that significant interlaminar stresses were produced. Analysis confirmed the presence of out-of-plane load components. The wear out (residual strength) methodology and the requirements for its implementation are discussed.

  17. White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study

    PubMed Central

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively

  18. Development of a new signal processing algorithm based on independent component analysis for single channel ECG data.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Lee, K J; Yoo, S K

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new signal processing algorithm based on independent component analysis (ICA) for single channel ECG data. For the application ICA to single channel data, mixed (multi-channel) signals are constructed by adding some delay to original data. By ICA, signal enhancement is acquired. For validation of usefulness of this signal, QRS complex detection was accompanied. In QRS detection process, Hilbert transform and wavelet transform were used and good QRS detection efficacy was obtained. Furthermore, a signal, which could not be filtered properly using existing algorithm, also had better signal enhancement. In future, we need to study on the algorithm optimization and simplification. PMID:17271650

  19. The Investigation and Development of Low Cost Hardware Components for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    George A. Marchetti

    1999-12-15

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components, which would have a low-cost structure in mass production, were fabricated and tested. A fuel cell electrode structure, comprising a thin layer of graphite (50 microns) and a front-loaded platinum catalyst layer (600 angstroms), was shown to produce significant power densities. In addition, a PEM bipolar plate, comprising flexible graphite, carbon cloth flow-fields and an integrated polymer gasket, was fabricated. Power densities of a two-cell unit using this inexpensive bipolar plate architecture were shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art bipolar plates.

  20. The development of system components to provide proprioceptive and tactile information to the human for future telepresence systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Ammon K.

    1992-01-01

    System components are presented that are being implemented to augment teleoperated systems by providing both force and tactile information to the human operator. The concept proposed is the control of a manipulator to perform tasks; i.e., flight line maintenance and repair of combat aircraft or satellites while under the control of a human operator at a remote location to maintain mission effectiveness in a hostile environment. The human would control the motion of the manipulator via a master system with information from the remote site being fed back by direct stimulation of the humans sensory mechanisms or by graphic interpretation of displays. We are interested in providing the operator feedback of position, force, auditory, vision, and tactile information to aide in the human's cognitive ability to control the manipulator. This sensory information from the remote site would then be presented to the operator in such a manner as to enhance his performance while providing him a sense of being present at the remote location, this is known as telepresence. Also discussed is the research done by the Human Sensory Feedback (HSF) facility at the Armstrong Laboratory to provide tactile and proprioceptive feedback to the operator. The system components of this system includes tactile sensor and stimulators, dexterous robotic hands, and the control of positioning and operating industrial robots with exoskeletal mechanisms.